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ANCIENT

HISTORY.

HISTORY

THE

PERSIANS.

ROLLIN,

AND

OTHER

AUTHENTIC

SOURCES,

BOTH

ANCIENT

AND

MODERN.

WITH

TWO

MAPS.

'*S" OF THE UHIVERSIT

THE

RELIGIOUS

TRACT
Instituted
1799. ROW,
THE AND

SOCIETY;

SOLD

AT

THE

DEPOSITORY,

56,

PATERNOSTER
BY

65,

ST.

PAUL'S

CHURCHYARD;

AND

BOOKSELLERS.

v^v

Vs.

42*f"

CONTENTS.

CHAPTER

I.

CHAPTER

III.

THE

PHYSICAL

HISTORY

OF

PERSIA.

HISTORY

OF

THE

POLITY

OF

PERSIA.

PAGE PAGE
i.

Western Central Eastern

Provinces Provinces
,

2 The 3 The 3 Seven State

Kingly

Power

25

IX. in.

Counsellors
Power of the

29 30

Provinces

The
4
".

Administrative
Government

Gedrosia

The 4 Revenue 5

Provinces
al

31 33 35 38 45 45 45

Carmania

of the

Khalif

Mamoun

Drangiana
Arachosia

The
5

Military
Priestly

Power

The
5 6

Power

Paropami8us

Artificers
Husbandmen

Hyrcania
Bactriana
Aria Parthia

7 Commerce
7 8 8 8 8 10
..

Persis Susiana Mountains Rivers Lakes


Climate

CHAPTER

IV.

11 11 12

THE

KINGDOM

OF

PERSIA.

Productions

PERSIAN

KINGS.

CHAPTER

II.

Cyrus
Cambyses,
or

.( Lohorasp

45 53 55

TOPOGRAPHICAL

HISTORY

OF

PERSIA.

Smerdis Darius

Magus Hystaspes,
or

Gushtasp

56 "3

Persepolis Pasagardae
Susa Aria

14
21 21

Xerxes
Artaxerxes Xerxes
n

Longimanu*

?4 77

23*
2' 24 24 24 24

"

Soj;diau*|~~.
"anus

Zarang
Maracanda Nisaea Zadracarta

n.....rJU"..... 1 Mnemorftt
OUiUS,
Ul

"

78 86
i

1L1S Arses

Parab

86

Hecatompylos

Darius

Codomannus,

or

Darab

il

87

CONTENTS.

PAGE

Sapor
Varanes

in.,

or

Schabour
Kerman

Ben

Schabour

108

CHAPTER

V.
Isdegertes,
Varanes

iv.,

or

Schah

108 Athim

or

Jezdegard
Baharam

al

108 Jur

v.,

or

Gour,
Ben

or

108

THE

KINGDOM

OF

PERSIA.

Varanes

vi.,

or

Jezdegerd

Baharam

109

Peroses,
SASSANIAN

or

Firouz
Balasch Ben Firouz

no

KINGS.

Valens,
PAGE

or

^
Artaxeres,
tfr

Cavades,
103

or

Cobad
,

Ardshir

Ben

Babek.

or

Babegan

Chosroes,
Hormisdas

or

Nouschirvan

\\2 Ben

Shabour, Hormouz,
Varanes

or

Sapor
or

104

ex.,
n.,
or

or

Hormouz
Parviz

Nouschirvan

115

Hormisdas

105

Chosroes

Chosru

ne

I.,

or

Baharam

106

Siroes, Ardesir, Hormisdas,

or

Shironieh

119 Ben Schirouieh

Varanes

n.,
in.,

or

Baharam

106

or

Ardeschir

119

Varanes

or

Baharam

in

106

or

Jezdegerd

Ben

Scheheriah

119

Narses, Misdates, Sapor

or

Narsi

106

or

Hormouz

106

ii.,

or

Schabour

Doulaktaf

107

brief

sketch

of

the

modern

history

of

Persia

122

Artaxerxes,

or

Ardschir..
................

108

Dynasties

of

the

Persians
w" "....^....

124

'TJHI

THE

HISTORY

THE

PERSIANS.

CHAPTER
THE PHYSICAL
HISTORY

I.
OF

PERSIA.

Persia, and by
is

called Arabic

in and

the

Old Persian

Testament

Paras, writers, Fars, or

Farsistan, is used

in two

it : first, significations

The invasion Jer. xxv. 25, 26 ; xlix. 34 39, the latter of which prophecies is very remarkable, and reads thus : " The word of the Lord that came to Jeremiah the prophet against Elam in the beginning
can

these accounts

and

conquest of Elam
"

be reconciled ? is noticed

"

applied to the country originallyinhabited by the Persians; and, secondly,to the various
Asiatic

of the

reign of Zedekiah
saith the Lord
I will break

king
;

of

Judah, saying,

Thus
"

of hosts

countries

included

in the

the

Persian

pire em-

Behold,
The chief

founded from the the Black and Herodotus called and and

by Cyrus, Caspian
Ocean.

which
to

empire

extended

of their Elam four

Mediterranean

Indus, and from


Persian Gulf
once

Seas

to the

And upon the From


And And will there

the bow of Elam, might. will I bring the four winds quarters of heaven, them be
no

scatter shall the

toward nation of Elam to seek be

all those

winds

the Indian

says, that the Persians Cephenes by the Greeks, but their

were

Whither
For I

outcasts
cause

shall not

come.

by

selves them-

will

Elam

dismayed before their


life :
;

heroes ; which is a proof of that national vanity in which dulge. to inpeople of different countries are prone The latter -word, probably,contains the
same

neighbours Artsei, or

enemies;
And before I will them that their

And
Even And Till And And The But That

my I will send I have I will set will

evil upon them, fierce anger, saith the Lord

bring

the

sword them

after
:

them,

consumed my the from

root

as

Arii, the

originalname
the followers

of

the

throne

in

Elam,
the Lord. saith

Medes, and

of the Arya, by which Brahminic religionare designated in Sanscrit. in Aria and Ariana, from The same root occurs latter of which the the modern Sacred Persian
name

destroy
and
come

thence saith

king

princes,
to

it shall I will the

pass

in the the

bring again

days, captivity of Elam,

latter

the

Lord."

Iran, seems

to be

derived.
"

Scripturesare is the Scripture generally agreed that Elam of Persia till the days of the prophet name
on

Commentators

Here," says
restoration.

modern is who

writer,* the dispersion


"

of the Elamites But when is their

foretold,and
are

their eventual ?" It is

these, outcasts, and


be dated
a

Daniel. effect.

for solution, but it is certain difficult and geographers, questiontoo that it does not refer to the Persians. This will or however, distinguishElam Elymais from be manifest upon a review of its confirmation by Susiana ; and it is Persia, and Media, and even the prophet Ezekiel. That prophet, enumerating difficultto reconcile this with their opinionwho the various nations conquered by Nebuchadnezzar, hold that Elam and Persia are the same, and as, the Egyptians with Pharaoh-Hophra, with the that wherever we meet, in Scripture, tude, or Apries, Meshech, Tubal, and all her multiPersia. Elam, it signifies Besides, from name with Edom her and the kings princes, Xenophon's account, before the time of Cyrus, princes of the north and the Sidonians, says of and Persia was an insignificant comparatively historians

Modern Ancient

historians

also

write

to

this

restoration

to

region, containingonly 120,000 thinlypopulated


men

Elam
"

:"

fit for

war,

which

would

not

make

the

There All

is

Elam,

and

all her

multitude

round

about

her

than half a million of persons. more population of Elam account The Scripture represents it as a powerful monarchy in ages before the empires of and Babylon had begun to rise. How Nineveh

grave, of them See the


"

slain,fallen by
Captivity Tract
of

the

sword, Jkws," published by

"

the

the

Religious

Society.
B

HISTORY

OF

THE

PERSIANS.

Which Which

are

gone

down

uncircumcised

into

the

nether

included the whole


Irac all the and
to
on

parts of the earth,


their terror in the land of the living; their shame with them that go Yet have they borne the to down pit. midst in of the bed the slain her a have set They about her graves round are With all her multitude : caused him: slain by the sword : All of them uncircumcised, Though their terror was caused in the land of the living, that go with them Yet have they borne their shame down He is
to the

south-west part of the

dern mo-

Ajemi, bounded
on

by

the

alluvial district Looristan

Susiana

the south, and


ranges, called

comprehending
the

mountain

Bactiari mountains, a tract almost unknown Europeans,and terminated by Fars or Persia the south-east. The terms Elymais and Ely-

pit:
of them that be slain." Ezek.

put

in the midst

do not occur in the writings of ancient historians till after the Macedonian conquest, when they are spoken of as an independent and
means,

xxxii. 24, 25.

ferocious nation, neither


nor Macedonians,

Now,

the former

of these nations

was

quered con-

distinctfrom

the

subjectto the Syroand altogether Parthians, Persians properly so termed.


the

Persia proper was bounded the north and on by the united forces of Nebuchadnezzar either a north-west by Media or Irak Ajemi; on the and Cyaxares. Elam, therefore,was of the Assyrianempire, and, therefore, south by the Persian Gulf; on the east by Carprovince it mania or Kerman or the prey of the conquerors, the west also became ; and on by Susiana or Khusistan. The extent of this country, acwas an cording independentkingdom, which fell before to became a Chardin's estimate, is as large as these conquerors, and province of France : this, however, forms but a small porMedia, in conformity to Jeremiah's prediction. tion
But with the passage in Ezekiel does
not

harmonize

of what

is

now

denominated

Persia.

This extent of country contained the tribes of Xenophon's account of the Persians before with that of Herodotus, the Persae, the days of Cyrus, nor and Pasagardae, Arteatae,Maraphii, who the represents Cambyses, the father of Cyrus, Maspians. Of these the Pasagardaewere ancient Persian noblest,and to the chief clan of which, called an though descended from the Achaemenidae, the royalfamilyof Persia beof the middle rank. longed. as inferior to a Mede family, Shushan the In addition to these tribes, Then again, Herodotus by Daniel the prophet, in the prothree agricultural and the river Ulai,are placed tribes,called the vince mentions palace, of Elam
; or,

in other

words, in'Susiana.
Elamites

And
are

in the Acts

of the

the Apostles,

nomadic

Panthialae, Derusiae, and Germanii; and four the Dai, Mardi, tribes,denominated

and Sangartii. The Persae and Pasagardae alongwith the Parthians,Medes, Dropici, ii.9,) inhabited the middle part,or what Strabo in Mesopotamia,(chap. the idea that they has happilydenominated Cava, or Hollow Persia, conveys It would, perto the vale of Istaker, dwelt to the west of the Medes. and the corresponding haps, of Shiraz. It is not known what be safer, to understand therefore, by Elam, celebrated plain which but the agricultural but the provinceof Elymais, not Persia, part the Arteatae inhabited, tribes probablyinhabited the quarter near south-east of Ecbaman Kerextended to the south and

mentioned

and the dwellers in a sense which

tana, as far

as

Susiana, or the whole

mountainous

or

Carmania;

the

others

were

mountain

region of
bienno,
or

Persia proper : the empireof Persia, was before stated, of far greater limits. How as was capital.Strabo makes in the following terly masMassabatica, Gabiana, and Cyrbiana provinces great it was will be seen of the Elymeans, and conjoins Elymais with geographical arrangement of the Western, of the empire, He also Middle, and Eastern provinces Susiana on the north and north-west. by Major Rennell,who compiled it from a curious joinedto Media, and was says that Elymais was In document, furnished by Herodotus. a very mountainous country, and that the Ely- original it will be discerned, the annual of This revenue robbers. also, means were description great this once of the modern with the mountaineers potent empire, an empire that was agrees world. of almost all the then known master nizes in the south of Media, and harmoLooristaun, with sacred history,which represents the Elamite, making a predaChedorlaomer tory L WESTERN PROVINCES.

south -western the Carbiana


was

Media, of which Corcalled of Strabo, now

tribes. Such

Khorremabad,

the

inroad, with

other

rulers,as

robbers, as

early as

era. According to patriarchal 1. The Ionians and Magnesians of Asia, inhabited by the Uxii, the Pliny, Elymais was iEolians,Carians, Lycians,Melyeans,* Hyi, Cossaei, and Pamphylians Mizaei, Parthusi,Mardi, Saitae,

S. Talents

the

Paraetaceni, and
here
but
are

Messabatae.
as

The

Cossaei

f400

These

represented
the

inhabiting part of

Media,

occupiedan
sea

miles of

sidered conancients,generally, they were the Gulf of Adramyttium, and the Troade, The Messabatae, as a peopleof Media. the north,round on by Cnidus to Cilicia on inhabited the district of Mesobatene, which also, the east.

of 450 geographical coast in Asia Minor, from


extent

by

is and

Greek which

meaning appellation,
tract

the

midland

2.

The

country, or

Media and between Susiana, derived from the Chaldee is probably

Mysians, Lydians, Alysonians,


. . .

Misa, or middle.
The
appear facts

respecting Elymais and


:

the

Elymeans

500 Cabalians, and Hygennians The greatnessof the tribute paidby this, the smallest of the twenty satrapies, the was

result of the
*

to be these

that

included together under tribe that gave being either the principal
to the tract
so or that they were called,

of tribes were number that denomination, as


name

gold and silver mines


Herodotus

of

Lydia,

These of whom

peoplewere

ans,

tively collec-

called Minyans, from t Reckoning


each

with the Milyprobably the same they were speaks. Sometimes Minos, king of Crete. See p. 4.

thus denominated, and

that it (Elymais)

talent at 193 J. 15*.

HISTORY

OF

THK

PERSIANS.

S. Talents

S. Talents.

and The

the

gold sands

of the

river

Pactolus.

The westward
to Mount

Armenia
to the

of

Herodotus

riches of Croesus were proverbial. the the east side of the Hellespont, Phrygians and the Thracians of Asia, the
3. On

Masius

and Maryandinians,* Paphlagonians,


or

ans Syri360 500

and

of the sources Ararat Mount

and Euphrates, in Mesopotamia,including the Euphrates northwards, eastwards. This vince, pro-

extended southward

Cappadocians
Cilicians four

4.

The

These
5.

provinces composed the whole

of Asia Minor.

isleof
on as

and the the SyrianPalestine, Phenicia, Cyprus ; from the cityof Posidaeum,

far as the frontiers of Cilicia and Syria, the Sirbonic Lake, Mount Casius and
on

in though mountainous, abounded mines of gold and silver, copper and iron, will account at Argana and Kebban, which for its high tribute. 13. [19.] The Moschi, Tibareni,Maand Mardians 300 crones, Mosynaeci, This satrapy is a narrow of land, strip
. .

between
350

the

Armenian Euxine

bordering Egypt on 6. Egypt, and the Africans,bordering 700 Egypt, as far as Cyrene and Barcae exclusive of the produce This tribute was of the lake Mceris,amounting of the fishery
.....
.

and

the

Sea.

mountains of Caucasus It abounds in

iron mines.
III. EASTERN

PROVINCES.

to

240

talents per annum, to the queen of

rus, for dress and

perquisite Persia,says Diodoperfumes; and also of 700


was

which

14. The Sangartians, Sarangaeans,(of the Thamanoeans, Utians, and Sigistan,) Mencians, (ofCarmania,)with the islands

of the Red the The

Sea,

or

Persian Gulf, to which


state

for the value of Egyptian corn, to talents, auxiliary supply 120,000 Persian and in garrison at Memphis, etc. troops, 7. per, AssyriaProBabylon,including [9.t] and This

king banished
intermediate whose

offenders the

600

country of Persia
were

per, proMas-

tribes principal
not

Arteatae,

Persae, Pasagardae,Maraphii,and
.1000
were pians,

Mesopotamia.

of the most extensive, as it was one of the empire. the richest of the provinces Before the time of Cyrus, it was equalto the reckoned, in pointof revenue,
was

taxes, but

compelledto pay any specific a regular onlypresented tuity. gra-

third

part of Asia. 8. Susa, and Susiana,or Chusistan Next to the Lydiansatrapy,this was
of the whole
;

300

smallest where

but

the it contained

15. [16.] The Chorasmians, Parthians, and Arians Sogdians, These tract occupied the mountainous between Hyrcania,Margiana,Asia, and the

300

of the empire, Susa, at that time the capital the


treasures king's
II. CENTRAL
were

desert of Chorasmia. The the 16. [7.] Sattagydians,

deposited.

Gandarii, of Margiana and Assarytee .170 Dadicae, far as Agios 360 17. [12.] The Bactrians, as
.

Or from
PROVINCES.

Balk

to Khilan

or

Ghilan.
ther, raCaspii, (or,

18.

[15.] The
Casians of

Sacae and
....

9. [10.] Ecbatana, the rest of Media, the and the Orthocorybantes Parycanii, Media Proper occupiesthe midland and the Caspian Sea and elevated tract between
. .

450

250 Kashgur) and long-haired [17.]The Paricanii, 400 of Asia Ethiopians 19.

These
other

were

the Oritae of Alexander the south-east

and

the Persian

Gulf.

It

was

then

the

central

Nearchus, and inhabited Haur, Makran, and

and from part of the great Persian empire, the climate,verdure, and richness of soil,
most

provincesin

angleof

Persia towards The


20.

India. 7740

the most

provinces. It is now sia, provinceof modern PerMount Zagros forming the common pahan, boundary between Persia and Turkey. Isthe present capital, is situate in the
beautiful of its
western

sum

total Indians.

The

north-east
10.

corner

of ancient Media.

[11.] The

and timithi,
11.

Caspians,Pausicae, PanDaritse,(including Hyrcania) 200


and Matieni,Saspirians,
200 eastern

[18.]The

inhabited the extensive These provincesof Kabul, Kandahar, and Scindia, west of the of coast Indus, and the Panjab,that rich stripe east of the Indus. They paid (600) 360 talents in gold ingots, in this respect, from differing, in whose the other satrapies, payments were

Alarodians
The
12.
* was

silver talents. Such


was

Saspirians occupiedthe

part
etc.

of Armenia. the Armenians, [13.]Pactyica,


people
lived
on

400

which Persia,

the extent of the is now no more.

empireof
It

ancient

spreadterror

These

the coast

of Bithynia, where
cules Herthen

said to be the Achcrusian through which cave, foam whose dragged Cerberus up to the light, producedaconite.
"

desolation in the nations around ; to, and worked have long since but those who wielded its power in the grave. mouldered in the Concerning the financial statement extract, foregoing
"

That The With

sacred

plain,where,

growlingdog

Against the grasp dropping foam


a

as the fable tells, of Pluto, strutrgling hard of mighty Hercules,

Dr.

Hales

remarks of the

after Herodotus

If the

standard

Babylonian

in which talent, standard

the tribute from

the first nineteen

the earth, impregnating


to

Produced t The
numbers

poison

destroy mankind." Dionysius Periegetes.


"

provinceswas

paid, be

included of Herodotus

in

the

brackets

were

the

numbers original

of the Euboic if the tribute from be 9880 silver talents. And the Indians, of 360 gold talents, be estimated at

reduced to the the amount will talent,

HISTORY

OF

THE

PERSIANS.

thirteen
amount

to

the

sum

it will the value of the silver, So that Euboic talents more. total of the tribute paid to Darius was times
4680

CARMANIA.

Carmania,
Persian
to

now

14,560 Euboic
This would number
amount
sum

talents."
of

part of
ArAttic talent
at
was

reckoning with talents,


or a

eastern Kerman, occupiesthe southPersia, extending along the

Gulf, from
island of borders this the in

Cape

Iask

to

buthnot,the Euboic
to

193/. 15s.,
very

place

the opposite

which 2,821,000/.,
so

ward Kishm, and thence northof the desert, of which the

moderate
were,

for
a

extensive minor

an

empire.There

adjacent southern

part

is considered

as

cluded in-

however,

few

these

and provinces did not reckon

both from tributes, which dotus Heroother nations, these might have probably is

is denominated This part of Kerman, or Carmania the Desert. the province is sandy, and impregnatedwith

province,and

which total 3,000 000/. sterling, made the sum stilla moderate sum compared with the revenues of modern states. This leads to a review into which of the several

intersected salt,being occasionally

ridges. The
more

remainder than from the


200 east tract

of this miles
to

by short tending province,exsouth shores


to
known, nearlyun-

from

divided, as other writers, and

provinces north, but less the country of Persia was anciently except mentioned by Strabo, Pliny, and the Gulf, and
as

west, is along the in

of

another

tract

the

interior,
part of
lies

marked

on

the best modern

between the
coast

indeed,at the present day, Geographers, maps. from the frequentchanges of the limits of the of modern Persia,preserve the ancient provinces

29" and 30 n. east of 57"

latitude.
e.

That

which longitude,

of the Gulf, is extremely entrance along the narrow mountainous,and the rocks approach division,though, in this respect, also, some The the sea, where they form a loftycoast. In our notice of these mountains are well watered, changeshave been introduced. valleys among information concerning and afford fine much these provinces, pasturage for the flocks. They the condition they are now in,will be blended of date and other contain also fine plantations with that in which they once were. fruit trees. the case This is more especially where
GEDROSIA.

the coast modern recede

runs

south of

and

the

towns

Sereek
two

and

north, between Mi nab, or


tains moun-

Minaw. the districtof Gedrosia,or Mekran, including extends from the eastern range of the the Oritse, it from Sinde that separate mountains Brahooick the frontiers of Laristaun, or, to Cape Iask on from the
to degree east longitude, sixty-eighth

Between
from

these the

the places, thus The


as a

shores,and
of Persia.

is termed formed, which, for its fertility,

plainis by the

natives the Paradise


then
run

mountains

a large miles from the sea, and above fifty receding gulf, the fifty-eighth then degree of the same, a space returningto it to the north of Bunder The plainthus formed jcontaining120,000 miles. In the eastern part Abassi, or Gombroon. this province does not exceed 100 miles,it being resembles the sandy tracts called Gurmsir,being from and separated between 62 and 66" e. longitude sterile, producing nothing except dates. the desert of Beloochistaun which That by the northern portionof the interior of Kerman from the Brahooick branch that projects tains mountravellers comprehas been visited by modern hends called Wushutee, and, in 28 n. latitude, the Nurmanshur, a district about ninety miles and from twenty to thirty also,Much, or the Palm, as that tree grows in miles in length, The northern there. mity extrewide, in which are extensive cultivated grounds great abundance be called a northern of the Kohistaun may Two and comparativelysmall sterile tracts. of this province, inland projection the | enclose this district on reachingto mountain ranges
3

northward, and form

it were

30"

n.

latitude.

This

northern

district has

the

south

and

the

north,the former

of which with

is of
snow

desert of Beloochistaun on the east,that of Kerthe west, and the sandy waste of Bunon uran This seems to be the poor on the south-west.

and considerable elevation,

covered

during the greater part


the Nurmanshur
a

and few

only sandy

siderable Gedrosia,but it is of conIt is of an oval form, and is extent in its greatest breadth. 155 miles longby eighty district of Bushkurd, to the The mountainous oval form, being east of Laristaun,is also of an in its greatest miles long by eighty-five 110

waste

in

desert, with

Between of the year. is of Kerman the town of moderate extent oases

a :

of itself there is a large tract about the town of the town, reachingto fertile country. West there are numerous the boundary of Farsistan,

rocky ridgeswith
surrounded the unknown harbour of with

much

difficult passes, but they are cultivated ground. In and the


ing connect-

There does not appear to be any rivers of note in Gedrosia: there are some torrents,deep and rapidin the rainyseason, but almost all dry breadth. in
summer.

Kerman country, between Gombroon, and on the road

placecalled

these two towns, there is said to be a large In the more cultivated Sultan-abad.

be divided into the coast several rivers, and. parts of Kerman there are ticularly parmay the former the Andanis, mentioned interior; tract, being a narrow by Pliny and of the varyingin breadth,and running the whole way Ptolemy. According to the accounts but never to Cape Iask, in a wavering direction, have mines of copper and its mountains ancients, Gedrosia the

recedingfurther inland than 100 miles. This as very barren. provinceis represented Ptolemy here a celebrated emporium, called, The places
"

iron.

Pomponius
did

Mela

of Carminia

not

sustain bear

said that the province the any cattle ; at of the finest wool

ducing present day,however, it is remarkable for pro-

which Arrian of Women," so says was called because it was first governed by a woman. He also mentions islands dependent two
on

Haven

sheepwhich
in the world.

some

Dependent on
famous island of

this

provinceis the small,but


lies at the
en-

this province, Astea and

Codane.

Orniuz, which

HISTORY

OF

THE

PERSIANS.

trance

of and

the

Persian
e.

Gulf,

near

27"

n.

tude, latiof

of reeds and and said

rushes, the country produces grass,


tamarisks. The
same

56" 30

longitude. The

form

grain,and

may

be

of the narrow and its appearance nearlycircular, valleythrough which the from the sea is broken Helmund and rugged. The whole flows. The rest of the country is now is a mere almost a desert, barren rock, without the slightest trace affording only foragefor camels, of vegetation.The surface exhibits the singular and here and there a well for the wandering stratification of the island ; and the conical shape Belochees, who tend these animals. For the and isolated position of the various small hills of most part, this country is surrounded by wide and which the island consists would convey dismal deserts, whence the idea every wind bringsclouds of a lightshifting that it owes The its origin to volcanic agency. sand, which destroys the hills along the eastern of the fields, shores of the island are and gradually fertility overwhelms the villages. From this cause, the once ation covered from their base upward with an incrustrich and of salt, which comprehended in some places transparent as ice. alluvial tract of Drangiana, In other places, surface double that of ancient a the surface is covered with a thin Susiana,is reduced small compass to a it may be layer of dusky red-coloured earth,which owes ; and its colour to the oxide of iron with which the entire surface of the island is impregnated. The the sea-shore is composed of the very sand on finest The of particles iron
no

this island is

asserted that in process of time the lake will be dried up, and the whole of Drangiana be merged in the growing desert. This and
was

pulverized by

the

waves.

which province,

was

denominated
Strabo
;

giana Dran-

island contains

remedy which,the

fresh water to springs, inhabitants use tanks to collect clouds.


was so

and by Ptolemy,Pliny,

Drangini,

of the Persian by Herodotus, in his account it was called NimSatrapies. Subsequently called Sigistan, a term derived rooze, and itis now grots, and lie in water. from the Sacse, the region of habitants to have served as a place of retreat to the inas Sacastana signifies who possessed it about the time when of the adjacent shores in times of invasionthe Sacse, civil commotion. At the present day, the Scythians or passed the Jaxares and the Oxus, and overthrew the Greek empireof Bactria, there is a fortress garrisoned about by 100 men, under 150 years B.C. the direction of the imam of Muskat, who farms the island from the king of Persia. His revenues ARACHOSIA. gaens, that sultry the inhabitants forced to live in it seems Anciently, only
were

the the rain water as it distils from Tavernier says that the air in summer

its inhabitants, Drangi, by Diodorus Siculus ; called Zarang, and its inhabitants Saran-

the position of this province, little Respecting The fortress is situated large quantities. is known, except that it layto the south of Canabout 300 yards from the shore,on a projecting dahan, and the valleyof the Urghundaub, and point of land, separated from the island by the fore, thereTurung, or Turnuk ; it is impossible, a moat. its physical to say what or were political in
DRANGIANA.

are

derived

from

the

which salt,

he exports

limits. this

The

accounts

of

ancient

writers

on

This
was one

in province, of the

the

days of
inland

richest

tracts

the researches of and subject, its prosperity, alike meagre, vain,and are geographers, in the
vast

modern factory. unsatis-

whole space,

Persian
surrounded the

empire, being a by mountains


those

hollow

and

hills;
The
"

PAROPAMISUS.

having on

of Arachosia ; on the and tracts of Sebzwar north, the mountains probably the Mons Bagous of Ptolemy in the
east
"

ancient Aria
now Gedrosia,

which covered

the south,a district of ancient the eastern part of Kerman, from it is parted by a chain of lofty mountains,
; on

Parapanisus, Paropamisus,Parapamisus, and Paropanisusof the ancients, is the Paropa8f the mountain nis of the Sanscrit ; signifying and or rills, compounded of Pahar, a hill, springs, The province took its Panir, or Pan, water.
name

from

these

mountains, by which

it

was

with

perpetual snow, by Ptolemy Montes

and

which

bounded. is denominated the of According to Ptolemy,the province extended the


east

Becii; on

pamisus ParoThe

In the west, it has the great desert of Kerman. of this alluvial hollow is the celebrated centre lake of Durrah, which is in the Persian books

from

Aria

or

Heraut, to

Indus, having Arachosia

to the south.

extended ancients, indeed, generally

Persia to the

sometimes called the


the inhabitants,
to
sea

sea

of

of Paropamisus, of Loukh, and by the Indus, and made the provinces cordingArachosia, and Gedrosia extend in a meridional Zoor, or Khanjek. Aclake is 150 miles in line the

this Elphinstone,

along the
was

western

bank

of that stream.

ropamisus Pa-

but Rennell and other geographers make circuit, it 100 miles long,and twenty broad. In its stands an insulated hill, called the Cohee centre tradition declares to have been Zoor, which a fort,and which, as it is steep and anciently and surrounded lofty, by a ditch of great depth,

bounded

north

east by the dominions writers relate, that when country in his celebrated

and on by Bactria, of the Mogul. Ancient Alexander passed this

is stilla
The

of the

placeof refugefor shores. opposite


breadth

some

ants of the inhabitfor

march, he found the tute destiand plain, the for most part open country from the of trees, and covered with snow, the Macedonians posed exwere reflection of which ing affectit grievously to great inconvenience,
their eyes;

edges of the lake of Durrah


choked
with

are

considerable The reeds. this kind of

rushes

shores, also,are

overgrown

and with

perishedfrom
those who
to rest.

of them, it is also said, many the excessive cold, which seized ventured to sit down walked slowly, or accords description of with the vated elein

dation, liable to inunvegetation ; and being they are full of miry placesand poolsof water. Immediately standing beyond these woods

This

upland
his map

Ghazna,

to

which

Rennell

conducts

the conqueror.

Elphinstone

HISTORY

OF

THE

PERSIANS.

" of all the men coronets illustriouswarriors, Ascending the valley ; and says of this climate, whose studded with gold; and noare from Candahar, the cold increases thing the Turnuk girdles minishes dibut a wilful perversity of mind, or corporeal at every stage, and the heat of the summer hinder a person from being cheercan ful in the same infirmity, proportion.Even at Keand happy in Mazanderan." falls often and lies long, lauti Ghiljee snow

Such were the delights the oriental poet held to hear as lat. 32" 30', out to his rulers in Mazanderan,in all the force The province of Hyrand Kelautee is in the lowest part of the valley of oriental exaggeration. cania Mazanderan In the high tract south of or was doubtless a delightful of the Turnuk. the cold appears to he as great as been some that valley, province ; but there appear to have At Kelaue Abdorr.drawbacks upon its loveliness. Strictly in any part of Afghanistaun. speaking, and lies four months the snow nated Hyrcaniacomprehended the small tract denomichem annually, which signifies, frozen,so as to hear all that time the rivers are Gurgan in ancient Persia, and the

Turnuk
Now

is often

frozen
in

so

man.

this

place is

n.

the land of wolves, from the superabundance at last reach we of a man. Ascending still higher, these animals. From this word D'Anville supthe level of Ghuznee, or Ghazna, which is generally poses the Greeks formed to have the coldest part of the plain the name mentioned of as The cold of states that on entering Hyrcania. Sir W. Ouseley country in the Caubul dominions. even Mazanderan, he was informed that he would is spoken of as excessive, Ghuznee by the inhabitants of the cold countries in its vicinity.find a babr, tiger ; a guraz, boar ; rubah,foxes ; the greatestpart of the winter, the people in the city seldom quit their houses ; and even has been known to lie deep the snow of Ghuznee tions time after the vernal equinox. Tradifor some For

shegkal, jackals ; and a gurg, or wolf. ly, Accordingthe very first thingthat he saw, on entering of Hyrcania, the carcase a village of a, large was half an hour bewolf,which had been shofjust fore his arrival, and which stroyed looked terrible in of the cityhaving been twice deprevail a ghastly horribly grin;" thus by falls of snow, in which all the people death, grinning buried." provingthe truth of the poet, that, every where were the pleasures of the chase may be enjoyed," if HYRCANIA. such may be termed pleasures. In ancient times, infested with panthersand tigers, was called Mazanderan, comprenow Hyrcania hends Hyrcania, fierce and cruel,as to give rise to a proverb of the low so and widest portion the largest fierce and unrelenting that they men, along the shores of the CaspianSea. It is concerning plain had sucked Hyrcanian tigers.The poet Virgil of the Persian fertile provinces of the most one Dido the plains refers to this in his iEneid. or Representing empire,whether the mountains Travellers passingthroughthe chiding iEneas, he puts into her mouth these considered. are words: forests of Mazanderan, pass through thickets rounded surare False as thou art, and more than false, of sweetbriar and honeysuckle ; and forsworn,
" " "

with
trees.

acacias, oaks, lindens,and


summits
of

nut chestare

Not But And

The with

the mountains and

from noble sprung hewn from harden'd

blood, nor
entrails

goddess born,
of
a

rock suck

! !"

crowned

cedars, cypresses,

various

rough Hyrcanian tigers gave

thee

that of pines. So beautiful is this district, species in the hyperbolical language of the orientals it is

Strabo,who extends Hyrcania as far north as the river Ochus, says from Aristobulus that

Hyrcaniawas a woody region, producing oaks the Land of the Terrestrial but not the pitch and pines, which abounded pine, that Paradise. Sir W. Ouseley relates, It has been mentioned in India. curious as a fired with ambition Kaikus, the Persian king,was that in Mazanderan used an axe circumstance, the fine a so to through
Belad-al-Irem, or, styled,
conquer influence of a powers
"

country, all his minstrel,who exhausted of its of music and poetry in the praise
:
"

for

cuttingis called
a name

tabr.

