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Y. Miyamoto, M. Niino, and M. Koizumi (1980) The FGM concept can be applied to various material fields for structural and functional uses. In Japan, several five-year programs have been conducted over the past ten years in order to develop the architecture of FGMs, and also to develop these materials for high temperature applications (e.g., components for the hypersonic space plane) and for functional applications (e.g., thermoelectric and thermionic converters). These programs are discussed with respect to the construction of FGM architecture and the future of FGMs.

J. Rodel and A. Neubrand (1995) The concept of the program on gradient materials, which was started in the fall of 1995, will be outlined. The program is structured in four subgroups, coordinating work in powder metallurgy, melt processing, coatings and functional materials. Since it is scheduled to run for 6 years, the early emphasis will be on processing, with some support in modelling and characterisation. There is no constraint on any group or combination of materials, but metal/ceramic combinations feature most prominent in the current arrangement. The prime constraint on accepting research into the core program results from the requirement that the gradient needs to determine the relevant properties of the gradient material and needs to extend over most of the active part of the component.

B.V. Sankar (2001) An elasticity solution is obtained for a functionally graded beam subjected to transverse loads. The Youngs modulus of the beam is assumed to vary exponentially through the thickness, and the Poisson ratio is held constant. The exponential variation of the elastic stiffness coefficients allow an exact solution for the elasticity equations. A simple Euler Bernoulli type beam theory is also developed on the basis of the assumption that plane sections remain plane and normal to the beam axis. The stresses and displacements are found to depend on a single non-dimensional parameter for a given variation of Youngs modulus in the functionally graded direction. It is found that the beam theory is valid for long, slender beams

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with slowly varying transverse loading. Stress concentrations occur in short or thick beams. The stress concentrations are less than that in homogeneous beams when the softer side of the functionally graded beam is loaded. The reverse is true when the stiffer side is loaded.

Bhavani V. Sankar and Jerome T. Tzeng (2002) Thermo-elastic equilibrium equations for a functionally graded beam are solved in closed-form to obtain the axial stress distribution. The thermo-elastic constants of the beam and the temperature were assumed to vary exponentially through the thickness. The Poisson ratio was held constant. The exponential variation of the elastic constants and the temperature allow exact solution for the plane thermo-elasticity equations. A simple Euler Bernoulli-type beam theory is also developed based on the assumption that plane sections remain plane and normal to the beam axis. The stresses were calculated for cases for which the elastic constants vary in the same manner as the temperature and vice versa. The residual thermal stresses are greatly reduced, when the variation of thermoelastic constants are opposite to that of the temperature distribution. When both elastic constants and temperature increase through the thickness in the same direction, they cause a significant raise in thermal stresses. For the case of nearly uniform temperature along the length of the beam, beam theory is adequate in predicting thermal residual stresses.

Andrew Goupee (2003) Functionally graded materials are comprised of two or more material ingredients whose relative volume fractions and microstructure are engineered to have a continuous spatial variation. functionally graded materials permit tailoring of the material volume fractions to extract maximum benefit from their inhomogeneity. Such materials offer great potential for components which operate under severe thermal or mechanical loadings, such as spacecraft heat shields, plasma facings for fusion reactors, crucial jet fighter structures and engine components. However, the performance of a functionally graded component is not just a function of the properties and mass of its material constituents alone, but is directly related to the ability of the designer to utilize the materials in the most optimal fashion. Therefore, we propose a methodology for the two-dimensional simulation and optimization of material distribution of functionally graded materials undergoing thermomechanical processes or free vibration.

William G. Cooley (2005) Functionally Graded Materials (FGM) have continuous variation of material properties from one surface to another unlike a composite which has stepped (or discontinuous) material properties. The gradation of properties in an FGM reduces the thermal stresses, residual stresses, and stress concentrations found in traditional composites. An FGMs gradation in material properties allows the designer to tailor material response to meet design criteria. For example, the Space Shuttle utilizes ceramic tiles as thermal protection from heat generated during re-entry into the Earths atmosphere. However, these tiles are prone to cracking at the tile / superstructure interface due to differences in thermal expansion coefficients. An FGM made of ceramic and metal can provide the thermal protection and load carrying capability in one material thus eliminating the problem of cracked tiles found on the Space Shuttle.

