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# Lectures in

MATHEMATICS

For 1
st
class students
Mechanical Engineering Department
Technology University
Prepared by

Assistant Professor
Dr. Nabel George Nacy

and

Lecture
Dr. Laith Jaafer Habeeb

: References

1) Thomas & Finney " Calculus and Analytic Geometry " (1988) , 7
th

2) Ford , S.R. and Ford , J .R. " Calculus " , (1963) McGraw-Hill.
3) J .K.Back house and S.P.T. Houldsworth " Pure Mathematics a
First Course " (1979) , S1 Edition , Longman Group .
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1

Chapter one
The Rate of Change of a Function

: Coordinates for the plane - 1 - 1
Cartesian Coordinate- Two number lines , one of them horizontal (called
x-axis ) and the other vertical ( called y-axis ). The point where the
lines cross is the origin . Each line is assumed to represent the real
number .
On the x-axis , the positive number a lies a units to the right of
the origin , and the negative number a lies a units to the left of the
origin . On the y-axis , the positive number b lies b units above the
origin while the negative where b lies b units below the origin .
With the axes in place , we assign a pair (a,b) of real number to
each point P in the plane . The number a is the number at the foot
of the perpendicular from P to the x-axis (called x-coordinate of P).
The number b is the number at the foot of the perpendicular from
P to the y-axis ( called y-coordinate of P ).

1-2- The Slope of a line :
I ncrements When a particle moves from one position in the plane to
another , the net changes in the particle's coordinates are calculated
by subtracting the coordinates of the starting point ( x
1
, y
1
) from
the coordinates of the stopping point (x
2
, y
2
) ,
i.e. !x =x
2
x
1
, !y =y
2
y
1
.
Slopes of nonvertical lines :
Let L be a nonvertical line in the plane ,
Let P
1
(x
1
, y
1
) and P
2
( x
2
, y
2
) be two points on L.
Then the slope m is :
x-axis
0 a
P(a,b)
-b
b
-a
y-axis
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2

0 x where
x x
y y
x
y
m
1 2
1 2

- A line that goes uphill as x increases has a positive slope . A line that
goes downhill as x increases has a negative slope .
- A horizontal line has slope zero because !y =0 .
- The slope of a vertical line is undefined because !x =0 .
- Parallel lines have same slope .
- If neither of two perpendicular lines L
1
and L
2
is vertical , their slopes
m
1
and m
2
are related by the equation : m
1
. m
2
=-1 .
Angles of I nclination: The angle of inclination of a line that crosses the x-
axis is the smallest angle we get when we measure counter clock from the
x-axis around the point of intersection .
The slope of a line is the tangent of the line angle of inclination .
m =tan " where ! is the angle of inclination .
- The angle of inclination of a horizontal line is taken to be 0
o
.
- Parallel lines have equal angle of inclination .

EX-1- Find the slope of the line determined by two points A(2,1) and B(-1,3)
and find the common slope of the line perpendicular to AB.
Sol.- Slope of AB is:
3
2
2 1
1 3
x x
y y
m
1 2
1 2
AB

Slope of line perpendicular to AB is :
2
3
m
1
AB

EX-2- Use slopes to determine in each case whether the points are collinear
(lie on a common straight line ) :
a) A(1,0) , B(0,1) , C(2,1) .
b) A(-3,-2) , B(-2,0) , C(-1,2) , D(1,6) .

y-axis
P
1
(x
1
,y
1)
L

y !
P
2
(x
2
,y
2
)
Q(x
2
,y
1)
x !
x-axis
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Sol.
a)
AB BC AB
m 0
0 2
1 1
m and 1
1 0
0 1
m

The points A , B and C are not lie on a common straight line .
b) 2
) 1 ( 1
2 6
m , 2
) 2 ( 1
0 2
m , 2
) 3 ( 2
) 2 ( 0
m
CD BC AB

Since m
AB
=m
BC
=m
CD
Hence the points A , B , C , and D are collinear .

1-3- Equations for lines : An equation for a line is an equation that is satisfied
by the coordinates of the points that lies on the line and is not satisfied by the
coordinates of the points that lie elsewhere .
Vertical lines : Every vertical line L has to cross the x-axis at some point
(a,0). The other points on L lie directly above or below (a,0) . This mean
that : ) y , x ( a x
Nonvertical lines : That point slope equation of the line through the point
( x
1
, y
1
) with slope m is :
y y
1
=m ( x x
1
)
Horizontal lines : The standard equation for the horizontal line through the
point ( a , b ) is : y =b .
The distance from a point to a line : To calculate the distance d between the
point P(x
1
, y
1
) and Q( x
2
, y
2
) is :
2
1 2
2
1 2
) y y ( ) x x ( d +
We use this formula when the coordinate axes are scaled in a common
unit .
To find the distance from the point P( x
1
, y
1
) to the line L , we follow :
1. Find an equation for the line L' through P perpendicular to L :
y y
1
=m' ( x x
1
) where m' =-1 / m
2. Find the point Q( x
2
, y
2
) by solving the equation for L and L'
simultaneously .
3. Calculate the distance between P and Q .
The general linear equation :
Ax +By =C where A and B not both zero.
EX-3 Write an equation for the line that passes through point :
a) P( -1 , 3 ) with slope m =-2 .
b) P
1
( -2 , 0 ) and P
2
( 2 , -2 ).
Sol. - a) y y
1
=m ( x x
1
) # y 3 =-2 ( x (-1)) # y +2x =1
b)

0 2 x y 2 )) 2 ( x (
2
1
0 y ) x x ( m y y
2
1
) 2 ( 2
0 2
x x
y y
m
1 1
1 2
1 2
+ +

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EX-4 - Find the slope of the line : 3x +4y =12 .
Sol. -
4
3
m is slope the 3 x
4
3
y +

EX-5- Find :
a) an equation for the line through P( 2 ,1 ) parallel to L: y =x +2 .
b) an equation for the line through P perpendicular to L .
c) the distance from P to L .
Sol.-
a)
1 x y ) 2 x ( 1 1 y 1 m m L // L ce sin
1 L 2 L 1 2

b) Since L
1
and L
3
are perpendicular lines then :
3 x y ) 2 x ( 1 y 1 m
3 L
+

c)

,
_

+
+
2
5
,
2
1
Q and ) 1 , 2 ( P
2
5
y and
2
1
x
3 x y
2 x y

EX-6 Find the angle of inclination of the line : 3 y x 3 +
Sol.-

o
120 3 tan m
3 m 3 x 3 y

EX-7- Find the line through the point P(1, 4) with the angle of inclination
"=60
o
.
Sol.-

3 4 x 3 y ) 1 x ( 3 4 y
3 60 tan tan m
+

EX-8- The pressure P experienced by a diver under water is related to the
diver's depth d by an equation of the form P =k d +1 where k a
constant . When d =0 meters , the pressure is 1 atmosphere . The
pressure at 100 meters is about 10.94 atmosphere . Find the pressure
at 50 meters.
Sol.- At P =10.94 and d =100 " 10.94 =k(100)+1 # k =0.0994
P =0.0994 d +1 , at d =50 # P =0.0994 * 50 +1 =5.97 atmo.

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1-4- Functions : Function is any rule that assigns to each element in one set
some element from another set :
y =f( x )
The inputs make up the domain of the function , and the outputs make up
the function's range.
The variable x is called independent variable of the function , and the
variable y whose value depends on x is called the dependent variable of the
function .
We must keep two restrictions in mind when we define functions :
1. We never divide by zero .
2. We will deal with real valued functions only.
I ntervals :
- The open interval is the set of all real numbers that be strictly between
two fixed numbers a and b :
b x a ) b , a ( < <
- The closed interval is the set of all real numbers that contain both
endpoints :
b x a ] b , a [
- Half open interval is the set of all real numbers that contain one
endpoint but not both :
b x a ] b , a (
b x a ) b , a [
<
<

Composition of functions : suppose that the outputs of a function f can be
used as inputs of a function g . We can then hook f and g together to
form a new function whose inputs are the inputs of f and whose outputs
are the numbers :
)) x ( f ( g ) x )( f
o
g (
EX-9- Find the domain and range of each function :

x 2 y ) d , x 9 y ) c
2 x
1
y ) b , 4 x y ) a
2

+

Sol. - 0 y : R , 4 x : D 4 x 0 4 x ) a
y x
+

0 y : R 2
y
1
x
2 x
1
y
2 x : D 2 x 0 2 x ) b
y
x
+

3 y 0 : R 0 y ce sin
3 y 3 0 y 9 ce sin
y 9 x x 9 y
3 x 3 : D 3 x 3 0 x 9 ) c
y
2
2 2
x
2

m

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2 y 0 : R
0 y 4 x if
2 y 0 x if
4 x 0 : D 4 x 0 0 x 2 ) d
y
x

EX-10- Let
x
1
1 ) x ( g and
1 x
x
) x ( f +

.
Find (g
o
f)(x) and (f
o
g)(x) .
Sol.-

1 x
1
x
1
1
x
1
1
x
1
1 f )) x ( g ( f ) x )( g f (
x
1 x 2
1 x
x
1
1
1 x
x
g )) x ( f ( g ) x )( f g (
o
o
+
+
+

,
_

+
,
_

EX-11- Let
x
1
) x ( f and x ) x )( f g (
o
. Find g(x).
Sol.-
x
1
) x ( g x
x
1
g ) x )( f g (
o

,
_

1-5- Limits and continuity :
Limits : The limit of F( t ) as t approaches C is the number L if :
C such that for all t , < < C t 0 implies < L ) t ( F and we
can write it as :
L ) t ( F lim
C t

The limit of a function F( t ) as t#C never depend on what
happens when t =C .
Right hand limit : L ) t ( F lim
C t

+

The limit of the function F( t ) as t #C from the right equals L if :
Given any \$ >0 ( radius about L ) there exists a % >0 ( radius to
the right of C ) such that for all t :
< + < < L ) t ( F C t C
Left hand limit : L ) t ( F lim
C t

The limit of the function F( t ) as t #C from the left equal L if :
Given any \$ >0 there exists a % >0 such that for all t :
< < < L ) t ( F C t C

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Note that A function F( t ) has a limit at point C if and only if the right
hand and the left hand limits at C exist and equal . In symbols :
L ) t ( F lim and L ) t ( F lim L ) t ( F lim
C t C t C t

+

The limit combinations theorems :

[ ]
[ ]
[ ]
radius in measured is that provided
1
Sin
lim ) 5
k ) t ( F lim * k ) t ( F * k lim ) 4
0 ) t ( F lim where
) t ( F lim
) t ( F lim
) t ( F
) t ( F
lim ) 3
) t ( F lim * ) t ( F lim ) t ( F * ) t ( F lim ) 2
) t ( F lim ) t ( F lim ) t ( F ) t ( F lim ) 1
0
1 1
2
2
1
2
1
2 1 2 1
2 1 2 1

m m

The limits ( in 1 4 ) are all to be taken as t#C and F
1
( t ) and F
2
( t ) are
to be real functions .
Thm. -1 : The sandwich theorem : Suppose that ) t ( h ) t ( g ) t ( F for all
C t in some interval about C and that f( t ) and h( t ) approaches the
same limit L as t#C , then :
L ) t ( g lim
C t

I nfinity as a limit :
1.The limit of the function f( x ) as x approaches infinity is the number L:
L ) x ( f lim
x

. If , given any \$ >0 there exists a number M such that
for all x : < < L ) x ( f x M .
2. The limit of f( x ) as x approaches negative infinity is the number L :
L ) x ( f lim
x

. If , given any \$ >0 there exists a number N such that
for all x : < < L ) x ( f N x .
The following facts are some times abbreviated by saying :
a) As x approaches 0 from the right , 1/x tends to & .
b) As x approaches 0 from the left , 1/x tends to -& .
c) As x tends to & , 1/x approaches 0 .
d) As x tends to -& , 1/x approaches 0 .
Continuity :
Continuity at an interior point : A function y =f( x ) is continuous at an
interior point C of its domain if : ) C ( f ) x ( f lim
C x

.
Continuity at an endpoint : A function y =f( x ) is continuous at a left
endpoint a of its domain if : ) a ( f ) x ( f lim
a x

+

.
A function y =f( x ) is continuous at a right endpoint b of its domain
if: ) b ( f ) x ( f lim
b t

.
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Continuous function : A function is continuous if it is continuous at
each point of its domain .
Discontinuity at a point : If a function f is not continuous at a point C ,
we say that f is discontinuous at C , and call C a point of
discontinuity of f .
The continuity test : The function y =f ( x ) is continuous at x =C if
and only if all three of the following statements are true :
1) f ( C ) exist ( C is in the domain of f ) .
2) ) x ( f lim
C x
exists ( f has a limit as x#C ) .
3) ) C ( f ) x ( f lim
C x

## ( the limit equals the function value ) .

Thm.-2 : The limit combination theorem for continuous function :
If the function f and g are continuous at x =C , then all of the
following combinations are continuous at x =C :
0 ) C ( g provided
g / f ) 5 g f , f g ) 4 k g . k ) 3 g . f ) 2 g f ) 1
o o

m

Thm.-3 : A function is continuous at every point at which it has a
derivative . That is , if y =f ( x ) has a derivative f ' ( C ) at x =C ,
then f is continuous at x =C .
EX-12 Find :

,
_

,
_

+ +

+
+
+

,
_

+
+

) x (tan Cos
2
Sin lim ) 12 ,
x
Sinx
1 Cos lim ) 11
1 x
1
lim ) 10 ,
5 x 7 x 2
1 x
lim ) 9
2 y
7 y 3
lim ) 8 ,
5 x 11 x 10
7 x 5 x 3
lim ) 7
x
1
Cos 1 lim ) 6 ,
x x 2
x 2 Sin
lim ) 5
y 3
y 2 tan
lim ) 4 ,
x 3 Sin
x 5 Sin
lim ) 3
a x
a x
lim ) 2 ,
x 16 x 3
x 8 x 5
lim ) 1
0 x 0 x
1 x
2
3
x
2
y
3
2 3
x
x
2
0 x
0 y 0 x
4 4
3 3
a x
2 4
2 3
0 x

S0l.-
2
1
16 0
8 0
16 x 3
8 x 5
lim
x 16 x 3
x 8 x 5
lim ) 1
2
0 x
2 4
2 3
0 x

+

a 4
3
) a a )( a a (
a a a
) a x )( a x )( a x (
) a ax x )( a x (
lim
a x
a x
lim ) 2
2 2
2 2 2
2 2
2 2
a x
4 4
3 3
a x

+ +
+ +

+ +
+ +

3
5
x 3
x 3 Sin
lim
x 5
x 5 Sin
lim
.
3
5
x 3
x 3 Sin
3
x 5
x 5 Sin
5
lim ) 3
0 x 3
0 x 5
0 x

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3
2
y 2 Cos
1
lim .
y 2
y 2 Sin
lim .
3
2
y 3
y 2 tan
lim ) 4
0 y 0 y 2 0 y

2
1 x 2
1
lim .
x 2
x 2 Sin
lim 2
x x 2
x 2 Sin
lim ) 5
0 x 0 x 2
2
0 x

+

+

2 0 Cos 1
x
1
Cos 1 lim ) 6
x
+
,
_

+

10
3
x
5
x
11
10
x
7
x
5
3
lim
5 x 11 x 10
7 x 5 x 3
lim ) 7
3 2
3
x
3
2 3
x

+
+

+
+

0
1
0
y
2
1
y
7
y
3
lim
2 y
7 y 3
lim ) 8
2
2
y
2
y

+

+

0
1
x
5
x
7
x
2
x
1
1
lim
5 x 7 x 2
1 x
lim ) 9
3 2
3
x
2
3
x

+

+

1 1
1
1 x
1
lim ) 10
1 x

1 0 Cos
x
Sinx
lim 1 Cos
x
Sinx
1 Cos lim ) 11
0 x
0 x

,
_

,
_

1
2
Sin 0 Cos
2
Sin ) 0 (tan Cos
2
Sin ) x (tan Cos
2
Sin lim ) 12
0 x

,
_

,
_

,
_

EX-13- Test continuity for the following function :

'

<
< +

<
<

3 x 2 0
2 x 1 4 x 2
1 x 1
1 x 0 x 2
0 x 1 1 x
) x ( f
2

Sol.- We test the continuity at midpoints x =0 , 1 , 2 and endpoints x =-1 , 3 .
0 x at ous discontinu function the Hence
exist t ' doesn ) x ( f lim Since
) x ( f lim 0 x 2 lim ) x ( f lim
1 ) 1 x ( lim ) x ( f lim
0 0 * 2 ) 0 ( f 0 x At
0 x
0 x 0 x
0 x
2
0 x 0 x

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1 x at ous discontinu is function the Hence
) 1 ( f ) x ( f lim Since
) x ( f lim ) x ( f lim 2 ) 4 x 2 ( lim ) x ( f lim
2 x 2 lim ) x ( f lim
1 ) 1 ( f 1 x At
1 x
1 x
1 x 1 x 1 x
1 x 1 x

2 x at continuous is function the Hence
0 ) 2 ( f ) x ( f lim Since
) x ( f lim ) x ( f lim 0 0 lim ) x ( f lim
0 ) 4 x 2 ( lim ) x ( f lim
0 4 2 * 2 ) 2 ( f 2 x At
2 x
2 x
2 x 2 x
2 x
2 x 2 x

+
+

1 x at continuous is function the Hence
) 1 ( f 0 ) 1 x ( lim ) x ( f lim
0 1 ) 1 ( ) 1 ( f 1 x At
2
1 x
1 x
2

+

3 x at continuous is function the Hence
) 3 ( f 0 0 lim ) x ( f lim
0 ) 3 ( f 3 x At
3 x 3 x

EX-14- What value should be assigned to a to make the function :

'

<

3 x ax 2
3 x 1 x
) x ( f
2
continuous at x =3 ?
Sol.

3
4
a a 6 8 ax 2 lim ) 1 x ( lim ) x ( f lim ) x ( f lim
3 x
2
3 x 3 x 3 x

+

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11

Problems 1

1. The steel in railroad track expands when heated . For the track
temperature encountered in normal outdoor use , the length S of a piece
of track is related to its temperature t by a linear equation . An
experiment with a piece of track gave the following measurements :
ft 16 . 35 S , F 135 t
ft 35 S , F 65 t
2
o
2
1
o
1

Write a linear equation for the relation between S and t .
(ans.: S=0.0023t+34.85)

2. Three of the following four points lie on a circle center the origin . Which
are they , and what is the radius of the circle ?
A(-1.7) , B(5,-5) , C(-7,5) and D(7,-1). (ans.: A,B,D;'50)

3. A and B are the points (3,4) and (7,1) respectively . Use Pythagoras
theorem to prove that OA is perpendicular to AB . Calculate the slopes of
OA and AB , and find their product . (ans.: 4/3, -3/4;-1)

4. P(-2,-4) , Q(-5,-2) , R(2,1) and S are the vertices of a parallelogram . Find
the coordinates of M , the point of intersection of the diagonals and of S.
(ans.: M(0,-3/2) , S(5,-1))
5. Calculate the area of the triangle formed by the line 3x-7y+4 =0 , and the
axes . (ans.: 8/21)

6. Find the equation of the straight line through P(7,5) perpendicular to the
straight line AB whose equation is 3x +4y -16 =0 . Calculate the length of
the perpendicular from P and AB. (ans.: 3y-4x+13=0;5)

7. L(-1,0) , M(3,7) and N(5,-2) are the mid-points of the sides BC , CA and AB
respectively of the triangle ABC. Find the equation of AB. (ans.:4y=7x-43)

8. The straight line x y 6 =0 cuts the curve y
2
=8x at P and Q . Calculate
the length of PQ . (ans.:16'2)

9. A line is drawn through the point (2,3) making an angle of 45
o
with the
positive direction of the x-axis and it meets the line x =6 at P . Find the
distance of P from the origin O , and the equation of the line through P
perpendicular to OP. (ans.: '85,7y+6x-85=0)

10. The vertices of a quadrilateral ABCD are A(4,0) , B(14,11) , C(0,6) and
D(-10,-5) . Prove that the diagonals AC and BD bisect each other at right
angles , and that the length of BD is four times that of AC .