Now

the

Tapyri,or

Tabari, inhabited
this

beauties : his strains read thus


Let the

in Hyrcania, district and if be derived from an tabr, axe, it will

hatchet-men, or wood-cutters, a name signify deran, of Mazandelights to the inhabitants of a country very appropriate and may that country flourish duringall covered with forests like Hyrcania, and, though ever blow, and eternity ; for in its gardensroses ants inhabitcovered with hyacinths restricted by the Greeks to the western its mountains are even is equallyapplicable of that province, to in all the beauties and tulips.Its land abounds of nature ; itsclimate is salubrious and temperate, those of the eastern part. According to Sir W of the part in which the Tabari. the name Ouseley, too cold ; it is a regionof neither too warm nor or Tabaristan,signifies lived, namely,Tabristan, the in bowers, shady spring: there, perpetual the country of wood. and antelope ever sings ; there the fawn nightingale is a modern Mazanderan Accordingto Morier, the valleys wander among ; every incessantly ary Persian phrase, Within the boundsignifying, is embellished whole the throughout year, spot, limit of the mountain." This is confirmed or and perfumed with flowers ; the very brooks of who says, from Hamby Sir W. Ouseley, that country seem to be rivulets of rose water, zanderan that Madallah, an eminent Persian geographer, the does this exquisite so much delight fragrance was named Mawz-anderan, originally soul. During the winter months, as at all other "

king consider

the

"

seasons,

the

ground is enamelled,and
streams

the banks

or

of

flowers ; every

variegated Bab-al-abwab, (Derbend,)and many mountains of the chase pleasures kestan Turconnected with Alburz ; so that from are abound with money, ; all places may be enjoyed it forms a range extendingin to Hejas, fine stuffs for garments, and every other article or about 130 miles,more length 1000 farsangs, necessary for comfort or luxury. There all the some regardit as the attendants are lovelydamsels, wearing golden less ; and on this account murmuring
where the

smile

with

Coh-Alburz

Mawz. He within the mountain is an immense mountain

says,

The

to adjacent

HISTORY

OF

THE

PERSIANS.

The wide mountain of Kaf, (Caucasus.) Its western side, and contain large towns. valleys mountains liebetween the desert and the declivities the of Gurjestan, which connected with is called (Georgia,) and the the Coh

Lagzi,(Daghestan,)

that form Iran


a

lakaeim relates, that in the Coh Lagzi there are various races of people; so that dialects are about seventy different languages or Sur
a

the descent between the table-land of low sandy plains of Turan, possess considerable degreeof fertility. This is proved
to the

them ; and in that mountain are among it reaches wonderful when objects ; and many Shemshat and Malatiah,(Samosata Melitene,)it used

by the existence which are villages,


Turkomans settled in from the
a

of

and numerous populous frequently ravaged by the

Kala. At Antakia and Sakeliah, direction for more than 100 miles, it is called Lekam and Seleucia,) for the purpose ; there the country against it divides Sham the invasion of (Syria) from Room, (Asia of protecting Minor.) When itreaches between Hems (Emesa) the Turkomans ; but notwithstanding this, they

is called Kali

and Kurds. The latter people are very wide and fertilevalley, extending of Mushed town in a north-western

( Antioch

themselves frequently lay waste the most fertile The of Herat portionof Khorassan. vicinity with assafoetida, Its eastern called Arish. side, connected saffron, supplies pistachio nuts, mastic, called birzund, of Arran (Eastern Armenia) and a gum the mountains a yellowdye called manna, it reaches and seeds. it is called Keik, and when The wide and ispiruck, Aderbijan, carroway and Irak, fertile valleywhich from and Cadusians,) Mushed runs to Ghilan, (theGelae wards, northand

Demishk, (Damascus,)it is called Lebnan,


near

(Lebanon,) and

Mecca

and

Medina

it is

(Media,) it takes the


is called Mauz
;

name

when and

it reaches and when

of Terkel-diz-cuh ; it Kurnish and


was

and

which

is in the possession of the


some near

Mazanderan
named

Mazanderan originally
;

and contains Kurds,is also well cultivated, of Mushed, Westward places of note. is Nishapoor,
"

Mawz-enderan

Alburz

reaches

Khorassan, it is called Lurry." From


appears that Mazanderan within the mountain Mawz which watered The lies east the of Ghilan
rest

this it Nadiree, in a valley all the region is situated, to Frazer, from signifies according miles in length, and the Caspian Sea, fifty to sixty by twelve or fifteen in breadth, surrounded and the Kizil Ozan. by mountains so steep
is
rents, torsea.

fortress of Kelat the fortress of Nadir." This fortress

the

celebrated

Unlike

of

Persia, Mazanderan

that

assistance from little

art has rendered

them

mountain or rivers, by numerous all running from the mountains to the traveller

German
d.

Gmelin, who

visited this

rocks being scarped into the impassable ; the form of a giganticwall. A small river runs and the onlypoints this valley, of access through
are no

country a.
on miles,

the road
are

where the stream leaves it, and these 1771,says that in the space of eight occur Resht to Amot, 250 of fortified by towers and walls,which from form
to be seen,

such streams
so

broad exceedingly

across

is sometimes

of them being many and deep,that the passage for weeks impracticable

mean

barrier.

together. In this respect Mazanderan furnishes and barren shores a striking contrast to the waste
of southern
to

Aria

is the

modern the

without

Heraut, sometimes pronounced aspirate.This province

Persia, where
not
a a

for

many

hundred with

lay to
man,

miles there is

stream

to be met

deep
Hence and

enough

take

horse

above climate

the knee. of

the

the east of Parthia and the desert of Kernorth of Drangiana,to the south of of the Paropamisan western prolongation
to the

arises the

of Mazanderan. fertility

So mild

iange,

called
to

the

mountains
west

humid, indeed, is the


that it permits the the

Mazanderan,

Ptolemy,and

the

of the

of Saraphi by of pamisus. Paroprovince

and This province is sometimes called this latter name included fection Axiana, but whether perfour months of Aria is by no than the province earlier than in the West more means Indies. From the lack of art and care, however, geographers. The situation of agreed among this gift of nature is not turned to account to that of the modern by Aria corresponds Sejestan, the inhabitants of that province. and the southern Strabo part of Khorassan. calls this
BACTRIANA.

growth of the sugar cane, of good sugar, and that in production

provinceand Margiana,the
and

best in the

whole

country. They

are, he says, watered

by

The
what

province of
is
now

Bactriana
Eastern
to

comprehended

the rivers Arios is described the Peneios

Margos ; the former


as a

in breadth ; but and twenty-five miles in length, region north of it. According to the Persian this can only be understood as applyingto the it once or geographers, part of the province, comprehended the whole of principal probablythe northern far as the neighbourhood valleyof the river Arios, which tohave as seems Persia, of the Indus ; that is, In this nearly the whole of the been earlycelebrated for its fertility. and captain to the King of Afghanistan.At who plainHeraut is situated, Grant, country subject there in 1810, describes it as the present time, itseastern spent a month boundary lies near watered of Herat 62" east longitude the town by an ample stream, as covered with ; and even and as teeming with corn. ledge is subject to the Afghans, The rich villages, who, however, acknowhe says, " receives additional beauty that it belongs to Persia, and annually landscape," from the numerous and variety in token of this send a tombs, present to Teheran mosques, and other edificesby which it is embellished, of the desert and acknowledgment. In that portion the mountain which lies between Herat and Yezd, many oases slopes by which it is surrounded." The country of Aria is not mentioned by Hero^of which are of considerable extent, occur, some
"

rassan, Persia, or Khocountry beyond the Paropamisus. Khorassan, or "the rising sun," extends over a large part of the great and nearly the whole of the mountainous desert, called in addition the

by

Arrian

river

not

of which less than

of Thessalia, in the itself yet losing to the present Heriground,and which answers Strabo also remarks that Aria is about 160 Rud.

HISTORY

OF

THE

PERSIANS.

dotus,but he

enumerates

the Arii with

as others,

the sixteenth satrapy into which constituting Darius divided the Persian empire. See page 3.
PARTHIA.

the northern districts. That portion of the tableland which lies southward is less mountainous, and contains several salt lakes. For the most

wellprovince, thoughcontaining many is nearlya desert, districts, especially of It is difficultto define the boundaries Near the boundary line of the north. towards Khusistan is an extensive and highly-cultivated Parthia proper, as they differed at various times. In the days of Strabo, however, it extended plain. Ainsworth says of the plain of Shiraz. the west as far as Rhagse and the Tapuri, that it is chiefly formed of silt and mud, deposited on to the Caspianpasses, and included the districts by waters of inundation. (Khuar.) of Komisene (Kumis) and Choarene SUSIANA. the east it was bounded on According to Pliny, the north by bounded This provincewas on by the Arii, on the south by the Carmanii the west and Ariani,on the west by Chaldea, on the east by by the Pratitae Medi, Assyria, on and on the north by the Hyrcanii. In this latter Persia,and on the south by the Persian Gulf. the original Thus But with statement Ptolemy agrees. defined,Susiana nearly corresponds much the modern Parthia, as described by Herodotus, was Khuzistan, which comprehends the less than that described by Pliny and Ptolemy. southern of Kurdistan, part of the mountains than the It contained, indeed, nothing more of the Tigris and that part of the plain belonging mountainous tract that lay south of Chorasmia which to Persia, and is, therefore,naturally which and Margiana,east of Hyrcania, and north of is divided into two portions.The plain, wards Afterof Meschid and Naisabour. the districts in the possession of the wandering Arab, contains the district of Comisene, it included good pasturage in the northern and western which the Bedouin feeds his cattle. mentioned by Ptolemy,in which district Hecaon districts, is was of the district built,and which The southern and eastern portion tompylos,its capital, intersected by Damghan. Nasris a sandy desert, occasionally supposed to be the modern and only cultivated in some oddin-al-Tossi,and other Persian writers as extensive morasses, where cited by Golius in his notes on Al-Fargan, state, places on the banks of the rivers, rice, tains, that this is a vast plainencompassed by mounwheat, and barley are raised. There are also and watered of date trees. The mountainous by a multitude of brooks of some plantations issue from these clear salubrious water, which part of the country contains several plainsand called the waters which the valley of extensive mountains. These streams were valleys, among caused them that monarch of Khosru, because is forty miles long, and Ram Hormuz, which into the city, and miles in breadth,is distinguished from six to eight to be conveyed by aqueducts in any part of his other water drink no would and for its fertility picturesque beauty. All ghan orchards and the but they are In and plains are fertile, gardensof Damthese valleys empire. the higher Between cultivated. apples are produced,which, from their only partially and taste, there the level were and of mountains the size, placedon plain fragrance, beauty, ranges contains the tables of the Parthian sovereigns. is a hilly tract several miles wide, which writers that the ancient It is supposedby some fertile soil in the province the most ; only the Irak Ajemi. borders of the river,however, are vation. cultiunder Parthia corresponds to the modern Irak Ajemi corresponds But this is erroneous. The high mountain ranges in the eastern of Lurish to the ancient Media Magna, and is at present the part of Khuzistan are in the possession sively, western most which cultivate the ground very extenprovince of the Persian empire, tribes, of tobacco. excepted. It Aderbigan and Persian Armenia growinglargequantities is a largerprovincethan the ancient Parthia, of ancient other provinces two occupyingthe middle space between the Caspian There were Orosius says that the Sea and the Persian Gulf. Persia, namely, Curdistan and Schirwan ; but as that country generally the former corresponds Media of Scripture was to the ancient Assyria, cultivated called Parthia.
PERSIS.

part, this

and the latter to Media, the reader is referred to details. those histories for their geographical modern

This

which province,
"

is the

Fars

or

half of the Farsistan,comprehends almost one a low, hot,sandy Dushtistan,or stony district,"

MOUNTAINS.

There

is

no

country

more

mountainous

than

extendingalong the shores of the Persian that of Persia. From the one end of it to the strip of the omnipotence other, these stupendousmonuments Gulf, the northern portion of the mountain their summits toward Jehovah of the and point Faristan of and Kerman, hilly region of these have the skies. Some passed under to the lake plainwhich extends north-eastward of the several pronotice in the description of Bakhtegan and the greatdesert. Accordingto vinces refer the reader to the rest we the north bounded on ; for Ptolemy,it was anciently delineated. by Media, on the west by Susiana, and on the the map, whereon they are distinctly that to state sufficient It will be Phars. here, called south by the Persian many now Gulf,
The
more are

mountain
of Iran

land separate the tableranges, which from the Persian Gulf, are little

of them
as

are

situated on
to

the

and frontiers,

serve

natural ramparts
to

than thirty or fortymiles wide, but they Between exceedingly steeptowards the sea. and
are

it is very

and that this vast region, they may contribute in the probable make the

interior

country

wholesome, by
from of them
sive exces-

Kazerun Pirazun

Shiraz, the

Kotuls
;

Dokhter

and

under the valleys sheltering heat. neither

them

to be traversed
on

is situated considerable

though Kazerun several ridgesof this table-land, in elevation intervene, especially

for

At the

same

time, they are


many
nor

far from

being advantageous ; for springsof water

yield
but
a

metals,and

HISTORY

OF

THE

PERSIANS.

few This

are

shaded be

with

trees.

Besides,they make
difficult task. from branch of

idea

a travelling

most
seen

laborious and

may

by

the

following passage

of the great altitude of Persia. but there says that it is here 8000 feet, who think his estimate too geographers

Pottinger
are

other

low, and

add 2000 Journal,which refers to a Pottinger's more, making it 10,000 feet above the " the Brahooick mountains. Nor does this appear to be Being unprovided level of the sea. with a barometer," he says, " or other instrument for 500 feet of descent, at least, exaggeration, calculated to mark the perpendicular heightof should be allowed for each of the six passes, and the most elevated spot of the Brahooick is by far too low an estimate for the that number as Kelat, that I head.

mountains, it is only by a comparison of facts am prepared to offer my sentiments on this


be Althoughthe obliquity of vicinity
a

level of the desert. from Another Journal Pottinger's passage offers itself as stillmore illustrative of the mountainous

not

visible in

the immediate southward


we

amounting
at a journey
or

" features of Persia. After quitting capital, yet to the " in miles marked one north-west of seven Gurruck," he, places very says road laythrough a mountainous to steep denies and hills for a day's Kelat, our and the Kohunwat, barren country, and we ascended two time,(after lukhs, or ascending

that

found

of them the defiles, one particularly hazardous, rugged path not exceedingtwo feet wide,and, the left, on an abyss at least a quarter of a mile miles north of Kelat, the slope deep. Next Gurruck, seven day, we passed a miserable night from is undistinguishable. But in travelling from the cold,which was so intense, that, vided unprowith warm Gurruck to Nooshky north-west,we crossed six as we were or beds, it clothing ward to sleep unable was were lukhs,or passes, whose descent to the northimpossible ; and we lofty until nine the least attempt to move, to make was double,and, on one or two invariably the sunbeams occasions,fourfold the ascent on the southern o'clock,when began to operate, We face. The accumulated differences of these renovated then us. and, literally speaking, alone would be equalto a very great declension ; mounted, and by five o'clock had proceeded had got to the bottom of them, and yet after we thirty-one miles, the intermediate country bleak and barren than in sight of the great sandy desert, and came we more being,if possible, found ourselves elevated prodigiously above

southern pass from Luz to Kelat,passingby Khosdar and Soheraub,)until we reached Rodinjo, Hence miles south of Kelat. to twenty-five

its

that

to and a seventh lukh, or pass, remained surface, of which was be descended, the declivity rently appa-

had passed yesterday, and the path we equally winding. We had several lukhs, or

double then
at
we were

to
on an

that

of all the others.

Even

I conceive passes, to surmount, the last of which it would as seem, worthy of a minute detail, from have its been
on situation,

elevated

the foot of this last

plain, (when arrived of which, the waters pass,)

the

edge of
as an

the desert, to

intended

by

nature

able insurmount-

and is, barrier to these elevated regions, augmented by the rains or melted snows the most difficultdefile I wards beyond all comparison, mountains, escape toamongst the neighbouring in any country. It is separated the sea by various outlets in the province have ever seen the south-east side from of Mekran sive Kelat, or from the on (the ancient Gedrosia)with excesravine, velocity.The temperature of Kelat, also, other mountains, by a deep and narrow solid black rock, and the sides of which its amazing elevation. That are to prove serves Emerging from this part though nearlyperpendicular. city, and the neighbouring district, than five degreesand a half removed more by a rugged path,we ascended the south-west scarcely when from
zone,
are snow

the

summer

to subjected
even lies,

and has

face of the pass, from the top of which the desert the torrid or solstice, rigorouswinter, burst upon our view, extendingas far as the eye of a smooth in the vales, from the end of could reach,with the resemblance
a

most

the sand. on from the reflection of the sun of February. Snow till the beginning ocean, emotions of my fellow-traveller and myself to fall fifteen days successively The been known of the most enviable nature. in the month of March at this instant, at this place. Rice, and were, side of the that require On certain other vegetable descendingthe north-western productions warmth of climate, will not thrive here; and lukh, which cost us nearlyfive hours, it being

November

in the and barleydo not ripenso soon as British isles. From estimation a philosophical of all these concurrent it is inferible particulars, wheat that the mountains
extreme

eleven and

miles the bed

long,and

we extremelysteep,

tered en-

on

the of a river between level with their bases,which

mountains,
led
us

out

The last by innumerable mazes. is not inferior to that of some half mile of our route was through the bed of the ranges coveries disriver Kyser,which, thoughdeep and rapid esteemed the highestin Europe. Recent during, teach us to look to Asia as the seat of the rains, is often quite dry in the hot months of the most sublime and stupendous the face on May, June, and July. At this time, when we j piles from two to three feet deep,and it was crossed it, of the globe. Judging from the eye of the lukh. The the sandy desert, only shrubs we or pass, nearest and comparing six or seven yardsacross. its apparent altitude, saw and steepness, with scraggy bushes of the Farto-daywere some length, nesian mimosa, here called the babool tree, and of the ghauts, some or passes of India,of whose of tamarisk. One I should proascertained height I am apprised, nounce in the river great quantities crossed was which we its heightto be 5000 feet above the sandy of the mountains literally altitude of the Brahooick into the desert add to this one desert If we half for the other six passes between that spot and the city of the base of the Kelat, and grant the desert, as 500 feet above the whole, to be elevated of itself level of the 8000 feet."
sea, it will

studded

with

bulbous

that tulips,

were

to bud, beginning

roots, similar to those of grance, whose fra-

I was as assured, would, in another to a great distance. The month, be perceptible grass called

From

this the reader will

produce an aggregate of gatheran

by

grass, also abounds

the natives here, and

or kusheput,

desert

is collected

by

the

10

HISTORY

OF

THE

PERSIANS.

Brahooes,as winter food for their cattle. It grows with thick coarse bunches, or tufts, stalks, leaves long and serrated, and is very sweet and The camel-thorn,called by the Pernutritious. sians is also to be seen khare shootoor, here, but
in
not
so as in plentifully

purposes Aji and

These
them

Besides this river,the irrigation. Jaghatu demand a passingnotice. each running about one rivers, hundred
the of

of

miles,fall into the lake of Urumiyeh. Both


are

the

Ainsworth, speakingof features of the rocks in Persia, says

used in the irrigation of the extensively lower tracts." valleys through which they flow, and also the the generalgeological plain of Urumiyeh. There are rivers many
"

The

most

which

drain the mountains

of

Kurdistan,and its

remarkable feature in the rocks of Kurdistan Three of these, is, numerous the Diayalah, valleys. the invariable compactness and hard texture of which joins the Tigris below Bagdad, the Kerkthe limestone rocks ; but this only obtains in the hah, which falls into the Shat-el-Arab, and the mountain districts ; for, as the indurated limestone Karoon or Kuran, flowing into the same, run
of

Rum-Kalah,

on

becomes Euphrates,

between

two

and

four

hundred

miles.

"The

be conrivers," sidered says Ainsworth, "which may the westerlyranges of the Persian Apennines basin of as forming the hydrographical of Musul, soft, and Khusistan becomes, on the plain pliable, Ab-i-zal, the are, the Kerah, the Molredolent with the shells of Trachelopodous Kuran, the Jerahi, and the Indigan. These and Menomyairous, and Dimyairus Conchrivers, however, are, like most of the rivers of lusca, ifera." when Persia, insignificant compared with the but as pools or Tigris, Euphrates. They were of water, thinly the landscape." scattered over To to two is the Persia, it has been said, is subject remedy this defect,as necessity than counmother of invention,extraordinary more efforts were terbalance great inconveniences,which the excellence of its climate, in ancient times to irrigate and the made the lands by of its soil; artificialmeans. Wheels constructed as were so namely,the want of trees and fertility river in the is not a navigable There from such streams to draw water. as lay up the water the Tigrisand wide range of country between the fields : and an nearest, and conveyed it over contrivance was formed of connecting a well is a the Indus, and, in many ingenious parts,even and valuable possession.The table-land of called successive wells by subterranean conduits, rare khanats in Persia, and cauraizees in AffghanisIran,with the mountain ranges which surround the north and it on south, is very sparinglytan. Polybius says of such, as constructed in ground underMedia : There are rivulets and springs watered. The southern mountain ranges are too
"

soft chalk,with many

the limestone so fossils,

of

low to attract sufficient moisture to form streams, except in a few places. The perennial bare and northern mountains
;

but
can

no

one

except those that know

the

country
from there

give rise
but
as soon

to
as

great number

of water courses the small plain,

they enter
which

the

they is absorbed in irrigation, and only a pour down the desert,where they are reach few streams soil. It is quicklylost in the dry and thirsty and in the only in the table-land of Azerbigan, mountains of Kurdistan, that there is a good The rivers of Ghilan and Masupplyof water.
water

volume

of

find them." But the frequent lutions revohave Persia has been subjected, to which these useful contime to time demolished trivances of which these water courses, ; and
were

not

less than

trict 15,000 in the inner dis-

zanderan are The very limited in their courses. is the Sefi considerable river in Azerbigan most River, which is also known Rud, or White by of Kizil Ozien. This river name the Turkish

riseswithin the mountains of Kurdistan,south of the most mountainous 36" n. lat,and traverses district of Azerbigan ; running a circuitous east-north-eastfor about one hundred course, first ward. distance northmiles,and then about the same When 37" 30' n. lat,it breaks through near of Massula, chain of the mountains the western
and
turns to

in a state of compaare now Nishapoor, rative neglect. Zoroaster's precepts to plant useful trees," water and to to the dry convey nexed lands,"have long been unheeded, though he ansalvation to the pursuit. He," says this the of the Magian faith, "who founder sows a greater acquires ground with care and diligence stock of religious merit than he could gain by ten thousand prayers." This it was repeating the that inspiredthe ancient Persians, under to perform these greatworks, Sassanian dynasty, state of the result of which was a flourishing corded reand great national prosperity, as agriculture, Marcellinus,and by Curtius,Ammianus of
" " "

other

ancient writers.
the far different

But

the

Mohammedan
now

under which faith,

Persians

cates incullive, Under its

the

south-east

for

about

eighty

to principles

these.

the valley between miles, draining

the two ranges mountains. At the western of the Massula tremity exof the Elburz range, it is joinedby the in the drains the valleys river Shahrud, which

hammedans, the Persians, like other Moinfluence, withering satisfied with what good things are and care not to labour for posterity. they find, it has been said, a great as They look upon life, road, wherein men ought to be contented with western portionof the Eiburz mountains, and such thingsas fall in their way, hundred Reposing in about one miles. After flows onward carnal ease, they forgetthe duties of life : and with this river, the Kizil Ozien flows its junction that the flourishing state of agriculture miles in the narrow about thirty separating hence it is, valley the Elburz
on

the

mountains from the Massula the plain of east, and enters

ranges

Ghilan,

On it passes to the Caspian sea. the table-land of Azerbigan, the bed of the Kizil

throughwhich

existed in Persia is nowhere to which once be traced at the present day ; so much depends, of in temporal matters, upon the principles even the religion a nation professes. Chardin thinks, that if the Turks
were more

Ozien is generally many


a

hundred

and feet, be used

times some:

to

hence

thousand feet below the its streams nowhere can

adjacent country

would

soon

be if the

impoverishedthan
or

inhabit this country, it it is ;


Parsees
were

for the

whereas,

Armenians

to

HISTORY

OF

THE

PERSIANS.

become ancient The


water

its masters, it would

be these

restored

to

its

extreme

breadth.
two
so

The The

water, in the
shores this of

deepest

fertility.
manner courses

part, is four
which subterraneous be

fathoms, but the average

depth is
this lake

in
were

only

fathoms.

constructed, may

cerned shelve dis-

that gradually,

tained atdepth is rarely

in the following within two miles of the land. which account The water Elphinwhich is much salter than that of the ocean, are and its givesof those in Affghanistan, the same in Persia : The next conis such, that a vessel of 100 tons as trivance precisely specific gravity for obtaining is the is said not to draw burden than from three more water," he says, is called a cauraiz, cahA gale of wind, moreover, to four feet. sort of conduit which or raises It is known in Persia, the waves name rees. by the same only a few feet,and they subside but is there most called a kaunat, or the storm into a calm as soon has as frequently passed.
stone
" "

khanat.
water

It is thus made
issue

"

The

spot where

the

This lake receives many

streams, but it has

no

always at the foot of a outlet. be and the ground must there is another to a hill, Besides the lake of Urumiyeh, slope extending examined, to ascertain whether there are springs, of great note, namely, that of Bakhtegan. By the spot direction they lie. When and in what the lake of Bakhtegan is consome founded geographers,
must

is to

be

shallow well is sunk, and another is fixed, a very of

with
western

the salt lake of

Shiraz,whereas

the

greaterdepthis made
A and the connected
to

at

some

slope.
manner,

succession of wells

distance up the is made in this wells


are

of the Bakhtegan lake is full extremity miles north-east of the south-east extremity thirty-six of that of Shiraz. The is the reservoir of all the
streams

by

subterraneous

from

well

well.

The
connects

sage pasincrease in

lake of gan Bakhteof Hollow

depth as

ground ascends,but
which

so

managed,
a

the plain. Many springsare it is generally called Deria Niriz,or Lake of Niriz : by ancient geographers it was called the duringthis process, but the workman his lake of Bakhtegan, from a ruined village east of stopsthem up, that they may not interrupt until he has finished the last well, Kheir. Ebn Haukel operations, Among these says of it: is the lake of Bakhtegan. Into this flows the when he opens the springs, and the water rushes through the channel, rises in the wells to the river Kur, which is near Hhekan, or Khefan, and it reaches nearly to Zahek in Kirman heightof its source, and is poured out from the (Carmawhich conducts lowest into a water it nia.) The of this lake is twenty farextent course, the cauraiz,or conduit the fields. When the over ; and sangs, nearly eight miles, in length is completed, the wells are of no further use exof it is bitter, and on the borders are cept water wild beasts of various kinds, such as lions, to allow a man to descend to occasionally leopards., The clear out the channel. distance between and others ; and the region of this lake, or tigers, It is the wells varies from which belongs of Istakr, ten to the kuveh (district) yards to 100. Hamusuallyabout fifty. The dimensions of the (Persepolis,) comprisesseveral villages." than necessary to channel are generally Mastowfi dallah no more are says, that in its vicinity allow the water much of soil impregnated with salt; that its are to work, but some tracts cumference Subzewaur, lengthis twelve, its breadth seven, and its cirlarger. I have heard of one near in Persian Khorassan, throughwhich a horseman counts acfarsangs. These thirty-four The To the written about a. d. 950. were might ride with a lance over his shoulder. the length of number of wells,and, consequently, ancient writers the lake seems to have been unknown, the cauraiz,depend on of springs the number for it is neither mentioned by Strabo nor met continued, Curtius,nor others who mention the expedition with, as the chain is generally either tillwater is it spoken of by the Greek of Cyrus ; nor or enough has been obtained,or tillthe wells become convenient it is Roman so deep as to render it ingeographers. On this account of ancient counof the maps to proceed. I have heard of various marked tries on some from but I The same miles to thirty-six, unknown two to the ancients." as lengths, should suppose the usual length was the under be said of the lake of Shiraz,or, as it is may shortest of these measures. It may be supposed called by Hamdallah This Cazvini, Mahluiah. discovered
" "

that the passage towards

them, has

the vales of MorPersia,or those that irrigate clivity deAt the present day, gaub, Istaker,and Kurbal.

that the expanse of so laborious a structure must be great; but the rich are fond of laying out their money these means of bringingwaste on land into and and it is by cultivation,
no means common un-

latter

lake,it may

miles south-east

of

be added, extends to within six Shiraz,being from twenty to

twelve parasangs, miles long, and twenty-five miles in circumference. or nearlyforty-eight

amongst

for the poor to associate to make raiz, a cauit irrigates to divide the land which them. in all Cauraizees are common

the west of the the increase. on

country, and

their numbers

are

I know the east but of one on of the range of Solimaun, which is at Tuttore,in Damaun. all Persia,as They are in use over they have been in Toorkistaun ; but theyare now in neglected the latter

As might be expected, in so vast an extent of country as Persia,the climate is very varied : some indeed,are wintry cold,while others parts,
time of the parched with heat at the same The plain of Ghilan and Mazanderan to itself.This arises possesses a climate peculiar
are

year. from level

country,even

their

name

is not known

in India."
LAKES.

considerable of the lakes of Persia is more is that of Urumiyeh, or Shahee, which The
most

of water to the expanse north ; and that it is enclosed on the south by a The plain has a rainy high range of mountains. In the month and dry season. of September, which heavy galescommence, impel the clouds
;

the circumstances that it has a vast

that it is below

the

sea

than

and eighty miles long,

about

in twenty-six

the against

mountain

wall of

Elburz,and the rain

12

HISTORY

OF

THE

PERSIANS.

in torrents, descends The thunder-storms. of to the middle plain the

accompanied by appalling greater,which is supposed to occasion the superior rain continues in the of those districts, where fertility especially be promoted by irrigation. January,but on the slopes the vegetation can

into snow about The of the mountains it is converted lack of this moisture renders the central of November, and the quantity part of the table-land of Persia a desert, and beginning It is said to rise in many from this cause, the oases that falls is enormous. within the desert are from one to two fit for plantations fathoms, and to carry of fruit trees, than for more places houses and even the cultivation of grain.* The villages.In summer, ing away plainsurroundthe air is very Teheran, which is near the northern though rains are not so frequent, of

edge

moist, and
vapour and diseases. One this very

envelopedin the table- land,and plain is generally which engenderfevers and other Elburz fogs, range, was, is oppressive. November, covered The heat at this season
the remarkable feature in the in which climate
a

not

far from the foot of the Frazer when visited it in


snow was

with does

of hot

rier

was

there in weather

March, ice
not

and when stillto be cold


to

Moseen.