Lu Chaofeng, Chen Weiqiu & Zhong Zheng (2006) Two-dimensional thermoelasticity analysis of functionally graded thick beams is presented using the state space method coupled with the technique of differential quadrature. Material properties vary continuously and smoothly through the beam thick-ness, leading to variable coefficients in the state equation derived from the elasticity equations. Approximate laminate model is employed to translate the state equation into the one with constant coefficients in each layer. To avoid numerical instability, joint coupling matrices are introduced according to the continuity conditions at interfaces in the approximate model. The differential quadrature procedure is applied to discretizing the beam in the axial direction to make easy the treatment of arbitrary end conditions. A sim-ply-supported beam with exponentially varying material properties is considered to vali-date the present method.

M. Mirzababaee, M. Tahani and S.M. Zebarjad (2006) propose the intention of the present study to developed a new beam theory for the analysis of functionally graded composite beams to overcome the shortcomings present in the existing beam theories. Within the displacement field of a first-order shear deformation theory and by using the Hamilton principle the governing equations of motion are obtained for both the new and the existing beam theories. The beams are assumed to have isotropic, two-constituent material distribution through the thickness. It is found that the procedure used is simple and straightforward and similar to the one used in the

development of shear deformation plate and shell theories. It is analytically showed that the new approach yields identical results as those obtained by using the existing first-order shear deformation theory. The new approach can be adopted in developing higher-order shear deformation and layerwise theories. It is believed that the new approach has advantage with respect to the existing beam theories especially for developing beam layerwise theories. The new shear deformation beam theory can be used to develop a new beam element for analysis of practical composite beam structures.

Victor Birman and Larry W. Byrd (2007) presents a review of the principal developments in functionally graded materials (FGMs) with an emphasis on the recent work published since 2000. Diverse areas relevant to various aspects of theory and applications of FGM are reflected in this paper. They include homogenization of particulate FGM, heat transfer issues, stress, stability and dynamic analyses, testing, manufacturing and design, applications, and fracture.

GH. Rahimi & AR. Davoodinik (2008) The intention of this study is the analysis of thermal behavior of functionally graded beam (FGB). The distribution of material properties is imitated exponential function. For thermal loading the steady state of heat conduction with exponentially and hyperbolic variations through the thickness of FGB, is considered. With comparing of thermal behavior of both isotropic beam and FGB, it is appeared that the quality of temperature distribution plays very important part in thermal resultant distribution of stresses and strains for FGB. So that, for detecting the particular thermal behavior of FGB, the function of heat distribution must be same as function of material properties distribution. In addition, In the case of exponential distribution of heat with no mechanical loads, in spite of the fact that the bending is accrued, the neutral surface does not come into existence.

Masoud Tahani and Seyed Mahdi Mirzababaee (2009) A layerwise theory is used to analyze analytically displacements and stresses in functionally graded composite plates in cylindrical bending subjected to thermomechanical loadings. The plates are assumed to have isotropic, twoconstituent material distribution through the thickness, and the modulus of elasticity of the plate is assumed to vary according to a power-law distribution in terms of the volume fractions of the

constituents. The non-linear straindisplacement relations in the von Krmn sense are used to study the effect of geometric non-linearity. The equilibrium equations are solved exactly and also by using a perturbation technique. Numerical results are presented to show the effect of the material distribution on the deflections and stresses.

H. Yaghoobi and A. Fereidoon (2010) Bending analysis of a functionally graded (FG) simply supported beam subjected to a uniformaly distributed load has been investigated. The material properties of the beam vary continuously in the thickness direction according to the power-law form. The neutral surface position for such FGM beams is determined. In this study, the effect of power law index on the deflection of the beam is examined. Numerical results indicate that position of neutral surface is very important in functionally graded materials.

G.H. Rahimi and A.R. Davoodinik (2010) Analytical and Adomian decomposition methods have been developed to determine the large deection of a functionally graded cantilever beam under inclined end loading by fully accounting for geometric nonlinearities, and by incorporating the physical properties of functionally graded materials, and have also been solved. The large deection problem will also be solved by using an FEA solver. Results obtained only due to end loading are validated using a developed analytical solution. The Adomian decomposition method yields polynomial expressions for the beam con_guration. The equilibrium equation of a functionally graded cantilever beam actuated through self-balanced moments has been derived and solved using the Adomian decomposition method and the FEA solver for which no closed form solution can be obtained.

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