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11. The coordinates of the vertices A, B and C of the triangle ABC are (-3,7)
, (2,19) and (10,7) respectively :
a) Prove that the triangle is isosceles .
b) Calculate the length of the perpendicular from B to AC , and use it to
find the area of the triangle . (ans.:12,78)

12. Find the equations of the lines which pass through the point of
intersection of the lines x - 3y =4 and 3x +y =2 and are respectively
parallel and perpendicular to the line 3x +4y =0 .
(ans.:4y+3x+1=0;3y-4x+7=0)

13. Through the point A(1,5) is drawn a line parallel to the x-axis to meet at B
the line PQ whose equation is 3y =2x - 5 . Find the length of AB and the
sine of the angle between PQ and AB ; hence show that the length of the
perpendicular from A to PQ is 18/'13 . Calculate the area of the triangle
formed by PQ and the axes . (ans.:9,2/'13,25/12)

14. Let
1 x
2 x
y
2
2

+
, express x in terms of y and find the values of y for
which x is real . (ans.: ) 1 y or 2 y ;
1 y
2 y
x >

+
m

15. Find the domain and range of each function :
x 3
1
y ) c ,
x 1
1
y ) b ,
x 1
1
y ) a
2

+

) 0 y , 3 x ) c ; 0 y , 0 x ) b ; 1 y 0 , x ) a : . ans ( > < > <

16. Find the points of intersection of x
2
=4y and y =4x . (ans.:(0,0),(16,64))

17. Find the coordinates of the points at which the curves cut the axes :
2 2 2 2 3
) 5 x )( 1 x ( y ) c , ) 9 x )( 1 x ( y ) b , x 9 x y ) a +
(ans.:a)(0,0);(0,0),(9,0);b)(0,9);(1,0),(-1,0),(3,0),(-3,0);c)(0,25);(-1,0),(5,0))

18. Let f(x) =ax +b and g(x) =cx +d . What condition must be satisfied by
the constants a , b , c and d to make f(g(x)) and g(f(x)) identical ?
19. A particle moves in the plane from (-2,5) to the y-axis in such away that
!y =3*!x . Find its new coordinates . (ans.:(0,11),(0,-1))

20. If f(x) =1/x and g(x)=1/'x , what are the domain of f , g , f+g , f-g , f.g ,
f/g , g/f , f
o
g and g
o
f ? What is the domain of h(x) =g(x+4) ?
) 4 x ; 0 x , 0 x , 0 x , 0 x , 0 x , 0 x , 0 x , 0 x , 0 x : . ans ( > > > > > >

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13

21. Discuss the continuity of :

'

>

<
<
< +

2 x for 0
2 x for 1
2 x 1 for 1
1 x 0 for x
0 x for
x
1
x
) x ( f
3

(ans.: discontinuous at x=0,2 ; continuous at x=1)

22. Evaluate the following limits :
) n 1 n ( lim ) g
x x
x 2 1 x
lim ) f
x 1
x 1
lim ) e
) Sinx x (
Sinx . x
lim ) d
x 3 tan
x
lim ) c
x
Sinx 1
lim ) b
5 x 2
Sinx x
lim ) a
2
n
2
1 x 1 x
2
x 0 x
x x
+

+
+
+
+

(ans.:a)1/2, b)0, c)1/3, d)0, e)1/2, f)-1/2'2, g)0)

23. Suppose that : f(x) =x
3
3x
2
-4x +12 and

'

3 x for k
3 x for
3 x
) x ( f
) x ( h .
Find : a) all zeros of f .
b) the value of k that makes h continuous at x=3 .
) 5 k ) b ; 3 , 2 x ) a : . ans ( m

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14

Chapter two
Functions

2-1- Exponential and Logarithm functions :
Exponential functions : If a is a positive number and x is any number ,
we define the exponential function as :
y =a
x
with domain : -& <x <&
Range : y >0

The properties of the exponential functions are :
1. If a >0 ( a
x
>0 .
2. a
x
. a
y
=a
x +y
.
3. a
x
/ a
y
=a
x - y
.
4. ( a
x
)
y
= a
x.y
.
5. ( a . b )
x
=a
x
. b
x
.
6.
x y y
x y
x
) a ( a a .
7. a
-x
=1 / a
x
and a
x
=1 / a
-x
.
8. a
x
=a
y
( x =y .
9. a
0
=1 ,
a
&
=& , a
-&
=0 , where a >1 .
a
&
=0 , a
-&
=& , where a <1 .
The graph of the exponential function y =a
x
is :

Logarithm function : If a is any positive number other than 1 , then
the logarithm of x to the base a denoted by :
y =log
a
x where x >0
At a =e =2.7182828 , we get the natural logarithm and denoted by :
y =ln x
Let x , y >0 then the properties of logarithm functions are :
1. y =a
x
( x =log
a
y and y =e
x
( x =ln y .
2. log
e
x =ln x .
3. log
a
x =ln x / ln a .
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4. ln (x.y) =ln x +ln y .
5. ln ( x / y ) =ln x ln y .
6. ln x
n
=n. ln x .
7. ln e =log
a
a =1 and ln 1 =log
a
1 =0 .
8. a
x
=e
x. ln a
.
9. e
ln x
=x .
The graph of the function y =ln x is :
-2
-1.5
-1
-0.5
0
0.5
1
1.5
2
0 1 2 3 4 5
X
y
e

Application of exponential and logarithm functions :
We take Newton's law of cooling :
T T
S
=( T
0
T
S
) e
t k

where T is the temperature of the object at time t .
T
S
is the surrounding temperature .
T
0
is the initial temperature of the object .
k is a constant .

EX-1- The temperature of an ingot of silver is 60
o
c above room
temperature right now . Twenty minutes ago , it was 70
o
c above
room temperature .
a) How far above room temperature will the silver be 15 minutes
from now ?
b) Two hours from now ?
c) When will the silver be 10
o
c above room temperature ?
Sol. : T T
S
=60 , t =20 , T
0
T
S
=70
0077 . 0
20
7 ln 6 ln
k e 70 60 e ) T T ( T T
k 20
S 0 S
tk

. hrs 9 . 3 t 6 ln t 0077 . 0 e 60 10 ) c
c 8 . 23 3969 . 0 * 60 e 60 T T ) b
c 5 . 53 8909 . 0 * 60 e 60 T T ) a
t 0077 . 0
o ) 0077 . 0 ( 120
S
o ) 0077 . 0 ( 15
S

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2-2- Trigonometric functions : When an angle of measure ) is placed in
standard position at the center of a circle of radius r , the trigonometric
functions of ) are defined by the equations :

Cos
Sin
Cot
1
x
y
tan ,
sec
1
r
x
Cos ,
csc
1
r
y
Sin

The following are some properties of these functions :

tan . tan 1
tan tan
) tan( ) 5
Sin . Sin Cos . Cos ) ( Cos ) 4
Sin . Cos Cos . Sin ) ( Sin ) 3
csc Cot 1 and sec tan 1 ) 2
1 Cos Sin ) 1
2 2 2 2
2 2
t

+ +
+
m
m
m m
m m

)] ( Sin ) ( Sin [
2
1
Cos . Sin
)] ( Cos ) ( Cos [
2
1
Cos . Cos
)] ( Cos ) ( Cos [
2
1
Sin . Sin ) 10
tan ) tan( and Cos ) ( Cos and Sin ) ( Sin ) 9
Sin )
2
( Cos and Cos )
2
( Sin ) 8
2
2 Cos 1
Sin and
2
2 Cos 1
Cos ) 7
Sin Cos 2 Cos and Cos . Sin 2 2 Sin ) 6
2 2
2 2

+ +
+ +
+

t

m m m

x
y
o
r
)

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2
Sin .
2
Sin 2 Cos Cos
2
Cos .
2
Cos 2 Cos Cos ) 12
2
Sin .
2
Cos 2 Sin Sin
2
Cos .
2
Sin 2 Sin Sin ) 11

+

+
+
+

+
+

) 0 * / 6 * / 4 * / 3 * / 2 *
Sin) 0 1/2 1/'2 '3/2 1 0
Cos) 1 '3/2 1/'2 1/2 0 -1
tan) 0 1/'2 1 '3 & 0

Graphs of the trigonometric functions are :
-1.5
-1
-0.5
0
0.5
1
1.5

1 y 1 : R
x : D Sinx y
y
x

-2, -, , 2,

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-1.5
-1
-0.5
0
0.5
1
1.5

1 y 1 : R
x : D Cosx y
y
x

-2- -- 0 - 2-

y : R
2
1 n 2
x : D x tan y
y
x

+

-2, -, , 2,
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-2- -- 0 - 2-

y : R
n x : D Cotx y
y
x

-2- -- 0 - 2-
1
-1

1 y or 1 y : R
2
1 n 2
x : D Secx y
y
x

+

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-2- -- 0 - 2-
1
-1

1 y or 1 y : R
n x : D x csc y
y
x

EX-2 - Solve the following equations , for values of ) from 0
o
to 360
o

inclusive .
a) tan ) =2 Sin ) b) 1 +Cos ) =2 Sin
2
)
Sol.-

o o
o o o
300 , 60
2
1
Cos or
360 , 180 , 0 0 Sin either
0 ) Cos 2 1 ( Sin
Sin 2
Cos
Sin
Sin 2 tan ) a

Therefore the required values of ) are 0
o
,60
o
,180
o
,300
o
,360
o
.

o
o o
2 2
180 1 Cos or
300 , 60
2
1
Cos either
0 ) 1 Cos )( 1 Cos 2 (
) Cos 1 ( 2 Cos 1 Sin . 2 Cos 1 ) b

+
+ +

There the roots of the equation between 0
o
and 360
o
are 60
o
,180
o

and 300
o
.

,...... 3 , 2 , 1 , 0 n Where m m m
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EX-3- If tan ) = 7/24, find without using tables the values of Sec) and Sin).
Sol.-
25
7
r
y
Sin and
24
25
x
r
Sec
25 24 7 r
24
7
x
y
tan
2 2

+

EX-4- Prove the following identities :

Csc Sec
Cot tan
Cot tan
Csc Sec
) c
Sin Cos Sin Cos ) b
Sec . Csc Sec . tan Csc ) a
2 2 4 4
2
+
+

+

Sol.-
. S . H . R
Csc Sec
Cot tan
Cos . Sin
1
Cos . Sin
1
.
Cos Sin
Cos Sin
Cos Sin
1
Sin
Cos
Cos
Sin
Sin
1
Cos
1
Cot tan
Csc Sec
. S . H . L ) c
. S . H . R Sin Cos
) Sin Cos ).( Sin Cos ( Sin Cos . S . H . L ) b
. S . H . R Sec . Csc
Cos
1
.
Sin
1
Cos . Sin
Sin Cos
Cos
1
.
Cos
Sin
Sin
1
Sec . tan Csc . S . H . L ) a
2 2
2 2
2 2 2 2 4 4
2
2 2
2 2

+
+

+
+

+

+

+ +

EX-5- Simplify Csc . a x when
a x
1
2 2

.
Sol.-

tan
a
1
Cot a
1
a Csc a
1
a x
1
2 2 2 2 2 2

.

EX-6- Eliminate ) from the equations :
i) x =a Sin) and y =b tan)
ii) x =2 Sec) and y =Cos2)
Sol.-
7
24
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1
y
b
x
a
1 Cot Csc Since
y
b
Cot
b
y
tan tan b y
x
a
Csc
a
x
Sin Sin . a x ) i
2
2
2
2
2 2
+ +

2 2
2
2
2
2 2
x 8 y x
x
4 x
x
4
y
Sin Cos y 2 Cos y
x
2
Cos Sec 2 x ) ii

EX-7- If tan
2
) 2 tan
2
. =1 , show that 2 Cos
2
) Cos
2
. =0 .
Sol.

. D . E . Q 0 Cos Cos 2
0
Cos
2
Cos
1
0 Sec 2 Sec
1 ) 1 Sec ( 2 1 Sec 1 tan 2 tan
2 2
2 2
2 2
2 2 2 2

EX-8- If a Sin) =p b Cos) and b Sin) =q +a Cos) .Show that :
a
2
+b
2
=p
2
+q
2
Sol.-
2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
2 2 2 2
b a ) Sin Cos ( b ) Cos Sin ( a
) aCos bSin ( ) bCos aSin ( q p
Cos . a Sin . b q and Cos . b Sin . a p
+ + + +
+ + +
+

EX-9- If Sin A =4 / 5 and Cos B =12 / 13 ,where A is obtuse and B is
acute . Find , without tables , the values of :
a) Sin ( A B ) , b) tan ( A B ) , c) tan ( A +B ) .
Sol. -

4 x
2

x
2
-3
5
4 A
B
13
12
5
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56
33
12
5
.
3
4
1
12
5
3
4
B tan . A tan 1
B tan A tan
) B A tan( ) c
16
63
12
5
.
3
4
1
12
5
3
4
B tan . A tan 1
B tan A tan
) B A tan( ) b
65
63
13
5
.
5
3
13
12
.
5
4
SinB . CosA CosB . SinA ) B A ( Sin ) a

+
+

+
+

+

EX-10 Prove the following identities:

Cot
1 2 Cos 2 Sin
1 2 Cos 2 Sin
) d
SecB . SecA CscB . CscA
CscB . CscA . SecB . SecA
) B A ( Sin ) c
CosB . CosA
) B A ( Sin
B tan A tan ) b
CosB . SinA . 2 ) B A ( Sin ) B A ( Sin ) a

+
+ +

+
+
+
+ +

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Sol.-
. S . H . R Cot
Sin
Cos
Sin Cos . Sin 2
Cos 2 Cos . Sin 2
1 ) Sin Cos ( Cos . Sin 2
1 ) Sin Cos ( Cos . Sin 2
1 2 Cos 2 Sin
1 2 Cos 2 Sin
. S . H . L ) d
. S . H . L ) B A ( Sec
) B A ( Cos
1
SinB . SinA CosB . CosA
1
CosB
1
.
CosA
1
SinB
1
.
SinA
1
SinB
1
.
SinA
1
.
CosB
1
.
CosA
1
SecB . SecA CscB . CscA
CscB . CscA . SecB . SecA
S . H . R ) c
. S . H . L B tan A tan
CosB . CosA
SinB . CosA CosB . SinA
CosB . CosA
) B A ( Sin
. S . H . R ) b
. S . H . R CosB . SinA . 2
SinB . CosA CosB . SinA SinB . CosA CosB . SinA
) B A ( Sin ) B A ( Sin . S . H . L ) a
2
2
2 2
2 2

+
+

+
+ +

+
+ +

+
+

+
+

+ +
+ +

EX-11 Find , without using tables , the values of Sin 2) and Cos 2), when:
a) Sin) =3 / 5 , b) Cos ) =12/13 , c) Sin ) =-'3 / 2 .
Sol.
a)

25
7
)
5
3
( )
5
4
( Sin Cos 2 Cos
25
24
)
5
4
.(
5
3
. 2 Cos . Sin . 2 2 Sin
2 2 2 2

m
m m

-4
5 3
)
3
5
)
4
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b)

169
119
)
13
5
( )
13
12
( Sin Cos 2 Cos
169
120
)
13
12
).(
13
5
( 2 Cos . Sin . 2 2 Sin
2 2 2 2

m
m m

c)

2
1
)
2
3
( )
2
1
( Sin Cos 2 Cos
2
3
)
2
1
).(
2
3
( 2 Cos . Sin 2 2 Sin
2 2 2 2

t
m
m

EX-12- Solve the following equations for values of ) from 0
o
to 360
o

inclusive:
a) Cos 2) +Cos ) +1 =0 , b) 4 tan ) . tan 2) =1

Sol.-
5
13
-5
!
!
12
13
1
)

)
1 -
-'3

2
-'3
2
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{ }
{ }
o o o o
o o
o o
2
2
o o o o
o o
o o
2
6 . 341 , 4 . 198 , 6 . 161 , 4 . 18
6 . 341 , 6 . 161
3
1
tan or
4 . 198 , 4 . 18
3
1
tan either
1 tan 9
1
tan 1
tan 2
. tan . 4 1 2 tan . tan . 4 ) b
270 , 240 , 120 , 90
240 , 120
2
1
Cos or
270 , 90 0 Cos either
0 ) 1 Cos . 2 ( Cos
0 1 Cos 1 Cos 2 0 1 Cos 2 Cos ) a

+
+ + + +

2-3- The inverse trigonometric functions : The inverse trigonometric
functions arise in problems that require finding angles from side
measurements in triangles :

y Sin x Sinx y
1

-200
-150
-100
-50
0
50
100
150
200
-1
1

90 y 90 : R
1 x 1 : D x Sin y
y
x
1

-
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27

-1
1

180 y 0 : R
1 x 1 : D x Cos y
y
x
1

90 y 90 : R
x : D x tan y
y
x
1

- -
-
0

-
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28

y 0 : R
x : D x Cot y
y
x
1

2
y , y 0 : R
1 x : D x Sec y
y
x
1

- -
-
0
- 2
1 -1

-
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29

0 y ,
2
y
2
: R
1 x : D x Csc y
y
x
1

The following are some properties of the inverse trigonometric
functions :
x Sec ) x ( Sec . 8
x
1
Sin x Csc . 7
x
1
Cos x Sec . 6
x tan
2
x Cot . 5
x tan ) x ( tan . 4
2
x Cos x Sin . 3
x Cos ) x ( Cos . 2
x Sin ) x ( Sin . 1
1 1
1 1
1 1
1 1
1 1
1 1
1 1
1 1

x Sin Cscx
Sinx
1
) Sinx ( that noted and
1 1

1 -1
-
--
0
2-
-2-
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EX-13- Given that
2
3
Sin
1
, find :
Cot , and , tan , Sec , Cos , Csc

Sol.-

3
1
Cot , 3 tan , 2 Sec ,
2
1
Cos ,
3
2
Csc
1 3 4 r
y
x
2
3
Sin
2
3
Sin
1

EX-14 Evaluate the following expressions :
)
6
Sin ( Cos ) c ) 1 ( Sin 1 Sin ) b )
2
1
Cos ( Sec ) a
1 1 1 1

Sol.-

3
2
)
2
1
( Cos )
6
Sin ( Cos ) c
)
2
(
2
) 1 ( Sin 1 Sin ) b
2
3
Sec )
2
1
Cos ( Sec ) a
1 1
1 1
1

EX-15- Prove that :
x Sin ) x ( Sin ) b
x
1
Cos x Sec ) a
1 1 1 1

Sol.

x Sin ) x ( Sin ) x ( Sin y
Siny x ) y ( Sin x x Sin y Let ) b
x
1
Cos x Sec
x
1
Cos y
Cosy
1
x Secy x x Sec y Let ) a
1 1 1
1
1 1 1
1

2
1
3
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2-4- Hyperbolic functions : Hyperbolic functions are used to describe
the motions of waves in elastic solids ; the shapes of electric power lines
; temperature distributions in metal fins that cool pipes etc.
The hyperbolic sine (Sinh) and hyperbolic cosine (Cosh) are defined
by the following equations :
1 u Csch u Coth and 1 u Sech u tanh . 5
1 u Sinh u Cosh . 4
e e
2
Sinhu
1
Cschu and
e e
2
Coshu
1
Sechu . 3
e e
e e
Sinhu
Coshu
Cothu and
e e
e e
Coshu
Sinhu
u tanh . 2
) e e (
2
1
Coshu and ) e e (
2
1
Sinhu . 1
2 2 2 2
2 2
u u u u
u u
u u
u u
u u
u u u u
+ +

+

+

Sinhy . Sinhx Coshy . Coshx ) y x ( Cosh . 10
Sinhy . Coshx Coshy . Sinhx ) y x ( Sinh . 9
0 0 Sinh and 1 0 Cosh . 8
Sinhu ) u ( Sinh and Coshu ) u ( Cosh . 7
e Sinhu Coshu and e Sinhu Coshu . 6
u u
+ +
+ +

+

2
1 x 2 Cosh
x Sinh and
2
1 x 2 Cosh
x Cosh . 13
x Sinh x Cosh x 2 Cosh . 12
Coshx . Sinhx . 2 x 2 Sinh . 11
2 2
2 2

y=Sinhx
y=Cschx
y=Cschx

0
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0
0
0
1
1
1
1

0 y : R and 0 x : D Cschx y
1 y 0 : R and x : D Sechx y
1 y or 1 y : R and 0 x : D Cothx y
1 y 1 : R and x : D x tanh y
1 y : R and x : D Coshx y
y : R and x : D Sinhx y
y x
y x
y x
y x
y x
y x

<
> <

EX-16- Let tanh u =- 7 / 25 , determine the values of the remaining five
hyperbolic functions .

Sol.-
1
-1
y=tanhx
y=Cothx
0
y=Cothx
1
y=Coshx
0
y=Sechx
y
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7
24
Sinhu
1
Cschu
24
7
Sinhu
24
25
Sinhu
25
7
Coshu
Sinhu
u tanh
24
25
Sechu
1
Coshu
25
24
Sechu 1 u Sech
625
49
1 u Sech u tanh
7
25
u tanh
1
Cothu
2 2 2

+ +

EX-17- Rewrite the following expressions in terms of exponentials .
Write the final result as simply as you can :
4
) Coshx Sinhx ( ) d x 5 Sinh x 5 Cosh ) c
) x tanh(ln ) b ) x (ln Cosh 2 ) a
+ +

Sol.-
x 4
4
x x x x
4
x 5
x 5 x 5 x 5 x 5
2
2
x ln x ln
x ln x ln
x ln x ln
e
2
e e
2
e e
) Coshx Sinhx ( ) d
e
2
e e
2
e e
x 5 Sinh x 5 Cosh ) c
1 x
1 x
x
1
x
x
1
x
e e
e e
) x tanh(ln ) b
x
1
x
2
e e
. 2 ) x (ln Cosh 2 ) a

,
_

+
+

+
+
+
+

+
+

EX-18- Solve the equation for x : Cosh x =Sinh x +1 / 2 .
Sol. - 2 ln x 2 ln 1 ln x
2
1
e
2
1
Sinhx Coshx
x

EX-19 Verify the following identity :
a) Sinh(u+v)=Sinh u. Cosh v +Cosh u.Sinh v
b) then verify Sinh(u-v)=Sinh u. Cosh v - Cosh u.Sinh v

Sol.-
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34

. S . H . R Sinhv . Coshu Coshv . Sinhu
) v ( Sinh . Coshu ) v ( Cosh . Sinhu )) v ( u ( Sinh . S . H . L ) b
. S . H . L ) v u ( Sinh
2
e e
2
e e
2
e e
2
e e
.
2
e e
Sinhv . Coshu Coshv . Sinhu . S . H . R ) a
) v u ( v u
v v u u v v u u

+ +
+

+
+
+

+
+ +

EX-20 Verify the following identities :
[ ]
[ ]
v Cosh u Cosh v Sinh u Sinh ) d
u Sinh 4 Sinhu 3 Sinhu . u Cosh 3 u Sinh u 3 Sinh ) c
) v u ( Cosh ) v u ( Cosh
2
1
Coshv . Coshu ) b
) v u ( Sinh ) v u ( Sinh
2
1
Coshv . Sinhu ) a
2 2 2 2
3 2 3

+ +
+ +
+ +

Sol.
[ ]
[ ]
[ ]
[ ]
. S . H . R v Cosh u Cosh
) 1 v Cosh ( 1 u Cosh v Sinh u Sinh . S . H . L ) d
) I I .( S . H . R u Sinh 4 Sinhu 3 u Sinh ) u Sinh 1 .( Sinhu 3
) I .( S . H . R u Sinh u Cosh . Sinhu 3
Sinhu ). u Sinh u Cosh ( Coshu . Coshu . Sinhu 2
Sinhu . u 2 Cosh Coshu . u 2 Sinh ) u u 2 ( Sinh . S . H . L ) c
. S . H . L Coshv . Coshu
Sinhv . Sinhu Coshv . Coshu Sinhv . Sinhu Coshv . Coshu
2
1
) v u ( Cosh ) v u ( Cosh
2
1
. S . H . R ) b
. S . H . L Coshv . Sinhu
Sinhv . Coshu Coshv . Sinhu Sinhv . Coshu Coshv . Sinhu
2
1
) v u ( Sinh ) v u ( Sinh
2
1
. S . H . R ) a
2 2
2 2 2 2
3 3 2
3 2
2 2

+ + +
+
+ +
+ +

+ +
+ +

+ +
+ +

2-5- Inverse hyperbolic functions : All hyperbolic functions have
inverses that are useful in integration and interesting as differentiable
functions in their own right .
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35

y : R
x : D x Sinh y
y
x
1

0 y : R
1 x : D x Cosh y
y
x
1

1 0
1 - 1
-1 1
0 y : R
1 x or 1 x : D x Coth y
y
x
1

> <

y :
y
R
1 x 1 :
x
D x
1
tanh y

< <

1
0 y : R
1 x 0 : D x Sech y
y
x
1

<

0 y : R
0 x : D x Csch y
y
x
1

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36

Some useful identities :
x
1
Sinh
x
1 x
x
1
ln .
2
1
x Csch . 6
x
1
Cosh
x
x 1 1
ln x Sech . 5
x
1
tanh
1 x
1 x
ln .
2
1
x Coth . 4
x 1
x 1
ln .
2
1
x tanh . 3
) 1 x x ln( x Cosh . 2
) 1 x x ln( x Sinh . 1
1
2
1
1
2
1
1 1
1
2 1
2 1