plain is, that sometimes wind southerly springsup,


temperature in
wood and
an

winter

The

mild

commence

other inflammable

instant to such a substances

changes the that degree,


are

when April,

the transition from

before heat is

dried
the

only a quarter of an hour, but, generally, twenty-four oppressive. It is followed by a galefrom the northeast, hours. The great dryness of the air in this part of which bringssnow and rain ; by the natives thunder Persia exempts it from quakes. earthand It is probably to it is called the Bagdad wind. In the spring,indeed, occasionally this air that Tavernier alludes, when he asserts showers of hail fall, but they do not appear to that the Persians stantly sometimes destroyedinare be common, of a severe The rainbow, or nature. that grand ethereal object, that by a hot burning south wind. But notwithstanding this climate is so extraordinary, Shoots up immense, and every hue unfolds, it producesa luxuriance of vegetation, In fair proportion,running from the red the tropics.The between met with even rarely To where the violet fades into the sky," shores the of the tracts Caspian along swampy Thomson, with saline abound and canes, which sea plants and for domestic purare because there are employed in building in Persia, not seen poses. is rarely Not far from the shores begin the forests, sufficient to form it. By night, ever, howvapours which cover the whole and extend there are the phenomena of rays of plain, seen to a considerable elevation up the slopes of the lowed lightshootingthrough the firmament, and folhills. These forests are surrounded The winds, by orchards, by apparent trains of smoke. of mulberry trees,and fields of rice. plantations swell into though frequently brisk, seldom The orchards tious produce figs, peaches,apricots,storms, but they are sometimes extremelyinfecplums, and cherries. The vine is the shores of the Gulf. pears, apples, on
"

from up, so as to render them liable to ignite smallest spark. Sometimes this wind lasts

At sunrise the sudden. thermometer very stands between 61" and 64",but at noon it rises to 75",and in the afternoon south-eastern a hot wind generallyblows, which renders the heat

also grows

cultivated wild.

hare, and
The

the

pomegranate

tree

peasantsof Ghilan

of principal occupations the raising of silk, and are low

the the Much pages


PRODUCTIONS.

cultivation of rice. The climate of the Persian and Gulf is

sandy tract alongthe for its great heat distinguished


this account it abounds eatable with

be gathered from the foregoing may of Persia : as, the productions concerning

aridity.On

however, many
is deemed far
as our

date trees,which only bear these circumstances concur.

fruitwhere
the
mer sum-

During

yet been mentioned, it the whole, as ferent information extends, under their difhave
not

desirable

to

enumerate

heat,it is extremely unhealthy. So oppressive is the heat, indeed,that the inhabitants generally

kinds. Trees. fruit trees of Persia and in many skill, for their excellent distinguished
"

The

are

only a
who do

retire to the adjacent mountains, leaving few poor creatures their effects, to watch
so

with considerable
are

managed they places


trade.

which fruit,

at the expense

of their health. of

furnishes These

no

mean are

article of

internal

In the interior of the table-land

Persia,the

fruits

pears, climate is hot in summer, and cold in winter. almonds, walnuts, mulberries, currants, cherries, In this part however, the air is dry,and the sky sive, extennuts. Vine plantations are and pistachio cloudless. This produces great purityof element, is only made but wine by the Christian which is the chief blessing the Persians Dates ripenonly in Gurmsir, and enjoy in this part of the country. They derive population. in the mountains of of the lower valleys some from thence a clear and florid complexion, and Forest trees do not occur, except on Kerman. excellent habit of body. In the summer, it an the northern declivity of the Elburz mountains. seldom rains; but the heat is mitigated by a The oak covers largetracts of the mountains of brisk

apricots, plums, peaches, apples, nectarines, quinces, figs, pomegranates,

wind, which blows during the night,so that the traveller may proceed on his journeyby the light of the glittering nience. stars without inconveIn the

winter, the air is


to

not

so

dry
snow

in

these parts. A considerable falls ; and yet not so much as fit for maintaining constant the mountain ranges the

of quantity render

the soil is much

vegetation.Near
snow

fall of

remarks, that the Persians are so sensible influence of the snow, that they examine fertilizing high it rises every year. This is done very curiouslyhow four leagues mountain by settinga stone on the top of a from and three feet high, over two Spauhawn, between rises it causes much which if the snow joy. The peasant to court, is event of such who first brings the news an rewarded for his pains by a considerable present.
*

Tavernier

of the

14

HISTORY

OF

THE

PERSIANS.

their abandonment worked. Chardin

Iron

is abundant

in Hyrcania, but especially places,

itas represents

in many it is not much not worth above

Into To Oh Saw

all lands.
see

From

thy beauty, and Sion ! An assembly


never, such
as

every clime they come to share thj joy, to see." COWPER.

such as earth heaven stoops down

weight,and he says, that it that if filings of it be cast is so full of sulphur, into the fire, they make a report like powder. the substance Too fierce a fire will also destroy Copper has been discovered in Azeraltogether. and other places bigan, ; but, like the iron,it is unless it is mingled with copper of little use sixpencea
from and the mines of other

hundred

CHAPTER
TOPOGRAPHICAL HISTORY

II.
OF
PERSIA.

Japan. Rock and large tracts

countries, as Sweden in Persia, salt is very abundant of the plain covered with are

In

the various
were

provincesof the
a

vast

there Persia,

great number

of

empire of important

it is said to salt incrustations. In some places be as firm and hard as fire stone, and to be used as such in Carmania Deserta,in the erection of
houses. of two There
one

citiesand towns ; but concerning many of them, has been handed no detailed information down to us by ancient writers. All,therefore, that can be done in these pages, is to notice those of which

any account, and any remains, have survived the wreck of ages, and which were of the greatest The with,black and white. ward, forrichest mine in Persia,however, is the torquoise.note. Among these stands pre-eminently
kinds is met
are

In

and Mazanderan, naphtha Hyrcania,

also two

kinds

of this precious stone

the

cityof
PEBSEPOLIS,

Khorassan, the other between and Parthia in Mount Phirous, which


in derived its name from
an

Hyrcania
mountain
of Persia. stood within

the province of Persis. which king The cityof Persepolis is mentioned by Greek preciousstone have, at a later date, been discovered,but they are by no after the era of Alexander, as the capital writers, the stone being less beautiful of Persia. The name, so means valuable, however, does not occur in colour, till at length in the writings and waning by degrees, of Herodotus, Ctesias, Xenophon, it is colourless. well acquainted with Marble, free stone, and slate or Nehemiah, who were in great quantities found about Hamadan. the other principal are citiesof the Persian empire, This marble is of four colours,white, or stamention of Susa, Babytuary, and who make lon, frequent

ancient

Other

mines

of this

black,red and black,and white and black.


The best is discovered about Taurus.

This is

almost as transparent as crystal is ; its colour white, mingled with a pale green, but it is so soft that
stone.

But this may be accounted and Ecbatana. the fact, that Persepolis never appears to have been a placeof residence for the Persian of kings, though it was regarded as the capital for

by

have doubted whether it is a their empire in the remotest some ages. In the neighbourhood of Hamadan, azure the There has been much respecting dispute is found, but it is not equalto that of Tartary, Persian name ental of Persepolis.According to oriand therefore is not held in repute. historians, it was Istakher,or Estekhar ; Such was and is Persia. that polis authors suppose Persemodern Anciently it possessed and many the of blessings
now

this lifein rich

abundance,
for

its inhabitants can in the rejoice But Persia has ever of nature. lacked the gifts richest blessing that can be bestowed on a country, and
even

of the

the common burial-places Pasagardse, kings of Persia, are only different names and that the latter word is the same place, and

that of the
an

Christian religion. For


led

many

Their translation of the former. the Greek there are to be correct: views do not seem

age

they
now

were

astray by the
under the But

and faith, arch


"

they bend

Magian yoke of the

strong
are

reasons,

that they indeed, for believing

differentplaces.
The

impostorMohammed.
The Which

of nature in this nether world, groans Heaven has heard for ages, have an end. Foretold by prophets, and by poets sung, Whose fire was kindled at the prophet's lamp, The time of rest, the promised sabbath comes."

Then
"

shall
dwellers in the vales and catch
on

situated in an extensive was cityof Persepolis the union of the Araxes plain,near (Bendemir) and Cyrus (Kur.) In the time of a magnifiat Persepolis cent Alexander, there was full of immense treasures, which had palace, the time of Cyrus. been accumulating from When of its history. Alexander, Littleis known polis however, subverted the Persian empire,Persefell
a

The Shout

the rocks

prey

to

the

maddened

rage

of the

to each other,and distant mountains From Till nation after nation, Earth See rolls the Salem

the mountain the taught the

tops flyingjoy, strain,

Instigated by a courtezan, he issued conqueror. from a banquet,and accompanied by a band of


other with many
as cruel and bacchanals, as

mad

as

himself,
like so Persian

round. rapturous hosanna the labour of a God ! built, Bright as a sun, the sacred cityshines. All kingdoms, and all princes of the earth Flock to that light; the glory of all lands Flows into her; unbounded is her joy, And endless her increase. are there, Thy rams Nebaioth, and the flocks of Kedar there. The looms of Ind, of Ormus, and the mines And Saba's spicy groves pay tribute there. in all her her Praise is walls, gates ; upon And in her streets, and in her spacious courts, Is heard salvation. Eastern Java, there,

flaming torches in their hands, of the furies, they firedthe palace

and monarch, after which his army plundered devastated the city. alone that reduced not Alexander But it was It existed, state. to its present mournful Persepolis in the days of but not in its pristine glory,

Ammianus
of

Marcellinus

and

in the Greek

nicle chro-

Kneels with
And And

the native Her

^Ethiopia spreads abroad


worships.

west ; the hand, report has travelled forth

of the furthest

tury, Tabri, who flourished in the ninth centhat Pars, or Persia,composed a it is said, each governed by a petty of districts, number in Istakher. The ruled king, one of whom

HISTORY

OF

THE

PERSIANS.

16
scene

chronicle gan
to

further

states,that Artaxerxes
career

Babe-

commenced death

his ambitious

by putting

Of sunk magnificence ! A blended Of moles, fanes,arches,domes, and

palaces,
sits." Warton.

the king of Istakher,after which he himself master rendered not only of Pars, but of Kirman, and finally became ruler of all Iran,
or

Where,

with

his brother

Horror,

Ruin

Those who
concur

have visited the ruins of


unanimous

Persepolis

Persia,by the defeat and

death

of Adavan.

in

one

verdict,that the city

The same authoritystates, that Shapoor n., he sent having recovered Nisibin,in Diyarbekr,

12,000 families from


deserted
an

Istakher
a.d.

to

reinhabit

the

city.

About

639, the Arabs

made

unsuccessful attempt on Istakher,and two than these venerable ruins. The present was years after the decisive battle of Nehavend inhabitants of the vale of Merdasht, the plain the result of which of fought, was, the future capture of Persepolis, Istakher. This battle, of their anor also, Persepolis, cestors, ignorant of the glories

represented by them, must have been the most seen on magnificent ever earth; and that the Persian empire, in all its glory,could not boast of any thing more grand, nor have left to wonderingposterity ing, astonishany thingmore

decided the fate of Persia, and the religion of Zoroaster. The blaze of the eternal fire was

deem the

them

the

work

Prseadamite

sultans,now
son

of demons, or of immured in the of the


eastern

extinguished by
crescent ;

and

the

successors

the superiorradiance of the wielded by the sceptre of empire, for more of Artaxerxes than four the hands the
no sun

rocky caverns
romance,

of the

mighty Caucasus, or
of

great Solomon, the

David, who, in

is said to have

had

all the demons

and

centuries, dropped from


while Yasdijerd, Sassan
went

of the unfortunate of

of the house

geniiunder his control. Unconscious that he is classic ground, the wandering Ihat on treading
the tenantless waste; and called up the spirit of mirth in the breast of monarchs, is exchanged for the howl of wild beasts. In the halls of a Xerxes, in the palace of Chosroes, the fox takes up his the music that
once

down another

to

rise

more.

Persepolis tends

his flock amid

underwent

Arabs, under the Ashari, defeated Shahreg,who


the of In which cityof Istakher,

vicissitude in 644, when the of Abu command Musa al

paid a
to

lost his life and contribution


a

200,000

silver dirhems

obtain

respite.abode, and
from the

the
towers

spiderweaves
of

her

and 648, the inhabitants of Istakher revolted,

Istakher the

web ; while screech owl

slew the Arabian in consequence Such of takes up its doleful note. is the nightly governor, which the khalif Othman Abdallah Ebm end of human sent greatness! Amer with troops from Basrah to Istakher, The plainwhere these awful representatives where the of Persepolis manded they encountered Persians,comstand,is one of the most extensive in Persia,and the finest in the east. by Mahek, son of Shahreg, who had According from the to Chardin, it extends by Abu Musa al Ashari eighteenleagues from dawn of day till the time of the meridian prayer." east to west, by a diversified breadth of from Mahek and the, of Istakher was taken miles. It iswatered fled, six,to twelve, and eighteen city It is by storm ; after which the citydeclined daily, by the Araxes, and many minor streams. that in 950 it was so the north by the western branch of not above a mile in length, bounded on and was in 982 by the Dilemite the Kur-aub ; on the south by the south branch finally destroyed It exists only,says princeSamsa'm Ad'doulah. of the Kur-aub the west by the Araxes, ; and on Hamdallah thus describing west oval figure. On the northOazvini,who wrote in 1339, under an the reduced form of a village. is the junctionof the Parwaub and the It has been well said, in deprecation of the where Araxes; and on the north-east is the point destruction of cities, which historylauds as the the Kur-aub diverges into the two branches been slain
"

work

of

of utility, surrounded with mountains, which give as much genius, and elegance, have been destroyed splendour, itcontained by natural grandeurto the vale, as the city the ruthless hands of sanguinary heroes, who could receive from industry and art ; nay, have left nothingbut ruins as the monuments for the works of of the Creator far surpass more, their prowess." The ruins of Persepolis respond those of the creature. to these sentiments, while at the same those of The principal ruins of Persepolis are time,in the ear of reason, they discourse of the mutais identified with the Takht-i-Jemschid, which bility of all things below the skies. the palaceset on fire by Alexander, and which The ruins of Persepolis, which rock of are rising usually stands at the base of the abruptly " called by the inhabitants, that meets the eye of Tchil-Minar," (the Istakher. The first object and sometimes "Hesa which is an artificial forty pillars,) Suture," the traveller is the platform, (thethousand columns,) are plainof a very irregular shape, but facingthe very grand. four cardinal points, like the bases of the Egyptian The pilesof fallen Persepolis pyramids. The dimensions of the three faces In deep arrangement hide the darksome these ; to the south 802 feet ; of the platform are plain.
Unbounded
waste
a

and

heroes, How of science,


"

many

monuments

rature which of 'lite-

bound

itstwo

sides

On

every

side itis

taste and

! the

mouldering obelisk,

the clouds. their vaulted halls disclose, Horrid with thorn, where lurks the' unpitying thief, "Whence flits the twilight-loving bat at eve, And the deaf adder wreaths her spottedtrain, The dwellings once of elegance and art ! Here amid whose temples rise, hallowed Here Parian domes

Here,

like

blasted oak, ascends

926 ; and to the west 1425 feet. The level of the building at this date is very uneven, which is occasioned by the increasing accumulation to the north

various

bounds, pine ; while throughthe naked street, merchants,springs the grass. Here columns, heap'don prostrate columns, torn From their firm base, increase the mouldering mass. Far as the sight can pierce, the spoils appear

ruins, and the soil, which, from falling collects over these successively causes, of the heaps. On the north-west,large masses
of

Spiresthe
Once

black

native rock hammers


and

show other

themselves

haunt

of tradeful

still

retainingmarks

brance, incumof the original instruments by which the


to

without

of higherportions

the rock had been cut down

16 the level. required the and in rock

HISTORY

OF

THE

PERSIANS.

Beyond

the face of the


vast

protrudes in

form, platabrupt cliffs;

half feet their necks

high : their heads are are carved beautifully

Round gone. collars of roses

the chest,back, and ribs,extends deeper cavitiesthe progress of a quarry is and over a short and curled, visible, the hair, partof the rock beinghalf hewn through, decoration resembling and in other placeslying in completed slabs, execution of which is exquisite. Their tions propor-

readyfor

removal.

This

would

indicate that the

are

admirable

all around them is ornamented chest and the been done could scarcely Its steep position be exceeded. of these animals full of pondrous are faces are formed of dark grey marble, cut into majesty; and the whole is combined with such in the attitudeand action that the sculpture huge square blocks, and exquisitely polished. spirit These are fitted to each other with such closeness seems to which it ready to walk from the mass
on

not considered complete. It was Structure was the work of ages, and every succeeding monarch added to its grandeur. What, however, had

grandeur which

; and there is a corresponding is in perfectaccordance to the

prodigiousscale
executed. The

which

broad

and

that precision,
must

when

firstcompleted, the
as

form plat-

is attached.

It is

supposed that

these

figured

have

appeared

part of the solid


the foundation

mountain for
a

levelled itself,

to become

animals were of the symbolical representations attribute of power, and that as such they were

is evidently palace. The heightof the platform lower than it once considerably was, owing to the masses of ruin and vegetative matter at its base. These have raised hillocks against all the sides,making rough slopes ; whereas Ker Porter they were perpendicular. originally says he measured

placed
Persia.
all emblem

as

symbols
This

at

the

gate of the kings of


for bull is

is very

; probable

Pagan mythology the

throughout the designated

of power, as the lion is the emblem of The bull was, indeed, a favourite in Egypt,Syria, and India ; and the lion divinity

royalty.

them, and that he found, at

and

bull,either singlyor

in

compound

forms,

the group of columns, the perpendicular are found connected with almost all the ancient Persian structures. The depth to be thirtyfeet ; but he adds, that were body of the bull is all the rubbish to be cleared away, an additional indicative of power, and his horn of force exerted animal of The depth of twenty feet would be discovered. by that instrument. Every symbolical south side does not exceed this kind which Sir Robert Ker Porter saw and to in twenty feet,

spot near

the feet.

north The

it varies

from

sixteen

to

platform embraces
broad; the second

three

twenty-six Persian architecture had but one that these animals terraces. conjectures
face, elevated,

horn
were

hence

he

thus

sented repre-

The

first and lowest embraces


183

the southern

originally.
little distant from the portalto the east, when Sir John Chardin visited Persepolis, d. (a. four columns; two of these 1674,)there were A

by
and

feet

third more elevated Along the of the lowest terrace there are masses of which apparently of a parapet now stone are fragments only remain, and the base of these is nearly wall ; and on the edge of the third,or highest buried by an accumulation of ruins. These columns of white marble, fluted, and exceedof a ingly are terrace, to the south,are decided remains beautiful as to their capitals and other ornaof palisades. ments. or strong stone railing, range

the

is more still.

edge

These cease at the top of the staircaseconnecting this with the lower terrace. At the top of this of steps, holes cut deeplyinto are two large flight the stone, which received the pivots of the gates that closedthis ingress. There is only one way by which this platformcan be ascended, and that is by a staircasesituated on itswestern side. A double flight of stairsrises very gentlynorth and south,the base of which is sixty-seven feet by twenty-two. On ascending these,there is an
of thirty-seven feet by irregular landing-place

Le round. the each

Brun

The

shaft

top,and it is
four inches

they are fourteen feet towards graduallynarrows varied by thirty-nine flutings,


says Le Brun makes their -four bases,to be fifty

wide.

exclusive height,
in which feet,

nearlyagrees. The surface of the top is smooth, without the slightest remains of any loose fragment; hence the latter united the four were traveller supposes that when
of some they sustained the plane or pedestal image. symbolical sculptured these columns feet from About twenty-four

of their Ker Porter

whence forty-four, springsa second flightof feet by twenty-two. stands another gateway, in all respects similar to steps covering fifty-nine Two the firstin proportion, staircases terminate on the corresponding except that it is eighteen instead of twenty-one. The inner feet in length, grand level of the platform, by a landing-place but the also sculptured, feet. So easy of ascent is sides of this portal are occupyingsixty-four this staircase, formation. of extraordinary and so grand is it likewise, are that six animals represented horsemen may ride abreast to the summit of the They have the body and legsof a bull ; from the the lofty but an enormous platform. On reachingthe platform, pairof wings project sides of a magnificent the back, and the eye of the meet shoulders,extendinghigh over portal traveller. The interior faces of the walls of covering the breast, whence they appear to this portal the entire chest is cased with their are as out into the forms of two spring, sculptured the colossal bulls. These animals look westward; feathers which compose plumage. The their heads, chests, and fore legs,occupying wings are exquisitely wrought. The heads of nearly the entire thickness of the wall in that the animals look east to the mountains, and in countenance. direction ; the rest of their bodies being left in exhibit the faces of men, severe relief. They stand on a pedestal A long curled beard adds to the majestyof their elevated five feet above the level of the platform. ConsiderThe ears like those of the bull, ably are appearance. rings with largependantearabove the backs of these animals are three and they are ornamented small compartments is a the head On scriptions. of an filledwith cunieform inelegantform. Each bull is twenty-two feet long cylindrical diadem, on both sides of which horns from its fore to itshind fourteen winding upwards from are and and a represented, clearly leg,

HISTORY

OF

THE

PERSIANS.

combats the whole the brows to the front of the crown, are therefore allegorical representations, Of the sculpture, by a coronet of lotos leaves, of which nothingis known. being surmounted of exquisitely Sir Robert Ker Porter says : The fire, carved roses. and bound by a fillet beauty, The hair is ranged over the forehead in the style and truth with which these quadrupeds are drawn, of the ancient Persian and the beard is will hardlyappear credible but to one who has kings, after the fashion of royalty also disposed whether in appeared on the spot ; for no artist, ; but Greece or Rome, could have been more the hair behind differs essentially all the from faithful The to the proportions of nature, or bas-reliefs in other parts of the ruins. shown more the top of animal nineteen feet from measures knowledge of the anatomy of their forms. But it must be observed that animal forms are given the crown to the hoof, and three compartments there with much of cuneiform inscriptions cut in the wall over are more nicetyin their limbs, his body. muscles, and actions,than when the sculptor to exist in form. This holds good in This is the only specimenknown attempts the human the antiquities of Egypt,Syria, and bestial form combined. Persia of the human and India." has been put On the inclined planes, learned speculation Hence much to the corresponding of the stairs, there is a line of dwarf figures, this subject. It is an forth to the world slope upon each of which answeringin number to the steps, enigma,however, which no one has yet solved unless the cuneiform for a figure. A similar to form a pedestal and which, appears satisfactorily ; the oppositeside. Both of the body could be deciphered, range characters cut over on appears these are thoughtto represent the Doryphores, remain unsolved. must ever or there is a capacious body guards of the great king. On the south of the portal, feet long, of stairs, Having ascended the second flight cistern, eighteen by sixteen feet broad. the traveller finds a triangular This was filled with water by subterraneous space formed by the slope of the steps,which is filled aqueducts,and it appears to have been hewn out up with the of the lion and the bull, occupying a combat To the south of this is the of the solid rock. of twenty-three feet. The space is divided magnificentterrace that supports the Hall of length which three rows on of mutilated Columns. This hall, peculiarly denominated are by a tablet, Palace of forty or ceedingly figures, Columns, is excoveringan expanse of sixty-eight Chehilminar, feet, magnificent.They are approached by and ending at the top of the stairsof the outward of figuresbegins row before approach. The upper a double staircase, projecting considerably the northern face of the terrace. The ascent, with a chariot drawn by two bulls ; then a from the plain, like that of the great entrance is second ; then a horse,with the feet of a man, on as its attendant side, containing onlythirty the opposite ; each flight ; then two other very gradual horses ; then five figures habited in short vests ; each four inches high,fourteen broad, and steps, front of the and then with a succession of forty-four whole sixteen feet long. The longThe robed the advanced second i s soon as row as landing-place commences spearmen. range, with sculptures. The place with a range of thirty -two figures, clothed alternately gained,is replete is divided in long and short robes, the former of under the landing-place immediately
"

there genuinePersian habit. After these figures, four standing five feet six inches high, are are with armed twenty-eightrobed Persians, figures, habited in long robes,with brogueslike buskins and bearing the same attitude, spears, each and holding each a short spear in on their feet, having a filletround his head, on which are the of leaves. traces Twelve an uprightposition.Their heads are covered sculptured cypress this bas-relief, and bow and and end near trees with fluteflat-topped the a complete quiver caps, stairs. The lowest row of figures is a line of hang from the left shoulder. On the rightare in every robed and tiara-capped three figures, towards these four, looking personages, to the number and quiverexcepted. of thirty-two.These are alternately respect similar,the bow arranged with their brethren in tunics, and followed by a Instead of these, shield on the they carry a large left arm, in the form of a Bcetian buckler. in the same train of twenty-one guards, The uniform This last row is more dress of these correspondsto the description those described. as perfect inasmuch than the upper which Herodotus gives of the Persians. it has been as He ones, small helmets on their stroyers, preservedfrom the hand of the Gothlike desays : The Persians wore heads,which they call teara; ; their bodies were by the heaps of ruin at itsbase. covered with tunics of different colours, The wing on the opposite side of this magnifihaving cent in imitation and adorned with plates of steel, sleeves, approachis like the one described,divided each subdivided into of the scales of fishes; their thighs into three lines of bas-relief, were called defended,and theycarried a kind of shield, compartments by a largecypress tree. These adorned with figures of men with are bas-reliefs a quiver. They had gerra, beneath which was colossal short spears, large bows, and arrows of made warriors, horses, chariots, offerings, the ibex, serpents, the reeds ; and on their right dromedaries,lions, side a daggersuspended bulls, from the belt." This dress is what they called gurkur, or wild ass, etc. ; on all which Ker Porter the Median, and it was Here, when comparing the introduced by Cyrus into remarks, of the structure, and colossal proportions Persia. The angular its space on each side of these with the delicacy, with representations gigantic sculptures, beauty, groups of spearmen are filled
" "

into three compartments, on which, except the To the left of it middle one, are inscriptions.

which

representsthe Median, and the latter the

of

combat

between

lion and

bulL

What

and I

of the perfection with the

execution of the ornaments,

this
were

represents is unknown; for the Persians not accustomed, like the Romans, to enjoy
combats
" "

might say
Here

poet,
the bosom of

the
arena

if such be enjoyments in an that purpose : these sculptured Like fitted for up

the loves

play on

Hercules.'" also

the former

this latter is bas-reliefs,


c

18

HISTORY

OF

THE

PERSIANS.

mallet

destroyed by time, combined with the destructive of his the works does man : thus destroy
man. no

these

brother
power their

Revenge, envy,

and

the

lust of

have

regard for
and

art and

mighty

beautiful works

industry ; and perishunder

is approached from the west pillars by a of stairs in ruins, which have been flight with decorated sculpturedguards and other is 170 feet by ninety -five. figures.This building double The and On
eastern

side is covered

with fallen remains


a

their evil influences. last bas-relief is supposed to represent feast of Nauor the feast at the vernal equinox, their annual the Persians presented roose, when This their

earth,so that it is impossible to discover

of corresponding flight

stairs in that quarter. the south, the entire face of the terrace supporting this buildingis occupiedwith another

whose is forty-eight of feet staircase, to the monarch, and the governors landing-place gratuities with their delegates, brought in by ten wide. Its front is divided by a tablet with provinces, cuneiform each side of which a on the annually collected tax from each, with a due inscription, stand spearmen of gigantic is Such a practice of other offerings. heights. North of proportion this is an open space of sixty-five which stillprevalent on in Persia at the feast of Nauroose. feet, narrow walls. The traveller now gains the platformitself. appear the foundations of some On each side of this, And here nothingcan sublime than the be more fortyfeet to the south,are view of itsruins ; so vast,magnificent, entrances mutilated, two lofty composed of four solid upright Within blocks of marble, nearly black. these tion is beautiful in desolaand silent. Every object each habited bas-reliefs of two guards, are from east to west, ! This pileis in length, portals about 308 feet, robe,and armed with a longspear. and from north to south 350 feet. in the Median the from On the verge of the landing-place The greater part of it is covered with broken of these long there is a portal ing. western of buildstaircase, shafts of pillars, and fragments capitals, there is shielded guards; and a littleonwards stood in four The distribution of the pillars feet of forty-eight and consisted of a centre divisions, phalanx of another leadinginto a room doors had formerly seven six deep every way, with an advanced body of square. This room remain. into it, but of these five only now twelve in two ranks, number and the same flanking leading These have all on their several sides duplicate the centre. and the One only is now standing, bas-reliefsof a royalpersonage, attended by two shattered bases of nine onlynow remain, but the of whom holds an umbrella. one nade of the others which ments Compartmen, places completedthe colonof inscriptions the heads of these of over are westward stillbe To the traced. may

these appear five of which


eastern

another double stillerect. are

range From

of

columns,
to the

groups.
same

To

the south is another each

division of the
minating ter-

hence

and feet, edifice, forty-eight by thirty


on

range of a similar number, is 268 feet. Four of these columns stillstanding, and the are are pedestalsof four more yet entire ; but the of ruin. On the lie buried under masses appearance of these three colonnades,Ker Porter writes: "I gazed at them with wonder and
rest

side, southward,

on

the landing-place,

of one tire enof square pillars by a couple pieceof marble, twenty-two feet high, and in covered in different ranges with inscriptions different languages, Cufic, Arabic, and Persic. The
traces

of

double

colonnade

are

visible

the alongthe open space, between the western face of delight. Besides the admiration which face of this and the western of their form, and the exquisite the greaterterrace general elegance from the Thus there three edifice. terraces I are of their was never excited, workmanship parts feet made sensible of the impressionof perfect level of the plain. A fourth lies ninety-six so south of the their summits a level on of that third, being perfectbeauty comprising symmetry, with each other. Three of the sides of the fourth also. The columns each sixty feet high,the are obscured terrace are circumference of their shaft sixteen feet, and in Along the by rubbish. -four feet. northern verge, however, rises the heads of a line to the tor forty lengthfrom the capital of figures, divisions : The shaft is finely fluted in fifty-two equal in size to those on the stairs of at its lower They are extremitybegin a cincture and a the terrace of the double chamber. of with the bow armed and quiver. A flight torus, the first two inches deep,the latter one ruined steps is found at the north-west on in the form foot ; whence devolves the pedestal angle, of the cup, and leaves of a lotos, tion. or lily. This which are the remains of fine bas-reliefdecoraThe plane of this terrace is a square of of eight ference rests on a plinth inches,and in circumof which the on and a half feet ; the whole, ninety-sixfeet,thirty-eight twenty-four from the cincture to the plinth, side are occupiedby the depth of the western being five feet ten which yet remain, approach. In this latter space there are the bases inches in height.The capitals, often columns, three feet three inches in diameter, are though much injured, yet suificient to show that they were each from surmounted by the demi-bull. and standingten feet equi-distant other. feet of this terrace, at its The heads of the bulls forming the capitals look Fifty-eight is surmounted south-west angle, to the various fronts of the terrace." by an additional the whole depth of which, from About feet from the eastern and western sixty square elevation, summit to base, is sixty-two feet. Along its colonnades stood the central phalanx of pillars, in number Five of these now thirty-six. only lower surface are the lower partsof twelve pillars diameter and distance from remain. each They are similar to those described, of the same colonnade. five feet of the height. other as in the neighbouring Beyond except that they want Their fluted shafts are thirty-five the terrace of the double pillars rises another and feet high ; but their capitals extensive elevation, with those of the great more the same a part of the are apparently the crowned and portal,where winged bull royalresidence itself. On the north of this is an heap of ruins,between which and the appears so conspicuous. This phalanx of pillars immense is supposed to have supporteda roof connected intervenes. a Ker terrace spacious open area with the colonnades. The nearest buildingto Porter imaginesthat this mound is the ruins of

HISTORY

OF

THE

PERSIANS.

19

the

banqueting house,
forth with his

from

which

Alexander
to

with his

issued
most

drunken

companions

desolate

the palace. The fifth terrace is the conspicuouson the whole platform, being

the regal tiara, carries a long thin staff in hand, and in his left a lily. The broad right belt and Median robe complete his attire. One of his attendants holds in both hands his head, while the other waves over in the what
an a

umbrella

at this date

twenty feet above its level

it is also

fly-chaser

the

ruinous of the whole building. The most several faces of the building, indeed, are now marked by their foundations alone,one window to the west and three to the east excepted. These
faces open
outer
ones

from

two

subdivided into three


of which

wings,each corresponding spacious apartments, the


communicate

same direction, graspingin his left hand the royalhandkerchief. probably signifies These attendants are clad in the longrobe. The is sculptured marble on a stone sixteen group feet high and nine wide,which is surmounted by a a

block

of smaller

dimensions,also adorned

with

with several

pillared quadrangles. In the centre of these quadrangles stands the plinthof four small columns, each having a diameter of two feet and
a

sculpturedfigureresembling the personage below. This figure issues from a circle, whence forms, resembling diverge two strange floating
with their heads serpents, concealed

behind

the

figure. A pairof largewings spreadthemselves A door each side of the circle. On the portals into a noble hall of ninetyfeet square. on are side corresponds with this, of the same and the opposite on duplicates royal personage. This is seated on a chair of state,with his staff both lead into quadrangles, similarly figure open, of four Another leads to the south,and a and lily. An attendant stands before him, waving portal pillars. his head. fourth and fifthto the north,into a large The aerial form, vestibule, the fly-chaser over which is supported before described, hovers over In this quadthe whole width of the hall, him. rangle four portals face each In the Two doors lead from other. by eightsimilar columns. south and west, into six smaller this vestibule, the plinths of four columns centre of these portals, of which are formed of four the windows stillremaining, each ten feet distant from are rooms, This building is large slabs of marble, six feet thick,equivalent other, and four in diameter. On the inner faces of to the depth of the walls. supposed to have been the private oratory of the the windows that admit light there intothe rooms adorations to king,where he offered up his daily Ormuzd. It is also conjectured Mezdan that are bas-reliefs, or duplicate occupying the whole of two figures each. The these four pillars and consisting between stood an altar containing surface, windows of another room the sacred fire, the symbol of which was are ornamented with three bas-reliefs of figures, each other, divinity the ancient Persians. It is a following among their and each one that in this building there are no fact, inward,as if directing facing singular of of guards round the various representations spot. On the remnants steps to the same in another apartment are found similar effigies of the monarch him. windows to protect Perhaps with their heads Ormuzd bas-reliefsof three figures, considered a sufficient protector. some was
a

half,and sixteen feet from

door which

leads

covered, and
carry

some

uncovered.

All

of

these

On

the south-east

of this edifice of the four

something in their hands, as dishes, or bowls, as though they representedservants : two

is another ruined pile. A quadrangular pillars, edifice of forty-eight feet,and another of thirty of them are in the Median dress, with their faces feet, separatedfrom it by a wall,constitutes the The uncovered. door-frames chief glory of this pile. These two apartments, have all one scription deof bas-relief, that of a royalpersonage, indeed, apparently complete the whole edifice ; followed by two attendants bearingan umbrella but there is a continuation of foundation walls, and a fly-chaser.Over these bas-reliefs are with the fragmentsof columns, architraves, and three small compartments of cuneiform inscripa roof. supporting tions. other architectural adjuncts,
At remains
near

the sides of the

open

court

are

the and

At the extremities
two

of the

wall, southward,

are

of itsonce

magnificent approaches ;

stones, each

eighteenfeet high, and

from

to

Two ways doorthree and a half to five feet wide. that,eastward,rise from a hollow beneath the pavement, four enormous have bas-reliefs of the double guard on supports, resembling rough formed pedestals,their sides,and another portalopens from the and which was intended to uphold some closed body of middle of the southern apartment into the enimmense weight. Opposite is a flight of steps, quadrangle.In the passage is the walking of a double ascent, beginning from beneath wardly. inof a monarch, with his usual attendant; figure which These steps are greatly and the entrances decayed,and open into it from the bas-reliefs of guards, with ornamented of the with the combats east and west are duplicates combats between the bull and the lion, while those opening into it larly simiof a lion and a man, are
a

level with

circumstanced.

To

the

north

of these

from the north

are

decorated with

representations

about sixty several colossal masses of spearmen. feet, are steps, of stone, formerly the sides of gateways, leading North of this edifice there is another,next in into a square edifice of about ninety-six feet, extent to the Chehilminar,being a square of ^10 which is small in
to proportion

the number

and

feet each face.

Doors

enter

with its eastern and western gles anNearly parallel colossal bulls, immense two on twelve feet high. are standing figures These are representations of the monarch and pedestals. These bulls face the north: two The his attendants. is others, at some distance from them, look due visage of the monarch but the air of his person These is very latter appear to have formed the south. mutilated, majestic. A venerable beard is nicely disposed sides of a magnificent gateway. The sides of and there is a mass doors of this quadrangle of hair curled the principal are richly upon his breast, his neck. He is covered adorned with sculpture.The most covering conspicuously conspicuous toward the east, are three

size of its entrances. Three of these doorways are yet entire. On the interior face of the door

are hand, but the grand portals

into this on the on

every north.

20

HISTORY

OF

THE

PERSIANS.

his chair of seated on is that of the monarch This footstool. feet with both on a resting state, sia) chair (or,in other words, the state chair of Per-

legsof
with chain and animal
a

wolf,the fore legsand body of a lion, the hinder an and the neck scaled or feathered eagle,
mane. prickly

It has

ing longwings stretchare

horn projects from the head of this animal, which is grasped head bas-relief ornaments are Over the monarch's by the is represented stabbinghim. of a canopy The supportedby pillars, fusely hero, who proother opponents of the pontiff with fretwork decorated fringes,and king are those of horned and a unicorn-bull : all of these a lion, borders of lions and bulls. On the legs of the

high backed and carved chairs in form, only it was of our ancestors gorgeously with a carpet, and so inlaid with gold,covered always placed at its feet. high that a stool was
resembles the

which nearly to its tail, of bones


cut

formed

of

like the vertebrae of the


the A
most correct

back
oi

with

knowledge

anatomy.

crooked

chair are
of
a

the
are

feet sculptured found stands second

of

and those lion, footstool.

must

be

looked

upon

as

in the

highestdegree
of legends

bull

in the feet of the

emblematical.
It is

Behind the

the monarch
; a

his face muffled

with the fan-bearer, tunicked person bears


axe

supposed that

the

monstrous

royal bow
in the

and

battle

and

Persian romance in these strange originated and bestial forms,and third, combinations of human
the legends of especially their great poet, Fera logy great ana-

dressed

Median

habit, stands

behind,

holdinga long wand


of the throne
are

between these latter sculptures and his connecting fictions he leads chains to their covers. his hero, Isfendeear, These ; for probably were enchanted filled with perfumes. A muffled attendant apthrough seven gates, the first of proaches which was defended from without the pillared frame, bringby two wolves ; the second ing by two lions ; the third by a dragon ; the fourth a small metal-like pail, as though itcontained aromatics for the supplyof the vessels. Behind by a demon devourer of the dead ; the fifthby a the censers, and facingthe monarch, there is a griffin ; the sixth by a cataract ; and the seventh tunicked personage with a plain bonnet,having in by a lake and boundless mountains ; all of which To such strange purposes his left hand a short rod, and holding his right his hero overcomes. can man hand to his mouth ing that gift of Heaven, to prevent his breath exhalperverthis intellect, which is given to him to assist him in his jourhe bends as towards the monarch, to whom ney and to glorify his Creator ! he addresses himself. through life, Beyond the royal group, Besides these magnificent remains of this truly and divided from it by a horizontal border, wonderful Sir Robert Ker Porter found decked with roses, there are five ranges of attendants, platform, several other splendid ruins at a placecalled the in a containing figures, fifty sculptured of Jemschid. Harem These consisted chiefly of dress. military columns, highly ornaprostrate grey marble mented Beyond the northern front of the edificeabove and fluted, remains of massy walls,and there are two portals east and described, pointing south. This These portals decorated with sculpare tured the marble work of several door-frames. harem stands about five miles north-east of Perdouble guards, about twelve feet high. The and no doubt it was inches of faces of these figures once a sepolis, are two feet seven portion of a beautiful colour,and exquisite manship. this far-famed city. worklong, Of tombs and sepulchral Their chambers hewn out are supposed to be spears face of rocks,there are sefeet in length. Around and between of the perpendicular veral nearlyeighteen these portals there are numerous specimensat Nakshi Roostam, or portrait ments frag-

in both hands. with two vessels,

At the foot

doosi.

There

seems,

indeed, to be

These excavations of columns, architraves, low, are and other ruins, of Roostam. very shaland consist chiefly of an architectural frontispiece which indicate that formerly there was a covered adorned with sculpture or colonnade in these parts. Sculptures portico, met richly are Four of these tombs are and other decorations. with here similar to those found on the doors on coeval with the building of the palace, the north. On the compartments is another view evidently of the monarch, attended onlyby his fly-chaser.and are those of the monarchs at Perseresiding lower The canopy his head consists of fretted are over polis down, are ; the others,which These are of the most exquisite rings, roses, etc., sculpture.those of the Sassanian monarchs. with equestrian of the Sassanian Lions, the serpent-wingedemblem, and the figures sculptured filltwo rows, while the ferwar, or Sir monarchs, with Pehlivi inscriptions. unicorn-bull, William aerial figure, the whole, exhibiting Ouseleysupposes a small square edifice, surmounts a rock of Nakshi Roosto the sculptured fac-simile of the symbol below. tam, opposite The four portalsof the quadrangle to have contained the body of Cyrus ; and rated decoare its appearance is conformable to the idea given with sculptured combats between a human of it by Strabo,who it was the denominated a tower figure, says, that usually pontiff king, and an animal form. not large, entrance." ArThe firstbas-relief is in having a very narrow rian also says of it, that of the doorways in the western situate in the it was one face of the The hero is clad in long robes,having royalgarden,amid trees and running streams." building. This tomb, however, does not his arms bare. In his left hand he grasps appear to be for there are the strong singlehorn of the animal, which is clearly of a identified, traces no the spot; the name itsforehead, on while he thrusts his poniard of Cyrus,moreover, into garden near its body with his right does not appear upon the inscription, and hand. The animal has the head and neck of an eagle, St. Martin and is covered supposes that it rather refers to Arwith immense Ochus. taxerxes plumage half way down itsback.
" "

Though wounded,
with rampant

it seems

to oppose

its adversary of

Such

is the state with

of the
!

once

violence.
an

The

itsruins : such corresponding Persepolis


a

of mighty city timony, They add their tes-

sculpture presents

animal

with the head

the many

ancient cities now

buried

22

HISTORY

OF

THE

PERSIANS.

were are no

employed
rivers

in its erection. Shuster the

Besides,there

authors

near

correspondingto

the and

Choaspesand
the

him through Benjamin of Tudela, Hawto Ebu ruins of kel,who travelled in the tenth century." The Hawkel's work thus : " In Sus, may be fairly runs presumed to be those ancient passage in Ebn of the ruins of Sus, the city of Sus there is a river, streams. and I have heard Kinneir, speaking " its long mounded On indeed that in the time of Abou Mousa al Ashari, a tract, we says : find the remains of the once coffin was favourite capital found there, of and it is said the bones of rodotusDaniel the prophet(towhom be peace !)were in Cyrus ; that we see the classic Choaspes of Hein the Kerah, the waters that coffin. These of which were the peopleheld in great veneration,

which Ab-i-zal,

while the Kerah Eulseus, flow,the former to the


east

oriental works, mostly geographical, pursued the tradition to Hamdalla Cazvini, of the fourteenth century, and from

of some I have

west, and

the latter to the

of the

sacred still more

to

the

lip of majesty alone

river,the Ab-i-zal,we neighbouring


hallowed
'

and in its find the the phetic proat

and

in

time

of

distress

of

famine

Eulseus,or Ulai,which
as

describe Scriptures vision : Shushan


of Elam in the
;

And
in

the scene it came

of Daniel's
to pass, I
was

through drought,they brought them out and prayed for rain. Abou Mousa al Ashari ordered this coffin to be brought, and three coverings or
lids to be which was made of for it ; the first
or

outside

of

which palace,
saw a

is in the

and I

and vision,
"

province I was by the

river of

Dan. viii. 2." Ulai,' Strabo, it may be added, speaks of the rivers which pass by ence Susa,"which Gosselin explains as having refer.

to the

and Eulseus, or Ulai,as Choaspes

streams.

over or gulfof the river comes this grave, which be seen by any one who may Sir William dives to the bottom of the water." exists : ferent Ousely thus describes the tomb as it now dif" I was driven by the heat to the tomb of finally as he is called in the east, Danyall, is situated in a most beautiful spot, washed by a clear running stream, and shaded The by planesand other trees, of ample foliage.

it to caused viewed. A bay

boards, exceedinglystrong,and be buried, so that it could not be

The the bank

about

ing stretchruins of Shus are very extensive, twelve miles from one extremityto

Daniel, or,

which

other. of the

They

extend

as a

far

as

the eastern

largespace between that river and the Ab-i-zal, and, like the ruins of and Kufah, consistof hillocks Babylon, Ctesiphon, of earth and rubbish, covered with broken pieces of brick and coloured tile ; therebycorresponding 4;o the ancient Susa, which built was entirely of brick,an additional proof that the ruins of
Shus represent the ancient Susa, for Shuster is celebrated for itsstone-erected houses,and for its of stone. quarries
and most The largest these ruins stand about remai'kable
two
a

Kerah, occupy

is of Mohammedan date, and inhabited building who shows the spot where dervise, by a solitary small and the prophet is buried, beneath a out simplesquare brick mausoleum, said to be, withIt has, coeval with his death. probability, to prove however, neither date nor inscription
the truth

The
been and
was

falsehood of the dervise's assertion. or ing, small river runningat the foot of this buildwhich is called the Bellaran,flows,it has

mounds

in

miles from
mile

Kerah.

by

tomb, said, immediatelyover the prophet's the transparency of the water, his coffin
seen

The

first is computed
and

to be

in circumference,

to be

at

the

bottom.

But

the dervise

I questioned remembered nearly 100 feet in height; and the and the natives whom such a fact. It has tradition corroborating no other,althoughnot quiteso high, about double the circuitof the former. They are composed of at all times been customary with the people of sun-dried brick and courses of the country to resort hither on certain days of of huge masses burned brick and mortar. the month, when ble, they offer up prayers at the Large blocks of marwith hieroglyphics, covered to the prophet'sshade ! are frequently tomb in supplication found here by the Arabs,who pect exand by becoming his guests for the night, these distinguish and an remission of all present grievances, two great mounds of the Castle and by the name the Palace ; and they may those to come." be supposed to represent insurance against the celebrated fortress which This author has also given a translation of a Molon, the following perstitious suin which after having won the city, unable to take, Persian manuscript, was and the palace of Susa. legendoccurs, relative to the tomb of the territory Abou Mousa At the foot of the most Daniel : of these elevated having pillaged he of Ahwaz, proceeded to Susa, where mounds stands the tomb of Daniel,a small and named Persian slew the a modern the prince, e rected on apparently building, spot governor, Then he entered of Azurmahan. where the son the relics of that prophetare believed to Shapoor, and the castle and palaceof that prince, rest. A dervise resides there,who points to the ent in differseized all the treasure there,deposited grave of "the man greatlybeloved," with as until he came to a certain chamber, much places, homage as if it belonged to the archthe door of which was strongly fastened, a himself,or to the Imaum impostorMohammed Abou seal being affixed to the lock. leaden Hosein. a Though the tomb is comparatively Mousa modern cious man inquiredof the peopleof Sus what prestructure, the Jew, Arab, and Mussulin article was from tradition, guarded with such care that it does indeed believe, this chamber. contain the remains of the prophet. They assured him that he would not regard it as a desirable objectof plunder ; notice of the tomb The earliest of Daniel was was but his curiosity roused, and he caused the givenby Benjamin of Tudela, who visited Asia towards the latter part of the thirteenth century. lock to be broken, and the door to be opened. able he beheld a stone of considerIn the chamber Sir William Latterly, Ouseleyhas written much
" " The local tradition upon the subject. He says, which fixes Daniel's tomb at Susa,seems worthy

dimensions
a

hollowed

out

and in that the body of coffin, in


a

into the form of dead man, a sheet of

of

investigation. Through

the

more

modern

wrapped

shroud

or

winding

gold

HISTORY

OF

THE

PERSIANS.

23

The dread of these furious animals compelled Mr. Monteith and myself to take shelter for the night within the walls that encompass having measured the nose, they found that proportionally Daniel's tomb." he must To the same have exceeded the common Sir John effect, size of men. The Abou informed Malcolm, in his History of Persia, writes : people now
was

The brocade. Mousa and his

head

attendants

were

Abou uncovered. astonished ; for

prey.

Mousa who the the


want

that this

was

the

body

of

an

ancient sage

"

of Every species that

wild

beast
some

roams

formerly lived in
inhabitants

Irak, and that whenever

over

spot

on

which

of the

at large proudest

stood." art once or a famine scarcity,palacesever raised by human and the ruins of Susa, Yes, reader, they rove over appliedto this holy man, without one human their reign, of his prayers, obtained being to dispute through the efficacy It hapcopious showers of rain from heaven. pened save the poor dervise who holds watch over the tomb of the prophet. The chambers of royalty afterwards that Sus also suffered from excessive exhibited Ahasuerus the riches of his and the people in distress requested where drought, allow this that their neighbourswould jesty," kingdom, "and the honour of his excellent mafor hundred and fourscore days," an venerable personage to reside a few days among dia and servants, the power of Meof rain unto his princes them, expectingto derive the blessing and Persia,with the nobles and princesof from his intercession with the Almighty;but hundred and the Irakians would not grant this request. Fifty one twenty-seven provinces, from India even to Ethiopia, are now then went, deputed by the people of Sus, stretching men the ruler of Irak, saying, the abodes of the beasts of the desert. The voice who again petitioned heard in the gorgeous halls tain of festive mirth, once Let this holy person visit our country, and deThese terms of Susa, is exchanged for the howlingsof the until his return.' the fifty men and the holy person came to Sus, lion, the wolf, and the hyena, as they roam were accepted, abroad in quest of prey ; while birds of evil note, where, through the influence of his prayers, rain the ruins, give additional solemnity the land fell in great abundance, and saved as they flyover man Alas ! alas ! for huto the desolation. not permit from famine ; but the people would detained him to return, and the fifty men were grandeur! When in Irak. companied as Such, said those who acMajor Monteith visited Sus, the dervise hostages him who of Daniel showed watches the tomb Abou Mousa, is the historyof the and several blocks of stone, curiously The Arabian generalthen asked dead man. sculptured, of these sides of one of great antiquity.The this extraordinary them by what name age personcovered was a them ? had been known plied, stones, which was green granite, They reamong with hieroglyphical occupyingfive rows. 'The figures, people of Irak called him Daniel contained forms supposed to represent The first row Hakim, or Daniel the Sage.' After this,Abou of rain occasioned
" '

Mousa

remained
a

some

time
to
an

in

Sus, and
of all his

messenger of the Faithful, with in that had also the

Omar
account

the

Commander

spatched dethe

the sun, the moon,

and

one

of the stars

quests con-

second, animals resemblinga horse,a bird, with the head and a figure and a dog ; the third,
extremities of
a a

Khuzistan, and of the various


fallen into his

treasures

lower and

the tiger,

arms

of

man,

He possession.
Daniel's

discoveryof

body.

related When

Omar
from whom

received this account, he demanded information concernhis chief officers some ing
had
;

Daniel

but

all

were

silent, except Ali, on

sembling goat ; the fourth,an animal reand an antelope,a serpent,a scorpion, the ornamented top of a staffor sceptre; and the two fifthdepicts a trident, spears, a hawk, and sides Two with a Greek cross. other bird, some

the tailof

in the of the stone are occupiedby inscriptions He declared that of God. blessing is scarcely cuneiform character,which legible. Daniel had been a prophet,though not of the remains of Susa. This is one of the principal highestorder ; that in ages long since he had dwelt with Bakht al Nassar (Nebuchadnezzar) and the kings who had succeeded him ; and Ali ancient which is called by some This city, related the whole of Daniel's historyfrom the Omar to the end. writers, Aritoana, Artacanda, Artacoana, and beginning then, by the advice to the of his counsellor Ali,caused letters to be directed Bitaxa, and by Ptolemy, Aria, answers to Abou modern with due respect and Mousa to remove, Heraut, which is situated in an ample and surrounded by lofty of great fertility, veneration, the body of Daniel to some place plain situation of Heraut is placed The where the people of Sus could no longer enjoy mountains. different maps, and by different the possession on of it. Abou Mousa, immediately differently in Kinneir's Memoir, in 34" 12' n. the receipt writers: on of this order,obliged the peopleof Sus to turn the stream which supplied Grant, 63" 14' ; in Kinneir's latitude ; by Captain them with water from its natural course. ; in Elphinstone's map Then he brought map, 60" 55' e. longitude and 61" 55' e. forth the body of Daniel, and having wrapped it of Caubul, in 34" 47' n. latitude, of the twenty satrapies in another shroud of gold brocade, he com; in Rennell's map manded longitude 61" 5' e. longitude of Darius Hystaspes, ; a grave in the dry channel to be made 59" 34' of the same. of the river, and in D'Anville's map, and therein deposited the venerable remains of the prophet. The then Concerningthe ancient town, nothingis known ; grave was secured but and of CaptainGrant says of Heraut, that the plain covered with siderable constones firmly it stands "is watered which by an ample size; the river was on restored to its with villages teeming with powonted flow pulation, channel, and the waters of Sus now stream, crowded The and covered with fields of corn. the body of Daniel." over Sir John Kinneir, writing this subject, landscape receives additional beauty and variety on says, the numerous tombs, and other The city of Shus is now a gloomy wilderness, from mosques, with trees and gardens, edifices, infested by lions,hyenas, and 'other beasts of intermingled be the
"

24

HISTORY

OF

THE

PERSIANS.

with

which

it is embellished,and

slopes, by which
situatedin the
and

the mountain it is surrounded. Heraut is modern provinceof Khorassan,

zadracarta.

to Arrian, this According

contains

an occupies

area

of 45,000. population of four square miles.

The

Hyrcania. city city ;" and it was

of

The

term

the largest was city the yellow signifies,


"

givento it from

the

ber great num-

is identified by some Zarang,or Seistan, of high note, with the modern hauk, or Jellallabad, which is about 260 miles with due south from Heraut. This city is situated
the banks of the Ilmend, near its outlet into the lake of Durrah, and it is encompassed by its ancient grandeur. Captain ruins,testifying
on

of orange, lemon, and other fruit trees which in the environs of that city. Hence it is grew Rochette, and other geographers, by D'Anville, identified with Saru, which Pietro Delia Valle geographers yellow. It is prosays, in his Travels, signifies bable Doosand Saru are the same that Zadracarta taken from of Polybius, ArSyringis by Antiochus the Great, in his fruitless of Hyrcania attempt to reunite the revolted provinces the
ii.

saces

and Parthia who form and who

to the
a.d.

crown. Syrian

Hanway,

Christie saw those of a great bund, or dyke, called the Bund of Rustum," the Persian cules. Her"

visitedSaru
of
near was

1734, mentions four ancient


built in the still standing, But Sir W.

Magian temples as
120

Zarang
Bek, who

was

desolated chiefly

by

Timur

feet in diameter, rotundas, each thirty in

obtained for himself a Goth-like celebrity for the destruction of cities, and the extermination of his fellow-men. He razed this city to itsfoundations, the edificecalled the destroyed of Rustum," and left no traces of that Mound
"

height.

Ouseley,

in 1811, has pronounced these to be masses of the Mohammedan of brick masonry the of them One standing, only is now age. others having been overturned by an earthquake. there

ancient

monument.

in the this destroyer,

in his Life of Sheriffedin, of oriental romance, spirit

This
bear other been

and the

other
names

remains
of

of

similar

buildings,

Firedoon, Salm, Toor, and


whose had celebrity
to

heard, which invoked the says, that a voice was soul of Rustum to arise from his resting place, and behold the calamities which had overtaken his country, in these words : " Lift up thy head ; behold the condition of thy country, which is at lengthreduced by the power of the Tartars."
MARACANDA.

mystic

personages,

established about 2000 their erection. One of them


of of who

years anterior
was

called the tomb

Kaus, and

was

Cyrus.

Sir William

supposedto contain the ashes Ouseley thinks it was

that of of the

Kabus, or Kaus, the son of Washmakin, in the fourth century governed Mazanderan

Hejira.

It

was

at

Saru

that the ashes

of

the youthful hero, Sohraub, were his father,Roostum, after he had This city is supposed, with great probability,
to be the modern
"

deposited by

unwittingly

Samarcand, by Oxus, Teraar's throne," (Milton,)


"

which is placed230 British Elphinstone's map of Bactria, in 39" 37' n. latimiles n. n.w. tude, and nearly65" e. longitude.It is situated the southern side of the Sogd,which has its on in the ridgeof Pamer, and which running source south-west from the Beloot-Taugh, divides the south to the Oxus from those that run waters north to the Jaxartes. Accordingto Curtius, the citywas when it was besieged by Alexander, three leagues (or nine miles)in circumference.
Afterwards itwas It
was

in

Saru is celebrated combat. single emit for its abundance of gardens,which a pleasingfragrancein the vernal and summer that the months. Oriental hyperbole declares, from the air gates of paradisederive sweetness their fragrance of Saru, and the flowers of Eden slain him in

from its soil.


HECATOMPYLOS.

which Hecatompylos,

was

so

called because

of

because all the roads in the itshundred or gates, Parthian dominions entered here, is the modern

much taken

by
was

wall.

and surrounded enlarged, by Jenghis Khan, a. d.

Damgan. Its distance from the Caspian Straits, in Kinneir's map, is 125 miles north-east;Renit only seventy-eight nell, however, makes graphical geoander This city miles. visited by Alexwas

1220, after an obstinate resistance. Samarcand of Darius. By some in his pursuit writers, the favourite residence of Timur Bek, and it is identified with Ispahan,now Hecatompylos is still the seat of an Usbeck-Khan, but its glory one of Persia ; but it of the most populous towns is departed. does not appear to be authenticated. The Strabo mentions this
above
are

all the towns

of ancient

Persia,

can account cityamong those of Hyr- concerningwhich any descriptive and Ptolemy places it in Margiana. RenThe of many cania, be offered to the reader. names nell identifies itwith the modern in the pages of this history, but others will occur Naisabour, itis more This has but little probably the modern Nesa, beyond the fact of their having once tween existed,is known. There It is situated bealways been a cityof note. are, it is true, the the mountains that bound the district of of many cities scattered mouldering remnants Toos, or Mesched, and the desert of Khowarabout the vast tracts of Persia ; but they are not asm in the miles south-east of are identifiedwith any citywhose ; and fifty names geographical Bawerd and twenty east of Kelat. It was taken if they be, little or pages of ancient historians, by the Tartars under Jenghis Khan, a.d. 1220, is known of their histories. Thus, at Mourghab, when miles n.n.e. of Istakher,are 70,000 of its inhabitants perished. It is forty-nine sive extenNisaean horses and and in supposed that the famed those of Persepolis, ruins, resembling Nisaean plains derived their name from this the neighbourhood of Firoze-abad, there are city. and half that others seventeen miles in length,

HISTORY

OF

THE

PERSIANS.

25

distance

" honours. The great king," and and culpable have never been examined titles the common "the of were Ruins of siderable contravellers. king kings," by European nours in the neighbourhood given to the Persian monarchs, and divine hoextent occur, also, of ranks Persia. them all All were to other various paid and by of Darabgerd, places. None dared approachthem without that humble of in the single province these,and more, occur due to the Majesty of heaven alone. ancient Persis. prostration the or Farsistan,

in

width, which

Reader, what

shall

we

shall we Knowing all this, place of abode, and on


now

teem

with human

say to these things? look upon earth as our the mighty cities that kind as enduring in their

Who As Who For


a

bows and
was

divinity, deprives the


made him to that end

the knee God

to

man

preserves he created

him,
man.

of his

: rights

to Thebes, BabyRather let us point ? lon, and the many mighty Nineveh, Persepolis, the earth, and embrace cities of old that now natures
"

Reverence

to

majesty

should

proceed from

not from adoration of their civilobligations alone,

say, let us which

They
look

shall upon

one our

day

be fair

as

earth, and

these are." Nay, the sun

and us by day,and the moon and exclaim the stars that giveus light by night, tiful with holy awe, " These, also,mighty and beauare stable and as they as appear, they are,

shines upon

it savours of idolatry. Beyond this, that the subjects only of their own kings of Persia exacted this homage, but of the cirlikewise. Herodotus, relating cumstance strangers of two Spartans beingsent to Xerxes, persons. It was
not
as an

atonement

for the had been


as a

destruction of his
sent to demand

bassadors, am-

!" One doomed to perish great questionarises : which the poet has well supplied out of this,
"

who
"

of them
"

earth and
to

water,"

token

of their submission

"That When

day

of

wrath,

that

dreadful day,

When this haughty monarch, says : introduced,on their arrival at Susa, to the royal
first ordered by the guards presence, they were and adore the king,and some to fall prostrate, But this they used to compel them. force was refused heads if they should to do, even the ground. They were against dash

and earth shall pass away, shall be the sinner's stay? "What power that dreadful day 1 shall he meet How heaven

"When,
The When

shivering like a parched scroll, together roll : flaming heavens


:

their

dread, louder yet, and yet more the dead Swells the high trump that wakes
Oh When Be !
on

not, they

"

that
man

to

Thou

the

day, that wrathful day, judgment wakes from clay, trembling sinner's stay,
and earth Sir shall pass Walter

Though

heaven

away!"
Scott.

it for nor was accustomed to adore a man, said, After persevering this purpose that they came. Xerxes himself in such conduct,they addressed sians,*) in these words : ' King of the Medes, (or Persent by our we are countrymen to make who for those ambassadors perished was Sparta.'" And the haughty monarch to their inflexibility. to yield obliged of This conduct was uniformlythe disposition of Themistocles, the Greeks, with the exception
atonement at

CHAPTER
HISTORY OF THE
POLITY

III.
OF

and that
PERSIA.

one one

or

two

others.

Valerius Maximus

says,

Timagoras,an

plied Athenian, having com-

with the demands

of the Persian court, was

The government of the ancient Persians was that and the crown And iElian reports, monarchical, or regal, hereditary.this act of meanness. his At what date this form was adoptedis unknown. Ismenias,the Theban, declined it, by letting Certain it is,however, that this form of governand then throwing ment ring drop from his finger, is the most ancient and prevalent, it. and, himself on the ground to recover could the originof that of Persia be traced,it Prideaux remarks, that this compliment of reach a remote have been paidthe would, doubtless, before him, must periodof time. prostration But
a

to die, thinking by his countrymen condemned and degradedby of their cityinjured the dignity

veil is thrown of Persia

over

it

by

the romantic

count ac-

king of
miah,
From
or a

Persia

given by

the

early Persian

Mirkhond writers,

and Ferdusi, a veil which modern historians would in vain attempt to throw aside. That which is known, is handed down who to our historians, age by the Greek knew of Cyrus. little of Persia before the era From the of these writers,therefore, derived is chiefly the polity information concerning following several heads.
the kingly
power.

by the prophetsEzra and Neheto him. they could not have had access comparison with the above remarks,
be
access erroneous ;

this will appear to Greeks could gain


not

for if the

without, why should


It is that probable,

Ezra

and

Nehemiah?

the had

kings of

these holy men of their manners to do, knowing the peculiarity would have ceded much and their religion,

Persia,with whom

is Persia,which, for the sake of distinctness,

to them

classed under

which the haughty Xerxes would have At all events, if they did denied to the Greeks.
act

from

monarchs Eastern been despots, have ever undue honours to Haman. regarding their subjectsgenerallyas slaves. pay is due to pay It rightfor subjects certainly Such were the kings of Persia. They lorded it is reverence to majesty. Respect, nay, respect with so high a hand, that their subjects over it cometh because due to the supreme power, looked than mortal: as more they were upon from God, and is ordained for the welfare of the regarded,in fact,as the image and they were of the Deity on earth. Hence it was vicegerents The Persians were usually comprehended by ancient them such extraordinary writers,under the name that their subjects of Medes. paid
*

from civil obligations alone,not know that for we of idolatry; feeling as not to inflexible, was Mordecai sufficiently

thus, it was
a

20

HISTORY

OF

THE

PERSIANS.

of his health community. Render therefore," says the great I the care bute duty of forming his of the Gentiles, to all their dues : triapostle
" "

to

whom
;

tribute is due

; custom

to
to

whom whom

custom

honour,"

fear ; honour fear to whom xiii. 7. Where Rom. no


"

respect is
In the time

person, and with, the and behaviour. When seven taken from years of age, he was these officers, and put into the hands of other to continue the care of his masters, who were
manners

and

paidto
of
were

the

there anarchy prehigherpowers," vails, education, to evils. exercise him age, when the the wisest and
were

with

all its concomitant

in

paganism, however,this homage and honour


carried

him horsemanship, and hunting. At fourteen years mind approaches maturity, four
most

teach

to

of of

It is the beyond due bounds. Christian religion alone that has taught mankind and man how to act worthilybefore God tians this point. It is true, not all that are Chrison in name,
act

virtuous

men

of the

state

to be his preceptors. The first appointed taught him magic, that is,the worshipof their to their ancient maxims, and the gods, according

towards actual

their rulers
fact.
a

as

the

laws

of

Zoroaster, the
him

son

of

Oromasdes; he

doctrines of
far from
? training

inculcate. Christianity And

Far, very
whence moral

also instructed and third be

this is the

does this arise ?