,
_

+
+

,
_

,
_

,
_

+
+ +

EX-21 - Derive the formula :
) 1 x x ln( x Sinh
2 1
+ +

Sol.-
) 1 x x ln( y or
0 1 x x ce sin neglected ) 1 x x ln( y either
1 x x e
2
4 x 4 x 2
e
0 1 e . x 2 e
e 2
1 e
x
2
e e
Sinhy x x Sinh y Let
2
2 2
2 y
2
y
y y 2
y
y 2 y y
1
+ +
< + +
+
+

m
m

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37

Problems 2

1. A body of unknown temperature was placed in a room that was held at
30
o
F . After 10 minutes , the body's temperature was 0
o
F , and 20
minutes after the body was placed in the room the body's temperature
15
o
F . Use Newton's law of cooling to estimate the body's initial
temperature . (ans.:-30
o
F)

2. A pan of warm water 46
o
C was put in a refrigerator . Ten minutes later ,
the water's temperature was 39
o
C , 10 minutes after that , it was 33
o
C .
Use Newton's law of cooling to estimate how cold the refrigerator was ?
(ans.:-3
o
C)

3. Solve the following equations for values of ) from -180
o
to 180
o
inclusive:
i) tan
2
) +tan ) =0 ii) Cot )=5 Cos )
iii) 3 Cos ) +2 Sec ) +7 =0 iv) Cos
2
) +Sin ) +1 =0
(ans.:i)-180,-45,0,135,180; ii)-90,11.5,90,168.5; iii)-109.5,109.5; iv)-90)

4. Solve the following equations for values of ) from 0
o
to 360
o
inclusive:
i) 3 Cos 2) Sin ) +2 =0 ii) 3 tan ) =tan 2)
iii) Sin 2). Cos ) +Sin
2
) =1 iv) 3 Cot 2) +Cot ) =1
(ans.:i)56.4,123.6,270; ii)0,30,150,180,210,330,360; iii)30,90,150,270;
iv)45,121,225,301)

5. If Sin ) =3/ 5 , find without using tables the values of :
i) Cos ) ii) tan ) (ans.: i) 4/5 ; ii) 3/4 )

6. Find, without using tables, the values of Cos x and Sin x , when Cos 2x is :
a) 1/8 , b) 7/25 , c) -119/169
)
13
12
,
13
5
) c ;
5
3
,
5
4
) b ;
4
7
,
4
3
) a : . ans ( m m m m m m

7. If Sin A =3/5 and Sin B =5/13 , where A and B are acute angles , find
without using tables , the values of :
a) Sin(A+B) , b) Cos(A+B) , c) Cot(A+B) (ans.: 56/65; 33/65; 33/56)

8. If tan A =-1/7 and tan B =3/4 , where A is obtuse and B is acute , find
without using tables the value of A B . (ans.: 135 )

9.Prove the following identities :
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38

B tan
) B A ( Sin ) B A ( Sin
) B A ( Cos ) B A ( Cos
) v
Sin Sec
Cos tan
Sin Sec ) iv
) tan Sec (
Sin 1
Sin 1
) iii
Cos Sec ) Sec 1 ( Sin ) ii
Csc . Sec Csc Sec ) i
2 2
2
2 2 2 2
2 2 2 2

+ +
+
+
+

+

+
+
+

[ ]
h Sin x Cos
h Sin . x tan
x tan ) h x tan( ) h x tan(
2
1
) viii
C tan . B tan . A tan C tan B tan A tan
: that show , triangle a of angles are C , B , A I f
B tan . A tan A tan . C tan C tan . B tan 1
C tan . B tan . A tan C tan B tan A tan
) C B A tan( ) vii
) B A ( Sin . SinA ) B A ( Cos . CosA CosB ) vi
2 2
2

+ +
+ +

+ +
+ +

A tan 3 1
A tan A tan 3
A 3 tan ) xiii
A 4 Sin 3 A 3 Sin . A Cos 4 A 3 Cos . A Sin 4 ) xii
) 3 4 Cos (
4
1
Cos Sin ) xi
A 2 tan
1 A 2 Cos A 4 Cos
A 2 Sin A 4 Sin
) x
x 2 Cos 1
x 2 Cos 1
x tan ) ix
2
3
3 3
4 4

+
+ +

+ +
+
+

Sinhv . Sinhu Coshv . Coshu ) v u ( Cosh
verify then and
Sinhv . Sinhu Coshv . Coshu ) v u ( Cosh ) xvi
x tan
2
x Cot ) xv
x Cos ) x ( Cos ) xiv
1 1
1 1

+ +

[ ]
[ ]
Sinhnx Coshnx ) Sinhx Coshx ( ) xx
Coshu 3 u Cosh 4 Coshu . u Sinh 4 Coshu u 3 Cosh ) xix
) v u ( Cosh ) v u ( Cosh
2
1
Sinhv . Sinhu ) xviii
) v u ( Sinh ) v u ( Sinh
2
1
Sinhv . Coshu ) xvii
n
3 2
+ +
+
+
+

10. If

Cos
Sin 1
u
+
, prove that

Cos
Sin 1
u
1
and deduce formula for Sin) ,
Cos) , tan) in terms of u. (ans.:(u
2
-1)/(u
2
+1); 2u/(u
2
+1);(u
2
-1)/(u
2
+1))
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39

11. If ) x ( Cos 2 ) x ( Sin + ; prove that :

tan 2 1
tan 2
x tan

.

12. If ) x ( Cos ) x ( Sin + ; prove that : 1 x tan .

13. If 2 Sin Sin y and 2 Cos Cos x + + . Show that :

4 Sin 3 Sin 2 2 Sin xy 2 ) ii
4 Cos 3 Cos 2 2 Cos y x ) i
2 2
+ +
+ +

14. If 2 Cos B 2 Cos . A 2 Cos , prove that :

2 2 2 2 2
Sin B Sin . A Cos B Cos . A Sin +

15. If S =Sin ) and C =Cos ) , simplify :

C
S
S
C
) iii ,
C 1 . C
S 1 . S
) ii ,
S 1
C . S
) i
2
2
2
+

(ans.:i) Sin); ii)1; iii) Sec).Csc))

16. Eliminate ) from the following equations :

2 tan y and tan x ) iv
tan Sin y and tan Sin x ) iii
Cos Sin y and Cos Sin x ) ii
sec . b y and Csc . a x ) i

+
+

)
x 1
x 2
y ) iv ; 1
) y x (
4
) y x (
4
) iii ; 2 y x ) ii ; 1
y
b
x
a
) i : . ans (
2 2 2
2 2
2
2
2
2

+
+ +

17. In the acute angled triangle OPQ , the altitude OR makes angles A and
B with OP and OQ . Show by means of areas that if OP=q , OQ=p ,
OR=r : p.q.Sin(A+B) =q.r.SinA +p.r. SinB.

18. Given that
2
1
Sin
1
, find Cos/ , tan/ , Sec/ , and Csc/.
) 2 ;
3
2
;
3
1
;
2
3
: . ans (

19. Evaluate the following expressions :
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40

)
6
Sin ( Cos ) f ) 8 . 0 Sin ( Cos ) e
) 1 ( Sin 1 Sin ) d ) 0 Cos ( Cot ) c
) 2 Sec ( Csc ) b )
2
1
Cos ( Sin ) a
1 1
1 1 1
1 1

) 3 / 2 ; 6 . 0 ; ; 0 ; 3 / 2 ; 2 / 1 : . ans (

20. Find the angle / in the below graph ( Hint : /+. =65
o
) :
(ans.: 42.2)

21. Let Sech u =3/5 , determine the values of the remaining five hyperbolic
functions .
) 4 / 3 Cschu ; 4 / 5 Cothu ; 5 / 4 u tanh ; 3 / 4 Sinhu ; 3 / 5 Coshu : . ans ( m m m m

22. Rewrite the following expressions in terms of exponentials , write the
final result as simply as you can :
) Sinhx Coshx ln( ) Sinhx Coshx ln( ) d x 3 Sinh x 3 Cosh ) c
Sinhx Coshx
1
) b ) x ln . 2 ( Sinh ) a
+ +

(ans.:(x
4
-1)/(2x
2
); e
x
; e
--3x
; 0 )

23. Solve the equation for x ; tanh x =3/5 . (ans.: ln 2 )

24. Show that the distance r from the origin O to the point P(Coshu,Sinhu)
on the hyperbola x
2
y
2
=1 is u 2 Cosh r .

25. If ) lies in the interval
2 2

## < < and Sinh x =tan ) . Show that :

Cosh x =Sec ) , tanh x =Sin ) , Coth x =Csc ) , Csch x =Cot ) , and
Sech x =Cos ) .
26. Derive the formula : 1 x ;
x 1
x 1
ln
2
1
x tanh
1
<

27. Find : [ ] x ln x Cosh lim
1
x

. (ans.: ln 2 )

/
65
o
50
21
.
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41

Chapter three
Derivatives

Let y =f ( x ) be a function of x . If the limit :

x
y
lim
x
) x ( f ) x x ( f
lim ) x ( ' f
dx
dy
o x 0 x

+

exists and is finite , we call this limit the derivative of f at x and say that f
is differentiable at x .

EX-1 Find the derivative of the function :
3 x 2
1
) x ( f
+

Sol.:

3
0 x
0 x
0 x 0 x
) 3 x 2 (
1
) 3 x 2 3 x 2 )( 3 x 2 (
2
) 3 ) x x ( 2 3 x 2 ( 3 x 2 3 ) x x ( 2 . x
) 3 ) x x ( 2 ( ) 3 x 2 (
lim
3 ) x x ( 2 3 x 2
3 ) x x ( 2 3 x 2
.
3 x 2 3 ) x x ( 2 . x
3 ) x x ( 2 3 x 2
lim
x
3 x 2
1
3 ) x x ( 2
1
lim
x
) x ( f ) x x ( f
lim ) x ( ' f
+

+ + + +

+ + + + + + +
+ + +

+ + + +
+ + + +
+ + +
+ + +

+ +

Rules of derivatives : Let c and n are constants, u , v and w are
differentiable functions of x :
1. 0 c
dx
d

2.
dx
du
u
1
u
1
dx
d
dx
du
nu u
dx
d
2
1 n n

,
_

3.
dx
du
c cu
dx
d

4.
dx
dv
dx
du
) v u (
dx
d
m m ;
dx
dw
dx
dv
dx
du
) w v u (
dx
d
m m m m
5.
dx
du
v
dx
dv
. u ) v . u (
dx
d
+
and
dx
du
w . v
dx
dv
w . u
dx
dw
v . u ) w . v . u (
dx
d
+ +
6. 0 v where
v
dx
dv
u
dx
du
v
v
u
dx
d
2

,
_

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42

EX-2- Find
dx
dy
for the following functions :
[ ]
2 x x
1 x
y ) f
x
) 1 x x )( x x (
y ) e
x
3
x
4
x
12
y ) d ) x 6 x 3 x 2 ( y ) c
) x 2 4 )( x 5 ( y ) b ) 1 x ( y ) a
2
2
4
2 2
4 3
5 2 3
2
5 2
+

+ +

+ +
+

Sol.-
[ ][ ]
) 7 x 2 )( x 2 )( x 5 ( 8
) x 2 4 ( ) x 5 ( 2 ) x 2 4 )( x 5 ( 2
dx
dy
) b
) 1 x ( x 10 x 2 . ) 1 x ( 5
dx
dy
) a
4 2 4 2

+ +

5 4 2
5 4 2 4 3 1
2 6 2 3
2 6 2 3
x
12
x
12
x
12
dx
dy
x 12 x 12 x 12
dx
dy
x 3 x 4 x 12 y ) d
) 1 x x ( ) x 6 x 3 x 2 ( 30
) 6 x 6 x 6 ( ) x 6 x 3 x 2 ( 5
dx
dy
) c
+
+ +
+ +
+ +

[ ]
4 6
2 2 2 3
3
2
x
3
x
) 1 x x )( 1 x ( x 3 ) 1 x 2 )( 1 x ( ) 1 x x ( x
dx
dy
x
) 1 x x )( 1 x (
y
) e

+ + + + +

+ +

2 2
2
2 2
2 2
) 2 x x (
1 x 2 x
) 2 x x (
) 1 x 2 )( 1 x ( ) 2 x x ( x 2
dx
dy
) f
+
+

+
+ +

The Chain Rule:
1. Suppose that h =g
o
f is the composite of the differentiable functions
y =g( t ) and x =f( t ) , then h is a differentiable functions of x
whose derivative at each value of x is :

2. If y is a differentiable function of t and t is differentiable
function of x , then y is a differentiable function of x :

dt
dx
dt
dy
dx
dy

dx
dt
*
dt
dy
dx
dy
) x ( f t and ) t ( g y
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43

EX-3 Use the chain rule to express dy / dx in terms of x and y :
2 x at
x 1
1
t and
t
1
1 y ) d
2 t at 1
t
1
x and
1 t
1 t
y ) c
1 t 4 x and
1 t
1
y ) b
1 x 2 t and
1 t
t
y ) a
2
2
2
2
2

,
_

+
+

+
+

Sol.-
2 2 2 2
2
1
2
1
2 2 2 2
2 2
2
2
) 1 x ( 2
1
1 x 2
1
.
) 1 ) 1 x 2 ((
1 x 2 2
1 x 2
1
.
) 1 t (
t 2
dx
dt
.
dt
dy
dx
dy
1 x 2
1
2 . ) 1 x 2 .(
2
1
dx
dt
) 1 x 2 ( t
) 1 t (
t 2
) 1 t (
t . t 2 ) 1 t ( t 2
dt
dy
1 t
t
y ) a
+

+
+ +
+

+
+

+
+ +
+

+
+

+

y
1
1 t
1 t
1
y where
4
1 x
t 1 t 4 x where
4
) 1 x ( xy
y
1
x .
4
1 x
) 1 t (
1 t 4 t
1 t 4
2
) 1 t (
t 2
dt
dx
dt
dy
dx
dy
1 t 4
2
4 . ) 1 t 4 (
2
1
dt
dx
) 1 t 4 ( x
) 1 t (
t 2
) 1 t ( t 2
dx
dy
) 1 t ( y ) b
2
2
2
2 2
2
2
2 2 2 2
2
1
2
1
2 2
2 2 1 2
+
+

+
+

+

+

+
+ +
+
+ +

27
16
4
1
27
4
dt
dx
dt
dy
dx
dy
4
1
2
2
dt
dx
t
2
dt
dx
1
t
1
x
27
4
) 1 2 (
) 1 2 ( 4
dt
dy
) 1 t (
) 1 t ( 4
) 1 t (
) 1 t ( 1 t
1 t
1 t
2
dt
dy
1 t
1 t
y ) c
2 t 2 t
3
2 t
3 2
3
2 t
3 2
2

,
_

1
]
1

1
]
1

1
]
1

1
]
1

+
+

,
_

,
_

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44

1 1 * 1
dx
dt
.
dt
dy
dx
dy
1
) 2 1 (
1
dx
dt
) x 1 (
1
) 1 ( ) x 1 (
dx
dt
) x 1 ( t
1
) 1 (
1
dt
dy
t
1
dt
dy
t
1
1 y
2 x at 1
2 1
1
x 1
1
t ) d
2 x
2 x 2 x
2
2 x
2
2 1
2
1 t
2

1
]
1

1
]
1

1
]
1

1
]
1

1
]
1

Higher derivatives : If a function y =f( x ) possesses a derivative at every
point of some interval , we may form the function f '(x) and talk about
its derivate , if it has one . The procedure is formally identical with that
used before , that is :
x
) x ( f ) x x ( f
lim ) x ( f
dx
d
dx
dy
dx
d
dx
y d
0 x 2
2

,
_

if the limit exists .
This derivative is called the second derivative of y with respect to x .
It is written in a number of ways , for example,
y'' , f ''(x) , or
2
2
dx
) x ( f d
.
In the same manner we may define third and higher derivatives ,
using similar notations . The nth derivative may be written :

n
n
) n ( ) n (
dx
y d
, ) x ( f , y .
EX-4- Find all derivatives of the following function :
y =3x
3
- 4x
2
+7x +10
Sol.-
....
dx
y d
0
dx
y d
, 18
dx
y d
8 x 18
dx
y d
, 7 x 8 x 9
dx
dy
5
5
4
4
3
3
2
2
2

+

Ex-5 Find the third derivative of the following function :
3
x
x
1
y +
Sol.-
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45

3
4 3
3
2
3
4 3
3
2
1
3 2
2
2
1
2
x 8
3
x
6
dx
y d
x
8
3
x
6
dx
y d
x
4
3
x
2
dx
y d
x
2
3
x
1
dx
dy

+
+

I mplicit Differentiation: If the formula for f is an algebraic combination of
powers of x and y . To calculate the derivatives of these implicitly
defined functions , we simply differentiate both sides of the defining
equation with respect to x .
EX-6- Find
dx
dy
for the following functions :
P(3,2) at 2 5y - 2x xy d) P(3,1) at 2
y 2 x
y x
) c
y x ) y x ( y) (x ) b y x y . x ) a
4 4 3 3 2 2 2 2
+

+ + + +

Sol.
3
2 2 3
3 2 2
2 2 3
3 3 2 2
2
2
2 2
y 2 xy 6
y 3 x 3 x 2
dx
dy
y 4 ) y x ( 3 ) y x ( 3
) y x ( 3 ) y x ( 3 x 4
dx
dy

dx
dy
y 4 x 4 )
dx
dy
1 ( ) y x ( 3 )
dx
dy
1 ( y) 3(x ) b

y y x
xy x
dx
dy
dx
dy
y 2 x 2 ) x 2 ( y )
dx
dy
y 2 ( x ) a

+
+

+ + +

+ +
+
2
3 5
2 2
dx
dy
x 5
2 y
dx
dy
0
dx
dy
5 2 y
dx
dy
x ) d
3
1
dx
dy
x
y
dx
dy
0
) y 2 x (
)
dx
dy
2 1 )( y x ( )
dx
dy
- 2y)(1 - (x
) c
) 2 , 3 (
) 1 , 3 (
2

1
]
1

+
+ +

1
]
1

Exponential functions : If u is any differentiable function of x , then :

dx
du
. e e
dx
d
and
dx
du
. a .ln a a
dx
d
) 7
u u u u

EX-7 Find
dx
dy
for the following functions :
2
2
5x 1
5x
x 2 x
x x 3x
e y ) f e y e)
x.2 y ) d ) 2 ( y c)
.3 2 y b) 2 y ) a
) e (x +

+

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46

Sol.-
2
x 5 1
2
1
2 ) 5x (1 ) 5x (1
x 5 ) e (x ) e (x
2 x x x x
1 x 2 x 2 x 2 2 x
x x x x
x 3 3x
x 5 1
x 5
e x 10 . ) x 5 1 (
2
1
e
dx
dy
e y ) f
) e 5 1 ( e
dx
dy
e y ) e
1) ln2 (2x 2 2 ln2.2x x.2
dx
dy
x.2 y ) d
2 ln 2 2 . 2 ln 2
dx
dy
2 y ) (2 y ) c
6 ln . 6
dx
dy
6 y 3 . 2 y ) b
2 ln 3 * 2
dx
dy
2 y ) a
2 2
1
2 2
1
2
5x 5x
2 2 2 2
+
+
+
+ +

+

+ +
+ +
+

Logarithm functions : If u is any differentiable function of x , then :
dx
du
.
u
1
u ln
dx
d
and
dx
du
.
a .ln u
1
u log
dx
d
) 8
a

EX-8 Find
dx
dy
for the following functions :
[ ]
2 3
2
5
2
3
2
3
3
2 2 3 2
2
2
5
x
10
) 3 x 4 x 7 (
) 3 x 2 .( ) 4 (2x
y f) 1 ln(xy) y ) e
) 2 ln(x y ) d ) 1 x 3 ( log y ) c
) 1 x ( log y ) b e log y ) a
+
+
+
+ +
+

Sol.
[ ]
[ ]

2 x
) 2 x ln( x 48
x 2 .
2 x
2
) 2 x ln( 2 3
dx
dy
d)

2 ln ) 1 x 3 (
x 18
2 ln
x 6
.
1 x 3
3
dx
dy
) 1 x 3 ( log 3 y ) c

5 ln ) 1 x (
2
dx
dy
) 1 x ( log 2 ) 1 x ( log y ) b

10 ln
1
10 ln
e ln
e log
dx
dy
e log x y e log y ) a
2
2
2
2
2
2
2 2
2
2
5
2
5
10 10
x
10
+
+

+
+
+

+
+
+
+ +

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47

1
]
1

+
+

+
+

+
+

+
+

+ + +
+
+ + + +
3 x 4 x 7
4 x 21
3 x 2
x 5
4 x 2
x 2
y 2
dx
dy
3 x 4 x 7
4 x 21
. 2
3 x 2
x 4
.
2
5
4 x 2
x 6
.
3
2
dx
dy
.
y
1

) 3 x 4 x 7 ln( 2 ) 3 x 2 ln(
2
5
) 4 x 2 ln(
3
2
lny ) f

) 1 y ( x
y
dx
dy
0
dx
dy
.
y
1
x
1
dx
dy
1 lny lnx y ) e
3
2
2 3
2
3
2
2 3
2
3 2 3

Trigonometric functions : If u is any differentiable function of x , then :

dx
du
scu.cotu. c cscu
dx
d
) 14

dx
du
secu.tanu. secu
dx
d
) 13

dx
du
u. sc c cotu
dx
d
) 12

dx
du
u. sec tanu
dx
d
) 11

dx
du
u. sin cosu
dx
d
) 10

dx
du
cosu. inu s
dx
d
) 9
2
2

EX-9- Find
dx
dy
for the following functions :
x tan x sec y f) 0 tan(xy) x ) e
) x (cos tan y ) d
2
x
xCos
2
x
2sin y c)
cotx) (cscx y b) ) tan(3x y ) a
4 4
2
2 2
+

+

Sol.-

2
x
sin .
2
x
2
x
cos
2
1
).
2
x
sin ( x
2
1
.
2
x
cos 2
dx
dy
) c
) x cot x .(csc x csc 2 ) x csc x cot . x csc )( x cot x (csc 2
dx
dy
) b
) x 3 ( sec . x 6 x 6 ). x 3 ( sec
dx
dy
) a
2 2
2 2 2 2

1
]
1

+
+ +

x sec . x tan 4 x sec . x tan . 4 x tan . x sec . x sec 4
dx
dy
) f

x
y ) xy ( cos
) xy ( sec . x
) xy ( sec . y 1
dx
dy
0 ) y
dx
dy
x ).( xy ( sec 1 ) e
) x (cos sec ). x tan(cos . x sin . 2 ) x sin ).( x (cos sec ). x tan(cos . 2
dx
dy
) d
2 2 3 3
2
2
2
2
2 2

+

+
+ +

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48

EX-10- Prove that :
dx
du
. u tan . u sec u sec
dx
d
) b
dx
du
. u sec u tan
dx
d
) a
2

Proof :
. S . H . R
dx
du
. u tan . u sec
dx
du
.
u cos
u sin
.
u cos
1

dx
du
) u sin (
u cos
1
u cos
1
dx
d
u sec
dx
d
. S . H . L ) b
. S . H . R
dx
du
. u sec
dx
du
.
u cos
1
dx
du
.
u cos
u sin u cos

u cos
dx
du
) u sin .( u sin
dx
du
. u cos . u cos
u cos
u sin
dx
d
u tan
dx
d
. S . H . L ) a
2
2
2 2
2 2
2

+

The inverse trigonometric functions : If u is any differentiable function of x ,
then :

EX-11- Find
dx
dy
in each of the following functions :

Sol.
1 u
dx
du
1 u u
1
u csc
dx
d
) 20
1 u
dx
du
1 u u
1
u sec
dx
d
) 19

dx
du
u 1
1
u cot
dx
d
) 18

dx
du
u 1
1
u tan
dx
d
) 17
1 u 1
dx
du
u 1
1
u cos
dx
d
) 16
1 u 1
dx
du
u 1
1
u sin
dx
d
) 15
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
>

>

+

+

< <

< <

3 y ) f ) x x.ln(sec y ) e
x 5 sec y ) d x 4 1
2
1
x 2 x.cos y ) c

1 x
1 x
in s y ) b
2
x
tan
x
2
cot y ) a
x 2 sin 1 -
1 - 2 1 -
1 - 1 1 -
1 -

+

+

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49

x ) 1 x (
1
) 1 x (
1 ). 1 x ( 1 ). 1 x (
.
1 x
1 x
1
1
dx
dy
) b

x 4
4
2
1
.
2
x
1
1
x
1
. 2
x
2
1
1
dx
dy
) a
2
2
2 2 2 2
+

+
+

,
_

,
_

+
+
,
_

,
_

+

1 x 25 x
1
1 x 25 x 5
5
dx
dy
) d
x 2 cos
x 4 1
x 8
.
2
1
x 2 cos
x 4 1
2
x
dx
dy
) c
2 2
1
2
1
2

x 4 1
2
. 3 ln . 3
dx
dy
) f
) x ln(sec
x sec . 1 x
1
) x ln(sec
1 x x
1
x sec
x
dx
dy
) e
2
x 2 sin
1
1 2
1
2
1
1

EX-12- Prove that :
dx
du
u 1
1
u tan
dx
d
) b
dx
du
u 1
1
u sin
dx
d
) a
2
1
2
1
+

Proof : a)

dx
du
u 1
1
u sin
dx
d
dx
du
u 1
1
dx
dy

dx
dy
u 1
dx
dy
. y cos
dx
du
y sin u u sin y Let
2
1
2
2 1 -

b)
y
u
2
u - 1
1
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50

( )
dx
du
.
u 1
1
u tan
dx
d
dx
du
.
u 1
1
dx
dy

dx
dy
u 1
dx
du
. y sec
dx
du
tany u u tan y Let
2
1
2
2
2 2 1 -
+

+

+

Hyperbolic functions : If u is any differentiable function of x , then :

dx
du
. u coth . u h csc hu csc
dx
d
) 26

dx
du
. u tanh . u h sec hu sec
dx
d
) 25

dx
du
. u h csc u coth
dx
d
) 24

dx
du
. u h sec u tanh
dx
d
) 23

dx
du
. u sinh u cosh
dx
d
) 22

dx
du
. u cosh u sinh
dx
d
) 21
2
2

EX-13 - Find
dx
dy
for the following functions :

x csch y ) f x sech y ) e
x 2 cosh .
2
1
- x.sinh2x y ) d
2
x
tanh ln y ) c
) x (tanh sin y ) b coth(tanx) y ) a
2 3
-1

y
u
1
2
u 1+
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51

Sol. -
x coth . x h csc 2 ) x coth . x h csc ( x h csc 2
dx
dy
) f
x tanh . x h sec 3 ) x tanh . x h sec ( x h sec 3
dx
dy
) e
x 2 cosh x 2 2 . x 2 sinh
2
1
x 2 sinh 2 . x 2 cosh x
dx
dy
) d
2
3 2

+

EX-14- Show that the functions :
3
t
cosh
3
t
sinh
3
1
y and
3
t
sinh
3
2
x +
Taken together , satisfy the differential equations :
0 y
dt
dy
dt
dx
) ii and 0 x
dt
dy
2
dt
dx
) i + + +
Proof -
3
t
sinh
3
1
3
t
cosh
3
1
dt
dy
3
t
cosh
3
t
sinh
3
1
y

3
t
cosh
3
2
dt
dx
3
t
sinh
3
2
x
+ +

0
3
t
cosh
3
t
sinh
3
1
3
t
sinh
3
1
3
t
cosh
3
1
3
t
cosh
3
2
y
dt
dy
dt
dx
) ii
0
3
t
sinh
3
2
3
t
sinh
3
2
3
t
cosh
3
2
3
t
cosh
3
2
x
dt
dy
2
dt
dx
) i
+ + +
+ + + +

EX-15 - Prove that :
dx
du
. u tanh . u h sec u h sec
dx
d
and
dx
du
. u h sec u tanh
dx
d
) a
2

Proof-
x h csc
x sinh
1
2
x
cosh .
2
x
sinh 2
1

2
x
cosh
2
x
sinh
. 2
2
x
cosh
1
2
1
.
2
x
h sec
2
x
tanh
1
dx
dy
) c
x h sec
x h sec
x h sec
x tanh 1
x h sec
dx
dy
) b
x sec ). x (tan h csc
dx
dy
) a
2
2
2
2
2
2
2 2

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52

dx
du
. u tanh . u h sec
dx
du
. u sinh .
u cosh
1
u cosh
1
dx
d
) b
dx
du
. u h sec
dx
du
.
u cosh
1
u cosh
dx
du
) u sinh u (cosh

u cosh
dx
du
. u sinh . u sinh
dx
du
. u cosh . u cosh
u cosh
u sinh
dx
d
u tanh
dx
d
) a
2
2
2 2
2 2
2

,
_

The inverse hyperbolic functions : If u is any differentiable function of x ,
then :

EX-16 - Find
dx
dy
for the following functions :
) x 2 (sin sech y ) d ) x (sec coth y ) c
) x (cos tanh y ) b ) x (sec cosh y ) a
1 - 1 -
-1 -1

Sol.-
0 x tan where x sec
x tan
x tan . x sec
1 x sec
x tan . x sec
dx
dy
) a
2 2
>

x csc
x sin
x sin
x cos 1
x sin
dx
dy
) b
2 2

x csc
x tan
x tan . x sec
x sec 1
x tan . x sec
dx
dy
) c
2 2

dx
du
u 1 u
1
u h csc
dx
d
) 32

dx
du
u 1 u
1
u h sec
dx
d
) 31
1 u
dx
du
u 1
1
u coth
dx
d
) 30
1 u
dx
du
u 1
1
u tanh
dx
d
) 29

dx
du
1 u
1
u cosh
dx
d
) 28

dx
du
u 1
1
u sinh
dx
d
) 27
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
+

>

<

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53

0 x 2 cos where x 2 csc 2
x 2 sin 1 . x 2 sin
x 2 cos . 2
dx
dy
) d
2
>

EX-17 Verify the following formulas :
1 u
dx
du
.
u 1
1
u tanh
dx
d
) b

dx
du
.
1 u
1
u cosh
dx
d
) a
2
1
2
1
<

Proof

dx
du
.
1 u
1
u cosh
dx
d
dx
du
.
1 u
1
dx
dy
1 u y sinh 1 y sinh u 1 y sinh y cosh

dx
du
.
y sinh
1
dx
dy
dx
dy
. y sinh
dx
du
y cosh u u cosh y Let ) a
2
1
2
2 2 2 2 2
-1

dx
du
.
u 1
1
u tanh
dx
d
dx
du
.
u 1
1
dx
dy
u 1 y h sec 1 u y h sec 1 y tanh y h sec

dx
du
.
y h sec
1
dx
dy
dx
dy
. y h sec
dx
du
y tanh u u tanh y Let ) b
2
1
2
2 2 2 2 2 2
2
2
1

+ +

The derivatives of functions like u
v
: Where u and v are differentiable
functions of x , are found by logarithmic differentiation :
1
]
1

+
+

dx
dv
. u ln
dx
du
.
u
v
y
dx
dy
dx
dv
. u ln
dx
du
.
u
v
dx
dy
.
y
1
u ln . v y ln u y Let
v

1
]
1

+
dx
dv
. u ln
dx
du
.
u
v
. u u
dx
d
) 33
v v

EX-18- Find
dx
dy
for :
tanx cosx
x) (lnx y b) x y ) a +
Sol. -
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54

x ln . x sin
x
x cos
y
dx
dy
osx c v and x u where , formula by or
x ln . x sin
x
x cos
y
dx
dy
) x sin .( x ln
x
x cos
dx
dy
.
y
1
x ln . x cos y ln x y ) a
x cos
1
]
1

1
]
1

+
x sec ). x x ln(ln
) x x (ln x
x tan ). 1 x (
. y
x sec ). x x ln(ln ) 1
x
1
(
x x ln
x tan
. y
dx
dy
tanx v and x lnx u where , formula by or
x sec ). x x ln(ln
) x x (ln x
x tan ). 1 x (
y
dx
dy
x sec ). x x ln(ln ) 1
x
1
.(
x x ln
x tan
dx
dy
.
y
1
) x x ln(ln . x tan y ln ) x x (ln y ) b
2
2
2
2
x tan
1
]
1

+ +
+
+

1
]
1

+ + +
+

+
1
]
1

+ +
+
+

+ + +
+

+ +

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55

Problems -3

1. Find
dx
dy
for the following functions :
)
x
) 1 x ( 3
: . ans (
x
1
x y ) 5
)
x
10
x
1
x 9 : . ans (
x
5
x 2 x 3 y ) 4
)
) 3 x 2 (
1
: . ans (
3 x 2
4 x 3
y ) 3
)
x
b
: . ans (
x
b ax
y ) 2
) x 2 4 : . ans ( ) x 1 )( 3 x ( y ) 1
4
6
2
3
3
3
2
2
3
2
2

,
_

+
+
+
+

)
) 4 x 5 ( Cos
) 4 x 5 ( Sin . x 30
: . ans ( ) 2 x 5 ( Cos y ) 10
) Cosx . x 3 : . ans ( Sinx y ) 9
) x tan : . ans ( ) Cosx ln( y ) 8
)
x ln . x
1
: . ans ( ) x ln(ln y ) 7

) 2 x (
1
) 2 x 3 ( ) 1 x 2 ( y ) 6
2 4
2
2 3
3 2 3
2
2
3 2
)
3
) 2 x (
2
) 1 x 30 ( ) 2 x 3 )( 1 x 2 ( : . ans (
+
+
+

+ +

+
)
7 x 2 tan 7 x 2 2
7 x 2 Sec
: . ans ( 7 x 2 tan y ) 15
)
x
Cosx Sinx . x
: . ans (
x
Cosx
y ) 14
)
1 x
1 x
Csc .
1 x
1 x
Cot .
) 1 x (
6
: . ans (
1 x
1 x
Cot y ) 13
) x tan . Secx ). Secx ( Sec : . ans ( ) Secx tan( y ) 12
) Secx . x tan Sinx : . ans ( x sin . x tan y ) 11
2
2
2 2
2
3
2
+ +
+
+
+

,
_

,
_

,
_

+
[ ] ) ) x (ln Cos . 2 : . ans ( ) x (ln Cos ) x (ln Sin y ) 18
)
x 5 Csc
x 5 Cot
.
x 5 3
5
: . ans ( x 5 Csc y ) 17
) Sinx . x 2 Cosx . x : . ans ( Sinx . x y ) 16
3
2
3
2
2 2
+

)
x 25 1
x 10
: . ans ( ) x 5 ( Sin y ) 19
4
2 1

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56

)
x 1
1
: . ans (
x 1
x 1
Cot y ) 20
2
1
+

,
_

)
3 x 2
2
1 x
x 2
2 x
1
1 x
1
x
1
3
y
: . ans (
)
2
x
Sec . x 2
4 x
x 2
x ) x 2 ( ) x 2 (
x x 4
: . ans (
2
3
2
2
1 1
1 1
1
2
4 2
2
1 2
2
1
6 2 2
3 2 1
3 3
2
3 1

) 3 x 2 )( 1 x (
) 2 x )( 1 x ( x
y ) 25
)
x 4 1
) x 2 Sin x 2 Cos ( 2
: . ans ( x 2 Cos . x 2 Sin y ) 24
2
x
Sec . x
x 2
x
Sin y ) 23
)
1 ) 1 x 3 ( 1 x 3
x 18
: . ans ( ) 1 x 3 ( Sec y ) 22
)
2 x 4 ) 1 x 4 (
x 6
: . ans ( 2 x 4 tan y ) 21
1
]
1

+ +
+

+ +
+

+

+
+
+
+

## )) x tan . x 2 x cos (ln

x 2
y
: . ans ( ) x (cos y ) 30
)
1 e
2
: . ans ( e sec y ) 29
))
x 2 3
2
x tan ). x 1 (
1
x 3
14
( y 2 : . ans (
x ). x 2 3 (
x tan . x
y ) 28
))
) x ln 2 1 ( x
2
2
x tan
2
x cot
(
4
y 3
: . ans (
x ln . 2 1
x cos . x sin
y ) 27
)
) ) x (ln 1 ( x
1
: . ans ( ) x (ln tan y ) 26
x
x 4
x 2 1
1 2
3
1 5
3
4
2
1

+
+
+

+

+

## )) x tanh 2 x h sec x ( x tanh . x : . ans ( x tanh . x y ) 35

)
x
1
coth .
x
1
h csc .
x
1
: . ans (
x
1
h csc y ) 34
)) x 2 cosh(cos . x 2 sin 2 : . ans ( ) x 2 sinh(cos y ) 33
)
) x 5 ( cosh x 2
) x 5 sinh( ). x 5 cosh( 5 x 2
: . ans ( ) x 5 ( cosh x 2 y ) 32
)) x sin ln . x sec 1 ( y : . ans ( ) x (sin y ) 31
2 2 . 2
2
2 2
2 2
2 x tan
+

+
+
+
+

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57

) 3 x 2 cot . 3 x 2 csc
3 x 2
7 ln
3 x 2 csc
7
: . ans (
)
x 2
1
x tan x cos . x sin
x sec . x tan 3 x sin x cos
: . ans (
7 y ) 40
) e ) x tan x 2 x sec x ( : . ans ( e y ) 39
) e ) e 5 x 2 ( : . ans ( e y ) 38
)
4 ln
x cot
: . ans ( x sin log y ) 37
x
x tan x cos . x sin
ln y ) 36
3 x 2 csc
x tan x 2 2 x tan x
) e x ( x 5 ) e x (
4
3
2 2 2 2 3
2 2
2 2 x 5 x 5
+ +
+
+

+
+
+

[ ]
)
4 x
x
: . ans ( 4 x
2
x
2
x
cosh 2 y ) 46
)
2 ln ) x 2 3 (
x 2
) x 2 3 ( log x 3 : . ans ( ) x 2 3 ( log x y ) 45
)
) x (ln x
) 1 x ln x ( e
: . ans (
x ln
e
y ) 44
)
) x (ln 1 x
x ln
: . ans ( ) x (ln 1 y ) 43
) x sec : . ans ( ) x (tan sinh y ) 42
) x sin ) 2 x ln( 2
2 x
x cos . x 4
: . ans ( x cos ) 2 x ln( y ) 41
2
2
2 1
3
2
2
2
3
2
x
x
2
2
1
2
2
2 2

+
+

+
+
+

2. Verify the following derivatives :

[ ] ) c bx 3 ax 5 (
x 2
1
) c bx ax ( x
dx
d
) b

x
1
6 )
x
1
x ( x 5
dx
d
) a
2 2
2
2
+ + + +

1
]
1

+ +

3. Find the derivative of y with respect to x in the following functions :
) x 4
3 x
x
: . ans ( 3 x u and u 2 u y ) b
)
) 2 x 3 (
y x 18
: . ans ( 2 3x u and
1 u
u
y ) a
2
2
3 3
2 2
3
2
2
+

4. Find the second derivative for the following functions :
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58

) x : . ans ( 0 x 16 y xy 2 x ) c
)
4
1
: (ans. 2 x at
x
2 2
x 2 ) x ( f ) b
)
x
12
x
6
x 6 : . ans ( )
x
1
x ( y ) a
2
3
2 2
5 3
3

+
+
+ + +
m

5. Find the third derivative of the function :
)
8y
3
- : (ans. x y
3

6. Show for
v
u
y that
3
v
) ' uv ' vu ( ' v 2 ) ' ' uv ' ' vu ( v
' ' y

.

7. Show for y =u.v that y''' =uv''' +3u' v'' +3u'' v' +u''' v .
8. Show that 3 x 30 x 35 y
2 4
+ satisfies 0 y 20 ' xy 2 ' ' y ) x 1 (
2
+ .
9. Find
dx
dy
for the following implicit functions :
)
y cosh
x sec . x tan . 2
: . ans ( x tan y sinh ) g
)
) xy cos( . xy ) xy sin( . y 2
) xy cos( . y x sec
: . ans ( x tan ) xy sin( . y ) f
)
) y x ( 1 x ) xy ( 1
) xy ( 1 ) y x ( 1 y
: . ans ( ) y x ( cos ) xy ( sin ) e
)
x y 1
) y tan x 3 )( y 1 (
: . ans ( y y tan . x x ) d
)
y x y 3 x 2
y 2 y x x 3
: . ans ( ) y x ( xy 3 ) c
)
x xy 2
y
: . ans ( y 1 xy ) b
)
y
x 2
y x 10
y 4 x y 5 x 3
: . ans ( 3
x
y 5
y x 4 x ) a
2
2
2
3 2
2
2 2
2 2
1 1
2
1 2 2
1 3
3 3 2
3 3 2
2
3
3 3
1
2 2 2
2
3

+

+
+ +
+
+
+
+

+ +
+

10. Prove the following formulas :
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59

dx
du
.
u 1 u
1
u h sec
dx
d
) h

dx
du
.
u 1
1
u sinh
dx
d
) g
dx
du
. u coth . u h csc u h csc
dx
d
) f

dx
du
. u cosh u sinh
dx
d
) e

dx
du
.
1 u u
1
u sec
dx
d
) d

dx
du
.
u 1
1
u cos
dx
d
) c

dx
du
. u cot . u csc u csc
dx
d
) b

dx
du
. u csc u cot
dx
d
) a
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2

11. Show that the tangent to the hyperbola x
2
- y
2
=1 at the point P(coshu,
sinhu) , cuts the x-axis at the point ( sechu , 0 ) and except when
vertical , cuts the y-axis at the point ( 0 , -cschu ) .

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60

Chapter four

Applications of derivatives

4-1- L'Hopital rule :
Suppose that f ( x
o
) =g ( x
o
) =0 and that the functions f and g are
both differentiable on an open interval ( a , b ) that contains the point
x
o
. Suppose also that 0 ) x ( ' g at every point in ( a , b ) except
possibly x
o
. Then :

) x ( ' g
) x ( ' f
lim
) x ( g
) x ( f
lim
0 0
x x x x
provided the limit exists .
Differentiate f and g as long as you still get the form

or
0
0
at x
=x
o
. Stop differentiating as soon as you get something else .
L'Hopital's rule does not apply when either the numerator or
denominator has a finite non-zero limit .
EX-1 Evaluate the following limits :
x tan ).
2
x ( lim ) 4
x
x sin x
lim ) 3
4 x
3 5 x
lim ) 2
x
x sin
lim ) 1
2
x
3
0 x
2
2
2 x o x

Sol.
1 0 cos
1
x cos
lim
rule s ' Hoptal ' L g sin u
0
0
x
x sin
lim ) 1
0 x
0 x

6
1
5 4 2
1
5 x
1
lim
x 2
5 x
x 2
lim
rule s ' Hoptal ' L g sin u
0
0
4 x
3 5 x
lim ) 2
2
2 x
2
2 x
2
2
2 x

6
1
x
x sin
lim
6
1
rule s ' Hopital ' L g sin u
0
0
x 3
x cos 1
lim
rule s ' Hoptal ' L g sin u
0
0
x
x sin x
lim ) 3
0 x
2
0 x
3
0 x

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61

1
2
sin .
2
sin
1
x sin lim .
x sin
1
lim
rule s ' Hopital ' L g sin u
0
0
x sin lim .
x cos
2
x
lim
rule s ' Hoptal ' L g sin u t ' can we . 0 x tan )
2
x ( lim ) 4
2
x
2
x
2
x
2
x
2
x

4-2- The slope of the curve :
Secant to the curve is a line through two points on a curve. Slopes
and tangent lines :
1. we start with what we can calculate , namely the slope of secant
through P and a point Q nearby on the curve .
2. we find the limiting value of the secant slope ( if it exists ) as Q
approaches p along the curve .
3. we take this number to be the slope of the curve at P and define
the tangent to the curve at P to be the line through p with this
slope .
The derivative of the function f is the slope of the curve :
dx
dy
) x ( ' f m slope the

EX-2- Write an equation for the tangent line at x =3 of the curve :
3 x 2
1
) x ( f
+

Sol.-
[ ]
3
1
3 3 * 2
1
) 3 ( f
27
1
) 3 ( ' f m
) 3 x 2 (
1
) x ( ' f m
3 x
3

+

The equation of the tangent line is :
12 x y 27 ) 3 x (
27
1
3
1
y +

4-3- Velocity and acceleration and other rates of changes :
- The average velocity of a body moving along a line is :
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62

travelled time
nt displaceme
t
) t ( f ) t t ( f
t
s
v
av

+

The instantaneous velocity of a body moving along a line is the
derivative of its position s =f ( t ) with respect to time t .
i.e.
t
s
lim
dt
ds
v
0 t

- The rate at which the particle#s velocity increase is called its
acceleration a . If a particle has an initial velocity v and a constant
acceleration a, then its velocity after time t is v +at .
average acceleration
t
v
a
av

The acceleration at an instant is the limit of the average
acceleration for an interval following that instant , as the interval
tends to zero .
i.e.
t
v
lim a
0 t

- The average rate of a change in a function y =f ( x ) over the
interval from x to x +0x is :
average rate of change
x
) x ( f ) x x ( f

+

The instantaneous rate of change of f at x is the derivative.
x
) x ( f ) x x ( f
lim ) x ( ' f
0 x

provided the limit exists .