Is it not from

of laxity

of governprinciples ment. The second taught him to speak truth, the principles of justice. The duty of the
was

in the

to

teach

him

not

to

suffer himself

to

"

The discipline of slavery is unknown do we require Among us : hence the more The of virtue ; order else discipline Cannot nor subsist, confidence,nor peace. Thus duties risingout of good possessed, And prudent caution needful to avert Impending evil, equally require be taught That the whole people should trained Be
:

that he might be a by pleasures, of himself and master king in truth,always free, The and his desires. fourth was the to fortify which fear, princeagainst courage of the young have made would him a slave,and to inspire him with a noble and prudent assurance, so cessary neovercome

for those
and

born their

to

command. in his

Each

of

these

governors

excelled
own

and black resolve habits take rooted out, and virtuous Their place ; and genuine piety descend, So shall licentiousness

adding

partment, departicular examples to their

precepts,thereby actingupon that self-evident but examples pertruth,that, "words instruct, suade

Like

an

inheritance,from

age

to

age."
Wordsworth.

effectually."
But
"

evil communications Plato

The
eldest.

crown

of Persia father
to

was

ing descendhereditary, and the


to generally
crown was

ners." corrupt good manwas remarks, that all this care

from the whole


etc. feasts,
an

son, to

the

frustrated with
;

by by

the the

When

born, their joy by sacrifices, empire testified


an

heir

which him

cence luxury,pomp, and magnifithe young rounded surprince was


numerous

train of officers that


;

and

his

was birthday

thenceforward

waited the

upon

with

servile submission

by

all

day empire. tion. diversions engrossedall atteninvention of new the reigningmonarch When undertook long which the most excellent These are dangers in order or all avoid to dangerousexpeditions, the pagan at least under tem sysdisposition, it was the disputes, customary for him to name could never surmount. of moral training, heir apparent before he commenced his march.
the whole of the

annual

festivaland

of

appurtenances,and equipageof a voluptuous solemnity throughout in which and the and effeminate life, pleasure

The nation, therefore, corrupt manners, The crowned new at king was by the priests and of the prince, the mind Pasagardae. The ceremony was performed in quicklydepraved of pleasures, into a vortex him drew against the temple of the goddess of war, where the form an effectualbarwhich no education can of all to clothe himself with the king used first before he was garment which Cyrus had worn exalted to the throne. Xenophon thus describes is man; Religion! the sole voucher man this garment: "Cyrus himself then above himself: Supporter sole of man appeared, of this in Even frailty, change, and death, night wearing a turban,which was raised high above She gives a soul,(and she alone,)a soul that acts a his head, with a vest of purplecolour, half mixed god." Young. with white, and this mixture of white none else that performs so stupendous is allowed to wear. But the religion On his legs he had yellow which of the Bible, is the religion buskins, his outer robe was wholly of purple, a work as this, aster, of Christ. That of Zoroand about his turban was teaches us the gospel diadem or wreath." a fancied a nd its he ate some with with all rites, small c eremonies, Being thus attired, a figs, votees of its myriads of delifted not one of turpentine, full cup of and drank a quantity perfections, milk. The crown then placed upon above the thingsof time and sense, the sour was human in which his head by one of the grandees, in whose family low and grovelling pleasures based, dethat right was is prone to indulge. It found man the crown nature hereditary. Round into the him far lower down the king wore it drew dem, a purple and white band or diawhich and diadem the only depthsof human crown degradation. were of the kings of Persia had many The signs of royalty used by the earlier Persian palace monarchs. gates,and each gate a body of guards,whose The manner of educating the heir apparent of duty it was to defend the person of the king,and the empire of Persia is extolled by Plato,who of whatever to inform him they saw or heard they done in any part of the kingdom ; whence model for proposed it to the Greeks as a perfect the education of a prince. Their routine of eduears,"and termed the king's cation were expressively all these messengers, was follows :" Shortlyafter his birth, the king'seyes." To as he was committed to the care of eunuchs, chief worthy of note was sent from the intelligence officers of the household, of the empire,and they also who were remotest provinces chargedwith
"
"

"

"

HISTORY

OF

THE

PERSIANS.

27

sometimes read to the Persian of sudden commotions, | journals were intelligence of beacon-fires, monarchs. which were by means There are many allusions to the above custom and lighted as alwaysready at certain distances, occasion required. The guards which attended in the works of ancient writers. Herodotus, in the king's person the review consisted of 15,000 men. made describing by Xerxes of his These were called the king'srelations. There attended by secretaries, army, states that he was he received also,a body of 10,000 chosen horsemen, who wrote down the various answers was, who which he put as he rode along and to the questions accompanied him in his expeditions, called the ranks in his chariot. He further states that were stantly immortal," that number being conthis monarch, when Mount seated on kept up. These guardsreceived no pay, iEgaleos but were taries amply providedwith the necessaries of to view the battle of Salamis,caused his secre"

received

immediate

life. drank no other water Persian monarchs but that of the river Choaspes, carried which was about with them in silvervessels. According to

to

The

countries to this day. Travellers in the early of the middle ages, in their descriptions of the Xenophon, the Persians were, a period of their history, Mougol emperors, tell us that when they dined, temperate and sober their table seated under people. In the time of Herodotus, however, four secretaries were it is certain, that in to write down their words, which they drank profusely they never ; and later ages, the wines of Shiraz have triumphed might revoke. the law of Mohammed. their Another officer of importance in the king's over Anciently, mascus.household was his cup-bearer. This is shown wine made at Dakings drank only a peculiar The magnificence of the publicfeasts by several passages in the book of Nehemiah, of the kings of Persia exceeded, as may be seen and in the works both of Herodotus and Xenophon. from Esther i., read of in the The prophetNehemiah was, indeed,cupany thingthat we bearer histories of other nations. Their table was to Artaxerxes, and the allusions he makes daily served with somethingfrom each nation subject to his office is well illustrated by profane authors. affords some ing interestto them. tained enterDuring their repast, Xenophon, in particular, they were with the harmony of both vocal and instrumental explanations and the concerningthis office, music. its functions were in which manner discharged. The king of Persia seldom admitted to his Speaking of the cup-bearer of Astyages, the table any besides his wife and mother. one grandfather of Cyrus, he describes him as the When he did,the guests were officers ; favoured of the king'shousehold so as not most placed, to see, but only to be seen by the king ; for they and he adds that he was a very handsome man, and of majestyto let that it was a imagined it was degradation part of his duty to introduce to the their people see that they were and to send subjectto the king those who came upon business, This desire of apof nature. common appetites pearing away those who appliedfor an interview whom it seasonable to the ruling he, the cup-bearer, did not deem superiorto mankind, was motive of their non-appearance in public. It introduce. This alone must the cuphave made bearer of the of high consideration at the was a rarelythat they left the precincts person in of the office of living be seen The emoluments court of Persia. palace. Their manner may the interesting book of Esther. Tully says, that appear to have been very great; for they enabled the revenues of whole provinces were employed Nehemiah to sustain for many years the state and the attire of their favourite on of the government of the Jews from concubines ; hospitality and Socrates relates,that one his own Xenophon admires the private country was purse. called the queen'sgirdle," and another, the in which these cup-bearers manner discharged it seems that their office. From his description, queen'shead-dress."
'

wherein in oriental

the names of such note down in the strife, with themselves they lived. A similar custom

as

guished distin-

the

city prevails

"

"

In

the

three
are

books

of

Ezra, Nehemiah, and


which

the cup

was

held in the presence

of the

monarch,

presentedto him on three the care ing taken by the existfingers. This account is explained government to of All that the king in the east,and by the sculptures register customs every occurrence. said, deemed indeed, These sculptures was comprehend a great worthy of registration. Persepolis. He was of who took surrounded number of figures, usually bearing cups and vases by scribes, of which note of his words and actions. are They were rarely different forms and uses, none absent from him, and always attended him when grasped,as in European countries. If the bearer he appeared in public. They were both he carries it between article, presentat his has but one his reviews of the in festivals, and the it hands, (resting upon his left hand, and placing army, tumult of battle, at which times they registered his right to prevent it from hand lightly upon it, whatever words fell from him on those occasions. with a peculiar falling,) grace of action ; if he the palm of each with the registrations charged, has two, he bears one also, They were upon of edicts and ordinances, which were written in the duty of the cup-bearer to take It was hand. the king'spresence, sealed with his signet of the wine from the cup presented to the ring, some and then despatchedby couriers. to assure These the royal king into his left hand, and di-ink it, journalsor chronicles of Persia were deposited monarchs against poison. at Babylon,Susa, and Ecbatana, the book of Esther that the and they formed It appears from the archives of this people. They have all Persian kings had but one queen, properly so perishedexcept the few extracts preservedin called. From the same book, however, and from the books of Scripture it may be gatheredthat there pointedout, and in the common history, older Greek of secondarywives historians. From a transaction renumber corded were a. considerable
many passages by the Persian

there Esther,

intimate

was and, being filled,

Esther vi. 1, it would

appear

that these

I and other females, who

had

not

attained to this

28

HISTORY

OF

THE

PERSIANS.

similar with reference to the queens of Persia possessing With some differences, slight in the harem, or distinctions continue to prevail and the phrase of giving particular provinces, " the half of the kingdom." It also family of the rulers of Persia. The principal unto may idea of the cost and splendour that the king has several legal difference is, of wives, suggest some and that they the dresses of the queens of Persia. besides those of a secondaryclass, access to his presence, there are own now Concerning the king's apparel, appear to have daily distinction. which
case

of Esther shows was the history not the ance and attendanciently.The accommodation varies accordingto their of the women
"

some

allusions interesting thence such


a we

From of
even

in Esther vi. made learn that the privilege of wearing


a

ness the firstbusiSir J. Malcolm says, that of the king of Persia in the morning, after he is risen, is to sitfrom one or two hours in the rank. hall of the

very the be

permanent distinction a distinction that unto. great counsellor Haman aspired

dress formed

high order.

It

was

When shall

the monarch done


unto

harem, where

his levees

are

conducted

with the same ceremony as in his outer apartment. Female officers arrange the crowd of his wives attention to the order and slaves with the strictest of the

to delighteth
was

honour for the

him thus, "What interrogated the man whom the king ?" supposing that the honour whom the

intended
"

the ambitious courtier himself,


man

rejoined,For
to

king delighteth

precedency.

After

hearing the reports

of

be broughtwhich honour, let the royalapparel

the king useth to wear, and the horse that the with the internal government of with his principal king rideth upon, and the crown harem, and consulting royalwhich is and horse set upon his head : and let this apparel wives, who are generally seated, the monarch those entrusted leaves the interior

apartments."
none historians, were

According to

the Greek

admitted to the king without being called ; but that queens they do not appear to have known included in the applicationand proclaimbefore him, Thus shall it be done and princesses were whom the kingdelighteth of this rule. From Esther ir, 11,we find that they to the man to honour,"
were even none so

be delivered to the hand of one of the king's most noble princes, that theymay array the man withal whom the king delighteth to honour, and bring him on horseback throughthe street of the city,

and the

the rule

when

king was

might

enter

been that to have in his outer apartments, uncalled or unannounced;


seems even

Esther vi. 7"9.


for any such an
most
one

Haman the
was

knew

that it was
to

death the

to

wear

own king's

robe, and that


express and distinction,

honour

calculated and

and that when the queen the seven

in his interior residence, not

pre-eminent favour
he

the proposal. As much made be may said of " the horse that the king rideth upon," before him without appear ceremony. and "the And crown these were when even not admitted royal which is set upon his any of It was unlawful for any one the king's wives were ride with him, which restriction head." to the king's own crime to enabled the king to see them when horse,and a capital and as little on the same which the king turban or crown he thought proper. wear as that Herodotus relates,
was

might appear unbidden ; none except the king'sface," saw princes"who

render

itvisibleto all the people, and therefore it

might

one excuse

of the

him their

nobles who disbelieved this privileged door-keepersfor not admitting into the presence of the monarch, cut off of two
ears

wore,

or

even

such

as was

he

wore. on sailing some

Arrian the reeds.

relates,
One
of

that when his turban the


rowers

Alexander

Euphrates,

fell off among

and

noses,

for which and

act

he

and

his

family,except his wife punishedwith death.


On
some

eldest
to

son,

were

this law occasions,

seems

have been

it : to recover jumped out, and swam but finding that he could not carry it back in his hand without wetting he put it upon his head, it, The monarch and broughtit safely to the boat. and then gave him a talent of silver for his zeal, for setting ordered his head to be struck off, the This story emphatically diadem thereon. illustrates

infringed.Thus Esther,urgently requestedby her nation from the destruction to save Mordecai, meditated by the wicked Haman, and decreed by

the foregoing observations. Ahasuerus when inflamed with wine, stood " in The distinctionsof Persian royaltyare the inner court of the king's house." But then, by Statius : though death was the law for such an offence, enumerated the king might set this aside by holdingout the
"

thus

"

golden sceptre, that


Such her favour
was

the

offender
to

When To His The And And

might live.

some

his

to according

Esther; otherwise, the law of the Medes and Persians,


have been the

shown

blood youth of royal and rules crown, paternal grasp, he

succeeds

the

Medes,

slender

fears,will

illcontain

life must

forfeit of

her

temerity.

weighty sceptre, and the bow sustain ; trembling takes the courser's reins in hand, Lewis. badge of high command." huge tiara,
"

After having thus shown her favour, the king Concerning the sceptre,it is evident from promised Esther that whatever and the writings of profanehistorians, might be her Scripture to the half that the kings of Persia used one on requestit should be grantedher,even great of his kingdom ; a form of speech which has occasions. Xenophon makes Cyrus say among reference to the custom the ancient kings other things and appointed to Cambyses, his son among of Persia in bestowing Know Cambyses, that it is not the grants and pensionsto successor, their favourites. These grants were which can preserve your kingdom ; not by paysceptre ment golden of money from the treasury, and but by charges but faithful friends are truest a prince's of particular the revenues In the Persepolitan securest sceptre." upon sculptures, provinces or cities. Thus when Xerxes wished to make a of the king are invariably however, the figures he gave him the city represented provisionfor Themistocles, as bearinga long staff in his hand. of Magnesiafor his bread, Myonta for his meat trated of the kingsof Persia may be illusThe crown and other victuals, and Lampsacus for his wine. which Morier givesof by the description This may explainthe observations before made tiara of Futteh Ali Shah, king of the magnificent
"

80 its interests

HISTORY

OF

THE

PERSIANS.

affairs harmoniously perpetuated,

conducted, and

innovations,errors, and
leads
us

prevented. This
THE

to notice
POWER.

ADMINISTRATIVE

The The

terms

king
is a

and

judge

are

synonymous.

throne

and the sovereign tribunal, power

tered
sights over-

justice at stated times, in different provinces.


Some he

the highestauthority for the administration of justice.The duties of a king are well defined in the queen of Sheba's address to king Solomon. Blessed,"said she, be the Lord thy God, which in thee, to set thee on the throne of delighted
" "

of these judgesattended the king sojourned. The king often advised with them ; and in matters concerning himself, referred the whole to their judgment, i nominated by the king,and, as the ' They were employment was for life, great care was taken to famed for their integrity. preferonlysuch as were the part of judgeswas on Delinquency punished with extreme severity.Herodotus says, that of the royaljudgeshaving suffered himself one to be corrupted by a bribe,was condemned by wherever

Israel : because therefore made

the Lord he thee

loved

king,to

do

Israel for ever, judgment and

Cambysesto
to have

be

put

to death

without

mercy, and

his skin

justice"1 Kings x. 9. The Almighty hath made to princes, to put them every thingsubject into a condition of fearing but him. For none "are rulers,"saith the apostle, not a terror to
"

He

adds, what

placedupon the seat of justice. is most that the son sucrevolting, ceeded

his father in this seat.

According to Xenophon, the ordinary judges


of Persia
were none

taken
were

out

good works, but

to

the evil.

Wilt

thou

be afraid of the power ? do that which and thou shalt have praise of the same : for he is the minister of God to thee for good. But if thou do that which is evil, be afraid ; for he beareth
not

then not is good,

into which

of the class of old men, admitted till the age of fifty

A man, could not exercise the therefore, years. officeof judge before that age ; the Persians being

the sword
a

in vain

God,
doeth
to

revenger

to execute

for he is the minister of wrath upon him that

Rom. evil,"
is that them

xiii. 3, 4. God
The
this

What
he made
"

which justice

hath entrusted
wherefore hath

the hands

of monarchs

? and

his

? delegates
first law, and

poet says,
confessed,
the rest;

opinionthat a fullymatured mind was required in an employment,which decided upon the and livesof the community. fortunes, reputations, Amongst the Persians,it was not lawful either for a private person to put his slave to death, or for the prince to inflict capital punishment upon for the firstoffence ; the crime any of his subjects rather the effect of human being considered
and weakness of mind. the than frailty, of
a

of

confirmed
to

lignity ma-

Order Some More

is Heaven's are, and


must

They thoughtitreasonable

put

be greater than

rich,more

wise."

good as well as the justice ; and they deemed


man was

To

this end kingsreign, that order may be preserved actions of a in a state. And this order consists in observing crime. It and taking care generalequity, force does not usurp the place of law
a

evil into the scales of it unjust that the good should be obliterated by a single

upon
sentence
some

this
he

that principle had

Darius
one

that
:

revoked of his

the

passed upon

brute the

that

judgesfor

should not be exposed to at the very moment property of one man the violence of another, that the union of society acknowledgingthat he had pronounced it with be not broken, that artifice and fraud do not prethan wisdom. more precipitation vail over innocence and simplicity, that society One essentialrule which the Persians observed should rest in peace under the protection of the in their judgments, never was, in the first place, find

in his office, prevarication it was going to be executed ;

laws, and that the weakest and poorest should a sanctuary in the public authority.
administer

Josephussays that the kings of Persia used to in their own For this justice persons. the throne tillthey ascended reason, they never had been instructed by the magi, in the princihave suffered, would the accuser, as the accused ples of justice relates an and equity. These are the great had he been found guilty. Diodorus and essential duties of the regal dignity, vourites incident that will illustrate this. One of the faand of Artaxerxes,ambitious of possessing a though the kingsof Persia were transcendently vicious in other respects, yet were endeavoured officer, they very by a superior placepossessed of that officer. of scrupulous,and very tender in the discharge the king suspectthe fidelity to make these duties. After hearing the merits of the To this end, he sent informations to court himself him, persuading cause, they took several days to consider and advise full of calumnies against with the magi, before they believe and the react upon would that the port sentence. king gave When The examination of the matter. without they sat on life and death, they not only considered the crime of which the delinquent but he desired of the officer was was imprisoned, whether impeached,but all the actions, king before he was condemned, that his cause good or bad, of his whole life ; and they condemned ordered to proor duce might be heard, and his accusers him. The king comtheir evidence against plied acquitted his crimes or deserts him, according as
prevailed.

him any person without confronting and without his accuser, giving him time and the means necessary for his defence ; and, in ifthe person accused was found the second place, punishment upon innocent, to inflict the same
to condemn

with

Though

the

kings of
be

Persia

have
an case.

administered

may in many in their justice


so on

stances inown

persons, it cannot

supposed that in
sit in
were,

mighty
every

dence evino the request, and as there was ten had writbut the letters which his enemy him, he was acquitted.The king's against and the then fell upon the accuser, indignation with

empire they could


Besides the

judgment

innocent

therebywas

shielded

from

the artifice

of calumny and violence. and cruelty ral indeed,seveall men memorable judges, of unblemished Another example of firmness and characters, and skilful of Persia,is in the laws of the kingdom. These in the monarchs the love of justice called were When the eyes recorded in the book of Esther. and they adminisroyal judges,"

king,there

"

HISTORY

OF

THK

PERSIANS.

81

of Ahasuerus the wicked


an

were

opened to
had

the dark ohtained

of designs from him

Hainan, who

to their station and high proportioned employment. He did not allow them, however,
revenues

haste

edict for the destruction of the Jews, he made another for his fault, to atone hy publishing

own

edict, permittingthe Jews to stand up in their defence, by punishing Haman, and by a


his
error.

the bounds exceed of prudence and moderation. And lest precept should be of no avail, he set them an example in this respect. He so
to

public acknowledgment of
The in the

his court, that the same order which regulated reignedthere might likewise proportion ably be observed noble in the
courts

Persians,says Herodotus, hold falsehood greatest abhorrence : next to which they it disgraceful to be in debt, as well for esteem to falsehood, other reasons as for the temptations
which it would times
so

of the

and in every satraps,

familyin his empire. To prevent,as far as all abuses of their extensive authority, possible, the king reserved to himself the right of nominating
the of and ordained satraps, of alone. that all governors commanders places, depend upon himself their

they think
not

appear

introduces. it necessarily that the Persians were Deceit


to

But
at all

armies, etc., should


From him
ceived they re-

scrupulous about falsehood.


are
"

and

falsehood
not

chargeswhich

this

day they do

and if they abused their instructions,

sian, Believe me; for though I am a Perpower, from him also they received punishment. In order to maintain close communication a speaking truth," is an exclamation and to keep commonly used to those who doubt their veracity, with the satrapsof these provinces, their conduct, Cyrus devised do not bear watch over few travellers who a strict and there are the intercourse between a plan for facilitating testimony to their proneness to falsehood and himself and them. himself makes After havingascertained how Herodotus Darius utter venality. be spoken, far a good horse might go in a day, with ease this sentiment, If a falsehood must Larcher and expedition, he caused stables to be erected let it be so ;" on which observes, This distances,each with a suitable moralityis not very rigid;but it ought to be at determined is here speakingof establishment of horses,and men of to take care remembered, that Herodotus also stationed at these Postmasters were falsehood,which operates to no one's injury." them. it is remembered that one of the first stages,whose But when duty it was to receive the packets rudiments of Persian education was as to speak the they arrived,and immediatelyforward them with fresh horses and couriers. This custom from it on the part of Darius is truth,this departure His delinquency referred to, Esth. viii. 10. After having related must appear very remarkable. that Ahasuerus granted the Jews to defend themselves to have been founded seems upon that principle, of our which the wicked machinations of Haman, some even against gravest moralistshave taught, namely,that there may be occasions in the sacred writer says, that Mordecai "sent letters which from strict truth is venial." a deviation by posts on horseback, and riders on mules, But this is not true. dromedaries." These postsof In Scripture, the liar is camels, and young the ancient Persians with those whose enumerated is the bitter travelled night and day portion torments no ; and extenuatingwithout intermission,and so quickly did they cup of everlasting that it was circumstances are taken into the account. Besides, performtheir journey, said,proverbially, This should this be mischief that they flew swifter than cranes. allowed, irreparable would be inflicted on society. A liar," to proverb may, however, refer more especially says an old writer, is a public swift dromedary,"or the the shipof the desert," nuisance : he disheartens the camel; for it is said of the former makes honest belief, reality suspected,and one and througha that itwill in one man a night, stranger to the other." To sanction this especially, level country, traverse as much evil, therefore, ground as any by the weight of a man's reputation for gravity in ten. A dromedary,"says horse can and wisdom, is to commit a crime ordinary of no well Jackson, in his work on Morocco, "has been ordinarymagnitude. The psalmist knew miles in less than the enormity of this vice : hence known hundred it was to travel two

deny.
I
am

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

that he
"

exclaimed,
that telleth lies shall not

twenty hours."
Esther's tarry in
my

He

sight."
Psa. ci. 7.

of the wisdom Hence see we it to carry their in choosing messengers of the Persian to the distant provinces despatches

empire,for
THE GOVERNMENT
OF THE

the

existence

of her

nation

was

at

PROVINCES.

stake. These may

The in
a

provincesof Persia have


this

been

described
page the government

establishments posting

of ancient Persia

previous portion of
of those

history. (See

2.) In this section will be described

provinces.
of Daniel says, the
to set
over

receive illustration from those of the Mougol empire. According to Marco Polo, there were roads extending to every part of this empire from with of the

The
"

sacred writer in the book and

Cambalu, having post houses, capital, furniture,at every twenty -five


were or

It

Darius pleased
the whole

kingdom
should these

an

suitable

hundred
over

which twenty princes,

be

there miles. Altogether, thirty these with stations,


two

ten thousand

kingdom
vi. 1,2.

and

over

three

hundred

thousand

Dan. presidents,"

here mentimes The horses. tioned princes post ran two hundred, and somethe governors of the provinces. were miles in a day, espeand fifty two hundred They cially called satraps ; and they were were the most conother urgent occaof rebellion, sions. in cases or siderable of There other stations, were persons in the kingdom ; being second consisting but the monarch, and the three principal a few dwellings, to none three or four miles asunder, occupied their conduct, and to ministers,who inspected or who, being foot-posts, by runners, whom of the affairs of their girded, and well trained to their employment,ran they gave an account these foot-posts respectiveprovinces. That theymight be able In dark nights, as fast as horses. to maintain a without which with links to light them before the horsemen spect reran proper dignity, languishes, Cyrus assigned to these satraps mandates, they carried letters, along. Sometimes

The

32

HISTORY

OF

THE

PERSIANS.

the khan, who thus recaused an exact account ceived to be giventhem, how and district was that days from placesten stages every province cultivated, Kambalu to Shangtu. as from theymight know whether each country produced distant, letters as much fruits as it was The fact of the ancient Persians sending capable of producing. well calculated it may be remarked, is one Xenophon remarks of Cyrus the younger, that he by posts, the attention of those who informed feel himself whether the private to engage gardensof in his subjects interested in studyingthe progress of society well kept, were and yielded plenty of fruit, and that he rewarded the arts of convenience and civilization. And the superintendents who is there that does not feel an interest in these and overseers, whose provinces, or were districts, the best cultivated, essentialto the comforts and punished arts arts which are so those who suffered of life, and without which a community cannot their groundsto lie barren. nourish ? How much the Persian princes attached were be seen from a to the arts of agriculture, may aid, '"Tis genial, intercourse,and mutual conversation held between the Lacedemonian, Lysander, universal Cheers what else an were shade, and Cyrus the younger, as related by Calls Nature from her ivy-mantled den, into men."" Xenophon, and beautifully appliedby Cicero. rockwork Cowper. And softens human Cyrus conducted his illustrious guestthroughhis of Persia was The care of the provinces not gardens,and pointedout the various beauties left entirely to the satraps. The king himself they presented. and was personally, by ancient custom, to visit Lysander was charmed with the prospect, obliged in the arrangement the provinces at stated periods, being persuaded, admired the taste displayed of the trees,the neatthe height as ness Pliny says of Trajan, that the most solid of the gardens, and the most of the walks, the abundance of the fruit a prince exquisite pleasure glory, is from time to time to letthem see their trees,planted and the innumerable can chequer-wise, enjoy, and to reconcile the dissensions and diversified flowers every where common exhaling parent, commotions their odours. to calm animosities of rival cities, "Every thing,"he exclaimed, in this place terests inand to prevent injustice me most ; but what transports amongst his subjects, in magistrates, and cancel and reis the exquisite verse me judgment and elegant oppression has been decreed against law and of the artist who planned these garwhatever perception dens, and gave them the fine order,the wonderful equity. of symmetry, which When of Persia was not able to and happiness the monarch disposition, be too much admired." visit the provinceshimself, he commissioned cannot Pleased with the eulogy, of his nobles, eminent for wisdom and men some Cyrus replied, It These were I who was to act as his representatives. virtue, planned the gardens,and with my the ears of the prince, own the eyes hand of the trees around called and plantedmany informed and was because through them he saw you." What served These denominations, !" exclaimed Lysander, of every thing. also, Cyrus surveying from head to foot, is it posadmonition to the king,as well as to his as an deliberately sible It admonished the one that he that with these purplerobes and splendid representatives. of jewels, and bracelets had his ministers as we have the organs of our vestments, these strings be idle, of gold, but act by and those buskins so richly embroidered, senses, not that he should the others, is it possible that you could playthe gardener, that they their means ; it admonished hands in planting but for the trees ?" and employ your royal ought not to act for themselves, I Does that surprise munity. monarch, and for the advantage of the comyou?" Cyrus rejoined ; swear by the god Mithras,that when my health The detail of affairs which the kingor his resitdown to table without having presentatives admits,I never other ; or entered he or they made into,when fatigue myself sweat with some is worthy of admiration, either in militaryexercises,rural labour, or visited the provinces, I apply that they understood and shows the other toilsome employments,to which wherein of governors consist. Their and without sparing wisdom and ability with pleasure, myself." the hand of the prince, and attention was not directed to greatmatters alone, Lysander pressed Thou the revenue, and commerce: art worthy,Cyrus,of that hapbut as war, : piness justice, replied with all thy and beautyof thou art possessed to minor of; because, matters, as the security thou art also virtuous." and prosperity, towns happiness ; the convenient habitations of his subjects ; the repairs of roads, venues and causeways Mention has been made, (page3,)of the rebridges, ; the of Persia produced. of woods and forests ; and, above all, which the provinces preserving there made, it may the improvement of agriculture. This latter In addition to the remarks of the Persian kings science engaged the Persian monarch's peculiar be added,that the revenues Those satraps, of taxes imposed in the levying whose provinces care. best consisted partly were nished favour. and partlyin their being furAnd cultivated, as enjoyedhis peculiar upon the people, there were officeserected for the regulation with the products of the earth in kind, as of the officeserected and other provisions, camels, so there were corn horses, military forage, department, for the regulation of rural labours and economy. rarities each particular whatever province or menia Both were because both concurred for afforded. Strabo relates that the satrap of Arprotected, the public sent annuallyto the king 20,000 young the other good : the one for itssafety, for itssustenance. be formed of For if the earth cannot colts ; by which a judgment may be These cultivated without the protection the other levies in the several provinces. of armies, so neither can armies be fed and maintained, tributes were without only exacted from the conquered the labour of the husbandman. were so It was with good nations ; the Persians,properly called, that the Persian monarchs reason, therefore, exempt from all imposts. and
to parcels
news or

from

in

two

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

HISTORY

OF

THE

PERSIANS.

33
Dirhems.

The from Abdul

different curious

speciesof

tribute

which

the

Persian monarchs
a

received,may

document

made register

in the finances during Abdallah al Abou the khalifate of the renowned

by Ahmed Hamed, employed

be illustrated from a taken verbatim Ebn Ebn Mohammed,

Mamoun.
REVENUE
In OF natural

AUezeera Alkerah Ghilan Armenia Barca Africa Proper

4,000,000 300,000

5,000,000
13,000,000 1,000,000 15,000,000

....

THE

KHALIF

AL

MAMOUN.

Total of dirhems

276,503,000
Dinars.

productions and effects.

Kinnisrin
District of the Jordan
. . .

400,000
96,000

From
From
terra

Bahrein, 200 rich habits. the district of Thenetan,


each Sigillala, rotolus
at

240

rotoli of

Palestine

320,000
1,920,000

130

drachms,

Egypt
Yemen Damascus

(abouthalf a pound weight.) Ahwaz, sugar, 30,000 rotoli.

20,000 rotoli ; Hedjaz Kerman, 500 rich habits ; dates, senna,)1000 rotoli; Indian aloes, sind, (probably
150

370,000 420,000 300,000


Total of dinars 3,826,000

rotoli. bottles of rose-water


;

Fars,5000
of olive oil.