EX-3- The position s ( in meters ) of a moving body as a function of
time t ( in second ) is : 3 t 5 t 2 s
2
+ ; find :
a) The displacement and average velocity for the time interval from
t =0 to t =2 seconds .
b) The body#s velocity at t =2 seconds .
Sol.-
[ ]
9 2 * 2 5 0 * 4 v 2 t and 0 t at
t . 2 5 t 4
t
) t ( 2 t ) 5 t 4 (
t
s
v ) 2
8 1 2 * 2 2 * 5) 0 * (4 s 2 t and 0 t at
) t ( 2 t ) 5 t 4 (
) t ( s ) t t ( s s ) 1 ) a
av
2
av
2
2
2
3 t 5 t 2 3 ) t t ( 5
2
) t t ( 2
+ +
+ +
+ +

+ +
+ +
+ + + + +

13 5 2 * 4 ) 2 ( v
5 t 4 ) t ( f
dt
d
) t ( v ) b
+
+

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EX-4- A particle moves along a straight line so that after t (seconds) ,
its distance from O a fixed point on the line is s (meters) , where
t 2 t 3 t s
2 3
+ :
i) when is the particle at O ?
ii) what is its velocity and acceleration at these times ?
iii) what is its average velocity during the first second ?
iv) what is its average acceleration between t =0 and t =2 ?
Sol.
. sec 2 t or 1 t or 0 t either
0 ) 2 t )( 1 t ( t 0 t 2 t 3 t 0 s at ) i
2 3

+

2
2
2
2
s / m 6 ) 2 ( a
s / m 0 ) 1 ( a
s / m 6 ) 0 ( a 6 t 6 ) t ( a on accelerati
s / m 2 ) 2 ( v
s / m 1 ) 1 ( v
s / m 2 ) 0 ( v 2 t 6 t 3 ) t ( v velocity ) ii

+

2
av
av
s / m 0
2
2 2
0 2
) 0 ( v ) 2 ( v
t
v
a ) iv
s / m 0
1
0 2 3 1
0 1
) 0 ( s ) 1 ( s
t
s
v ) iii

4-4- Maxima and Minima :
I ncreasing and decreasing function : Let f be defined on an interval
and x
1
, x
2
denoted a number on that interval :
- If f(x
1
) <f(x
2
) when ever x
1
<x
2
then f is increasing on that
interval .
- If f(x
1
) >f(x
2
) when ever x
1
<x
2
then f is decreasing on that
interval .
- If f(x
1
) =f(x
2
) for all values of x
1
, x
2
then f is constant on that
interval .
The first derivative test for rise and fall : Suppose that a function f has
a derivative at every point x of an interval I . Then :
- f increases on I if I x , o ) x ( ' f >
- f decreases on I if I x , o ) x ( ' f >
If f ' changes from positive to negative values as x passes from left to
right through a point c , then the value of f at c is a local maximum
value of f , as shown in below figure . That is f(c) is the largest value
the function takes in the immediate neighborhood at x =c .
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64

Similarly , if f ' changes from negative to positive values as x
passes left to right through a point d , then the value of f at d is a
local minimum value of f . That is f(d) is the smallest value of f takes
in the immediate neighborhood of d .

EX-5 Graph the function : 2 x 3 x 2
3
x
) x ( f y
2
3
+ + .
Sol.- 3 , 1 x 0 ) 3 x )( 1 x ( 3 x 4 x ) x ( ' f
2
+

The function has a local maximum at x =1 and a local minimum
at x =3 .
To get a more accurate curve , we take :

Then the graph of the function is :
x 0 1 2 3 4
f(x) 2 3.3 2.7 2 3.3
f decreasing f increasing f increasing
f' =0
f ' =0
+ + - - - - + + +
d a c b f ' <0 f ' >0 f ' >0
f ' (x) 1
Max.
Min.
3 - - - - + + + + + +
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65

0
0.5
1
1.5
2
2.5
3
3.5
0 2 4 6
x
y

Concave down and concave up : The graph of a differentiable function
y =f ( x ) is concave down on an interval where ' f decreases , and
concave up on an interval where ' f increases.
The second derivative test for concavity : The graph of y =f ( x ) is
concave down on any interval where 0 ' ' y < , concave up on any
interval where 0 ' ' y > .
Point of inflection : A point on the curve where the concavity
changes is called a point of inflection . Thus , a point of inflection on
a twice differentiable curve is a point where ' ' y is positive on one
side and negative on other , i.e. 0 ' ' y .

EX-6 Sketch the curve : ) 6 x 9 x 6 x (
6
1
y
2 3
+ + .
Sol. -
. inflection of point 2 x 0 2 - x 0 y" at
. up concave 0 2 - 3 y" 3 x at
. down concave 0 -1 2 - 1 y" 1 x at 2 x " y
3 , 1 x 0 ) 3 x )( 1 x ( 0 3 x 4 x 0
2
3
x 2 x
2
1
' y
2 2

>
<
+ +

x 0 1 2 3 4
y 1 1.7 1.3 1 1.7
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66

0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
1.2
1.4
1.6
1.8
0 1 2 3 4 5
x
y

EX-7 What value of a makes the function :
x
a
x ) x ( f
2
+ , have :
i) a local minimum at x =2 ?
ii) a local minimum at x =-3 ?
iii) a point of inflection at x =1 ?
iv) show that the function can#t have a local maximum for any
value of a .
Sol.
3 2
2
3
2
2
x
a 2
2
dx
y d
and x 2 a 0
x
a
x 2
dx
df
x
a
x ) x ( f + +

. 2x a in x of value all for 0
dx
f d
Since
0 6
x
) x 2 ( 2
2
dx
f d
x 2 a ) iv
1 a 0
1
a 2
2
dx
f d
1 x at ) iii
Mini. 0 6
) 3 (
) 54 ( 2
2
dx
f d
and 54 2(-3) a -3 x at ) ii
Mini. 0 6
2
16 * 2
2
dx
f d
and 16 8 * 2 a 2 x at ) i
3
2
2
3
3
2
2
3
2
2
3 2
2
3
3 2
2
>
> +
+
>

+
> +
Hence the function don1t have a local maximum .

EX-8 What are the best dimensions (use the least material) for a tin
can which is to be in the form of a right circular cylinder and is to
hold 1 gallon (231 cubic inches ) ?
Sol. The volume of the can is :

2
2
r
231
h 231 h r v

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67

where r is radius , h is height .
The total area of the outer surface ( top, bottom , and side) is :
inches 6474 . 6
) 3252 . 3 (
7
22
231
r
231
h
. min 0 714 . 37
) 3252 . 3 (
924
4
r
924
4
dr
A d
inches 3252 . 3 r 0
r
462
r 4
dr
dA
r
462
r 2 A
r
231
r 2 r 2 rh 2 r 2 A
2
2
3 3 2
2
2
2
2
2 2

> + +

+ + +

The dimensions of the can of volume 1 gallon have minimum
surface area are :
r =3.3252 in. and h =6.6474 in.

EX-9 A wire of length L is cut into two pieces , one being bent to
form a square and the other to form an equilateral triangle . How
should the wire be cut :
a) if the sum of the two areas is minimum.
b) if the sum of the two areas is maximum.
Sol. : Let x is a length of square.
2y is the edge of triangle .

The perimeter is ) y 6 L (
4
1
x L y 6 x 4 p + .
x
x
x
x
h 2y
y y
2y
r
h
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68

2 2
2 2
2 2 2
y 3 ) y 6 L (
16
1
A
y 3 y ) y 6 L (
16
1
yh x A is area total The
. triangle from y 3 h h y ) y 2 (
+
+ +
+

. min 0 3 2
2
9
dy
A d
3 8 18
L 3
y 0 y 3 2 ) y 6 L (
4
3
dy
dA
2
2
> +
+
+

a) To minimized total areas cut for triangle
3 4 9
L 9
y 6
+

And for square
3 4 9
L 3 4
3 4 9
L 9
L
+

+
.
b) To maximized the value of A on endpoints of the interval
4
L
x 0 L x 4 0

16
L
A 0 y
4
L
x at
3 12
L
A
3 2
L
h and
6
L
y 0 x at
2
2
2
1

3 12
L
A
16
L
A Since
2
1
2
2
>
Hence the wire should not be cut at all but should be bent
into a square .
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69

Problems 4

1. Find the velocity v if a particle's position at time t is s =180t 16t
2

When does the velocity vanish ? (ans.: 5.625)

2. If a ball is thrown straight up with a velocity of 32 ft./sec. , its high after t
sec. is given by the equation s =32t - 16t
2
. At what instant will the ball
be at its highest point ? and how high will it rise ?
(ans.: 1, 16)

3. A stone is thrown vertically upwards at 35 m./sec. . It is s m. above the
point of projection t sec. later , where s =35t 4.9t
2
:
a) What is the distance moved , and the average velocity during the 3
rd

sec. ( from t =2 to t =3 ) ?
b) Find the average velocity for the intervals t =2 t0 t =2.5 , t =2 to t =
2.1 ; t =2 to t =2 +h .
c) Deduce the actual velocity at the end of the 2
nd
sec. .
(ans.: a) 10.5 , 10.5 ; b) 12.95, 14.91, 15.4-4.9h , c) 15.4)

4. A stone is thrown vertically upwards at 24.5 m./sec. from a point on the
level with but just beyond a cliff ledge . Its height above the ledge t sec.
later is 4.9t ( 5 t ) m. . If its velocity is v m./sec. , differentiate to find v
in terms of t :
i) when is the stone at the ledge level ?
ii) find its height and velocity after 1 , 2 , 3 , and 6 sec. .
iii) what meaning is attached to negative value of s ? a negative value of
v ?
iv) when is the stone momentarily at rest ? what is the greatest height
reached ?
v) find the total distance moved during the 3
rd
sec. .
(ans.:v=24.5-9.8t; i)0,5; ii)19.6,29.4,29.4,-29.4;14.7,4.9, -4.9,-34.3;
iv)2.5;30.625; v)2.45)

5. A stone is thrown vertically downwards with a velocity of 10 m./sec. , and
gravity produces on it an acceleration of 9.8 m./sec.
2
:
a) what is the velocity after 1 , 2 , 3 , t sec. ?
b) sketch the velocity time graph . (ans.: 19.8, 29.6, 39.4,10+9.8t)

6. A car accelerates from 5 km./h. to 41 km./h. in 10 sec. . Express this
acceleration in : i)km./h. per sec. ii) m./sec.
2
, iii) km./h.
2
.
(ans.: i)3.6; ii)1; iii) 12960)

7. A car can accelerate at 4 m./sec.
2
. How long will it take to reach 90
km./h. from rest ? (ans.: 6.25)
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70

8. An express train reducing its velocity to 40 km./h. , has to apply the
brakes for 50 sec. . If the retardation produced is 0.5 m./sec.
2
, find its
initial velocity in km./h. . (ans.: 130)

9. At the instant from which time is measured a particle is passing through
O and traveling towards A , along the straight line OA. It is s m. from O
after t sec. where s =t ( t 2 )
2
:
i) when is it again at O ?
ii) when and where is it momentarily at rest ?
iii) what is the particle#s greatest displacement from O , and how far
does it moves , during the first 2 sec. ?
iv) what is the average velocity during the 3
rd
sec. ?
v) at the end of the 1
st
sec. where is the particle, which way is it going ,
and is its speed increasing or decreasing ?
vi) repeat (v) for the instant when t =-1 .
(ans.:i)2;ii)0,32/27;iii)64/27;iv)3;v)OA;inceasing; vi)AO;decreasing)

10. A particle moves in a straight line so that after t sec. it is s m. , from a
fixed point O on the line , where s =t
4
+3t
2
. Find :
i) The acceleration when t =1 , t =2 , and t =3 .
ii) The average acceleration between t =1 and t =3 .
(ans.: i)18, 54,114; ii)58)

11. A particle moves along the x-axis in such away that its distance x cm.
from the origin after t sec. is given by the formula x =27t 2t
2
what are
its velocity and acceleration after 6.75 sec. ? How long does it take for
the velocity to be reduced from 15 cm./sec., and how far does the particle
travel mean while ? (ans.: 0,-4,1.5 ;18)

12. A point moves along a straight line OX so that its distance x cm. from
the point O at time t sec. is given by the formula
x =t
3
6t
2
+9t . Find :
i) at what times and in what positions the point will have zero velocity .
ii) its acceleration at these instants .
iii) its velocity when its acceleration is zero .
(ans.: i)1,3;4,0; ii)-6,6; iii)-3)

13. A particle moves in a straight line so that its distance x cm. from a fixed
point O on the line is given by x =9t
2
- 2t
3
where t is the time in seconds
measured from O . Find the speed of the particle when t=3 . Also find
the distance from O of the particle when t =4 , and show that it is then
moving towards O . (ans.: 0, 16)

14. Find the limits for the following functions by using L'Hopital's rule :
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71

x sin . x
x sin
lim ) 10 x 2 csc . x lim ) 9
x x sin
) 1 x (cos x
lim ) 8
1 x
2 x ) 1 x 3 ( x 2
lim ) 7
4
x
x cos x sin
lim ) 6
x 2 cos 1
x sin 1
lim ) 5

t
1 cost
lim 4)
x cos
x 2
lim 3)

t
t sin
lim ) 2
1 x 7
x 3 x 5
lim ) 1
2
0 x
2
0 x
0 x
2
1 x
4
x
2
x
2
0 t
2
x
2
0 t
2
2
x

+ +

) 1 ) 10 ;
2
1
) 9 ; 3 ) 8 ; 1 ) 7 ; 2 ) 6 ;
4
1
) 5 ;
2
1
) 4 ; 2 ) 3 ; 0 ) 2 ;
7
5
) 1 : . ans (

15. Find any local maximum and local minimum values , then sketch each
curve by using first derivative :

)) 47 . 0 , 25 . 0 .( min : . ans ( x x f(x) ) 4
)) 10 , 1 .( min ); 2 , 1 .( max : . ans ( 6 x 5 x f(x) 3)
)) 1 , 0 .( min : . ans (
1 x
1 - x
f(x) 2)
)) 5 , 2 .( min ); 2 . 6 , 7 . 0 .( max : . ans ( 5 4x 4x - x f(x) ) 1
3
1
3
4
5
2
2
2 3

+ +

16. Find the interval of x-values on which the curve is concave up and
concave down , then sketch the curve :
))
3
1
,
3
1
( down ); ,
3
1
( ),
3
1
, ( up : . ans ( x 2 x f(x) ) 4
))
3
2
, ( down ); ,
3
2
up( : (ans. 1 2x - x f(x) ) 3
)) , ( up : . ans ( 6 x 5 x f(x) ) 2
)) 1 , ( down ); , 1 ( up : . ans ( x 3 x
3
x
f(x) ) 1
2 4
2 3
2
2
3

+
+
+

17. Sketch the following curve by using second derivative :
min.(0,0)) 8.5); max.(3.3,1 : (ans. ) x 5 ( x y ) 4
18.5)) min.(1.3,- ; max.(-2,0) : (ans. ) 3 x ( 2) (x y 3)
50.8)) min.(2.3,- max.(7,0); : (ans. 7) - -x(x y 2)
.5)) min.(-1,-0 ); max.(1,0.5 : (ans.
x 1
x
y ) 1
2
2
2
2

+

18. What is the smallest perimeter possible for a rectangle of area 16 in.
2
?
(ans.: 16)

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72

19. Find the area of the largest rectangle with lower base on the x-axis and
upper vertices on the parabola y =12 x
2
. (ans.:32)

20) A rectangular plot is to be bounded on one side by a straight river and
enclosed on the other three sides by a fence . With 800 m. of fence at
your disposal . What is the largest area you can enclose ?
(ans.:80000)

21) Show that the rectangle that has maximum area for a given perimeter is
a square .

22) A wire of length L is available for making a circle and a square . How
should the wire be divided between the two shapes to maximize the
sum of the enclosed areas?
(ans.: all bent into a circle)

23) A closed container is made from a right circular cylinder of radius r and
height h with a hemispherical dome on top . Find the relationship
between r and h that maximizes the volume for a given surface area s .
)
5
s
h r : . ans (

24) An open rectangular box is to be made from a piece of cardboard 8 in.
wide and 15 in. long by cutting a square from each corner and bending
up the sides Find the dimensions of the box of largest volume .
(ans.: height=5/3; width=14/3; length=35/3)

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1
Chapter five

Integration

5-1- Indefinite integrals :
The set of all anti derivatives of a function is called indefinite
integral of the function.
Assume u and v denote differentiable functions of x, and a,
n, and c are constants, then the integration formulas are:-

( )

+ = + =
+ = = +
+
=
+ = +
=
+ =
+
c e du e c
a ln
a
du a ) 5
c u ln du
u
1
du u & -1 n when c
1 n
u
du u ) 4
dx ) x ( v dx ) x ( u dx ) x ( v ) x ( u ) 3
dx ) x ( u a dx ) x ( u a ) 2
c u(x) du ) 1
u u
u
u
1 -
1 n
n

EX-1 Evaluate the following integrals:

( )
dx 2 10) dz 4 ) z (z ) 5
dx e 3x 9) dt t t 2 ) 4
dx
e 3 1
e
8) dx 1 x x ) 3
dx
x
2 x
7) dx x
x
1
) 2
dx
x 6 x
3 x
6) dx 3x ) 1
4x - 2 2 2
2x - 3
2
1
x
x
2
2 2
2
2
4

+
+
+
+
+

+
+
+

Sol.

+ = + = = c x c
3
x
3 dx x 3 dx 3x ) 1
3
3
2 2

2
( ) c
2
x
x
1
c
2
x
1
x
dx x dx x dx x x ) 2
2 2 1
2 2 -
+ + = + +

= + = +

c 3 ) 1 x (
3
1
c
2
3
) 1 x (
2
1
dx ) 1 x ( x 2
2
1
dx 1 x x ) 3
2
2
3
2
2
1
2 2
+ + = +
+
= + = +

( ) ( ) c
t
1
t 4 t
3
4
c
1
t
t 4
3
t
4 dt t 4 t 4 dt t t 2 ) 4
3
1 3
2 2
2
1
+ + = +

+ + = + + = +

c
z
1
z
3
1
c
1
z
3
z
dz ) z z ( dz ) z (z
dz z 2 z dz 4 z 2 z dz 4 ) z (z ) 5
3
1 3
2 2 2 2 2
4 4 4 4 2 2 2
+ = +

+ = + = + =
+ + = + + = +

c x 6 x c
2
1
) x 6 x (
2
1

dx ) x 6 x ( ) 6 x 2 (
2
1
dx
x 6 x
3 x
) 6
2
2
1
2
2
1
2
2
+ + = +
+
=
+ + =
+
+

( ) c
x
2
x ln c
1
x 2
x ln dx x 2 x dx
x
2
x
x
dx
x
2 x
) 7
1
2 1
2 2 2
+ = +

+ = + =

+ =
+

c ) e 3 1 ln(
3
1
dx ) e 3 1 ( e 3
3
1
dx
e 3 1
e
) 8
x 1 x x
x
x
+ + = + =
+

c e
8
3
dx e x 8
8
3
dx e 3x ) 9
4 4 4
x 2 x 2 3 x 2 3
+ = =

c
2 ln
1
2
4
1
) dx 4 ( 2
4
1
dx 2 ) 10
4x - 4x - 4x -
+ = =

5-2- Integrals of trigonometric functions :
The integration formulas for the trigonometric functions are:

+ = + =
+ = + =
+ + = + + =
+ = + =
+ = + =
c u csc du u cot u csc ) 15 c u sec du u tan u sec ) 14
c u cot du u csc ) 13 c u tan du u sec ) 12
c u cot u csc ln du u csc ) 11 c u tan u sec ln du u sec ) 10
c u sin ln du u cot ) 9 c u cos ln du u tan ) 8
c u sin du u cos ) 7 c u cos du u sin ) 6
2 2

3
EX-2- Evaluate the following integrals:

( )

+

dx
x
x cot
10) dt t 3 cos sin3t 2 ) 5
dx x cos x sin 9) dx x tan x sec ) 4
dx (5x) sec (5t) tan 8) dy ) y 2 sin( ) y 2 ( cos ) 3
dt cos3t t 3 sin - 1 7) dx ) sin(2x x ) 2
cos
d
6) d ) 1 3 cos( ) 1
2
3 4 3
2 3 2
2 2
2

Sol.-

+ = c ) 1 3 sin(
3
1
d ) 1 3 cos( 3
3
1
) 1

+ = c ) x 2 cos(
4
1
dx ) x 2 sin( x 4
4
1
) 2
2 2

( ) ( )
( )
( ) c y 2 cos
6
1
c
3
y 2 cos
2
1
dy y 2 sin 2 y 2 cos
2
1
- ) 3
3
3
2
+ = + =

( )

+ = c
3
x sec
dx x tan x sec x sec ) 4
3
2

( ) ( )
( )
( ) c t 3 sin 2
9
2
c
2
3
t 3 sin 2
3
1
dt t 3 cos 3 t 3 sin 2
3
1
) 5
3
2
3
2
1
+ + = +
+
= +

+ = = c tan d sec
cos
d
) 6
2
2

( ) ( )
c t 3 sin
9
1
t 3 sin
3
1
c
3
t 3 sin
3
1
t 3 sin
3
1

dt 3cos3t sin3t
3
1
dt t 3 cos 3
3
1
dt t 3 cos t 3 sin 1 ) 7
3
3
2
2
+ = + =
= +

( ) c x 5 tan
20
1
c
4
x 5 tan
5
1
dx x 5 sec 5 x 5 tan
5
1
) 8
4
4
2 3
+ = + =

( )
c
7
x sin
5
x sin
dx x cos x sin dx x cos x sin
dx x cos x sin 1 x sin dx x cos x sin ) 9
7 5
6 4
2 4 3 4
+ = =
=

4
( ) c x 2 x cot 2 c
2
1
x
x cot - 2
dx x
x 2
x csc
2 dx
x
1 x csc
dx
x
x cot
) 10
2
1
2
1
2 2 2
+ = + =
=

=

5-3- Integrals of inverse trigonometric functions:
The integration formulas for the inverse trigonometric
functions are:

2 2 1 1
2 2
a u ; c
a
u
cos c
a
u
sin
u a
du
) 16 < + = + =

c
a
u
cot
a
1
c
a
u
tan
a
1
u a
du
) 17
1 1
2 2
+ = + =
+

2 2 1 1
2 2
a u ; c
a
u
csc
a
1
c
a
u
sec
a
1
a u u
du
) 18 > + = + =

EX-3 Evaluate the following integrals:

+

+ +
+

dx
x 1
x tan
10)
1 x 4 x
dx
) 5

x 1
e
9) dx
x tan 1
x sec
) 4
dx
x sin 1
2cosx
8)
x 1
x
) 3

3x 1
dx
7)
x 9
dx
) 2
) x 1 ( x
dx 2
6) dx
x 1
x
) 1
2
1
2
2
x sin
2
2
2 4
2
2
6
2
1 -

Sol.-

( )

+ =

c x sin
3
1
dx x 3
) x ( 1
1
3
1
) 1
3 1 2
2 3

+ =

c
3
x
sin
x 9
dx
) 2
1
2

5

+ =
+

c x tan
2
1
dx
) x ( 1
x 2
2
1
) 3
2 1
2 2

+ =

c ) x (tan sin dx
x tan 1
x sec
) 4
1
2
2

+ =

c ) x 2 ( sec
1 ) x 2 ( x 2
dx 2
) 5
1
2

( )

+ =
+
=
+

c x tan 4
) x ( 1

dx x 2
1
4 dx
x 1 x
2
) 6
1
2

+ =
+

c ) x 3 ( tan
3
1
) x 3 ( 1
dx 3
3
1
) 7
1
2

+ =
+

c (sin) tan 2
) x (sin 1
dx cosx
2 ) 8
1
2

+ =

c e
x 1
dx
e ) 9
x sin
2
x sin
1 1

+ =
+

c
2
) x (tan
x 1
dx
x tan ) 10
2 1
2
1

5-4- Integrals of hyperbolic functions:
The integration formulas for the hyperbolic functions are:

( )
( )

+ =
+ =
+ =
+ =
+ =
+ =
+ =
+ =
c hu csc du u coth hu csc ) 26
c hu sec du u tanh hu sec ) 25
c u coth du u h csc ) 24
c u tanh du u h sec ) 23
c u sinh ln du u coth ) 22
c u cosh ln du u tanh ) 21
c u sinh du u cosh ) 20
c u cosh du u sinh ) 19
2
2

6
EX-4 Evaluate the following integrals:

( )

+

## dx cothx x csch 10) dx x cosh x sinh ) 5

dx
x cosh 1
x sinh
9) dx ) cosh(3x x ) 4
dx e e 8) dx
x cosh
sinhx
) 3
dx
e e
e e
7) dx ) 1 x 2 sinh( ) 2
dx ) 3 x 2 ( h sec 6) dx
x
cosh(lnx)
) 1
2 4
2
ax ax
4
x x
x x
2

Sol.-

+ =

c ) x sinh(ln
x
dx
) x cosh(ln ) 1

+ + = + c ) 1 x 2 cosh(
2
1
) dx 2 ( ) 1 x 2 sinh(
2
1
) 2

( ) c
3
x h sec
dx x tanh hx sec x h sec
dx x tanh x h sec dx
x cosh
x sinh
x cosh
1
) 3
3
2
3
3
+ = =
=

+ = c ) x 3 sinh(
6
1
) dx x 6 ( ) x 3 cosh(
6
1
) 4
2 2

( )

+ = c
5
x sinh
dx x cosh x sinh ) 5
5
4

( ) ( ) ( )

+ = c 3 x 2 tanh
2
1
dx 2 3 x 2 h sec
2
1
) 6
2

+ = =
+

c ) x ln(cosh dx x tanh dx
e e
e e
) 7
x x
x x

+ = =

c ax cosh
a
2
dx) (a ax sinh
a
2
dx
2
e e
2 ) 8
ax ax

( )

+ + =
+
c x cosh 1 ln
x cosh 1
dx x sinh
2 ) 9

( )

+ = c
2
x h csc
dx x coth hx csc hx csc ) 10
2

7
5-5- Integrals of inverse hyperbolic functions:
The integration formulas for the inverse hyperbolic functions
are:

c u sinh
u 1
du
) 27
1
2
+ =
+

c u cosh
1 u
du
) 28
1
2
+ =

c
u 1
u 1
ln
2
1
1 u if c u coth
1 u if c u tanh
u 1
du
) 29
1
1
2
+

+
=

> +
< +
=

c
u
1
cosh c u h sec
u 1 u
du
) 30
1 1
2
+

= + =

c
u
1
sinh c u h csc
u 1 u
du
) 31
1 1
2
+

= + =
+

EX-4 Evaluate the following integrals:

( )
( )

+ +

x ln 1 x
dx
x ln tanh 6)
1 tan
d sec
) 5
x 4 x
dx
4)

x 1
dx
) 3
x 4
dx
2)
x 4 1
dx
) 1
2
1
2
2
2
2
2 2

Sol.-

+ =
+

c x 2 sinh
2
1
x 4 1
dx 2
2
1
) 1
1
2

( )

+ =
+

c
2
x
sinh
2
x
1
dx
2
1
) 2
1
2

1 x if c x coth
1 x if c x tanh
x 1
dx
) 3
1
1
2
> + =
< + =

8
( )
c
2
x
h csc
2
1
2
x
1
2
x
dx
2
1
2
1
x 4 x
dx
) 4
1
2 2
+ =
+
=
+

( )

+ =

c ) (tan cosh d sec
1 tan
1
) 5
1 2
2

( )
[ ] c ) x (ln tanh c
2
u tanh
2

u 1
du 2
u tanh
) x ln 1 ( x
dx
) x (ln tanh
dx
x 2
1
du x ln
2
1
x ln u let ) 6
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
+ = + =

= = =

9
Problems 5

Evaluate the following integrals:

( ) ( ) ) c x 4 x
5
1
x
3
5
: (ans. dx x 4 1 x ) 1
5 3 2 2
+

## ) c cose : (ans. dx e sin e ) 2

x x x
+

) c ) 5 x 3 cos( ln
3
1
: (ans. dx 5) tan(3x ) 3 + + +

) c sin(lnx) n l : (ans. dx
x
cot(lnx)
) 4 +

) c x cosx ln : (ans. dx
cosx
cosx sinx
) 5 + +
+

## ) c cscx cotx : (ans.

cosx 1
dx
) 6 + +
+

) c ) 1 x 2 ( cot
4
1
: (ans. dx 1) (2x csc 1) cot(2x ) 7
2 2
+ + + +

) c ) x 3 ( sin
3
1
: (ans.
x 9 1
dx
) 8
1
2
+

) c
2
x
sin : (ans.
x 2
dx
) 9
1
2
+

) c e sinh
2
1
: (ans. dx coshe e ) 10
x 2 2x 2x
+

) c e : (ans. dx cosx e ) 11
sinx sinx
+

) c e
3
1
: (ans.
e
dx
) 12
x 3
3x
+

) c x 2 e 2 : (ans. dx
x
1 e
) 13
x
x
+

( ) ) c ) bx 3 4 ax 5 (
10
1
: (ans. constants b a, dx where x 3 b a x ) 14
2
5
2
+ + +

) c x tan : (ans.
x 1
dx
) 15
1
2
+

## ) c ) (sin tan : (ans.

sin 1
d cos
) 16
1
2
+
+

10
) c
x
1
sc c : (ans. dx
x
1
cot
x
1
csc
x
1
) 17
2
+

) c ) 1 x 2 x 3 (
4
3
: (ans. dx
1 x 2 x 3
1 x 3
) 18
3
2 2
3 2
+ + +
+ +
+

## ) c ) cos(tan : (ans. d sec ) sin(tan ) 19

2
+

) c ) x 1 (
3
1
: (ans. x d x x ) 20
3 2 4 2
+

) c x 2 tan : (ans.
x 2 tan
dx x 2 sec
) 21
2
+

( ) ) c cos : (ans. d cos sin ) 22
2
2
+ +

) c y tan 2 : (ans. dy
1 y
y
) 23
2 1
4
+
+

) c x tan 2 : (ans.
) 1 x ( x
dx
) 24
1
+
+

) c ) 1 t (
25
9
: (ans. t d ) 1 t ( t ) 25
3
5
3
5
3
2
3
5
3
2
+ + +

) c x 1
2
5
: (ans.
x 1 x
dx
) 26
3
4
3
4
5
1
+ +
+

( )
( ) ) c x 4 cos
12
1
: (ans. dx
x 16 1
x 4 cos
) 27
3
1
2
2
1
+

) c ) x 2 ( sec : (ans.
1 x 4 x
dx
) 28
1
2
+

( )
) c x tanh
4
1
: (ans.
e e
dx
) 29
2
x x
+
+

) c 3
2ln3
1
: (ans.
x
dx
3 ) 30
2 2
x ln x ln
+

) c ) x ln(sin ln : (ans.
) x ln(sin
dx x cot
) 31 +

) c ) x (ln
3
1
: (ans. dx
x
) x (ln
) 32
3
2
+

) c e : (ans. dx
x cos
e x sin
) 33
x sec
2
x sec
+

11
) c x ln ln : (ans.
x ln x
dx
) 34 +

) c e : (ans.
sinh cosh
d
) 35 +
+

) c 2
2 ln 5
1
x : (ans. dx
4
8 2
) 36
x 5
x
x 2 x
+

) c e
2
1
: (ans. dt
t 4 1
e
) 37
t 2 tan
2
t 2 tan
1
1
+
+

) c inx s : (ans. dx
x csc
x cot
) 38 +

) c x tan
4
1
x tan
6
1
: (ans. dx x tan x sec ) 39
4 6 3 4
+ +

) c x 3 cot
3
1
x 3 cot
9
1
: (ans. dx x 3 csc ) 40
3 4
+

## ) c sint csct : (ans. dt

t sin
t cos
) 41
2
3
+

) c cotx x cot
3
1
: (ans. dx
x tan
x sec
) 42
3
4
4
+

) c 4 tan
4
1
: (ans. d 4 tan ) 43
2
+

) c ) e 1 n( l : (ans. dx
e 1
e
) 44
x
x
x
+ +
+

) c x cos ln
2
1
x 2 tan
4
1
: (ans. x d x 2 tan ) 45
2 3
+ +

) c ) x tan 2 n( l : (ans. dx
x tan 2
x sec
) 46
2
+ +
+

) c x 3 tan
3
1
x 3 tan
9
1
: (ans. x d x 3 sec ) 47
3 4
+ +

) c e tan : (ans. dt
e 1
e
) 48
t 1
t 2
t
+
+

) c x sin 2 : (ans. dx
x
x cos
) 49 +

) c cot2x csc2x ln : (ans.
x cos x sin
dx
) 50 + +

12
) c y sin 1 2 : (ans. y d y sin 1 ) 51 + +

) c ) x tan 2 ( n l : (ans.
) x tan 2 )( 1 x (
dx
) 52
1
1 2
+ +
+ +

( ) ) c ) x (cosh sinh
2
1
: (ans.
x cosh 1
dx x sinh
) x (cosh sin ) 53
2
1
2
1
+

## ) c tan sec n l : (ans.

sin 1
d os c
) 54
2
+ +

( )
) c ) x (ln tan : (ans.
) x (ln 1 x
dx
) 55
1
2
+
+

( ) ) c e 4 e
5
8
e
9
4
: (ans. x d e e 2 e ) 56
4
x
4
5
4
9
4
x
4
5
4
9
x x x x
+ + +

) c
1 e
1
: (ans.
1 e 2 e
dx e
) 57
x x x 2
x
+
+

+ +

) c e e
3
1
2
1
: (ans. x d x 2 sinh e ) 58
x x 3 x
+

) c e anx t : (ans. dx
x sec
e x sec
) 59
x sin
x sin 3
+ +
+

) c
2
3
tan
3 ln 2
3
: (ans. dx
9 2
3
) 60
1 x
1
1 x
2 x
+
+
+

+
+

) c x sin 2sin : (ans.
x sin 1 x sin
dx x cos
) 61
1
+

) c x cos ln x sec x sec
4
1
: (ans. x d x tan ) 62
2 4 5
+

) c ) x (sin
2
1
: (ans.
x 1
dx
e ) 63
2 1
2
x sin ln
1
+

) c e
2
1
: (ans. x d e x ) 64
1 x 1 x
2 2
+

[ ] ) c tanx secx ln sinx
2
1
: (ans. x d cosx) cosh(ln ) 65 + + +

) c cscx : (ans. dx
x sin
x cos
) 66
2
+

[ ] ) c (sinx) cosh
2
1
: (ans.
1 x sin
x d cosx
(sinx) cosh ) 67
2
1
2
1
+

1
Chapter six

Methods of integration

6-1- Integration by parts:
The formula for integration by parts comes from the product
rule:-

du v ) v u ( d dv u du v dv u ) v u ( d = + =

and integrated to give:

= du v ) v u ( d dv u

then the integration by parts formula is:-

= du v v u dv u

Rule for choosing u and dv is:
For u: choose something that becomes simpler when
differentiated.
For dv: choose something whose integral is simple.
It is not always possible to follow this rule, but when we can.

EX-1 Evaluate the following integrals:

( )
dx e x 10) dx x sec x ) 5
dx e x 9) dx x ln x ) 4
dx sinbx e 8) dx
1 x
x
) 3
dx ax sin 7) dx cosx x ) 2
dx x 1 x ln 6) dx xe ) 1
2
x 3 2
x 3 2
ax
1 -
2 x

+ +

Sol.

c e e x dx e e x dx e x
vdu v u udv
e v dx e dv
dx du x u
let ) 1
x x x x x
x x
+ = =
=

= =
= =

2
c x cos x sin x dx x sin x sin x dx osx c x
vdu v u udv
x sin v dx osx c dv
dx du x u
let ) 2
+ + = =
=

= =
= =

( )
( ) ( )
( )
( ) c 1 x
3
4
1 x x 2 c
2
3
1 x 2
1 x x 2
dx 1 x 2 1 x x 2 dx
1 x
x

vdu v u udv
1 x 2 v dx
1 x
1
dv
dx du x u
let ) 3
3
2
3
2
1
2
1
2
1
+ = +

=
=

=
= =

c x
9
1
x ln
3
x
dx x
3
1
x ln
3
x
dx nx l x
vdu v u udv
3
x
v dx x dv
dx
x
1
du x ln u
let ) 4
3
3
2
3
2
3
2
+ = =
=

= =
= =

c x cos ln x tan x dx x tan x tan x dx x sec x
vdu v u udv
x tan v dx x ec s dv
dx du x u
let ) 5
2
2
+ = =
=

= =
= =

( )
( ) ( ) ( )
( )
( )
( ) c x 1 x 1 x ln x c
2
1
x 1
2
1
x 1 x ln x
dx x 1 x x 1 x ln x dx x 1 x ln
x v dx dv
dx
x 1 x

x 1 2
x 2
1
du x 1 x ln u let ) 6
2 2
2
1
2
2
2
1
2 2 2
2
2
2
+ + + + = +
+
+ + =
+ + + = + +
= =
+ +
+
+
= + + =

3
( )
( )
c
a
x a 1
ax sin x c
2
1
x a 1
a 2
1
ax sin x
dx x a 1 x a 2
a 2
1
ax sin x
dx
x a 1
x a
ax sin x dx ax sin
x v dx dv &
x a 1
dx a
du ax sin u let ) 7
2 2
1
2
1
2 2
1
2
1
2 2 2 1
2 2
1 1
2 2
1
+

+ = +

+ =
+ =

=
= =

= =

( )
( ) c bx cos b bx sin a
b a
e
dx sinbx e
c bx cos b bx sin a
b
e
dx sinbx e
b
a
1
c dx bx sin e
b
a
bx cos e
b
1
dx bx sin e
b
a
dx sinbx e
dx bx sin e
b
a
dx bx sin e
b
a
bx cos e
b
1
dx sinbx e
(1) in (2) sub.
.(2) .......... dx bx sin e
b
a
bx sin e
b
1
dx cosbx e
bx sin
b
1
v dx bx cos dv & dx e a du e u let
.(1) .......... dx bx cos e
b
a
bx cos e
b
1
dx sinbx e
bx cos
b
1
v dx bx sin dv & dx e a du e u let ) 8
2 2
ax
ax
2
ax
ax
2
2
ax
2
ax ax
2
2
ax
ax
2
2
ax
2
ax ax
ax ax ax
ax ax
ax ax ax
ax ax
+
+
=
+ =

+
+ + = +
+ =

=
= = = =
+ =
= = = =

9) derivative of u integration of dv

( ) c 6 x 6 x 3 x e
c e 6 xe 6
e x 3 e x dx e x
2 3 x
x x
x 2 x 3 ax 3

+ + =
+ +
=

x
3
e
x
3x
2
e
x
6x

e
x
6

e
x
0

e
x
+
-
+
-
4
c e
2
1
e x
2
1
dx e x 2
2
1
e x
2
1
dx e x
e
2
1
v dx e x dv & dx x 2 du x u let ) 10
2 2 2 2 2
2 2
x x 2 x x 2 x 3
x x 2
+ = =
= = = =

6-2- Odd and even powers of sine and cosine:
To integrate an odd positive power of sinx (say sin
2n+1
x ) we
split off a factor of sinx and rewrite the remaining even power in
terms of the cosine. We write:-

( )
( ) dx x cos x sin 1 dx x cos and
dx x sin x cos 1 dx x sin
n 2 1 n 2
n 2 1 n 2

=
=
+
+

EX-2- Evaluate:

dx x cos 2) dx x sin ) 1
5 3

Sol.-

( )
( ) c dx x cos
3
1
x cos dx sinx x cos dx sinx
dx sinx x cos 1 dx sinx x sin dx x sin ) 1
3 2
2 2 3
+ + = + =
= =

( )
c x sin
5
1
x sin
3
2
sinx
dx x cos x sin dx x cos x sin 2 dx cosx
dx x cos x sin 1 dx cosx x cos dx x cos ) 2
5 3
4 2
2
2 4 5
+ + =
+ =
= =

To integrate an even positive power of sine (say sin
2n
x ) we use
the relations:-

2
2 cos 1
in s or
2
2 cos 1
os c
2 2

=
+
=

then we can write:-
5
dx
2
x 2 cos 1
dx x cos and
dx
2
x 2 cos 1
dx x sin
n
n 2
n
n 2

+
=

=

EX-3- Evaluate:

d sin 2) d cos ) 1
4 2

Sol.-

c 2 sin
2
1
2
1

d 2 cos 2
2
1
d
2
1
d
2
2 cos 1
d cos ) 1
2
+

+ =

+ =
+
=

[ ]
c 4 sin
32
1
2 sin
4
1
8
3

c ) 4 sin
4
1
(
2
1
2 sin
4
1
d
2
4 cos 1
2 sin
4
1

d 2 cos ) d 2 ( 2 cos d
4
1
d
2
2 cos 1
d sin ) 2
2
2
4
+ + =
+

+ + =

+
+ =
+ =

To integrate the following identities:-

dx nx os c mx cos and , dx nx os c mx sin , dx nx sin mx sin

we use the following formulas:-

2
x ) n m cos( x ) n m cos(
nx cos mx cos
2
x ) n m sin( x ) n m sin(
nx os c mx sin
2
x ) n m cos( x ) n m cos(
nx sin mx sin
+ +
=
+ +
=
+
=

6
EX-4- Evaluate:

dx x 2 sin x sin 3) dx x 7 cos x cos 2) dx x 5 cos x 3 sin ) 1

Sol.-

( )
c x 8 cos
16
1
x 2 cos
4
1
) dx 8 ( x 8 sin
8
1
) dx 2 ( x 2 sin
2
1
2
1

dx ) x 5 x 3 sin( ) x 5 x 3 sin(
2
1
dx x 5 cos x 3 sin ) 1
+ =

+ =
+ + =

( ) c x 8 sin
16
1
x 6 sin
12
1
dx ) x 8 cos( ) x 6 cos(
2
1
dx x 7 cos x cos ) 2 + + = + =

( ) c x 3 sin
16
1
x sin
2
1
dx x 3 cos x cos
2
1
dx x 2 sin x sin ) 3 + = =

6-3- Trigonometric substitutions:
Trigonometric substitutions enable us to replace the binomials
2 2 2 2 2 2
a u and , u a , u a + be single square terms. We can
use:-

2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
tan a ) 1 (sec a a sec a a u for sec a u
sec a ) tan 1 ( a tan a a u a for tan a u
cos a ) sin 1 ( a sin a a u a for sin a u
= = = =
= + = + = + =
= = = =

EX-5 Evaluate the following integrals:

+

+
+

9y 25
dy
6)
x 4
dx
) 3

9 25t
dt
5)
x 4
dx
) 2
x 9
x
4)
z 1
dz z
) 1
2
2
2 2
2
2
2
2

7
Sol.-

( )
( ) ( )
c z 1 ) z 1 (
3
2
) z 1 (
5
1

c sec sec
3
2
sec
5
1

d sec tan d sec tan sec 2 d sec tan sec
d 1 sec sec tan
d sec tan
tan 1
d sec tan
z 1
dz z

1
z
tan d sec dz tan z let ) 1
2 3 2 5 2
3 5
2 4
2
2
5
2
2 5
2
2
2
+ + + + + =
+ + =
+ =
=
=
+

=
+
= = =

2 ln c c ere wh c x x 4 ln
c
2
x
2
x 4
ln
c tan sec ln d sec
tan 4 4
d sec 2
x 4
dx

2
x
tan d sec 2 dx tan 2 x let ) 2
2
2
2
2
2
2
=

+ + + =
+ +
+
=
+ + = =
+
=
+
= = =

c
x 2
x 2
ln
4
1
c
x 2
x 2
ln
2
1
c
) x 2 )( x 2 (
x 2
ln
2
1

c
x 4
x
x 4
2
ln
2
1

c tan sec ln
2
1

d sec
2
1
cos
d
2
1
sin 4 4
d cos 2
x 4
dx

d os c 2 dx in s 2 x let ) 3
2 2
2
2
+

+
= +

+
= +
+
+
=
+

=
+ + =
= =

= =

2
z 1+
1
z

2
x 4 +
2
x

2
2
x 4
x

8
( )
c x 9
2
x
3
x
sin
2
9
c
3
x 9
3
x
3
x
sin
2
9

c cos sin
2
9

c 2 sin
2
1
2
9
d
2
2 cos 1
9
d sin 9 d 3cos
sin 9 9
sin 9
x 9
dx

d os c 3 dx in s 3 x let ) 4
2 1 -
2
1 -
2
2
2
2
+ = +

=
+ =
+

=
=

= =

ln3
5
1
c c where c 9 t 25 t 5 ln
5
1

c
3
9 t 25
3
t 5
ln
5
1

c tan sec ln
5
1

d sec
5
1
9 sec 9
d tan sec
5
3
9 t 25
dt

d tan sec 3 5dt sec 3 5t let ) 5
2
2
2 2
=

+ + =
+

+ =
+ + =
=

= =

ln5
3
1
c c where c y 3 y 9 25 ln
3
1

c
5
y 3
5
y 9 25
ln
3
1

c tan sec ln
3
1

d sec
3
1
tan 25 25
d sec
3
5
y 9 25
dt

d sec 5 3dy tan 5 3y let ) 6
2
2
2
2
2
2
=

+ + + =
+ +
+
=
+ + =
=
+
=
+
= =

3
2
x 9

x

5t
3
9 t 25
2

2
y 9 25 +
5
3y

9
EX-6 Prove the following formulas:

c
a
u
tan
a
1
u a
du
2) c
a
u
sin
u a
du
) 1
1
2 2
1
2 2

+ =
+
+ =

Proof.-

c
a
u
tan
a
1
c
a
1
d
a
1
tan a a
d sec a
u a
du

d sec a du tan a u let ) 2
c
a
u
sin c d
sin a a
d cos a
u a
du

d cos a du sin a u let ) 1
1
2 2 2
2
2 2
2
1
2 2 2 2 2

+ = + = =
+

=
+
= =
+ = + = =

= =

6-4- Integral involving a x
2
+ b x + c :
By using the algebraic process called completing the square, we
can convert any quadratic: a x
2
+ b x + c , a 0 to the form:
) A u ( a
2 2
m we can then use one of the trigonometric
substitutions to write the expression as a times a single square
term.