10,000 rotoli
The
;

5000 Sigistan,

piecesof

brocade

20,000

toli ro-

was

of the khalifate, entire revenue therefore, 276,503,000dirhems, and 3,826,000dinars ; if


we a

of sugar. of silver ; 4000 horses Khorassan, 2000 plates 3000 1000 slaves; 27,000 piecesof silk stuffs;
;

which

reckon

the

dirhem

equalto

four-

rotoliof

myrobolans. 1000 bundles of silk. Djordjan, of silver. Khoremis, 1000 plates Tabristan, Rouyan, Nehavend,
robes
; 500

dinar, or the dinar equal to threeof sevenths of a dirhem, will giveabout the sum It is impossible mate to esti280,000,000 dirhems.
tenths of in English money cause besum correctly, is unknown the true value of the dirhem ; it at its most probable but estimating value,four of 56,000,000/. it will give the sum shillings, of less than the revenue or 2,000,000/. sterling, this

600

carpets;
;

200 300

habits

; 300

handkerchiefs

and

napkinsfor

the bath.

Alexander from his Persian conquests. Rei, 20,000 rotoli of honey. indicative of as Hamadan, 1000 rotoliof preserves, called roTaking the above document it would of Persia, boss pomegranates ; 120,000 rotoliof the purest the revenues appear that the venues of Herodotus, namely, that the restatement honey. of that empire fell short of three millions Moussoul, 1000 rotoli of white honey. It might be, that no incorrect. was Kilan, 1000 slaves ; 200 borachios of honey ; sterling,
10 20 robes. pieces; Armenia,20 carpets; 10,000rotoliof
more was

paidin

money

oranges

earth,etc.,a very largerevenue

but in the fruits of the accrued to the solve


a

200

mules.

kings of Persia. This


at

would

difficulty
be
ducted con-

loads of dried raisins. 500,000 rotoliof dried raisins. Palestine,

Kinnisrin,1000

which

so

many
so so

stumble, rightly deeming it a


vast
a an

wonder, how
with

empire could
And reflect how

120 carpets. Africa,


Dirhems*

small
when

revenue.
we

this wonder

is increased rich the

immensely

monarchs

The
Basra

essouad gave in
.

of

the

districts of
value of

it would

the grain,

27,780,000 and
14,800,000 11,600,000 4,800,000 23,000
sums

Each proof Persia were. vince, treasure appear, had itspeculiar Both sacred and this

In money

bear

Kosker

Kordidjle
Holwan
Ahwaz Fars
. . .

20,800,000 of

history profane from the large found in several provinces which Alexander that mighty empire, he overthrew when Persia,
treasurer.

testimonyto

fact,and

it is evident
vast.

that their treasures

were

deed in-

Kerman Mekran Sind


. .

Sigistan
Khorassan

Curtius, Diodorus Siculus,Arrian, 27,000,000 and Plutarch,concur in saying that in Arbela, 4,200,000 and Ecbatana, he Pasagardae, Susa, Persepolis, 400,000 found 312,600 talents, (aboutseventy millions of 11,500,000 our money,) besides a quantity ver silof uncoined
4,000,000
.

28,000,000
12,000,000 1,500,000
.

Jorjan
Kumis
.

Tabristan,Rouvan, and Nehavend


Rei Hamadan Districtbetween Sheheressoul Masanderan
....

6,300,000
12,000,000

lected colwere and other coins. If these sums then it is evident that from the tribute, of the kingsof Persia were the revenues greater ing than those represented by Herodotus. Accordof India, under to Rennell, the revenue

Aurengzebe, amounted

to

32,000,000/. sterling,

Basra and Cufar


....

11,800,000 and this was by no means so vast an empire as 1,700,000 that of Persia. Sir John Malcolm, in his history 6,000,000 at 3,000,000/. of Persia, rates the presentrevenue
4,000,000 24,000,000
and sterling, Darius
was

Moussoul

observes that the similar. At the same

under revenue time he blames

Aderbijan
*

....

4,000,000 Dr. Robertson


is

The

dirhem

supposed

to

have

been

in value

four
revenue

shillings.

for not crediting cerning Herodotus, conthat the the Persian revenue, forgetting of a modern state, not the fifth part
D

84 of that which and

HISTORY

OF

THE

PERSIANS.

You the Persian give as if you were king ; empire of Darius, Your land does not so large revenues bring." its present desolated and depopulated tenth the the of is Which testifies not at the population, to once of their state, largeness and their liberality. rule for fixingthat of Darius Hystaspes. revenues no himself hears testimonyto the But under whatever But Herodotus cient system of taxation anPersia might have been, it would fact of revenues heingpaid in kind. There were appear for the furnishing that its subjects he says, made were contributions, This very prosperous. for the king'stable and victuals and provision be collected from the prodigious wealth of may and other necessaries, individuals. In the reign of Xerxes, a noble household : grain, forage, for the subsistence of his armies ; and horses for Lydian entertained the whole Persian army, the remountingof his cavalry. Of the province the largest ever assembled, on its march towards

constituted the

"

perhaps in

of

Babylon, he observes, that it


contributions
for four for the
account

furnished

the

whole

months.

This,

his

offered to contribute all Greece, and then freely property in gold and silver to the support of the
war :

would therefore,
sum

paid to
their

the

kings

of Persia.

small apparently They were armies


not
;

our

money,

this amounted to about four millions of which the monarch refused. In the of

furnished

selves, with the necessaries of life for them-

next

that reign,

Ahasuerus, Haman

offered to

household, and
And
this may

their be

and

was hence, the gold of their subjects

required
as a

at their hands.

adduced

to indemnifythe king for pay into the treasury, the loss of revenue which he would sustain by the destruction of the Jews, 10,000 talents of

wisdom, moderation, and humanity doubt they of the Persian government. Without

proof of
had

the

above silver, this monarch These

two

which millions of our money, Esth. iii. likewise refused. 9 11.


"

observed

how

difficultit is for the

people,
fering of sufrender

instances,says Dr.

Hales, of the prodigious

situated in countries not


to convert

benefited by

commerce,

goods into money losses ; whereas nothingcan


their

without tend
to

the taxes more easy, and to shelter the the from as vexation, trouble, and expense, takingin payment from each country such fruits and commodities the
as

wealth of provincial and even subjects, such were the Amalekites origincaptives, (for ally, and such was the originof Haman,) are of the Persian people highlycreditable to the liberality

government,
to

have

it

produces. By
easy, has

this

means

ancient
under

the whole, appears, upon least oppressive of the great were empires. The Jews, especially, been the much Persian the the be and indulgence lenity than they had been wards afterBabylonian,and were

which

contribution

becomes

natural, and
a

treated with the before under under It must

greater
sway,

equitable.

History, says Heeren,


instance
were

afforded
in which

able remark-

of the

manner

the

imposts

Macedo-Grecian

and

the

man. Ro-

collected

by

their officers or

the Persians had subdued the whole territory measured was

satraps.When Ionia the second time,


out

recollected, however, that the

wealth of Haman from his personalconarose nexion by parawith the Persian court, as did that of sangs, and the tribute paidaccordingly.In this it was ever, chief minister of the case Haman Nehemiah. was evidentlya land-tax,which, howwas paid,for the most part, in produce. king, and that functionary enjoys peculiar portunities opThe whether in of acquiringwealth. Such is the satrap received these imposts, kind or in money, at the present day. Morier and, after providingfor his case says, that on the king receives the offerings own expenditure,the support of the king's New year's-day, of the civil magission, trates, of his princesand nobles,and that on one occatroops, and the maintenance handed the remainder of the when he was was over to the present, the offering if he interest of the satrap, king. The personal every other person holding this office surpassed in gold wished to retain the king's in value, amounting to about 30,000/. favour,prompted him considerable as possible,coin. this return as to make fixed. if no precise of deliveringthese presents, The amount was even manner From all this itmay be seen, that the revenues of oriental despotism determines which the pride of the Persian empire were not so is thus described by the same as to be tribute, trifling from the statement tion would appear, at first sight, the introducThe first ceremony writer : was it is considered that different provinces. of Herodotus. And when of the presents from there were certain districts set apart for the That from prince Hossein Ali Mirza, governor first. The of the ceremaintenance of the queen'stoiletand wardrobe, of Shiraz,came master monies and another for her girdle, the conwalked ductor veil,etc., and that up, having with him these districtswere of great extent, they will of the present,and an attendant,who, and titles of the donor had been weighty. Sometimes, indeed, when the name appear still more have seen, (page 27,) the kings of Persia read aloud from a paper a listof the as we proclaimed, favourites become made their especial chargeablc-articles. The present from princeHossein Ali consisted of a very long train of large to certain districts and cities. All these charges Mirza would considerable trays placed on men's heads, on which were make, therefore, a very it would matter if added together. And amount etc. ; then many shawls,stuffsof ail sorts, pearls, but little, tricts,trays filled with sugar and sweetmeats received the fruits of these diswho ; after The vourites whether the king, the queen, or his faetc. that, many mules laden with fruits, from Ali Khan, next Mohammed was ; they might all be said to be collected present' for the support of the state. That the revenues of Hamadan, the eldest born of the king's prince of Persia were His present accorded with the character considered sons. very ample in ancient times,may be gathered from the fact that they which is assignedhim. It consisted of pistols noticed as such by ancient poets. Thus Perhundred are of one and spears, a string camels, and in his epistle the present of mules. After this, sius, came to Caesius Bassus, says : as many
"
"

HISTORY

OF

THE

PERSIANS.

85

One of these incidents will sufof Yezd, and other of the king's fice by Herodotus. the prince sons, for illustration. The same the who had which consisted of shawls and silken stuffs, Pythius entertained Xerxes with so much followed Then of his own town. manufacture magnificence, last of all, and who had offered all his wealth in support of that of the princeof Mesched ; and the war which that monarch that from was and most going to wage Hajee Movaluable, was ham ed Hossein Khan, Ameen It consisted of minister. with a fine cashmere covered ed

Doulah, prime
each each

fifty mules,
shawl, and

againstGreece, being intimidated by the prodigy of an eclipse, and deriving confidence from the liberality he had shown to Xerxes, thus addressed
him
no
"

load of 1,000 tomauns."* the presents of in which Such is the manner monarchs Persian the offered to are governors of the present day ; and as oriental habits are,

carryinga

Sir,"said he,

"

I entreat

favour

lesstrifling to you, than

Xerxes promisedto continued encouraged, who


are

to myself." important thus grant it; and Pythius,


" Sir, I have five sons, : in this Grecian expedition ;

for the most part, of an unchanging nature, the offered as an illustration of the be extract may offered at the in which manner presents were deed, refers. This, inperiod to which this history is confirmed by the Persepolitan tures. sculp-

you I would entreat you to pity my age, and dispense with the presence of the eldest. Take with you the four others,but leave this to manage my and affairs,
no sooner

all with

of accomplishment
THE

MILITARY

POWER.

monarch, great warriors.


were

in safety return after the Pythius had your wishes." uttered this request, than the haughty with rage, and forgetful transported may you
own

both of his All

and promise, his

Asiatic
these

nations

were

commanded Such
to
was

Among

the Persians nations,

not

the

the nature

the merits of Pythius, eldest son to be slain. of oriental despotism.


"

least remarkable for their military genius. This might arise in part from the situation of their mountainous. is rugged and country, which From
to

this circumstance, they were


and which frugalliving, of
man so

accustomed

speaksof a body of troopsappointed called the king'sguard,who were from the immortals." They derived this name circumstance of their body always consisting of
Herodotus
be the the
same

hard

impartsthat

number,
was

10,000 ; for

as

soon

as

one

ruggednessto
form the

the nature And the warrior. the

there

essential to ing being no softenand in

influences in the
of religion
to

generalmanners,

selected to fill his place. The establishment of this body very probablyhad its with the 10,000 whom origin Cyrus sent for out another died, be his guard. They were guished distinthe richness of their armour, and by their valour. Curtius mentions another body,
to

accustomed the

Persians,their minds became and their hands the deadlystrife,


terrible art.
Hence it
was

of Persia

by

skilful in the

that

in like manner of 15,000 men, designed consisting guard the monarch : these were called DoryTheir brute or pkori, strong must prey upon the weak. spearmen. of the Persians were that of other nations,and they The force exceeded a ordinary arms enabled were therebyto render them tributary.sabre, or scimitar,acinaces,as the Latins call of man This is the awful picture by nature in all them ; a kind of dagger,which hung in their belt the rightside ; and a javelin, on or pike, having ages of the world. iron at the end. a sharppointed They also made not unwas known As rolls the river into ocean, great use of the bow, and the sling
to
"

Persians,in due time, became masters of so of nature, the nations ; for,in the course many

In As

sable

torrent, widely streaming;

amongst

them.

The

Persians, when

opposing motion, proudly gleaming, Beats back the current a rood, many In curling foam and mingling flood ; While whirl and wave, breaking eddying Roused by the blast of winter, rave ; Through sparkling spray, in thundering clash, flash The lightningsof the waters
the sea-tide's In azure column

the head a tiara, on or engaged in war, wore all thick that it was so head-piece, proof against offensive
arms.

The

for the most foot soldiers, made their and of

part,wore
so

cuirasses

fitted to artificially not impede the motion members. The

brass,which were bodies,that they did

shore, That shines and shakes beneath the roar Thus and ocean the streams greet as With that madden as waves they meet, Thus join the bands whom mutual wrong
whiteness
on

In awful

the

horsemen

covered greaves, which legs. Their horses had flanks covered much

of the different agility wore or vambraces, their arms, thighs, and their and faces,chests,

with brass.

there is Concerningthe shields of the Persians, difference of opinion. It would appear, however, that they at firstmade use of very small Accordingto Strabo,the Persians were trained and light ones, made only of twigs of osier. their tender years, by up to the service from had shields of brass, which were passingthrough different exercises,as riding, Afterwards,they of great length. and as the bow. As soon they hunting, handling Before the age of Cyrus,the Persian and Median able to bear arms, were obligedto they were of archers, and those consisted chiefly in the list of soldiers, but they armies themselves enter used missile weapons. These who he reduced received no pay till they were twenty years of the rest at all points, that In war all bound, on pain to a very few, arming times,they were age. To they might be able to meet in close combat. disabled by age or of death, except such as were is ascribed also the introduction of chariots Cyrus ards, standunder their to appear infirmity, respective the Persians. of war These had been among and attend the king in his expeditions. longtime in use, as appears both from sacred and from two incidents related This may be gathered ancient an profanewriters. Homer, describing
*

And

reckless

fury drive along."

gold coin, worth

about

twelve shillings each.

war-chariot, says

36
"

HISTORY

OF

THE

PERSIANS.

Hebe

to

The
Shot Was

brazen
:

wheels, and
twice four the centre

the chariot rolled joined them to the

there
smooth

are

several

allusions interesting is referred.


;

in

Holy

Steel axle from

spokes
to

divided

each,
The verge

Writ, to which
civ. 3 The
;

the reader used

See Psa.

the verge.

Isa. lxvi. 15 method

gold,by fellies of eternal brass Guarded, a dazzling show ! The shining naves Were silver; silver cords, and cords of gold, blazed in front. crescents The seat upbore ; two she bound The pole was argent all,to which The golden yoke with its appendant charge,
Inserted braces, straps, and
bands of

Sol. Song vi. 12 ; Hab. iii. 8. by Cyrus,in order to obtain

his soldiers in times of discipline perfect among them to fatigue, and keepby inuring ing peace, was them To employed in laborious works. he accustomed for battle, them to prepare them mock them engagements, in which he inspired with resolution and courage by exhortation, mendation, comand reward. When the Persians went on an expedition, their

gold."

This
which onlv of

extract

exhibits the
of of

to great perfection

the

before the
two

had attained chariot-building chariots had These Cyrus. days generallydrawn by wheels, and were
art

wives, mothers, and


was

children for

followed

the

four horses and the both

abreast, with

two

men

in each

; one

which camp ; a custom oriental nations. The


was

observed

motive

all among this custom

valour,who distinguished

engaged the enemy, the chariot. Cyrus altered another to guide form of the chariot,and thereby enabled

the driver of the chariot and the warrior to the He also caused in the combat. engage chariots to be made stronger, and the axle-trees of lengththan usual,in order to prevent

them with courage, lest they should inspire lose every thing that was dear to them in life. carried on Their provisions and baggage were camels, the soldiers simplybearingtheir arms.
to

The may be

manner

in which

the the march

Persians marched
which description of the army of

greater

gathered from Herodotus gives of the


"

First of all went Sardis. those Xerxes from overturning. History records, moreover, affixed that deadly who the first who that he was had the care of the baggage ; these were of which such to the chariot, the scythe, followed by a promiscuousbody of strangers of weapon, At a later in after ages. made cruel use was all nations,without but to the regularity, any After these than half the army. of more amount date,the Persians added iron spikesat the end in order to pierceevery thing that for these did not join of the pole, was a considerable interval, in the way, and sharpknives at the hinder the troops where the king was. Next came 1000 came from the flower of the Persian army, who were horse, part of the chariot,to prevent any one or meeting their warriors on in of spearmen, number succeeded taking possession, by the same used their own their pikes upon like manner ground. These chariots were selected, trailing and they were the these were sacred ten ground. Behind many ages by the eastern nations, of armies, horses, strength looked upon as the principal called Nisaean,*with very superb trappings. and as an apparatus of victory, The sacred car of Jupiter ensurance next in the as an was terror into the hearts of best calculated to inspire white horses, procession.It was drawn by eight their the enemy. In

however, proportion,

as

the

behind

which, .on

was foot,

the

with charioteer,

covered disthe reins in his hands,for no mortal was art improved,inconveniences were military permitted laid himself in finally Then Xerxes in them, and they were to sit in this car. came chariot drawn aside. For in order to reap any advantagefrom a by Nisaean horses ; by his side that vast and extensive whose name was sate his charioteer, them, it was Patiramphes, necessary woods, or vineyards, son of Otanes the Persian. devoid of rivulets, plains, in even of the strife. And Xerxes departed should be the scene Such was the order in which useless. became he such eventually from Sardis ; but as often as occasion required they places, One thousand left his chariot for a common ation Man, ever fruitfulin invention for the preservcarriage.t
"

of his

foes,in order
upon them in

of the first and noblest Persians attended his to the custheir spears according tom person, bearing covered of mischief, disthese terrible machines selected like of their country ; and 1000 horse, of trenches rendered A body of that the cutting the former, immediately succeeded.
own

life and

the

to counteract

the

destruction of his evils attendant

of

no

avail.

and its force would

the war-chariot

course.

archers, and

cuted, exeaccordingly came next ; 1000 of these 10,000 chosen infantry stoppedmid-way had at the extremity of their spears a pomegranate the of gold; the remaining9000, whom Sometimes, also, the opposing attack the chariots with slingers,former enclosed, had in the same manner granates pomeselves who, spreading themof silver. They who preceded Xerxes, spearmen,

This

was

was

on pour such a storm every hand, would panying and lances upon them, accomof stones, arrows, that the attack with fearful war-cries, they terrified the horses,and often made them

and with

trailed their spears, had their arms gold; they who followed him of

decorated had granates pome-

by

an

followed gold; these 10,000 foot were of Persian cavalry. At an equalnumber


a

turn

upon they would of which

their
render

own

forces.

At other

times, interval of about


pable incanumerous,

quarter of

mile, followed

the chariots useless and

multitude." and promiscuous irregular,


says that these horses See page 24, which remarks mounted
were

operation by simply marching over the separated the two armies with space the and advancingupon alacrity, extraordinary in them time had to before put they enemy motion ; for the strengthand execution of the chariots proceededfrom the lengthof their warcourse.

Suidas

also

remarkable
the Nisaean

for swiftness. horses.

speaks of

+ Larcher
heroes
were

that the Harmamaxe

was

carriage
the
a

appropriatedto

females.
on

Lucretius says that horses, for chariots were

first
more

This it was To
was

to their

motion, without

less.

chariot

His words invention. modern are, gave that impetuosity harm which they were well rein'd steeds in ancient time, on Mounted the warwith which the impetuosity the use of chariots was Before brought in, in war The first brave heroes fought." to be urged onwards wont

which

"

38

HISTORY

OF

THE

PERSIANS.

like strong active bodies,that appear


nerves

to

be

all which Xerxes.

part :
their have the and

and at the and been

sinews, and
same so

full of

in spirits
so

every

time

they were

well seemed

manded, com-

prompt in obeying the orders of

leaders,that the whole


actuated

body

by

one

soul." the effect of

had Luxury, therefore,

enervating

scribed
the
to
The

of a hymn by the poet in his description magi are supposed to have sung before

magi ranged
blazed

Fire

They
From Who

soldier of Persia.

Once

rugged

is it not ? the ranks of the soldiers of the cross so among for the faith Where is now the mighty strivings Where that of the gospel, in days of old ? as

invincible in courage, he became of indulgence. And gloryby an excess

in nature, shorn of his

in purest white, before the' unfolded tent. them. Towards the sacred flame turned, and sent their tuneful praise to heaven. Zoroaster the song derived, was beside the hills of

"

Robed

on

Persia,from
and

his cave

By
How

flowers

environed,

melodious

founts,
had revealed

Which

sooth'd

the solemn

mansion,

holyboldness
One

in the confession of Christ crucified?

and goes to the feast of the merry-hearted, and thus of amusement, another to the scene and Christian duties are of the cross, who strive to his banners, the exhortation which cleave unto is fraught with the apostleaddresses to you Christian watchfulness

forgotten.Soldiers

of good, Horomazes, radiant source the globe Original,immortal, framed In fruitfulness and beauty : how with stars were By him the heavens spangled : how the sun RefulgentMithra, purest spring of light And genial warmth, whence teeming nature smiles, Burst from the east at his creating voice ; When straightbeyond the golden verge of day, the horrors of her distant reign, Night showed Where black and hateful Arimanius frowned, The author foul of evil
:

how

with

shades the works heat

From his dire mansion Of Horomazes; turn'd The That Of solar

he

deformed earth

to noxious

meaning
the
on

brethren,be strong in : Finally, my Lord, and in the power of his might. Put be of God, that ye may the whole armour
"

beam,

that foodful

might parch

streams, exhaling, might forsake their beds, Whence pestilenceand famine : how the power
Horomazes in the human and breast from heaven

the wiles of the devil. For against not againstflesh and blood, but the against against principalities, powers, against rulers of the darkness of this world, against wickedness in high places. Wherefore spiritual able to stand wrestle we of God, that ye take unto you the whole armour in the evil day, and be able to withstand may Stand therefore, having done all, to stand. having your loins girt about with truth, and

equity infused, Truth, temperance, and wisdom, sprang


When
With Arimanius falsehood blacken'd and violence and all the soul with injustice,

Benevolence

desires

with Insatiable, and Malignity Of Horomazes

rage, folly.If the hand


on

life precarious

Sheds wealth

having on

of righteousness the breast-plate ; and of the gospel your feet shod with the preparation of peace ; above all, taking the shield of faith,

pleasure,swift the' infernal god. With wild excess or avarice,blasts the joy. dost give. Thou, Horomazes, victory By thee with fame the regal head is crown'd. Great Xerxes When in storms owns thy succour.
and The The The This When E'en Before
as

hate

of direful master

Arimanius o'er its

swell'd

Hellespont, thou
destined

ye shall be able to quench all the fiery of of the wicked. And take the helmet is which and the sword of the Spirit, salvation,

wherewith
darts

day

his

Greece

chafing breast didst lead, to enjoy : promised glories shall bend to his arm affrighted
of the world fall
no

at last shall Arimanius

thy might,

and

evil be

more."

"

Glover.

the word and

of God

alwayswith praying
the

all prayer

and extract from the pen of Sir John The following Spirit, watching and supplicationMalcolm of Zoroaster's exhibits the principles for all saints," in a very lucid manner. God, he also, Eph. vi. 10 18. Being thus religion, like let taught, and was armed and rendered at all points, invincible, existed from all eternity, he There be that which was of time and were, adoptedby infinity your watchword space. but in the universe, averred,two principles good and good old Polycarp of old, Christ, none in supplication

thereunto with all perseverance


"

"

"

Christ !"
-

evil : the the


THE

one

was

named

PRIESTLY

POWER.

presiding agent of
Ahriman,
of

other

all that was the lord of evil.

Hormuzd, which denoted good ; and the


Each and of these
was

It has been

seen

in the

sections corresponding

had

and Medes, that of the historiesof the Assyrians under the magi, as their priests were called,a

the power exercised with

but that power creation, itwas

opposite designs ;

from

species of
The
sun,

the

Sabian

prevailed. evil superstition


divine from
ship, worone

and moon, while the more God of


was

received planets ancient


not

belief in the
effaced

admixture of good and their co-action that an in every created thing. The found was of Hormuzd, or the good principle, sought angels and the the elements, the seasons, to preserve human race, which the infernal agents of Ahriman of good alone, desired to destroy; but the source fore thereand must the great Hormuzd, was eternal, the

supreme

wholly

the

minds

their

votaries.

When

caste triumphed,this priestly been regarded as and seems to have influence, hostile to the new dynasty. Hence, wherever the Persian monarchs establishedtheir sway, they became bitter persecutorsof the priests.They

the Persians of its lost much

laid

heavy hand

upon

the sacerdotal caste

in

Egypt, and the Chaldeans in Babylon. Cyrus in the open air towards and effected great religious upon itsaltar ; and when adoptedthis policy, and that by the sun, as the noblest of all lights, changes in the systems of the magi. To what the which God sheds his divine influence over carried in extent, however,these changeswere his day is unknown whole earth, and perpetuates the work of his ; but it is certain that the creation." revolution was completedby Zoroaster, whose of Zoroaster is unknown, in The devised by unassisted era system is the most perfect precise
human
reason.

prevail.Light was the type of ultimately and God good, darkness of the evil spirit; is concealed had said unto Zoroaster, My light of the disciple all that shines.' Hence under he performshis devotions in when that prophet, towards the sacred firethat burns turns a temple,
'

His

system

has

been

well

de-

which

respecthe resembles

Bouddha, the author

HISTORY

OF

THE

PERSIANS.

39

of the system of Lamaism, concerningwhose learned existence and time of appearance much The to no purpose. controversyhas taken place

the Persian

commonalty were

in

state of servile

to their magian instructors, subjection as the just modern Hindoos are, under the bramins, or the

in Spainand Portugal, under the rule of Greeks have made no less than six Zoroasters, papists the teachers of Rome. The consequence in different ages of the world. and placed them was, that science and flourished under literature never The Sadder, which is a compend of the sacred hooks of the Persian priests, contains the genemagian domination as they did in Greece and alogy And Rome. of Zoroaster. It states that Zeratush,or why was it? Because the noble faculties of the mind were enslaved. who was the the son of Purthasp, was Zoroaster,
son

of

the Piterasp,

son

of

Thechshunesch, the

the Parsees in his beingcalled the son him for his immediate ancestor, whereas his remote parent. In the chronicle

Hence

the son Hitcherasp, of Espintaman. Surat and Bombay, from mistook of Espintaman, of
son

"'Tis Of And

he of

was

the

Persian

which kings,

to professes

the Shah of Ferdusi's work, in the as living Nameh, Zoroaster is represented

be denominated

an

ment abridg-

alone that gives the flower liberty life its lustre and perfume, fleeting weeds without it. All constraint, we are Except what wisdom lays on evil men, Is evil ; hurts the faculties, impedes Their progress in the road of science;blinds The eyesight of discovery; and begets In those that suffer it a sordid mind, unfit a meagre Bestial, intellect, be the tenant of man's noble form."
"

To

Cowper,

reign of Gushtasp,or Hyde fixes his existence


scribe
;

Darius

Hystaspes. Dr.
of Ezra
as

at the time

the the

and

Prideaux

considers him
a

poraneous contem-

the

It is remarkable,that the ancient Persians, like torian, Hindoos, never native hisproduceda single

or poet. philosopher, knowledge and skill of the Persian magi in religious Plato define matters, (which made magic, or the learningof the magi, the art of worshippingthe gods in a becoming manner,) the Jews none both with the prince are can deny. So striking among gave them great authority, and they, indeed, that the resemblance sufficiently people. They could not offer sacrifices

with, and

of disciple

Daniel

these authorities are agreedthat he must have borrowed several of his doctrines other of these eminent Jews. from one That or of his doctrines resemble those inculcated some

prophet. Both

The

to a Divine commission, and prove him to have been an impostor. It is true that many learned men adduce this circumstance in his favour,and borrow their argument for the

refutes his claims

without their presence


even

and ministration. It

was

that requisite

well as from it, of his pretensions as sincerity from his acquaintance with Daniel and Ezra. But
was

should be crown, he determine any when he was sulting upon the throne,without first conthem. Hence it was, that Plinyasserts, that even in his time they were looked upon as the masters of princes, and of those who gated arrothe titleof " king of kings." to themselves

before he came to the king, instructed by them ; nor could affair of the state, important the

this would

make

of which faith, he ought the acknowledgedteachers, they were for being thus,in Providence, to have been grateful

instructedby them

the matter in the true

worse.

If he

They
men

were,

and indeed,the sages, philosophers, the druids


were

brought out of darkness into marvellous of and to the knowledge of the method light, graciously, though not recovery to fallen man, But instead of revealed to mankind. yet fully
code of faith, to form a new the old one, without any reference to his Jewish or instructors, recommending their faith to his countrymen. He even farther went than the Hebrew to lawgiver. Moses professed he this,
set himself
or

of

in Persia, as learning the

in

Gaul, and
Their from

bramins

amongst the

Indians.

to mend

for learning attracted many reputation the most distant countries to be instructed and religion are ; and we by them, in philosophy rowed bortold that it was from them, that Pythagoras the principles of that doctrine by which he the Greeks, veneration among so much acquired

teach the Jews

divine

pretended that his

knowledgeonly; Zoroaster book contained every thing

which he the tenet of transmigration, excepting learned of the Egyptians, and by which he corrupted the ancient doctrine of the magi,concerning

of the soul. the immortality in to know, whether literature or science, or politics, religion According to Herodotus, the Persians adored morality when it firstappeared in or physics. That the work was not of God is the sun, and particularly veneration. proved by its beingbroughtto nought ; nothing the morning, with the profoundest is now To that bright works but orb,they dedicated a magnificent preservedof that prophet's" with white horses of great beautyand what has been merely remembered, and handed chariot, down value, their swiftness being thought to render by oral tradition. them to that luminary. With the speculative there an offering tenets of Zoroaster, appropriate combined a system of castes, the introduction was They are supposedto have worshippedthe sun of Mithra, the primitive is attributed by Ferdusi to Jemshid. cave under the name of which rice These the Amuzban, or magi; the castes were worshipof which god is thus described by Maumen : Nisari,or militai'y ; the Nesoodee, or husbandartists. or ; and the Ahmenshuhi, the dark cliffs of rugged Taurus Where rise, From given of According to the usual accounts torn, age to age by blastinglightnings illumined the from In skies, the Hindoo glory bursting the Persian magi, they resembled Fair Science poured her first auspiciousmorn. tude. bramins, being a separate caste from the multiThis is the very essence of all priestcraft, watched The hoary Parthian by night seers, who ledge for by such exclusiveness theykeep all the knowThe eternal fire in Mithra's mystic cave, in of which theyare possessed and learning light (Emblem sublime of that primeval Which to yon stariy orbs their lustre gave,) their own hands,and communicate onlywhat they Under such a system, to their votaries. please

necessary for the Persians

"

"

"

"

',

4U

HISTORY

OF

THE

PERSIANS.

Exulting
And Mid While

gradual splendours break, all their warbling lyres; frozen glooms the muses wake, Scythia's happier India glows with all their fires."
saw

its

swept symphonious

to

Herodotus and Strabo say that the sacrificedhorses to the sun, a circumstance which Ovid alludes thus : Both
"

Nothing and hence we likely, similar usages trace many sians practised Perby the Hebrew priests and the magi,
with of reference
to

that the ancient reformer of the Persian religion borrowed his idea of sacred fire from that which burned on the altar of Jehovah. is more

the sacred

fire.