EX-7 Evaluate:

2 x 2 x
dx
) 3
8 x 2 x
dx
5)
1 x 2 x 2
dx
) 2
x x 1
dx
4)
x x 2
dx
) 1
2
2
2
2 2

+ +

+ +
+

Sol.

+ = + = =

= =

=
+
=

c ) 1 x ( sin c d
sin 1
d cos

x x 2
dx

d cos dx sin 1 x let
) 1 x ( 1
dx
) 1 x 2 x ( 1
dx

x x 2
dx
) 1
1
2 2
2 2 2

10
( )

+ + = + = =
+
=
+ +
= = +
+ +
=
+ +
=
+ +

c ) 1 x 2 ( tan c d
4
1
an t
4
1
d sec
2
1
2
1

1 x 2 x 2
dx

d sec
2
1
dx tan
2
1
2
1
x let
4
1
2
1
x
dx
2
1

2
1
x x
dx
2
1

1 x 2 x 2
dx
) 2
1
2
2
2
2
2
2
2

c 1 x 2 x 2 x ln c tan sec ln
d sec
1 an t
d sec

2 x 2 x
dx

d sec dx tan 1 x let
1 ) 1 x (
dx

2 x 2 x
dx
) 3
2
2
2
2
2
2 2
+ + + + + = + + =
=
+
=
+ +
= = +
+ +
=
+ +

( )
c
5
1 x 2
sin c d
sin
4
5

4
5
d cos
2
5

d cos
2
5
dx sin
2
5
2
1
x let
2
1
x
4
5
dx

x x 1
dx
) 4
1
2
2 2
+

= + = =

=
= =

=
+

ln3 c c here w c 8 x 2 x 1 x ln
c
3
8 x 2 x
3
1 x
ln c tan sec ln
d sec
9 sec 9
d tan ec s 3

d tan sec 3 dx sec 3 1 x let
9 ) 1 x (
dx

8 x 2 x
dx
) 5
2
2
2
2 2
=

+ + =
+

+

= + + =
=

=
= =

=

2 x 2 x
2
+ +
1
x+1

1 x
3
8 x 2 x
2

11
6-5- Partial fractions:
Success in separating
) x ( g
) x ( f
into a sum of partial fractions
hinges on two things:-

1- The degree of ) x ( f must be less than the degree of ) x ( g .
(If this is not case, we first perform a long division, and then
work with the remainder term).

2- The factors of ) x ( g must be known. If these two conditions
are met we can carry out the following steps:

Step I - let r x be a linear factor of ) x ( g . Suppose
m
) r x (
is the highest power of ) r x ( that divides ) x ( g . Then assign
the sum of m partial factors to this factor, as follows:

m
m
2
2 1
) r x (
A
.........
) r x (
A
r x
A

+ +

Do this for each distinct linear factor of ) x ( f .

Step II - let q x p x
2
+ + be an irreducible quadratic factor of
) x ( g . Suppose
n 2
) q x p x ( + + is the highest power of this
factor that divides ) x ( g . Then, to this factor, assign the sum
of the n partial fractions:

n 2
n n
2 2
2 2
2
1 1
) q x p x (
C x B
.........
) q x p x (
C x B
q x p x
C x B
+ +
+
+ +
+ +
+
+
+ +
+

Do this for each distinct linear factor of ) x ( g .

Step III - set the original fraction
) x ( g
) x ( f
equal to the sum of
all these partial fractions. Clear the resulting equation of
fractions and arrange the sums in decreasing powers of x.

Step IV - equate the coefficients of corresponding powers of x
and solve the resulting equations for the undetermined
coefficients.

12
EX-8 Evaluate the following integrals:

( ) ( )
( ) ( )
dx
3 x 4 x
x 4 x
6) dx
1 x 1 x
x x
) 3
dx
2 x 1 x
2 x 3 x 2
5)
3 x 4 x
dx x
) 2

4 x cos 5 x cos
dx x sin
4) dx
9 x
5 2x
) 1
2
2 3
2
2
3
2
2
2
2 2

+ +
+
+

+
+ +
+
+

Sol.-

( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( ) c 3 x ln
6
1
3 x ln
6
11
dx
3 x
6
1
3 x
6
11
dx
9 x
5 2x

6
1
B 5 6 6B 3 x at
6
11
A 5 6 6A 3 x at
3 x B 3 x A 5 2x
3 x
B
3 x
A
3 x 3 x
5 2x

dx
3 x 3 x
5 2x
dx
9 x
5 2x
) 1
2
2
+ + + =

+
+

+
= + = =
= + = =
+ + = +
+
+

=
+
+
+
+
=

+

( )( )
( )( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( ) c 1 x ln
2
1
3 x ln
2
3
dx
1 x
2
1
3 x
2
3
3 x 4 x
dx x

2
1
B 1 x at and
2
3
A 3 x at
3 x B 1 x A x
1 x
B
3 x
A
1 x 3 x
x

1 x 3 x
dx x
3 x 4 x
dx x
) 2
2
2
+ + + =

+
+
=
+ +
= = = =
+ + + =
+
+
+
=
+ +
+ +
=
+ +

13
( )( )
( )( )
( )( )
( )( )
( )( )
( )( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( )
( )( )
( ) c 1 x ln x tan dx
1 x
1
1 x
1
dx
1 x 1 x
x x

1 C , 1 B , 0 A
) 3 .( . .... 0 C B
) 2 .( . .... 1 B A
) 1 .....( . 1 C A

C B x B A x C A x x
1 x C 1 x B Ax x x
1 x
C
1 x
B Ax
1 x 1 x
x x

dx
1 x 1 x
x x
dx
1 x 1 x
1 x 1 x x
dx
1 x 1 x
x x
) 3
1
2 2
2
3
2 2
2 2
2 2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
3
+ + =

+
+
=
+

= = =

= +
= +
= +
+ + + + + = +
+ + + = +

+
+
+
=
+
+
+
+
=
+
+
=
+

( )( )
( )( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) c 1 x cos ln
3
1
4 x cos ln
3
1
c 1 y ln
3
1
4 y ln
3
1

dy
1 y
3
1
4 y
3
1
4 x cos 5 x cos
dx x sin

3
1
B 1 y at and
3
1
A 4 y at
4 y B 1 y A 1
1 y
B
4 y
A
1 y 4 y
dy

1 y 4 y
dy

4 y 5 y
dy
4 x cos 5 x cos
dx x sin

dx sinx dy cosx y let ) 4
2
2 2
+ + = + + =

=
+
= = = =
+ =

=

=
+
=
+
= =

( ) ( ) ( )
( )( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( )
C ) 2 x ln( 4
1 x
1
) 1 x ln( 2
dx
2 x
4
) 1 (x
1
1 x
2
dx
2 x 1 x
2 x 3 x 2

4 C , 1 B , 2 A
) 3 .( . . ..... ... 2 C B 2 A 2
) 2 .( . .... 3 C 2 B A 3
) 1 ....( . ..... .......... 2 C A

1 x C 2 x B 2 x 1 x A 2 x 3 x 2

2 x
C
1 x
B
1 x
A
2 x 1 x
2 x 3 x 2
) 5
2 2
2
2
2
2 2
2
+ +

+ =

=

+
= = =

= +
= +
= +
+ + = +

+

=

+

14
( )( )
( )( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( ) c 1 x ln
2
3
3 x ln
2
9
2
x

dx
1 x
2
9
3 x
2
9
x dx
3 x 4 x
x 4 x

2
3
B 1 x at and
2
9
A 3 x at
3 x B 1 x A 3x
1 x
B
3 x
A
1 x 3 x
3x

x
x 3
x 3 x 4 x
x 4 x 3 4x x
1 x 3 x
x 3
x
3 x 4 x
x 4 x
) 6
2
2
2 3
2 3
2 3 2
2
2 3
+ + + =

+
+
+
=
+ +
+
= = = =
+ + + =
+
+
+
=
+ +

+
+ + +
+ +
=
+ +
+

m m

6-6- Rational functions of sinx and cosx, and other trigonometric
integrals:

We assume that
2
x
tan z = then z tan 2 x
1
= and dz
z 1
2
dx
2
+
=

Since

2
2
2
2
2
2 2
z 1
z 1
cosx 1
1 z
2
1
1
2
x
tan
2

1
2
x
sec
2
1
2
x
cos 2 cosx
2
x cos 1
2
x
cos
+

=
+
=
+
=
= =
+
=

Since

2
2
2
2
z 1
2z
sinx
1
2
x
tan
1
2
x
tan 2
2
x
sec
1
2
x
tan 2
2
x
cos
2
x
cos
2
x
2sin
2
x
cos
2
x
sin 2 x sin
+
=
+
=
= = =

15
EX-9 Evaluate:

x cos 1
dx x cos
6)
x sin 2
dx
) 3
dx ecx s 5)
x tan x sin
dx
) 2

x sin 4 2
dx 3
4)
x cos x sin 1
dx
) 1

+
+
+ + +

Sol.-

c
2
x
tan 1 ln c z 1 ln

z 1
dz

z 1
z 1
z 1
z 2
1
dz
z 1
2

x cos x sin 1
dx
) 1
2
2
2
2
+ + = + + =
+
=
+

+
+
+
+
=
+ +

c
2
x
tan
2
1
2
x
tan ln
2
1
c
2
z
z ln
2
1

dz z
z
1
2
1

z 1
z 2
z 1
z 2
dz
z 1
2

x tan x sin
dx
) 2
2
2
2 2
2
+

= +

+
+
+
=
+

c
3
1
2
x
tan 2
tan
3
2
c
3
1 z 2
tan
3
2

c
3
2
d
3
2
4
3
tan
4
3
d sec
2
3
x sin 2
dx

d sec
2
3
dz tan
2
3
2
1
z let
4
3
)
2
1
z (
dz
1 z z
dz

z 1
z 2
2
dz
z 1
2

x sin 2
dx
) 3
1 1
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
+

+
= +

+
=
+ = =
+
=
+
= = +
+ +
=
+ +
=
+
+
+
=
+

16
( )
c
1
2
x
tan 4
2
x
tan
3 2
2
x
tan
ln 3 c
1 z 4 z
3
1 z 4 z
2 z
ln 3
c cot csc ln 3 d csc 3
d
tan
sec
3
1 sec
d tan sec 3
x sin 4 2
dx 3

d tan sec 3 dz sec
3
2 z
let
1 )
3
2 z
(
dz
3 2 z
dz
3
1 z 4 z
dz
3
1 z
z 2
2 1
dz
1 z
2
2
3
x sin 2 1
dx
2
3

x sin 4 2
dx 3
) 4
2
2 2
2
2
2
2
2
2
+
+ +
+ +
= +
+ +
+
+ +
+
=
+ + = =
=

=
+
= =
+

+
=
+
=
+ +
=
+
+
+
=
+
=
+

( )( )
( )( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
c x tan x sec ln dx ecx s
implies
x cos 1
x cos 1
2
x
tan ng substituti By
c
2
x
tan 1
2
x
tan 1
ln c
2
x
tan 1 ln
2
x
tan 1 ln
c z 1 ln z 1 ln dz
z 1
2
1
z 1
2
1
2 dx ecx s
2
1
B 1 z at and
2
1
A 1 z at
1 z 1 B z 1 A
z 1
B
z 1
A
z 1 z 1
1

dz
z 1 z 1
1
2 dz
z 1
2
z 1
z 1
dx ecx s ) 5
2 2
2
+ + =
+

=
+

+
= +

+ =
+ + + =

+
+

=
= = = =
= + +
+
+

=
+
+
=
+

+
=

2 z +
3
1 z 4 z
2
+ +

17
c x
2
x
cot c
2
x
2
2
x
tan
1

c z tan 2
z
1
dz
1 z
2
z
1
x cos 1
dx x cos

2 D , 0 C , 1 B , 0 A
) 4 .( ....... .... . 1 B
) 3 .( ........ .... 0 A
) 2 ....( 1 D B
) 1 .....( . 0 C A

z 1 Dz Cz Bz B Az z A

z 1
D z C
z
B
z
A
z ) z 1 (
z 1

dz
z ) z 1 (
z 1
dz
z 1
2

z 1
z 1
1
z 1
z 1
x cos 1
dx x cos
) 6
1
2 2
2 2 3 2 3
2 2 2 2
2
2 2
2
2
2
2
2
2
+ = + =
+ =

+
=

= = = =

=
=
= +
= +
= + + + + +

+
+
+ + =
+

=
+

18
Problems 6

Evaluate the following integrals:

) c ) 1 x ln( x x
2
1
x
3
1
: (ans. dx
1 x
x
) 1
2 3
3
+ + +

) c 1) - ln(3x x : (ans. dx
1 x 3
2 x 3
) 2 + +

) c ) 2 x 2 x ( e : (ans. dx e x ) 3
2 x x 2
+ + +

) c x cos
2
1
: (ans. dx x sin x ) 4
2 2
+

) c 1 x x ln
2
1
1 x
2
x
: (ans. dx 1 x ) 5
2 2 2
+ + +

) c 2 x 7 ln
7
5
1 x 5 ln
5
4
: (ans.
) 2 x 7 )( 1 x 5 (
13 x 3
) 6 + +
+
+

) c 3 x ln
20
9
2 x ln
5
1
1 x ln
4
1
: (ans. dx
) 3 x )( 2 x )( 1 x (
3 2x
) 7 + + +
+

) c x tan
2
1
1 x
1 x
ln
4
1
: (ans.
1 x
dx
) 8
1
4
+
+

) c x lnx x : (ans. dx x ln ) 9 +

) c ) x 1 ln(
2
1
x tan x : (ans. dx x tan ) 10
2 1 1
+ +

) c
4
x
x ln
2
x
: (ans. dx x ln x ) 11
2 2
+

) c ) x tan x (
2
1
x tan
2
x
: (ans. dx x tan x ) 12
1 1
2
1
+

) c ax sin
a
2
ax cos
a
x 2
ax sin
a
x
: (ans. dx cosax x ) 13
3 2 2
2
2
+ +

) c )) x cos(ln ) x (sin(ln
2
x
: (ans. dx sin(lnx) ) 14 +

) c
a
x
tan a 2 x 2 ) x ln(a x : (ans. dx ) x a ln( ) 15
1 2 2 2 2
+ + + +

19
) c x 1
4
x
x sin
4
1
x sin
2
x
: (ans. dx x sin x ) 16
2 1 1
2
1
+ +

) c x 4 sin
32
1
x 2 sin
4
1
8
3x
: (ans. dx x cos ) 17
4
+ + +

) c x cos
17
3
x cos
11
6
x cos
5
3
: (ans. dx x sin x cos ) 18
3
17
3
11
3
5
5
3
2
+ +

## ) c sinx x cosx x : (ans. dx x sin x ) 19 + +

( ) ) c 8 x 12 x 15 ) x 1 (
105
2
: (ans. dx x 1 x ) 20
2 3 2
+ + +

( ) ) c x 4 sin x 4
32
1
: (ans. dx x cos x sin ) 21
2 2
+

) c x tan x sec ln
8
1

x tan x sec
8
1
x tan x sec
4
1
: (ans. dx x tan x sec ) 22
3 2 3
+ +

( )
) c x cos
6
1

x cos
2
1
x sin
6
1
x sin
2
1
: (ans. dx x sin x cos x ) 23
2 3
2 2 3 2 2 3 2 3
+
+

) c x sin 2 : (ans.
x 1 x
dx
) 24
1
+

) c ) x n(1 l 2 : (ans.
) x 1 ( x
dx
) 25 + +
+

) c ) x ln
2
3
( sin
3
2
: (ans.
x ln 3 2 x
dx
) 26
1
2
+

) c ) e 1 (
10
9
) e 1 ( e
2
3
: (ans.
e 1
dx e
) 27
3
5 x
3
2 x x
3 x
2x
+ + +
+

) c
) 1 y 2 ( 3
y 2
)
1 y 2
y 2
ln(
3
1
: (ans.
) 1 y 2 ( y
dy
) 28
3
3
3
3
2 3
+
+

+ +

) c ) 1 x ln( 2 x 2 x x
3
2
: (ans.
x 1
dx x
) 29
3
+ + +
+

) c t ) 1 e ln( : (ans.
1 e
dt
) 30
t
t
+

20
) c 2 tan 2 sec ln
4
1
2
1
: (ans.
tan 1
d
) 31
2
+ + +

) c x 2 sin e
5
2
x 2 cos
5
e
: (ans. dx x 2 cos e ) 32
x
x
x
+ +

) c
sin 1
sin
n l : (ans.
sin 1
d cot
) 33
2
2
+
+
+

) c ) e 1 (
8
9
) e 1 ( e
2
3
: (ans. dt
) e 1 (
e
) 34
4
3
t 2
3
1
t 2 t 2
3
2
t 2
t 4
+ + +
+

) c ) 1 x ln(
3
2
) 2 x ln(
3
4
2
x
: (ans. dx
2 x x
x x
) 35
2
2
2 3
+ + + +
+
+

) c 1 e 6 e 3 ) 1 e ( 3 ln 3
1 e 6 e 3 2 (
3
1
: (ans. dx
1 e 6 e 3
e e 2
) 36
x x 2 x
x x 2
x x 2
x x 2
+ +
+

) c ) 1 y 2 ( ec s : (ans.
y y ) 1 y 2 (
y d
) 37
1
2
+ +
+ +

) c x 2 sin e
5
2
x 2 cos
5
e
: (ans. dx ) x 1 ( ) 38
x
x
2
3
2
+ +

) c
x
x tan
1 x
x
n l : (ans. dx
x
x tan
) 39
2
1
2
2
1
+
+

) c x 2 cos
8
1
x 2 sin
4
x
4
x
: (ans. dx x sin x ) 40
2
2
+ +

) c
3
t
tan
3 2
1
t tan
2
1
: (ans.
3 t 4 t
t d
) 41
1 1
2 4
+
+ +

) c
x
2
x
2
2 x
x
ln : (ans.
x 2 x
dx 8
) 42
2 3 4
+ +
+ +

) c )
2
x
tan
2
x
sec ln
2
x
sin 2 ( 2 : (ans.
x cos 1
dx x cos
) 43 + +
+

) c
3
1 x 2
tan
3
4
x 2 x : (ans.
1 x x
dx x
) 44
1
+
+
+
+ +

## ) c t ) t tan 2 ( tan 2 : (ans.

t tan t sec
t d
) 45
1
2 2
+
+

21
) c ) x tan
2
1
( tan
2
1
: (ans.
x cos 1
dx
) 46
1
2
+
+

) c x x 2 1 x 2 ln
4
1

2
x x
) x 1 x ( ln x : (ans. dx ) x 1 x ln( ) 47
2
2
+ + + + +
+
+ + + +

) c ) 1 x ln(
2
1
x
4
3
) x x ln(
2
x
: (ans. dx ) x x ln( x ) 48
2 2 3
2
3
+ + + + +

## ) c x sin x sin 3 n l : (ans.

x cos 4
dx cosx
) 49
2
2
+ + +

) c ) x tan
3
1
( sin : (ans.
x sec 4
dx x sec
) 50
1
2
2
+

) c t sin
2
1
) t 1 t ln(
2
1
: (ans.
t 1 t
dt
) 51
1 2
2
+

) c ) e 1 ln(
2
1
x e tan e : (ans. dx e tan e ) 52
x 2 x 1 x x 1 x
+ + +

) c x x
2
1
x sin
2
1
x sin x : (ans. dx x sin ) 53
2 1 1 1
+ +

) c tanx x : (ans. dx
1 cos2x
1 cos2x
) 54 +
+

1
Chapter seven

Application of integrals

7-1- Definite integrals:
If
) x ( f
is continuous in the interval b x a and it is
integrable in the interval then the area under the curve:-

) a ( F ) b ( F ) x ( F dx ) x ( f
b
a
b
a
= =

where
) x ( F
is any function such that
) x ( f ) x ( F =
in
the interval.

Some of the more useful properties of the definite integral are:-

( )

=
+ = < <
=
=
=
b
a
b
a
b
a
a
a
b
c
c
a
b
a
b
a
a
b
b
a
b
a
b
a
b
a
b
a
dx g(x) dx f(x) then b x a for g(x) f(x) If ) 7
0 dx f(x) then b x a for 0 f(x) If ) 6
0 dx f(x) ) 5
dx f(x) dx f(x) dx f(x) then b c a Let ) 4
dx f(x) dx f(x) ) 3
g(x)dx f(x)dx dx g(x) f(x) ) 2
constant. is c where , dx f(x) c dx f(x) c ) 1
m m

2
EX-1 Evaluate the following definite integrals:

+
+

0
4
2
0
2
3
3
2
6
2
dx osx c ) x ( 6) dx e ) 5
x 1
dx
4)
x 1
dx
) 3
dx x cos 2)
2 x
dx
) 1
2
x
2
3
2
3
2

Sol.

ln2 2ln2 3ln2 4 ln 8 ln ) 2 2 ln( ) 2 6 ln( ) 2 x ln(
2 x
dx
) 1
6
2
6
2
= = = + + = + =
+

2 1 1 )
2
sin( )
2
3
sin( x sin dx x cos 2)
2
3
2
2
3
2
= = = =

3
2
)
3
(
3
) 3 ( tan 3 tan tan
x 1
dx
) 3
1 1
3
3
1
3
3
2
= = = =
+

3
0
3
0 sin
2
3
sin x sin
x 1
dx
4)
1 1
0
1
0
2
2
3
2
3

= = = =

) e e ( 2 ) e e ( 2 e 2 dx e ) 5
2 2
4
2
4
2
2
x
2
x

= = =

( ) 2 ) 1 0 ( ) 1 ( 0 0 cos 0 sin ) 0 ( cos sin ) (
x cos x sin ) x ( dx x sin x sin ) x ( dx osx c ) x (
sinx v dx cosx dv & dx du x u Let ) 6
0
0
0
0
= = =
= + =
= = = =

3
7-2- Area between two curves:
Suppose that
) x ( f y
1 1
=
and
) x ( f y
2 2
=
define two functions
of x that are continuous for b x a then the area bounded above
by the
1
y
curve, below by
2
y
curve and on the sides by the vertical
lines a x = and b x = is:-

[ ]dx ) x ( f ) x ( f A
b
a
2 1

=

EX-2- Find the area bounded by the x-axis and the curve:
2
x x 2 y =

Sol.-

2 , 0 x 0 ) 2 x(x
.....(2) x 2x y
....(1) .......... 0 y
2
= =

=
=

The points of the intersection of the curve and the x-axis are (0,0)
and (2,0) then the area bounded by x-axis and the curve is:-

3
4
) 0 0 (
3
8
4
3
x
x dx ) x (2x
2
0
3
2
2
0
2
= = =

EX-3- Find the area bounded by the y-axis and the curve:
3 2
y y x =

Sol.-

(0,1) (0,0), points on intersecti

1 , 0 y 0 ) 1 (y y
.....(2) y y x
....(1) .......... 0 x
2
3 2

= =

=
=

= = = =
=
1
0
1
0
4 3
3 2
12
1
) 0 0 (
4
1
3
1
4
y
3
y
dy ) y (y A
area The

1
y
x
1
2
1 2
y
x
4
EX-4- Find the area bounded by the curve
2
x y = and the line:
x y =

Sol.-

(1,1) (0,0), points on intersecti

1 , 0 x 0 ) 1 (x x
.....(2) x y
......(1) x y
2

= =

=
=

6
1
0
3
1
2
1
3
x
2
x
dx ) x x ( A
area The
1
0
3 2
1
0
2
= = = =
=

EX-5- Find the area bounded by the curves
2 4
x 2 x y = and
2
x 2 y =

Sol.-

2,8) ( (2,8), (0,0), are points on intersecti
1 , 0 x
0 ) 4 (x x
..(2) .......... x 2 y
......(1) x 2 x y
2 2
2
2 4

=
=

=
=

( ) ( )
( )
15
128

0
5
32
8
3
4
2
5
x
x
3
4
2 dx x x 4 2
dx ) x 2 x ( x 2 dx ) x 2 x ( x 2 A
area The
2
0
5
3
2
0
4 2
2
0
2 4 2
0
2
2 4 2
=

= =
+ =
=

1
y
x
1
y=x
2
y=x
0
4
y
x
2
y=x
4
-2x
2
y=2x
2
-2
-4
8
-1 1
5
Notice:- We can use the double integration to calculate the area
between two curves which bounded above by the curve
) x ( f y
2
=

below by
) x ( f y
1
=
on the left by the line a x = and on the right by
b x = , then:-

=
b
a
) x ( f
) x ( f
2
1
dx dy A

To evaluate above integrals we follow:-
(a) integrating

dy
with respect to y and evaluating the resulting
integral the limits
) x ( f y
1
=
and
) x ( f y
2
=
, then:
(b) integrating the result of (a) with respect to x between the
limits a x = and b x = .
If the area is bounded on the left by the curve
) y ( g x
1
=
, on the
right by
) y ( g x
2
=
, below by the line
c y =
, and above by the line
d y =
, then it is better to integrate first with respect to x and then
with respect to y. That is:-

=
d
c
) y ( g
) y ( g
2
1
dy dx A

EX-6- Find the area of the triangular region in the first quadrant
bounded by the y-axis and the curve . x cos y , x sin y = =

Sol.-

4
x x cos x sin
.....(2) x cos y
.....(1) x sin y

= =

=
=

( )
414 . 0 1 2 ) 1 0 (
2
1
2
1
x cos x sin
dx x sin x cos dx y dx dy A
area The
4
0
4
0
x cos
x sin
4
0
cosx
sinx
4
0
= = + + = + =
= = =
=

y
x
4

y=sinx
y=cos
1
4

2
1
6
EX-7- Calculate:
dy dx
x
x sin

1
0
1
y

Sol.- We cannot solve the integration

dy dx
x
x sin

1
0
1
y

, hence we reverse the
order of integration as follow:-

0 y y x
1 y and 1 x
= =
= =

1 cos 1 ) 0 cos 1 (cos x cos dx x sin
dx ) 0 x (
x
sinx
dx y
x
sinx
dx dy
x
sinx
A
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
x
0
1
0
x
0
= = = =
= = =

EX-8- Write an equivalent double integral with order of
by evaluation both double integrals, and sketch the region.

+
+
+
2
0
x 1
2
x
0
1 -
x 1
x 2
1
2 -
2 3x
x 4 x
dx dy dx dy ) 2 dx dy ) 1
2

Sol.-

5 y 1 x or
4 y 2 x either
0 ) 1 x )( 2 x (
...(2) 4x x y
.....(1) 2 x 3 y
) 1
2
= =
= =
= +

+ =
+ =

y
x
y=1
1
1
x=1
y=x
y
x
x=-2
2
x=1
y=-4
y=5
4
6
0
-4
-2
-1 -2
2 x 3 y + =
4 x y
2
+ =

7
2
9
)
3
8
2 4 (
3
1
2
1
2
3
x
2
x
2x
dx ) x x 2 ( dx y dx dy ) a (
1
2
3 2
1
2
2
2 3x
x 4 x
1
2
1
2 -
2 3x
x 4 x
2 2
= + = =
= =

+
+
+
+

4 y 2 x 1 x 2 Since
4 y 2 x 4 y 2) (x 4x x y
3
2 y
x 2 x 3 y
- : is integral reversed The ) b (
2 2
+ + =
+ = + = + + =

= + =
m
(a). in as result same The
2
9
)
6
36
0 8 (
6
9
) 27 (
3
2
10
6
) 2 y (
) 4 y (
3
2
y 2
dy
3
2 y
4 y 2 x dy dx
4
4
2
2
3
5
4
4 y 2
3
2 y
5
4
5
4 -
4 y 2
3
2 y
=
= + + =

+ + =

+ + = =

+ +

+ +

0 to 1 from x 2 y 2 x
......(2) x 2 y
.....(1) x 1 y

region 1st (b)

2
3
0 1 2 )
2
1
1 ( 0
4
x
x
2
x
x dx )
2
x
1 ( dx x) (1
dx y dx y dx dy dx dy ) a ( ) 2
2
0
2
0
1
2
2
0
0
1 -
x 1
2
x
2
0
x 1
x 2
0
1 -
2
0
x 1
2
x
0
1 -
x 1
x 2
= =

=
=
= + + =
+ + = + + =
+ = +

8
(a). in as result same The
2
3
)
2
1
1 ( 0 0 1 2
2
y
y
4
y
y dy ) y 1 ( dy )
2
y
1 (
dy x dy x dy dx dy dx
2 to 0 from x 1 y 2 x
.....(2)
2
x
y
...(1) x 1 y

region 2nd
0
1
2
2
0
2 0
1
2
0
y 1
y 2
0
1
y 1
2
y
2
0
0
1
y 1
y 2
2
0
y 1
2
y
=
= + + =
+ + = + + =
+ = +
= =

=
=

7-3- Triple integrals (Volume):
Consider a region N in xyz-space bounded below by a surface
) y , x ( f z
1
= , above by the surface ) y , x ( f z
2
= and laterally by a
cylinder c with elements parallel to the z-axis. Let A denote the
region of the xy-plane enclosed by cylinder c (that is, A is the region
covered by the orthogonal projection of the solid into xy-plane). Then
the volume V of the region V can be found by evaluating the triply
iterated integral:-

=
A
) y , x ( f
) y , x ( f
2
1
dx dy dz V

Let z-limits of integration indicate
that for every (x,y) in the region A,Z
may extend from the lower surface
) y , x ( f z
1
= to the surface
) y , x ( f z
2
= . The y- and x-limits of
integration have not been given
explicitly in equation above, but are
indicated as extending over the
region A.

y
x
1
(-1,2)
2
0
-1
-1
1 2
(2,-1)
y=-x/2
(x=-2y)
y= -2x
(x=-y/2)
y=1-x
(x=1-y)
x
y
z
c
) y , x ( f z
1
=
) y , x ( f z
2
=
9
We can find the equation of the boundary of the region A by
eliminating z between the two equations ) y , x ( f z
1
= and
) y , x ( f z
2
= , thus obtaining an equation ) y , x ( f ) y , x ( f
2 1
= which
contains no z, and interpret it as an equation in the xy-plane.

EX-9 The volume in the first octant bounded by the cylinder
2
y 4 x = , and the planes . 0 z , 0 x , y z = = =

Sol.-

4 0
2
16
16
2
1
2
x
x 4
2
1
dx ) 0 x 4 (
2
1

dx
2
y
dx dy y dx dy z dx dy dz V
- : octant first in x 4 y y 4 x
4
0
4
0
2
4
0
x 4
0
2 4
0
x 4
0
4
0
x 4
0
y
0
4
0
x 4
0
y
0
2
=

= =
= = = =
= =

m

EX-10 The volume enclosed by the cylinders
2 2
x 4 z , x 5 z = = and
the planes . 1 y x , 0 y = + =

Sol.-

3
20
) 1 1 (
4
1
) 1 1 (
3
1
) 1 1 (
2
1
) 1 1 ( 5
4
x
3
x
2
x
x 5 dx ) x x x 1 ( 5
dx ) x 1 ( ) x 1 ( 5 dx y ) x 5 5 ( 5
dx dy ) x 5 5 ( dx dy z dx dy dz V
1 x
......(2) 4x z
...(1) x 5 z
1
1
4 3 2
1
1
3 2
1
1
2
x 1
0
1
1
2
1
1
x 1
0
2
1
1
x 1
0
x 5
4x
1
1
x 1
0
x 5
4x
2
2
2
2
2
2
=

+ + + =

+ = + =
= =
= = =
=

=
=

m

10
EX-11 The volume enclosed by the cylinders 16 z 4 y
2 2
= + and the
planes . 4 y x , 0 x = + =

Sol.-

( )

32 ) 0 0 (
2
1
)
2 2
( 32 2 sin
2
1
32
d
2
cos2 1
64 d cos 64 d cos 2 ) sin 4 4 ( 16 V

2
z
sin , d cos 2 dz sin 2 z let
dz z 4 16 dz
2
y
y 4 dz dy y) (4
dz dy dx V
z 4 2 y 16 z 4 y
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2 z at
2
2 z at
1
2
2
2
1
2
2
2
z 4 2
z 4 2
2
2
2
z 4 2
z 4 2
2
2
z 4 2
z 4 2
y 4
0
2 2 2
2
1
2
2
2
2
2
2
=

+ + =

+ =
+
= = =
= = =
= = =
=
= = +

= =
= =

m

EX-12 The volume bounded by the ellipse paraboloids
2 2
y 9 x z + =
and . 9y x 18 z
2 2
=

Sol.-

[ ] dx dy ) 9y x ( 9y x 18 dx dy dz V
x 9
3
1
y 0 y 9 x 9
2) .........( 9y x z
..(1) 9y x 18 z

3
3
x 9
3
1
x 9
3
1
2 2 2 2
3
3
x 9
3
1
x 9
3
1
9y x 18
y 9 x
2 2 2
2 2
2 2
2
2
2
2
2 2
2 2

+
+ = =
= =

+ =
=
m

11

27 )) 2 sin( 2 (sin
4
1
)) sin( (sin 2 )
2 2
( 3 9
4 sin
4
1
2 sin 2 3 9 d ) cos4 4cos2 3 ( 9
d )
2
4 cos
2cos2 (1 18 d ) 2 cos 2cos2 (1 18
d )
2
cos2 1
( 72 d cos 72 d cos 3 ) sin 9 9 (
9
8

3
x
sin , d 3cos dx 3sin x let
dx ) x 9 (
9
8

dx
27
) x 9 (
27
) x 9 (
3
3
x 9
3
x 9
) x 9 ( 2
dx y 3 y ) x 9 ( 2 V
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2 4
2
3
2
2
3 x at
2
3 x at
1
3
3
2
3
2
3
3
2
3
2
2
3
2 2 2
2
3
3
x 9
3
1
x 9
3
1
3 2
2
2
=

+ + + =

+ + = + + =
+ + = + + =
+
= = =
= = =
=

= =
= =

7-4- The length of a plane curve:-
The length of the curve ) x ( f y =
from point A(a,c) to B(b,d) is:-

dx )
dx
dy
( 1 L
b
a
2

+ =

If x can be expressed as a function
of y then the length is:-

dy )
dy
dx
( 1 L
d
c
2

+ =

a b
c
d
0
A(a,c)
B(b,d)
y=f(x)
x=g(y)
12
Let the equation of motion be ) t ( g x = and ) t ( h y =
continuously differentiable for t between B), at ( t and ) A at ( t
b a

then the length of the curve is:-

dt )
dt
dy
( )
dt
dx
( L
b
a
t
t
2 2

+ =

EX-13 Find the length of the curve:
8 x to 1 x from x y ) 3
,3) 3 2 ( to 0,0) ( from 4y x 9 ) 2
3 x to 0 x from 2) (x
3
1
y ) 1
3
2
2
3
3 2
2
= = =
=
= = + =

Sol.
[ ]
3
14
1 8
3
2
) y 1 (
3
2
dy y 1 L
y
dy
dx
y
3
2
x then
3 2 to 0 from x Since y
3
2
x 4y x 9 ) 2
3
0
3
0
3 2
2
3
2
1
2
3
2
3
= = + = + =
= =
= =

m

[ ] 51 . 10 ) 4 4 40 40 ( ) 4 4 13 13 (
27
1

2
3
) y 9 4 (
2
3
) y 9 4 (
18
1
dy y
4
9
1 dy y
4
9
1 V
y
2
3
dy
dx
y x then
0 x at
dx
dy
Since
x
3
2
dx
dy
x y ) 3
4
0
4
0
1
0
1
0
2
3
2
3
2
1
2
3
3
1
3
2
= + =

+
+
+
= + + + =
= =
= =
= =

m m

12 0 3 9 x
3
x
dx 1) (x dx 2) (x x 1 L
2) (x x
dx
dy
2) (x
3
1
y ) 1
3
0
3 3
0
3
0
2 2 2
2 2
2
1
2
3
= + = + = + = + + =
+ = + =

y
x
2
4
0 -2 2 4 6 8
13
EX-14 Find the distance traveled between 0 t = and
2
t

= a
particle P(x,y) whose position at time t is given by:-
t cos t a t sin a y and t sin t a t cos a x = + = where a is a
positive constant.

Sol.

2
2
0
2
0
0
2 2 2 2 2 2
b
a
2 2
8
a
0
4 2
a
t
2
a
dt t a
dt t sin t a t cos t a dt )
dt
dy
( )
dt
dx
( L
t sin t a
dy
dx
t cos t a t sin a y
t cos t a
dy
dx
t sin t a t cos a x
2 2
2

= = =
+ = + =
= =
= + =

EX-15 Find the length of the curve:-
2 t 0 ; t cos 1 y nd a t sin t x = =

Sol.

[ ] [ ] 8 1 1 4 0 cos cos 4
2
t
s co 4 dt
2
t
sin 2 dt
2
t cos 1
2
dt 1 t cos 2 1 dt t sin t cos t cos 2 1
dt t sin ) t cos 1 ( dt )
dt
dy
( )
dt
dx
( L
t sin
dt
dy
t cos 1 y
t cos 1
dt
dx
t sin t x
2
0
2
0
2
0
2
0
2
0
2 2
2
0
2 2
b
a
2 2
= = =
= =

=
+ = + + =
+ = + =
= =
= =

14
7-5- The surface area:
Suppose that the curve ) x ( f y = is rotated about the x-axis. It
will generate a surface in space. Then the surface area of the
shape is:-
dx )
dx
dy
( 1 y 2 S
b
a
2

+ =

If the curve rotated about the y-axis, then the surface area is:-

dy )
dy
dx
( 1 x 2 S
d
c
2

+ =

If the curve sweeps out the surface is given in parametric form
with x and y as functions of a third variable t that varies
from t
a
to t
b
then we may compute the surface area from the
formula:-

dt )
dt
dy
( )
dt
dx
( 2 S
b
a
t
t
2 2

+ =

where is the distance from the axis of revolution to the
element of arc length and is expressed as a function of t.

EX-16 The circle
2 2 2
r y x = + is revolved about the x-axis. Find
the area of the sphere generated.

Sol.-

( )
2
r
r
r
r
2 2
2
2 2
r
r
b
a
2
2 2
2 2
r 4 ) r ( r r 2 x r 2
dx r 2 dx
x r
x
1 x r 2 dx )
dx
dy
( 1 y 2 S
x r
x
dx
dy
x r y

= = =
=

+ = + =

= =

15
EX-17 Find the area of the surface generated by rotating the
portion of the curve
2
3
) 2 x (
3
1
y
2
+ = between x=0 and x=3

Sol.-

[ ]

2
99
)
3
2 2
3 (
2
)
3
2 2
3 (
)
3
11 11
3 (
2
)
3
11 11
3 (

) y 3 (
3
1 ) y 3 (
3
1
2 dy ) y 3 ( ) y 3 ( 2
dy
) y 3 (
) 1 ) y 3 ((
2 dy
) y 3 (
1 ) y 3 ( 2 ) y 3 (
2
dy
) y 3 )( 2 ) y 3 ((
1
1 2 ) y 3 ( 2 S
3
11 1 1
y and
3
2 2
y ) 2 x (
3
1
y
) 2 ) y 3 (( ) y 3 (
1
dy
dx
) 2 ) y 3 (( x ) 2 x (
3
1
y
3
2
3
4
3
2
3
4
3
11 1 1
3
2 2
3
2
3
4
3
11 1 1
3
2 2
3
1
3
1
3
11 1 1
3
2 2
3
2
3
2
3
11 1 1
3
2 2
3
2
3
2
3
4
3
2
3
2
3
11 1 1
3
2 2
3
2
2
3
2
1
3
2
3
1
2
1
3
2
2
3
3
2
3
4
2
3 x at 0 x at
2
2
=

= =

=
+
=

+ =
= = + =

= = + =

= =

EX-18 The arc of the curve
x 4
1
3
x
y
3
+ = from x=1 to x=3 is
rotated about the line y= -1. Find the surface area generated.

Sol.-

16

18
1823

) 1
9
1
(
2
3
) 1
3
1
( 12 ) 1 9 ( 8 ) 1 27 ( 16 ) 1 729 (
3
8
24

x 2
3
x
12
x 8 x 16 x
3
8
24

dx ) x 3 x 12 x 16 x 48 x 16 (
24

dx
x 16
) 1 x 4 (
x 12
3 x 12 x 4
2
dx
x 16
) 1 x 4 (
1 ) 1
x 4
1
3
x
( 2 S
x 4
1 x 4
x 4
1
x
dx
dy

x 4
1
3
x
y
3
1
2
2 3 6
3
1
3 2 2 5
4
2 4
3
1
4
4
2 4
3
1
3
2
4
2
2
3
=

+ + =

+ + =
+ + + + =
+ + +
=

+ + + =

= = + =

EX-19 Find the area of the surface generated by rotating the curve
1 t 0 , t y , t x
2

Sol.-

[ ] 1 5 5
6
2
3
) 1 t 4 (
4

dt 1 t 4 t 2 dt )
dt
dy
( )
dt
dx
( 2 S
1
dt
dy
t y and t 2
dt
dx
t x
1
0
2
1
0
2
t
t
2 2
2
2
3
b
a
=

+
=
+ = + =
= = = =

17
Problems 7

1) Find the area of the region bounded by the given curves and lines
for the following problems:-

1. The coordinate axes and the line a y x = +
2. The x-axis and the curve
x
e y = and the lines 1 x , 0 x = =
3. The curve 0 x y
2
= + and the line 2 x y + =
4. The curves
2
y x = and
2
y y 2 x =
5. The parabola
2
y y x = and the line 0 y x = +

)
3
4
. 5 ;
3
1
. 4 ;
2
9
. 3 ; 1 e . 2 ;
2
a
. 1 : (ans.
2

2) Write an equivalent double integral with order of integration
double integrals, and sketch the region.

) 3 e ; dy dx : (ans. dx dy . 1
2 x
e
1
2
lny
2
2
0
e
1

)
3
1
; dx dy : (ans. dy dx . 2
1
0
x
0
1
0
1
y
2

)
3
8
; dx dy y : (ans. dy dx y . 3
2
2
2
x 4
0
2
0
2y 4
2y 4
2
2
2

3) Find the volume of the tetrahedron bounded by the plane
1
c
z
b
y
a
x
= + + and the coordinate planes.

) abc
6
1
: (ans.

4) Find the volume bounded by the plane 0 z = laterally by the
elliptic cylinder 4 y 4 x
2 2
= + and above by the plane 2 x z + = .

) 4 : (ans.

18
5) Find the lengths of the following curves:-
)) 1 10 10 (
27
8
: (ans. (4,8) to (0,0) from x y 1.
2
3
=
)
6
53
: (ans. 3 x to 1 x from
4x
1
3
x
y 2.
3
= = + =

)
32
123
: (ans. 2 y to 1 y from
8y
1
4
y
x 3.
2
4
= = + =

)) 1 10 10 (
27
4
: (ans. 1 x to 0 x from 4x 1) (y 4.
3 2
= = = +

6) Find the distance traveled by the particle P(x,y) between t=o and
t=4 if the position at time t is given by:
2
3
) 1 t 2 (
3
1
y ;
2
t
x
2
+ = =
) 2 1 : (ans.

7) The position of a particle P(x,y) at time t is given by:
t
2
t
y ; 3) (2t
3
1
x
2
2
3
+ = + = . Find the distance it travel between t=0
and t=3.
)
2
21
: (ans.

8) Find the area of the surface generated by rotating about the x-axis
the arc of the curve 1) x and 0 x between x y
3
= = = .

)) 1 10 10 (
27
: (ans.

9) Find the area of the surface generated by rotating about the y-axis
the arc of the curve (2,4) and (0,0) between x y
2
= .

)) 1 17 17 (
6
: (ans.

10) Find the area of the surface generated by rotating about the y-
axis the curve 1 x 0 ;
2
1
2
x
y
2
+ = .
)) 1 2 2 (
3
2
: (ans.

11) The curve described by the particle P(x,y) t
2
t
y , 1 t x
2
+ = + =
from t=0 to t=4 is rotated about the y-axis. Find the surface area
that is generated.

)) 1 13 13 (
3
2 2
: (ans.