The

altar

"

The horse, renowned for welcome victim to the

speed, the Persians god of day. in


a more

Jehovah, in its removals, was to be covered with a purplecloth, and the ashes taken out. It
with fire againfrom another altar was supplied kept constantly burningfor that purpose. "When that great us but that which was reputed clean should be employed for fuel ; and it was all carefully barked and examined fore beit was The fire, used. was also, never to be blown upon, either with bellows,or the breath of man. of Zoroaster were The regulations
care was

slay,

It has been
some period,

that supposed,

remote

it was

the rabbins inform rekindled, taken that


no

eminent hero, or
was

benefactor, public

wood

whose

name

been had, after his death, Mithras,

deified; because in certain ancient Persian monuments Mithras is represented as a mighty hunter, with a sword, having a tiara on his head, armed and riding that the Persians a bull. It is possible conceived the soul of this hero to be resident in the sun, and that they afterwards transferred
their

similar to these. He strictly that the enjoined fire which he pretended to have brought from

heaven should be carefully under his name. worshipto the sun itself, kept up, that barked wood the natural and that it quence conseonly should be used for fuel, worshipof fire was of the adoration which the Persians paid should be revived onlyby the blasts of the open or to the sun. Herodotus says, that they paid parby oil being poured upon it. It was death, ticular air, in Persia, veneration to that element,and Xenophon to cast upon itany unclean thing, or to that they always invoked it firstat their blow it with the bellows or the breath,by which asserts it would be polluted.For this reason, the priests sacrifices ; that they carried it with great respect before the king in his expeditions; and that themselves, although they watched the fireday and night, never of their sacred they entrusted the preservation approached it but with a cloth their mouths, that their breath might not over down from fire, which, as theypretended,came but the magi. The heaven, to none ancient mingle with the fire. This they did, not only when itwith fuel, indeed,dared not by their religion Persians, theyapproacheditto replenish extinguish

The

fire with water; but endeavoured or to do any other service about it, but also when to itwith earth, similar ; they pronounced their forms of prayer before it, stones, or anything and which, therefore, which a superstition still influences the parsees rather than they mumbled of Guzerat. The loss of their sacred fire would spoke. The same forms are observed among the modern have been deemed who believe that it was a national calamity. Hence parsees of India, we informed that the emperor are quently conveyed to that country,and, conseHeraclius, ultimately when he was that theystill with the Persians, having at war aster possess the fire which Zorodemolished several of their temples, and particubroughtfrom heaven. Among the Persians, larly the chapel in which the sacred fire had been this sacred fire was to be rekindled onlyfrom the from some other sacred or preserved until that time, it occasioned great sun, or with a flint, which is further analogous to the usages of fire, the whole mourning and lamentation throughout the Hebrews. country. It has been alleged In more modern that the Persians did not a sacred fire was days, adopted but only worworshipthe sun or fire absolutely, by many other nations. The Greeks had a perpetual 1 fire at Delphos and other places. The shipped God, as far -as they knew him, before also in the temple of the goddess one these, the most glorious visible symbols of his Romans | and perfections. This may have been Vesta,whose worship amongst them consisted energies the original in the preservation of the fire which was doctrine of Zoroaster. He might chiefly have considered them merely as representatives consecrated to her. in The ancient Gauls, also, of Omnipotence,and the Fountain of light. But the deep recesses of their forests and groves, which were the idea seems had a sacred fire contheir temples, to have been too refined for the tinually and which they of the vulgar, gard burningon their altars, gross capacities who, without reto the great invisible Prototype, At the present turned all regarded with greatveneration. smother their

day,the Hindoos, althoughthey are not worshippers careful about the origin of fire, of that are by the the mass of the people symbols, forgot altogether which they use for sacred purposes. the God that is above," or remembered One fearful consequence from the worship him but arising of fire was, the cruel ceremony while the sun of making and fire Usurped his place faintly, in their affections. children pass through it,amid the sounding of drums and tabrets. Sacred fire was not to the Persian peculiar magi. It was kept perpetually burning on the with blood Moloch, horrid king, besmeared
to thoughts

the adoration

of these ostensible Misled

deities. This
"

cannot

be denied.

"

altar before the tabernacle

in the and

and wilderness,
never

Of human

sacrifice and from the noise

the

parent'stears

temple at Jerusalem

-was

to go

Though,

It was out, Lev. vi. 13. in kindled from heaven the times of Aaron, Lev. ix. 24 ; of David, 1 Chron. xxi. 26 ; of Solomon, 2 Chron. vii. 1 and
;

of drums and timbrels loud, The children's cries unheard that passed through tire To his grim idol." Milton.
"

be rekindled with strange fire, nor any other to be used in sacrificesunder of penalty death,Lev. x. 1, 2. It appears evident,indeed,
was

not

to

There is an allusion to this fearful practice, 2 Kings xvii. 31, where the sacred historian, j enumeratingthe different gods of the peopleof J Mesopotamia,who were sent as a colonyinto the |

HISTORY

OF

THE

PERSIANS.

41

about five-and-twenty were men, with their country of the Samaritans, says of the Sephar- altar, their children in fire to backs toward the temple of the Lord, and their that they hurned vites,* faces toward the east ; and they worshippedthe and Anammelech,f the gods of Addrammelech
or to Moloch Sepharvaim,and which answers king." See also Lev. xviii. 21; 2 ; 1 Kings xi. 7 : Amos v. 26 ; Acts vii. 43. xx. sun

toward
seen

the east. O this, of Judah


son

Then of
man

Molech, "the

thou

he said unto me, Hast ? Is it a light thingto the abominations

the house which

that

they commit
here ? for

filled cordingthe land with violence, Acof Asia. and have returned to proprovinces many voke to anger : and, lo,they put the branch me to Herodotus,the Persians erected neither Therefore but to their nose. will I also deal in fury: altars to their gods, nor statues,nor temples, mine eye shall not spare, neither will I have pity and geneoffered their sacrifices in the open air, : rally
custom

It is well known

that this barbarous

came be-

theycommit

theyhave

in prevalent

on high places. It and though they cry in mine ears with a loud hear them," Ezek. that many viii. argue they voice, yet will I not 18. is declared to be the But this is vague reasoning. 16 This, therefore, not idolaters. were makes whether an man It is no matter image of greatest of all abominations. And what is the " The apostlePaul replies ? visible For the inhands, and calls reason : something visible with his own on

the

or tops of hills,

is from

this circumstance

"

it a resemblance
;
or

ingly of God, and worshipsit accordsupposing something visible in the

world

are

things of him from the creation of clearly seen, being understood by


are

the the and

material universe to be a similitude of God, as the or water, he adores that symbol,though sun, fire, he does
no

thingsthat
Godhead
him
not

made,
that

even

his eternal power

; so

not

make

visible

It is
own

matter

self, himhands, or he adopts it for his god. It is still a supposed


a

it be fabricated whether, beingmade by God whether

of it. representation by his

when that, as God, neither

cause they are without excuse : beGod, they glorified they knew
were

thankful

but became

vain in their imaginations, and their foolish heart was darkened," Rom. i. 20, 21.

also was similitude of the Almighty,stilla material, Among the magi,water, as well as fire, looked upon as a sacred element,and as a symbol stillthe thingmade, not worship, spiritual of the Divine purity of the Creator's not to be the Maker, still the creature ; and, consequently, defiled. For this reason, wherever And skill and power, not the Creator himself. they were, this is comprehended in the second ment, commandthey caused the waters to be watched, that no unclean thingmight be thrown into them. wherein any image,or any likeness of any They in the visible heavens, or in the fire whether held,indeed, that whoever polluted wilfully thing, is strictlyor water, deserved death in this world, and punearth,or in the waters under the earth, ishment in that which is to come. The worshipping of such forbidden to be made. That terrible sanctions. the monarchs of Persia claimed divine under the most was prohibited scriptions. The Hebrew And lawgiver gives the honours is abundantlytestified by various inwhy?
not
reason

the

" of similitude on For ye saw no manner that the Lord spake unto you in Horeb Deut. iv. 15. "Ye out of the midst of the fire," tude similiheard the voice of the words, but saw no

One
"

at

Naksh-i-Rustam

reads thus

day

shipper face,or resemblance, of the worof Ormuzd, the god Schapoor, king of the and Tarkings of Airan and Anairan, (Persia

This

is the

only ye

heard

voice,"ver.
the
a

12.
sun

See also is declared that

of tary,) of of

the

race

of the

gods,son

of the

servant

Isa. xl. 18.

The

worship of
to be

by

the

prophet Ezekiel
even

tion greater abominaof he imagery,

Ormuzd, the divine Artaxeres, king of the kings of Airan, of the race of the gods,grandson
the divine

than

that of the the

worshipof fire. In

Papek,

the

king."
"

Another This

at

vision prophet's
was

of the chambers

Tackt-i-Bostan

is thus transcribed

isthe

lent symbolsof Egyptianidolatry,image of the adorer of Ormuzd, the most excelairan, a king of kings of Airan and AnSchapoor, great abomination. from the divine race, and grandin women descended son idolatry, of the excellent Narschi,king of kings."The weeping for Tammuz, the Sason fact is proved also by the legends same Whose annual wound in Lebanon allured Du Sacy. sanian as explained coins, by The Syrian damsels to lament his fate first shown
was

which

declared to be Next he beheld the Phenician

"

While Ran Of

In amorous ditties all a summer's day; smooth Adonis, from his native rock,

On
of
a man

one

of these
are seen

coins,the head and

shoulders

purple to the sea, supposed Thammuz, yearly wounded.""


to be
a

with

blood

Milton.

This

is declared
than the
"

tion stillgreater abominathe of

After this, one. preceding says prophet, He broughtme into the inner court the Lord's

house, and, behold,at the door of the temple of the Lord, between the porch and the
Calmet thinks that these are the Saspires mentioned Armenia and by Herodotus, as dwelling between Colchis,
*

from the midst of a flame rising and the altar. This is supposedto express on is and that light that fire is the light, exemplify tenets of the of the religious God. Such was one magi. Besides this,they held the doctrine of unfolded his God seven by whom intelligences, The firstof these intelligences will to mankind. the second over animals,the over man, presided third
over

fifth over

the earth,the fourth over water, the the sixth over fire, plantsand vegetables,

from all nature and the seventh preserved minor these were to pollution.Subordinate it was given or demons, to whom tutelary angels, months, and even over to preside days. particular These also were worshipped. trine to denote It appears that the magi maintained the docidol ; the seem two names the same t These and distinction. being merely epithetsof honour which was prefixed words most of a resurrection, probably and others think that the two Cudworth names borrowed from the Jews. Concerning the place refer to the same denotes idol, and the originalHebrew under of punishment, hells, bat one they reckoned seven god.
and

Major Rennell, would have occupied in modern Eastern Armenia is name geography. The probably to be sought in that of Siphara, a city on the the river Babylon, at that part where Euphrates, above the nearest approach to Assyria Proper. makes

who, according

to

42

HISTORY

OF

THE

PERSIANS.

called Vunnund whose the charge of an angel Izid, struggle must constantly exist in the Divine and darkness,good and evil ! duty it was to decide upon the punishmentdue to mind between light the transgressor, and also to restrain the cruelty And piouswriters assert that this tenet yet some As fire was is derived from of Ahriman. regardedby them as Scripture! Alas! they have emblematical of the Divine essence, it was that the sacred page describes him not forgotten as of future torthe Holy One admitted into their representations Israel ; as a Being in whom ment. of was and no darkness at all, Hell, a subterraneous theysaid, 1 John i. 5 ; as a prison, is light, and darkness, where filled with smoke of the fathers upon angelsin God, who visits the iniquities human souls. and

inhuman

forms

tormented

the

lost

the

Exod. children,

xx.

5 ;

as

the Lord who

"

will

and crows, by their perthe wicked," Nah. i. 3 ; as a BeSerpents, frogs, ing petual not at all acquit and crowing, said the seraphim were before whom veil their faces with hissing, croaking, the punishment. their wings, and continually to heighten proclaim, Holy, Another feature in the magian religion holy, holy,is the Lord of hosts,"Isa. vi. 2, 3 ; as was, This was borrowed in whose a God the prophet, judicial demned, self-conevidently astrology. presence from the Chaldeans, whom said itis usually exclaimed, " Woe is me ! for I am unamong done that this delusive art originated. Cicero says, I am of unclean lips, a man and I ; because that the Chaldeans, where dwell in the midst of a people vast plains, of unclean lips inhabiting : for they had a full view of the heavens on every side, mine eyes have seen the King,the Lord of hosts," Isa. vi. 5 ; as the Father of lights the first who the course observed of the were and spirits, Jas. mankind the effects i. 17 ; Heb. xii.9 ; as One from whom stars,and the firstwho taught proceedeth which Of were as the Lord thought to be owing to them. gift; glorious every good and perfect their observations Exod. xv. 1 1 ; as a Being that no morthey made a science, whereby in holiness," tal look upon and live, can Exod. xxxiii. 20 ; as they pretendedto be able to foretell to every one what was God who is rich in mercy," Eph. ii.4 ; as a ordained to befall him,and what fate was a
" " "

him and

Chaldea this vain birth. From science spread into various countries in the east, from his
even now

Beingin
should

whose

presence

none

shall stand if he
3 ;
as as a an

do not yield and a in this respect, there being has said to the children of men, to their ancestors in life concerning for I am 1 Pet. i. 16 ; etc. scarcelyany circumstance holy," the

orientals existing

Psa. cxxx. iniquities, God, Josh. xxiv. .19; jealous


"

mark

holy holy;

God who
ye

Be

which

tables or astrological astrologers In


some

are a

not

Alas for human intellect ! which, havingsuch sublime notions of

consulted.

it forms countries,
in the education of their

very

the
can

Almighty

prominentfeature
Allusion has

youth.

yet so far

|and

supreme ! formed Take this away, and but a few years would pass a before our knowledge of the Almightywould be them magi. The tenets of Zoroaster concerning pendent obscured ; before mankind would fall one were, that there was Supreme Being,indeuniversally down and self-existing from all eternity created being in at the shrine of some ; that

Ahriman,

alreadymade to Ormuzd good and evil god. These principal part of the worship of the
been the

in the Bible, represented him with the recognize described by Zoroaster being thus erringly What is the Bible to mankind ! a blessing
as err as

these

to

Ormuzd and worship; before a mental darkness would usurp angels, which the angel of light the placeof the glorious hath gospel, and the author of good,and the other the angel shined in our hearts,to give the lightof the of darkness and the author of all evil ; that these knowledge of the glory of God in the face of in a perpetual struggle Jesus Christ,"2 Cor. iv. 6. with each angelswere other ; and that where the angelof light prevails, In the propheciesof Isaiah there is this there good reigns Lowth remarkable and others conthat where the angelof sider ; and verse, which has reference to the great principle of the darkness prevails, there evil takes place ; that this which in Persia in shall continue to the end of the world ; prevailed magian religion, struggle that then there shall be a generalresurrection the time of Cyrus. and a day of judgment,wherein all shall receive and create darkness I form the light, : a just retribution accordingto their works ; after evil : I make peace, and create which the angel of darkness and his disciples I the Lord do ail these things."" Isa. xlv. 7. shall go into a world of their own, where they shall suffer in eternal darkness the punishment This remarkable declaration is equally opposed of their evil deeds ; and the angel of lightand co-eternal principles, or to the doctrine of two his disciples shall also go into a world of their evil. of all good and created principles two here declares that he is the Almighty own, where they shall receive in everlasting light Jehovah the reward due unto their good deeds ; that after to Ruler, and that nothingcan act in opposition this they shall remain separate for ever, and light his will, and that there is no power independent and darkness remain unmixed God. to all eternity. In other words, he of the one supreme The reader will perceive how of all that is true, declares that he is the Author unworthy and these notions are unscriptural concerningGod. holy, good, and happy ; while, permitted evil, In them he is said to be the author of both good error, and misery,brought into the world by and evil. The restrained and overruled are apostlePaul, oppressedby the man's apostasy, by of the two opposite to struggle In opposition him to his righteous principles, grace and purposes. the old man notions held and the new the corruption, the unworthy and unphilosophical man, law of his members and the law of his mind, it as his prerogative by the magi, he challenges "O form exclaimed, wretched that I am! who to make man evil;" alone to peace, and create shall deliver me from the body of this death?" do all these and create the light, darkness ;" to Rom. vii. 24. in to create or control all power If, therefore, ;" that is, analogical reasoning things be here admitted,what an infinitely I heaven or on earth. may painful there
were

under

him

two

Ahriman,

one

of whom

was

"

"

"

"

"

HISTORY

OF

THE

PERSIAN8.

4a

Drop down,
And Let And

above, ye heavens, from let the skies pour down righteousness: the earth open, and let them bring forth
let

3.

salvation,

that which eyes from coveting To have a care always to To attend meddle book

belongsto another. speak the truth. 4.

righteousness spring
have created
"

I the Lord

up together; it." Isa. xlv. 8.

not

the

and to his sacerdotal functions, closely with worldly matters. 5. To con of the law by heart,that he may be
6.

might be expected, the magi in Persia always able to instruct the multitude therein. To keep himself pure and undefiled. 7. To the guardians of all ceremonies to were relating divine worship. It was that the people ready to forgiveinjuries, to them showing himself
As
had
recourse

be
a

teach the common and after what day, to what gods, and to know peopleto pray accordingto the law, and to pray on 9. To what manner, to offer their sacrifices. with them. give licenses for marriage, they were and to take care that parents do not marry dren chiland as none all of one As the magi were tribe, in order
to be

instructed

therein, patternof meekness.

8. To

without his approbation. 10. To spend the priestcould pretend to the of his time in the temple, that he all monopolized greatestpart priesthood, they in religious may be ready to assist all who come whether 11. to him. knowledge and all learning, To believe no other law than that given by Zoroaster; and families. to themselves or concerns, political to add to take unlawful for them to instruct any stranger It was nothing thereto, nor in these matters, without the king'spermission. aught therefrom. derived Many of these precepts are evidently Hence, when the favour was grantedto Themisfrom the Hebrew Scriptures. tocles,it was, says Plutarch, the effect of the It would appear that the ancient Persians kept favour. monarch's peculiar six festivals annually,in memory divided of the six into three classes. The magi were The first class consisted of inferior priests, who they believed all things were seasons, wherein created. ceremonies the ordinary of religion After each of these feasts, conducted they kept a ; fast of five days,in memory of God's resting five the sacred fire;the the second presided over the archimagus,or high priest, who at each of those seasons. third was days,as they believed, the whole order. over fowl,or fish, authority they carried a possessed They When they ate flesh, small portion of temples. First, common of it to the temple as an offering had three kinds to him that he would pardon them in which the people performed their God, beseeching oratories, the sacred fire was der devotions, and where served for takingaway the lives of his creatures, in orprein lamps ; second, publictemples, with subsistence. to their own of the the fire was altars,on which Concerning the dignity and sanctity kept constantly the higher order the Persians entertained of the magi matrimonial institution, burning,where directed the public devotions, and the people similar degradingnotions with the Babylonians. assembled hear carried to a fearful to perform magical incantations, Polygamy and incest were of dreams, and practise various them ; such having the sanction extent interpretations among These facts teach of the religion the grand seat of the of Zoroaster. superstitions thirdly, ; and visited by the peopleat the gospel has from what an abyss of iniquity which was us archimagus, certain seasons with peculiarsolemnity, weak and to barrier human delivered us, and how a which it was deemed the most an indispensable duty that wisdom is of itselfagainst extravagant of marshould repair The ceremony at least once riage during his and abominable crimes. every one stitution. life. This leads to a notice of the religious rites in unison with their notions of its inwas and ceremonies and sanctioned practised by the the and magi. revoltingwas Equally abominable The anrites and The of the dead by the Persians. cients, ceremonies. ancient Religious disposal bound had great horror at the idea of to discharge their sacerdotal magi were generally, officeswith exactness Their public not receiving and devotion. the rites of burial. Hence, when he is made worshipwas thus performed: In every pyreum, Ulyssesvisited the infernal regions, fire temple, there was which the or to say : an on altar, sacred fire was the people preserved. When "There, wandering through the gloom, 1 first survey'd. assembled to worship, the priest of death, Elpenor's shade; New put on a white to the realms habit and a mitre, to the sky, His cold remains, all naked with a gauze, or cloth, passing On distant shores unwept, unburied, lie." before his mouth, that he might not breathe on the holy element. He then read certain prayers The ghost is represented as imploring of in a mumbling tone, holding in his left hand some in these strains : Ulyssesthe rites of sepulture small twigs of a sacred tree, probably the rose
but the
son

of

honour

of the

"

"

tzeh, which, when


threw

the

service

was

ended, he

*'

into the fire. When finished, prayers were and people the priest withdrew silently, and with other tokens of solemnity. These rites are still
observed

But lend me aid, I now conjure thee,lend, and sacred name of friend, By the soft tie, By thy fond consort, by thy father's cares, blooming years. By loved Telemachus's
*****

accordingto inform the peopleon their now Hyde, the priests it is they worship before the departure,whence and why they are called upon to regard it fire,
among but with them
reverence.

the parsees;

The
And

tribute the

of

tear

is all I crave,
a

of possession

peaceful gr.ive."
meet
care

In

Holy Writ, also, we


instances with of the

with with

many which But it

fecting afthe
was

This, he says, is

to

preserve

ancient orientals buried


not
so

their dead. Their

from

idolatry.

the Persians.

to Lord, the duty of the priesthood had of the privilege According of Persia is comprised in the eleven following in rocky vaults, in the tombs at Nakshas rules : 1. The observance of the rites prescribedi-Rustam and Naksh-i-Rejob. But this was not, in the liturgyof Zoroaster. 2. To his them inhumation, or putting properlyspeaking,

kings,indeed, having their bodies deposited

keep

44

HISTORY

OF

THE

PERSIANS.

within the surface of the earth ; it was simply a The of them in a rocky excavation. deposition
common

manner

of their dead of disposing this.

was

far

different from

the four As, in their religion, and water, symbolized, earth,air, elements, fire, in
was

of the deceased's future felicity if he ; and allured to take a bit out of the dead man's mouth, it is an infallible signof his going to heaven the dog be not hungry, ; but in case
state
can

be

or case

loathes

the

or object,

refuses the

though not
great
care

the equaldegrees, taken


to

Divine

Being,
from

of the deceased
not

is then

coming into as they held


of these be

contact

with

them preserve each other.


were

hope." He
corpse. The

adds, that the

morsel, the considered past all dog,in the instance


come near

also that all bodies

Hence, composed

before us, could

be induced to

the

elements,they would not suffer them to the earth. buried, for fear of contaminating On the contrary, they exposed the body on a high tower, that each of the four elements, by
its

at Surat may placeof sepulture probably of the illustrate some ancient raised places whereon the dead were exposed. It is described

gradualdecay,might obtain
separatetowers
;
were were

its

own.

Some for the

affirm that

erected

with a wall twelve feet high,and 100 as enclosed in circumference. In the middle, was a stone door,six feet from the ground, which was opened
to

good and
and This
was

the evil

children

others say, that men, women, placed on different towers. preserve the

adopted to
wild

purityof

the

The receive the corpse. ground within the walls is raised four feet, and made wards toshelving the centre, where there is a sink for receiving from the devoured
a

it has been there of the nearest relations defiled nor the air polluted. the state of the body, and if the to see come voured vultures have first plucked out the right This custom of exposing their dead to be deeye, it of the by beasts or birds,was a great barrier in is taken as an indication of the felicity the way of people's to the becoming proselytes departed;if the left,they are assured he is had within is described as remiserable. The scene volting magian religion.After the Armenians received the Christian faith,it rendered the and offensive to the last degree: mangled

beasts,dogs, and birds of sidered suffered to devour them, as they conprey, were in that,the bodies being thus entombed the bowels of those animals, the earth was not elements; but

which the- moisture Here the carcases.

falls continually body is left to be

by

vultures.
some

After

for

day

or

two,

odious to them, and stillfeeding and religion and gorged vultures, on bodies, of revolt in that country their fetid prey, compose the horrid picture. To cause frequent This of the Persians. such revolting has the false religion of customs againstthe authority esteemed barous Zoroaster givenbirth. barso custom indeed, anciently was, that Theodoret, speakto be compared with ing Truly there is no religion by other nations, had on men's that of the Bible ; for it not onlyteaches man of the good effect Christianity the them from brutal and wicked true of salvation,but his duties toward minds, in reforming way habits, mentions expressly that the Persians, both the dead and the living. Carry your since they had received its doctrines,no more thoughts back, reader, to the patriarchal age, and witness the conduct of the faithful Abraham, exposedthe bodies of their dead, but gave them burial. when torn his beloved Sarah was a decent by death from Similar practices, her reDid he barbarously with reference to the dead, his arms. mains expose

magian
a

name

it was

are

common

among

the

modern

parsees

or

to the wild

Ghabrs the

to

this
on

does priest is

is dead, a day. When person not approach the body, but the
an

cruel

birds

sought a
and his

and to the beasts of the field, He earnestly Oh no ! prey ? burying place of Ephron, the son of of
use

corpse

put

iron

bier, and carried

to the

Zohar, that he might, to


tender

his

own

beautiful

The body is placed on the exposure. at a distance, tower standing performs ; the priest concludes in these the funeral service,which words : " This, our sisted conbrother,while he lived,

placeof

expression, "bury the dead out of and he gratified, sight." His desire was further acted accordingly.Carry your thoughts

each
water

of the four elements take his own : earth


to

; now

to

tenderness down into time, and see with what dead, let that faithful friend of the Saviour, Joseph of buried him in his earth, air to air, Arimathea, assisted by others, he is
"

water, fire to fire."


about the

the

wanders spirit from

three

body, and

time pursued and tormented is able to reach their sacred


cannot

They suppose that own parture days after its deby that it is during that by Ahriman, till it
near fire,

new
"

To sepulchre."
"

use

the idea

supplied

the

poet

which

he
And

for God On

ing, they pray mornapproach. Accordingly, and night,during these three days, noon, the soul of their deceased brother,beseeching

There buried they heavenly earth ; there let it softlysleep, The fairest Shepherd of the fairest sheep : then homeward went to weep." all the body kiss'd, The Giles Fletcher.
see

Look there
once

into what

our

own

and buryingplaces,

to blot out

his sins and

cancel fate

his offences.

Christian
on

affection does
earth. There

for those

the fourth
a on

his day,supposing which great feast, that occasion. witnessed


"

determined,
monies cere-

tenderlyloved
till the back
to

they rest

they make
used A
at

closes the

in peace, call them


our

trumpet shall sound, and life again. As we wept over


last dies their bofelt that
we

late

writer,who
in the open

a as

lie down And the burial place, with them in their graves, and be at peace. field near claimed, friend of the dead perrather cemetery, some or yet,not sorrowingas those without hope, we exson turned from the mournful as we scene, hunted about in the neighbouringvillages " believe that Jesus died If we tillhe found a dog, whom with the apostle, with a cake he enticed in also which sleep and rose so them even the to come the corpse ; for the nearer again, near Jesus will God bringwith him," 1 Thess. iv. 14. have of the dog approaches,the better hope

Surat,says, that

as

soon

parsee funeral the corpse was

Christian
to the

and committed friends, could

earth,we

laid down

they

40

HISTORY

OF

THK

PERSIANS.

In early life, Cyrus appears to have given the marvellous promise of future greatness,whence of him by both Persian tales recorded and

Greek

writers.

His

childhood he

was was

spent
trained inured

with his

parents in Persia,where

in the Persian and to fatigue

of manners, simplicity

and

hardshiptill he was twelve years on a visit with his At this date, he went old. mother to his grandfather, Astyages,to whom He also gainedthe himself. endeared he much in and of the Medes affectionsof the grandees,

vasion
in the forces of the enemy, his and inspire with confidence ; and that it was maxim a with him, as it had been with Cambyses,his that victory did not so much father, depend upon
own

of Media His reasons and Persia. for this were, that he deemed it more prudent his should eat up the enemy's country than army their own bold a step would strike terror ; that so

the

the valour of troops. As soon, number as offered as the customary sacrifices therefore, were
to the

tutelary gods of
marched forward

the Medes with his found

and

Persians,

behaviour. Nature, general, by his courteous of makes who usually a very discovery pleasing in Cyherself in children,exhibited her charms rus in an extraordinary degree.
When
B.C.

Cyrus
in the

of the confederates. open and Evil

He

in search hosts, them encamped

about

fifteen

or

sixteen

years

of age,

584, Cyrus attended

expeditionagainstEvil retreated homewards, Lydia,being greatly dispirited, Nebuchadnezzar, king of Babylon,who made a territories. excursion into the Median pursued by Cyrus. predatory the Babysion lonians The next notable act of Cyrus was, his invaChiefly by the valour of young Cyrus, of Assyria. In this enterprise, he received which raised his fame still were repulsed, the Medes. The next year Cyrus great assistance from Gobryas and Gadatas, two more among he continued tillthe returned to Persia,where noblemen, who had been grievously injuredby and the acof Evil Meroand successor cession Belshazzar,the son dach. death of his grandfather, Astyages, of revenge, of his uncle,Cyaxares,B.C. 566. Acting upon the principle which is ever to the In the year B.C. 559, Cyrus succeeded sweet to an unregenerate heart, His first act after his accession throne of Persia. to Cyrus the provincesand they surrendered
was, two to wage at
war

in an his grandfather of Merodach, the son

where he attacked country of Assyria, routed their stormed them, and Merodach, the king of Babylon,was camp. slain in the engagement. The rest of the confederates, whom was Croesus, king of among

with

Evil

years Evil

had before,

succeeded

Belshazzar took the Merodach, who, castles intrusted to them. buchadnezzar, Nehis father, for his rebellion. field in order to punish Gadatas He
to
was

Babylon.

encountered defeat
next

and

defeated with

rus, by Cy-

Merodach, ambitious of addingMedia Bactria,and Arabia, formed Hyrcania,

who
b.c.

forced him This

to return

his empire,which

and Assyria, Babylon. comprehended Syria,


a

is dated

great loss to by Dr. Hales,

slain by conhe was spirators, of the neighbouring and Cyaxares, or Darius the Mede, states, powerfulconfederacy bonadius of his kingdom, appointingNathe Lycfians, Carians, took possession Cappadocians, Phrygians, westwards and Cilicians, ; and king, or viceroy,as before recorded. Paphlagonians, the of the Assyrians and Chaldeans, the Indians, or Turanians, eastwards,against (Seethe History that by their page 46.) Medes and Persians; alleging, so After the death of Cyaxares, b.c. 551, Cyrus and intermarriages, they were junction grown to the inheritance of the empire of posed succeeded opgreat and powerful,that unless they were with their united forces,the confederates to sacred Media and Babylonia by right, according be reduced and confirmed by the poet jEschylus, would history, by them separately. The and who Medes and Persians combined their forces, fought at Marathon againstthe Persians, with Persian affairs.* and was general. acquainted Cyrus was appointed vassal of followed The a The accession of Cyrus was by the king of Armenia, who was and the reduction of several the Medes, looking upon them as destroyedby capture of many cities, which so alarmed deemed this a favourable opporthe confederacy, Croesus,king provinces, tunity and commenced of shaking off their yoke. Accordingly,of Lydia,that he assembled his forces, hostilities: the particulars he refused to pay Cyaxares the usual tribute, may be seen of troops in the History of the Lydians. See page 70,etc. and to provide him with the number
554.

The

year

which,
war.

as

vassal,he should

furnish the

revolted citiesof Media, Cyrus reduced some into Armenia, namely, Larissa and Mespila; while Harpaking ; but Cyrus,by a rapidexpedition the king and his family, was obliged gus, his general, engaged in subduing Asia surprised the native city him to pay the usual tribute,and to send his Minor, Ionia,and Halicarnassus, he rewhich after of Herodotus. stored of auxiliary troops, quota After this, to him his kingdom. Cyrus prosecutedthe war against the eastern Before confederates, and reduced all Syria Armenia, he rendered Cyrus quitted Nabonadius essentialservice. At this time,he and Arabia ; and the king some having rebelled dwelt in with the Chaldeans, who at war was againsthim, he at length invested Babylon, held out which the only city that now the north of Armenia, and who being a warlike was Herodotus Nabonadius, or, as people,continuallyharassed his country by against him. him, their inroads, therebyhinderinga great part of terms him, Labynetus,marched out to fight his lands from being cultivated. Cyrus marched " Dr. mencement Hales the actual comstates, however, that and defeated them, and after making a against, b. c. 536, when of his full sovereignty"was Nabonadius, who had he captured Babylon, and defeated treatywith them to the effect that they should

This

embarrassed greatly

in time of Median

These year

events

occurred

b.c.

548.

The

next

"

no

more

The

invade Armenia, he returned to Media. being next 558, due preparations year, b.c
in-

the threatened made, Cyrus anticipated

Cyaxares. been appointedking, or viceroy,by his uncle (See the History of the Assyrians, etc.,page 46 ;)and who in a had rebelled described succeeding as against him, paragraph.

HISTORY

OF

THE

PERSIANS.

47

mingled people that dwell in the desert,and all the kings of Zimri, and all the kings of for two and the town Elam, and all the kings of the Medes, and all years, b.c. 538. The siege of Babylon was the kings of the north, far and near, one with no easy enterprise. The walls of it were of a prodigious another, and all the kingdoms of the world, height ; a
but
was

defeated

and

driven into

citadel of

Babylon, where

the Borsippa, Cyus besiegedhim

defended it from within, and it which are upon the face of the earth : and the army ' sufficient to support king of Sheshach the drunkard stored with provisions [' cityof Babylon] ficulties shall drink after them," Jer. xxv. the inhabitants for some But these dif11 26. years.
numerous was
"

The retaliation of Divine vengeance in the discourage Cyrus from pursuing his design. Despairing, invasion of Babylon by the Medes and Persians, however, of takingthe ants the surprise of the city the inhabithe made the slaughter or assault, placeby storm unawares, of its inhabitants,and its final destruction, believe he would try to reduce it by famine. thus described by the same He caused a line of circumvallation to be drawn are in the prophet, fourth year of Zedekiah, round the city, with a large and deep ditch ; and B.C. 593 : that his troops might not be worn out by labour, did not he divided his army each of them trenches. and into twelve its month

bodies, and
for

"

signed as-

The besieged saw laughed him to scorn, of their ramparts and out of danger by reason magazines. in impious pride But Babylon was founded God ; and many and rebellion against a woe was her in Scripture denounced for her cryagainst ing sins and abominations, by the Hebrew phets. proThe

guardingthe his mighty labour, deeming themselves

the nations, ye among publish, and set up a standard; Publish, and conceal not : Say, Babylon is taken, Bel is confounded, is broken in pieces ; Merodach Her idols are confounded, Her images are broken in pieces. And tor
out

Declare

of the

north

there

cometh

up

nation

against

her,
Which And
none

shall make her land desolate, shall dwell therein :

They
Both
"

man

shall remove, they shall depart, and beast." Jer. L.2, 3.


"

duration of her
was

empire for seventy years,


to

Remove And And

while she
are

destined

scourge
own

the

corrupt

nations of the first year


"

earth, and her


described land the

thus of

lation, ensuing desoby Jeremiah, in the


b.c.

For,
And An And From Their None
"

of the midst of Babylon, go forth out of the land of the Chaldeans, be as the he goats before the flocks.* lo,I will raise
out
:

Nebuchadnezzar,
an

604

And

this whole

shall [Palestine]

be

cause to come up against Babylon assembly of great nations from the north country in array against her ; they shall set themselves

and desolation,
serve

astonishment; and
come

these

thence
arrows

she

shall
as

be taken of
a
"

: man

nations shall
years. years And
are

shall be

king of Babylon seventy


to pass, when

shall return I will

in vain."

mighty expert Jer. L.8, 9.

it shall

seventy

king

of

that I will punish the accomplished, Babylon, and that nation, saith the
"

Behold,
As Go Even Waste And A And I have up

punish the king of Babylon and his land, punished the king of Assyria." Jer. 1. 18.
"

and Lord, for their iniquity,

Chaldeans,and
And

the land of the will make it perpetual tions. desolaI will bring upon that land all my

the land against

of Merathaim,

of Pekod: against it,and against the inhabitants and utterlydestroy after them, saith the Lord, thee. do according to all that I have commanded

words which I have pronounced against even it, all that is written in this book, which Jeremiah hath prophesiedagainstall the nations. For

How How

of battle is in the land, sound of great destruction. of the whole is the hammer broken is ! ! become for
a

earth

cut asunder the

and

many

nations and
of them also

great kings shall


:

serve

selves them-

Babylon
a

desolation thou
:

among art also

tions na-

and I will recompense them accordingto their deeds, and accordingto the works of their own hands. For thus saith the Lord God of Israel unto Take the wine me; all the cup of this fury at my hand, and cause to whom I send thee,to drink it. And nations, cause they shall drink,and be moved, and be mad, beThen made of the sword that I will send them. among took I the cup at the Lord's hand, and all the nations to drink, unto whom the
sent
me j
"

I have

laid

snare

thee, and
not

taken,

O Babylon, and thou wast also Thou art found, and Because thou hast striven The And For Lord hath hath this is the work

aware

caught,
against the Lord.
of his

opened his armoury, brought forth the weapons


of the Lord of the Chaldeans.""

indignation :

In the land A sword

God of hosts Jer. L.2 1"25.

wit,Jerusalem, and the Judah, and the kings thereof,and the princesthereof,to make them a desolation, an astonishment,an hissing, and a curse ; as it is
to
ants, king of Egypt, and his servand all his people princes, ; and all the mingled people, and all the kings of the land of Uz, and all the kings of the. land of the and Philistines, Ashkelon, and Azzah, and of Ashdod, Edom, Ekron, and the remnant

Lord had cities of

the Chaldeans, saith the Lord, is upon of Babylon, And the inhabitants upon her wise men. And her princes,and upon upon and they shall dote : A sword is upon the liars and her mighty men" A sword is upon they shall be
"

dismayed.
A their chariots, is upon their horses, and upon all the mingled people that are in the midst upon of her ; : as women And they shall become and her treasures" is upon they shall be A sword sword And robbed. A

this day ; Pharaoh


and his

drought

is

upon

her waters

"

and

they shall

be

dried

For And

up: it is the land of graven images, they are mad upon their idols."

"

Jer. L.35

"

38.

and

Moab, and the children of Ammon,


all the the and

and of

all Ziare
*

The

the

kings of Tyrus, and don, and the kings of beyond the sea, Dedan,
and the all that
are

in prophet describes circumstantially,

kings
and

isles which

Tema,

Buz,

kings of Arabia,

in the utmost corners, and all and all the kings of the

mingle in the In the east, sheep and goats frequently the he goats always pasture, and on these occasions It is to this habit that the prophet alludes take the lead. is an exhortation to Israel to remove in this verse, which out of the land of the Chaldeans.
same

48

HISTORY

OF

THE

PERSIANS.

the particulars of the continuation, of surprise


"

and siege,

the idolatrous

: city

the
"

ducing the world with same : allegory


"

her cup of

under idolatry,

Babylon
That The made

hath

been a golden cup all the earth drunken mad.

in the Lord's
:

hand,

Woe That

unto

him

that

giveth his neighbour drink,


to

puttest thy bottle

him, and

makest

him !

drunken

drunken nations have Therefore the nations are

of her wine

also,
That thou
art

mayest

look

on

their nakedness

Babylon
"

is

suddenly

fallen and

destroyed."
Jer. li. 7, 8.

Thou Drink The

Make
The For The

bright the
Lord Medes hath
:

arrows

raised is

up

gather the shields : the spirit of the kings


to

filled with shame lor glory : thou also,and let thy foreskin be uncovered cup of the Lord's right hand shall be turned

unto

thee,
of the And

shameful

spewing shall

be

on

his device

against Babylon,

it; destroy

thy glory." Hob. ii. 15, 16.

it is the vengeance of the Because of his temple. vengeance the walls Set up the standard upon Make the watch strong, set up the

Lord, Babylon, watchmen,


done the of
more

At

earlier period, the prophet Isaiah still an the desolations awfullyand sublimely predicts of Babylon.
the Medes against them, regard silver;! for gold,they shall not delight in it. as to pieces ; bows" also shall dash the young men they shall have no pity on the fruit of the womb ; I will stir up
not

Prepare
For That

the ambushes hath he both

the Lord which

devised

and

"

Behold,
Which And Their And Their And The Shall

spake
upon

against
many

inhabitants
abundant covetous-

of

shall

Babylon.
O thou
that dwellest

waters,*
of

in

treasures, the and Thine end is come, ness."" Jer. li. 11"13.
"

measur*

thy

eye

shall not

spare

children.

Babylon,the glory of kingdoms,


beauty
be
as never

Set ye up
Blow

standard

in the

land,

when

of the Chaldees' excellency, overthrew God Sodom and be inhabited, in from

Gomorrah.
to

the nations, the trumpet among Prepare the nations againsther,

It shall Neither Neither Neither But And And And And And And And wild Jer. li. 27.

shall it be dwelt
:

together against her the kingdoms ; Ararat, Minni, and Ashchenaz Appoint a captain [Cyrus] against her;
Call Of Cause the horses
to come

generation

tion genera-

shall the Arabian


shall the beasts

up

as

the

pitch tent there ; shepherds make their fold there.


;

rough caterpillars."
to

their houses owls

of the desert shall lie there; shall be full of doleful creatures

"

The

mighty
have became have bars

men

of

Babylon
in their

have holds

forborn
:

fight,

shall dwell

there,
shall cry

They
Their

remained hath
as

might

failed ;
women :

They

satyrs shall dance there. of the islands the wild beasts desolate houses,

in their

They
Her One And To And That

burned
are

her

dwelling places;

dragons
her her time

in their is
near

pleasant palaces:
to come,

broken.
run to meet

post shall
one

show his that the the

And
And For The

another, to meet another, messenger the king of Babylon [Nabonadius] city is taken at one end.t the passages [from the river]are stopped, reeds [or, thatch of th" houses] they have
with of saith of

days

shall not

be

prolonged."
"

Isa. xiii.17"

22.

The

prophetIsaiah describes
name,

the

of destroyer years

Babylon by
before he
"

and

that two

hundred

was

born.
to

burned
men

fire.
war

Thus To To And To

saith the Lord

his

thus

daughter

affrighted. the Lord of hosts,the God of Israel ; Babylon is like a threshing floor,
are :

Cyrus,
subdue

whose nations

right hand
before loins the

anointed,|| I have holden,


;

him of

I will loose

It is time to thresh her Yet a little while, and

kings, gates ;

the

time

of her

harvest

shall

come.""
"

Jer. li. 30"33.

the two-leaved open before him the gates shall not be shut ; And I will go before thee,

I will dry up her sea, and make her springs dry. Babylon shall become heaps, A dwelling place for dragons, An astonishment, and an hissing, Without inhabitant."" Jer. li. 36, 37. an And And In their heat And And Saith

the crooked And make : places straight I will break in pieces the gates of brass, the bars of iron : cut in sunder And of darkness, I will give thee the treasures And And That hidden riches of secret that thou mayest know call thee by thy name, Which Am the God of Israel. For And 1 have "All The Jacob my servant's

places, I, the Lord,

"

their feasts, them drunken, that they may sleep a perpetual sleep,and not wake,
I will make I will make the Lord."" is Sheshach Jer. li. 39.

rejoice,

sake,
:

Israel mine
even

elect,

I have

called thee

"

How And How

how is

[the drunkard city]taken ! earth surprised ! is the praise of the whole the astonishment an Babylon become among
!"
"

surnamed

by thy name thee,though thou

hast

me." not known Isa. xlv. 1 4.


"

ye, assemble

yourselves,and

hear

nations
"

Jer. li. 41.

Which

them hath declared these things ? among him : he will do his pleasure loved Lord hath

on

Thus The And And And

saith broad her the the

the

Lord of hosts

Babylon,
the Chaldeans. his arm on And I, have spoken; yea, I have called him: I, even his way ous." I have brought him, and he shall make prosperIsa. xlviii. 14, 15.
"

walls of Babylon shall be utterlybroken, with fire; high gates shall be burned people shall labour in vain, folk in the fire, and they shall be weary." Jer. li. 58.

shall be

The

prophetHabakkuk
vengeance
and

tion representsthe retaliaon

J Xenophon
and them his army and
on

represents
for their their

of Divine
"

Babylon, for

se-

before
me

Cyrus as praising the Medes Addressing disregard of riches. departure for Babylon, he says: "Ye
pany accom-

Medes,
The river with and

Euphrates,
the
numerous

the

marshes,

irrigation, give a phrase, "many waters." + The predictionmeans that couriers


different parts, and
at
so

neighbouring lakes and cation canals, both of communistriking propriety to the


should
run

that ye all here present, I well know this expedition,not coveting wealth." of the Persians clubs Dr. in warfare.
were

"
were

The used

bows
as

three

cubits

long, and
"

i| Cyrus, says
from taken of the him The those

Henderson,
he

is called his

the

anointed

Lord,"

fall in with the ruler

one

another, all of them


the

bringing intelligence to the point from whence

that

city was

to the allusion who

because rule under is to

had, in

appointed providence,

to be restored. which the Jews were oil rite of anointing with the ancient

they

started.

were

invested

with

regaldignity.

HISTORY

OF

THE

PERSIANS.

A")

the Almighty gives the prophet, By the same and to the troops to signalto the commanders march against Babylon.
"

The

loss of shall

children,and
come

widowhood in their

They
For And For Thou

upon the multitude of

thee

perfection

thy sorceries,

of thine enchantments. for the great abundance thou hast trusted in thy wickedness: hast wisdom thou beside seeth me. said,None and thy knowledge, it hath perverted thee ; hast said in thine heart, I am, and none else me.* shall evil know
come

the hijihmountain, Lift ye up a banner upon Exalt the voice unto them, shake the hand, the into That gates of the nobles. they may go sanctified ones, I have commanded my for mine anger, I have also called my mighty ones in my that rejoice Even them highness. in the mountains,* like noise of a multitude The
a great people ; noise of the kingdoms A tumultuous

Thy
And

Therefore Thou
as of

shalt not mischief shalt not desolation thou shalt

from

thee ; upon whence it riseth

And Thou And

shall fall upon thee ; be able to put it off": shall


come
"

of nations

gathered

together :
mustereth the host of the battle. from a far country, They come From the end of heaven,
The Lord of hosts Even To the Lord, and destroy the whole of his indignation, the weapons land."" Isa. xiii. 2"5.

not know."

thee suddenly, which upon Isa. xlvii. 6 11.


"

out the principal predictions Having thus pointed of Holy Writ relative to the destruction of

Babylon by Cyrus,we proceed to accomplishmentfrom information


the pages When which of ancient authors. that the Cyrus saw

narrate

their from

derived

In

the

same

of chapter,a description

the

into which and perplexity dismay,consternation, on the inhabitants of Babylon should be thrown is given under a metaphor the capture of the city, effects produced upon taken from the physical the human system by fear,alarm, or pain.
"

circumvallation,

his army had long worked pleted, upon, Was comhe began to reflect upon the execution of known which his vast design, as yet was only to directed him in his Providence himself. soon
course.

He

was

Howl

is at hand ; ye ; for the day of the Lord the Almighty. from It shall come as a destruction be faint, shall all hands Therefore heart shall melt : And every man's And

to was festivalf were Babylonians

a great informed,that in the city be celebrated; and that the

they shall be afraid : shall take hold of them ; Pangs and sorrows that travaileth They shall be in pain as a woman They shall be amazed one at another ;
Their faces

accustomed to pass the night cordingly, Acin dancing and merriment. of this festival the citizens of Babylon were when thus employed,Cyrus posted a part of his troops
on

shall be

as

flames.""

Isa. xiii.6"8.

another

and that side where the river entered the city, manding part on that side where it went out, comthem
to enter

the

by marching along city

succeedingverse, the prophet describes the panic with which the troops should be seized, comparing them to a chased roe, or sheep.
In
a
"

And
as

And

it shall be as the chased roe.t taketh man up."" Isa. xiii.14. a sheep that no

The
these whence

same

verse,

troops,the

exhibits in the latter clause, were greatest part of whom


without

it as they found soon and exhorted Having given his orders, to them his officers to follow him, by representing of the gods, under the guidance that he marched he had prein the eveninghe caused receptacles pared that to be opened, both sides of the city on the water of the river might flow into them. The by this means, became fordable, Euphrates, the channel fordable. of the
as river,

from into the provinces as returning mercenaries,

and the the

troops advanced up the channel,and took


the midst
"

they came,

beingpursuedby

the

conqueror.
"

They
And

shall every man turn to his own people, into his own land." flee every one

of the destruction grand causes her prideand cruelty. These were described by the prophet. The
"

of
are

Babylon aptly

the Babyof their rioting, lonians and caused to sleep a surprised, from that moment ;" and their city perpetual sleep of desolation. See career began its downward syrians, the article Babylon,"in the Historyof the As-

city.In
were

"

etc.

This

event

occurred,b.

c.

536.

By
what the been

remarkable

was

I have And Thou

[the Jews,] people, my pollutedmine inheritance, given them into thine hand :
wroth with didst show them the ancient hast

might have the besieged,

in Cyrus, thy yoke. heart, pleasures, would


no

no ; mercy laid thou very heavily And thou saidst, I shall be a lady for ever: So that thou didst not lay these things to thy Neither didst remember the latter end of it.

Upon

left open on of which his troops found consequence the city. Even the gates in entering difficulty

and contrary to providence, the part of on been expected to the river had gates leading the night of the attack by

of the had
not

palacewere
been

the tumult who have and

occasioned entered
been

opened during incautiously by the invasion. If such


sians, Herodotus, the Per-

Therefore hear That dwellest

thou now this, carelessly, That sayest in thine heart,

that art

given

to

the case, says

by nightthrough the channel, and caughtas in a net, enclosed,


that

and none I am, else beside me I shall not sit as a widow, the loss Neither shall I know

of children
to thee in
a

But

these
one

two

things

shall

come

moment

in

day,

found in the that were the citizens to bring He then commanded streets. selves him all their arms, and afterwards to shut themsword

destroyed. Xenophon says, city, put all to the

Cyrus having entered

the

The next morning,by less to which the prophet refers are doubtmountains up in their houses. elevated regions from which the warriors came which kept the citadel, the garrison break of who served in the Persian army ; such as those of Media dered being apprisedthat the citywas taken,surrenof San jar, Armenia, Koordistan, as well as the mountains themselves to Cyrus. Thus did this prince, of Babylon. in the immediate vicinity renders it," gazelle," t The " roe,"or, as Dr. Henderson * wisdom, Babylon was proud not only of her political of its timidity, the lightness and is selected on account science. and
"

The

the

day,

the the plains, to express it bounds across which the alarmed would with which haste attempt foreigners their escape from the conqueror. with

but

also of her

astrological

mythological

t This was Jer. li. 41.

the drunken

festival of the Satea.mentioned


E

50
almost

HISTORY

OF

THE

PERSIANS.

without any ill use made a blow, and without an of his authority, there might be striking find himself in the peaceable possession found witnesses and censors of his maladminisresistance, tration Thus within his own were of the strongestcity in the world. He carefully government. the capture of avoided the trusting the various prophecies of any one man concerning with absolute

would have reason power, knowing that a prince Babylon fulfilled. the first thing Cyrus did, to repent of having exalted one After his victory, man, if by him the gods for the the community are oppressed. to thank says Xenophon, was Thus Cyrus established a wonderful order with Then, having success they had given him. he publicly his principal assembled officers, his treasury, affairs, respect to his military and plauded apand prudence,and their civil government. their courage In all the provinces he had zeal and attachment to his person, and distributed who gave him an persons of approved integrity, After this, he repreof every thingthat passed. He made it rewards to his whole army. account sented of preserving his principal to honour and reward all those to them that the only means care that distinguished their conquests was themselves to persevere in their ancient by their merit. It this wise concentration virtue ; that the proper end of victory was not to of his resources was that to carry on his conquests. ; that, enabled him givethemselves up to idleness and pleasure It is not with reference to the destruction of after having conquered their enemies by force of be shameful to suffer themselves Babylon alone that Cyrus is celebrated in the arms, it would to be overcome Therein he is pointedly ; by the allurements of pleasure pages of Holy Writ. it referred to as the instrument of restoring that in order to maintain their ancient glory, the Jewish polity. behoved them to keep up amongst the Persians at discipline they had observed Babylon the same in their
own

country.
master

"

I have And He Not Saith

raised

him

Cyrus,findinghimself

by the capture of Babylon,did other conquerors, example of most


records history

of all the east not imitate the of whom

I will direct shall build for the Lord

up in righteousness, all his ways : and he shall let go my city, my

captives,

price nor

reward,
"

of hosts."

Isa. xlv.

13.

that their victories were

sullied
the year of the capture of first of his sole sovereignty, Cyrus issued his famous decree for putting end to the an in Accordingly,

of the Jews, and for rebuilding the captivity templeof Jerusalem. The decree reads thus : " Now in the first year of Cyrus king of Persia, station. that the word of the Lord by the mouth in the art of governHow skilful Cyrus was of Jeremiah ment, the Lord stirred is recorded in the pages of ancient authors. might be fulfilled, up the of Cyrus king of Persia, that he made spirit Xenophon says, that he committed the various a all his kingdom, and put throughout parts and offices of his government to different proclamation it also in writing, talents and saying,Thus saith Cyrus king persons, accordingto their various of Persia, The Lord God of forming and apof heaven hath given qualifications ; but the care pointing all the kingdoms of the earth ; and he hath generalofficers, governors of provinces, me self, and ambassadors, he reserved to himcharged me to build him an house at Jerusalem, ministers, which is in Judah. Who is there looking upon that as the proper duty and you of among pended all his people ? his God be with him, and let him employment of a king ; and upon which deof his affairs, is in Judah, and build the success and his glory, go up to Jerusalem, which of his empire. His the house of the Lord God of Israel, the happiness and tranquillity (he is the character God,) which is in Jerusalem. And whosoever great talent was, to studythe particular in proin any placewhere he sojourneth, of men, in order to give them let authority portion remaineth of his place help him with silver, their private the men and to their merit, to make with gold, and with goods, and with beasts, with the public advancement beside concur good ; that for the house of God that is the freewill offering every part should have a dependance upon, and in Jerusalem," Ezra i. 1 4. mutually contribute to support each other ; and itself The should not exert that the strength of one response to this celebrated decree by the immediate Hebrews of the rest. but for the benefit and advantages was by the chief portionof Then rose up the chief of the fathers Each and his particularthe exiles. person had his district, of Judah and Benjamin, and the priests, to of which he gave an account and the sphereof action, God had another above him, and he again to a third, till, Levites, with all them whose spirit tion, subordinaand regular raised,to go up to build the house of the Lord by these different degrees is in Jerusalem. And all they that were to the king which the cognizanceof affairscame their hands with vessels about them strengthened who was, as it were, the soul to the body himself, with goods, with gold, of silver, he governed and with beasts, of the state, which by this means his household. beside all that was and with preciousthings, with as much ease as a parent governs Also Cyrus the king brought offered. willingly forth the vessels of the house of the Lord, which When Cyrus afterwards sent governors, called had broughtforth out of Jerusalem, under his subjection,Nebuchadnezzar into the provinces satrapae, he would not suffer the particular and had put them in the house of his gods ; governors of those did Cyrus king of Persia bring forth the commanding officers of the troops even nor places, of the country, to be maintained for the security by the hand of Mithredath the treasurer, and them unto numbered of Sheshbazzar, the prince dependentupon those provincial governors, or to And this is the number Judah. of them : thirty be subject to but himself; in order that any one of silver, if any of these satrapai, elate with his station, chargersof gold,a thousand chargers
"
"

he by a voluptuous and effeminate conduct: thought it incumbent upon him to maintain his methods he had acquired reputation by the same it ; namely,by a laborious and active life, and a to the duties of his high constant application

Babylon,and

"

HISTORY

OF

THE

PERSIANS.

51 he had

nine

and

basins twenty knives, thirty


a

of

gold,
and
sels ves-

to

some

spot which
where he

selected for retirement,

silver basins of

second
a

sort

four

hundred All the

ten, and
of up with up from Thus
were

other vessels

thousand.
were

gold and
them

of silver

five thousand

and

four hundred.

All these did Sheshbazzar

of the captivity that were Babylon unto Jerusalem," Ezra

bring brought
i.5
"

his whom of the most were some nowned rewarriors of Persia, in a dreadful perished to confirm the actempest. This would seem count

and suddenlydisappeared,

train,among

of Herodotus
use

; for

orientalwriters frequently
or

11

storms

to

typify any great


as an

wide-spreading

without money," the Jews " redeemed accordingto Isaiah's prophecy,Isa. Hi. 3. In the book of Daniel it is recorded that this
"

such calamity, the destruction


as

invasion of barbarians, or

holy man prospered in the reignof Darius, and in the reignof Cyrus the Persian," chap. vi. 28. buried at Pasagardae, Cyrus was in Persia, His last vision is dated in the third year of Cyrus, Pliny notices his tomb, and Arrian and Strabo describe it. Curtius represents Alexander the x. 1 ; and probablynot longbefore his death,chap. of Bel and the author of the apocryphalhistory Great as offering funeral honours to his shade ; much the Dragon says, that Cyrus conversed and he states that he opened the tomb in hopes him above all his friends. of finding with him, and honoured treasures there,in which he was appointed disWe sel a rotten two by the wise counshield, may conclude that it was Scythianbows, of Cyrus was stirred and a Persian scymitar, of Daniel that the spirit being all that it contained. In his Life of Alexander, Plutarch reto fulfilthe prophecy of Jeremiah, Jer. xxv. up cords of the that the following 1 1, this being the year of the expiration found was inscription which Daniel had computed,Dan. ix. 2 ; thereon : captivity ing the rebuildand to fulfilthe prophecyrespecting o man, whoever thou and ever whenart, of the temple, Jer. xxix. 10, to which Cyrus i know thou (for come comest, thou See also Isa, xliv. 28. alludes in his decree. the wilt,) i am cyrus, of founder the The holy work, however, did not proceed Persian Envy me empire. the not, then, without opposition. After the death of their little earth remains." which my covers rus, patron Daniel,probablyin the third year of Cy"

of an army ; but the end of rus, Cyrelated by Xenophon, is more consistent with his character in his latter days.

"

"

"

those adversaries who colonists, the ten


to

of the

Jews, the Samaritan


the
room

had

been

plantedin

of

tribes by Esarhaddon, and had offered but were join in the erection of the temple, of gold which he wore, upon the tomb in crown refused by the Jewish government, obstructed which the body lay, the building.By their interest at the Persian wondering that a princeso renowned, and possessedof so much court, they obtained an order to stop the work, treasures, which discontinued during the ensuing had not been buried more was sumptuouslythan if reigns of Cambyses, Smerdis Magus, Xerxes, he had been a private person. to have formed and till the second year of the reign of Darius Cyrus,however, seems a more Ezra iv. 1 correct notion of worldlyhonour 5. 24. and riches than Hystaspes, of Cyexploits rus the ambitious Alexander. Xenophon says, that Xenophon closes the military in his last instructions to his children, with the conquest of Egypt, and says, that he desired that his body, when he died,might not be dethe last seven he posited years of his full sovereignty in gold or silver, in any other sumpat home, revered nor spent in peace and tranquillity tuous but committed, as soon of all classes. This and beloved by his subjects as monument, is confirmed had learned to the ground. He probably testimony by the Persian historians. possible, from the prophet Daniel, that out of the dust that after a long and bloody war, These relate, he was TurKhosru subdued the empire of Turan, now turn. retaken, and that unto dust he must of Balk, in Chorassan, and made the city kistan, From in which the peculiar jects submanner a royalresidence, Cyrus is to keep in order his new in Scripture, named and addressed mentioned ; that he repaidevery familyin Persia the of their war his amount taxes, out of the spoils ages before his birth ; called by Jehovah gained by his conquests; that he endeavoured shepherd,"and his anointed,"and promised and assistance, there has been ranianshis highprotection the Tuto promote peace and harmony between much racter learned investigation the pay and Iranians ; that he regulated concerningthe chaof this great king. Some think that these of his soldiery civil and religious ; reformed abuses throughout the provinces applyto his character as an appointed agent ; and, at length, terms in fulfilling the will of the Almighty,altogether after a long and gloriousreign,resignedthe tude, distinct from any considerations connected with to his son, Loharasp,and retired to solicrown character. Others, howhis personal ever, that or he had lived longenough for religious saying, a his own character, religious glory,and it was now time for him to suppose that he was of his days to God." devote the remainder which, in connexion with his appointment to of the doubt about the manner There is some gives perform the Divine will among the nations, force and propriety to the terms a peculiar death of Cyrus. Xenophon declares that he died plied apto him serts, in his bed. Herodotus, on the other hand, asby the prophet. Dr. Hales, after concludes with a great part of his that he perished, reviewinghis character and history, and died the death of the in a war againstthe Scythians ; that, that he lived the life, army, a polytheist, having invaded their country, he incautiouslyrighteous. Xenophon, who was where he was rounded, represents Cyrus praying to the suradvanced into the deserts, gods, in the number and slain. plural attacked at a disadvantage, ; but that he prayed to one only, Ferdusi and Mirkhoud god,worshippedby his ancestors, say, that he proceeded the patriarchal
"

Curtius states, that Alexander was much fected afat this inscription, which set before him, in so striking the uncertainty a light, and vicissitude of worldlythings the ; and that he placed

"

"

"

52 the

HISTORY

OF

THE

PERSIANS.

to Saadi, according Cyrus in its true light. He says : Cyrus caused to be engraved on his tiara, serves deIt is repeatedly recorded to be inscribed upon the crowns (Isa. xlv.)of Cyrus, of mo1 Thou hast not known me ;'and then coupled narchs in all ages, and in all countries of the with that convincing evidence which the precise world. It read thus : What avails a long life of God strongly spent in the enjoymentof worldly offer, we predictions see the unity grandeur,since and impressively with some tinct others, dismortal like ourselves, will one asserted, together ple day tramallusion to those very errors which were under foot our tertained en! This crown, handed pride to whom by the people Cyrus belonged. down to me from my predecessors, must soon Now, in that remarkable the heads of manv passage, Ezra i. 1, 2, pass in succession upon Cyrus says, 'Jehovah, the Lord God of heaven, others!" hath given me all the kingdoms of the earth ; and The disregard for riches which Cyrus showed he hath chargedme rusalem.' all occasions, to build him a house at Jeis a noble feature in his chaon racter. Here he intimates his acquaintance Brerewood estimates the value of the with this very prophecy,for where else is he gold and silver which he received in Asia at charged to build the Lord a house at Jerusalem ? 126,224,000/. all of which he distributed sterling, and he distinctly his friends. I have prodigious acknowledgesthat the God who among riches," so charged him said he to his courtiers, I own, the God of heaven ; and that was and I am glad he it was, who, as he also had promised,had the world knows it ; but you may assure selves yourall the kingdoms of the earth.' It given him For to they are as much yours as mine. that in arriving what would, therefore, end should I heap up wealth? at the For my seem, that in his great and successful unown it myself? That would conviction, ? and to consume dertakings, use he had been but performing the duty be impossible, if I desired it. No ; the even to which he was ed, chief end I aim at is, it in my power to appointedand ordainto have by name he was enabled also to perceive ledge and acknowreward those who the publicfaithfully, serve

their own, and went over word appear from the watchto Cyrus's and opinion, he gave to his soldiers hefore the which chose rather to rule, though a rough inhabiting battle in which Evil Merodach slain. This was a champaign, country, than cultivating to serve watchword others. "Jove, our Saviour, and our was, A late writer seems Leader." The sage inscription to set the religious which,

Pischdadians,may

character
"

of

"

"

"

'

the truth of that sublime declaration which

isaddressed
'

to

himself:
and

"

I
I

am

the is

Lord,
no

there
me

is
;

none

else,
not

There

God

beside

girded thee,though
the estimating

thou

hast

known

me

!'

and relieve those that will acquaint with their wants and necessities." Croesus represented to him, that by continual he would at length make himself poor, largesses, whereas he might have amassed infinitetreasures,
to
succour me

and

Isa. xlv. 5.
"

and world.
"

have And

been

the

richest

princein the"
"

In

effectwhich

this

?" calculated regarded as a whole, was you think those treasures might have amounted which Cyrus caused a sum nently Croesus named ; upon upon a mind which appears to have been emiit to be signified candid and open to conviction, to the lords of his court that he must we in want recollect that Daniel,who of money, and a largersum was probably directed his was " attention to this grand prediction, Look," said would not fail brought than Croesus mentioned.
to

prophecy, to produce

to what

sum," replied Cyrus, do

enforce God

and

explainthose

which

declarations it contains." considered


as

cerning con-

Cyrus,
keep
of my my

"

here

are

my
are

treasures

the

chests I

riches in

the hearts and

affections

be Cyrus may justly conqueror,

the wisest

subjects."
"

and

the

most

accomplishedprince

mentioned in profane history. Of his wisdom there are many and of which, ought to consider himself as a shepherd, examples given; none to have the same shine more than the following. vigilance, care, and goodness. perhaps, conspicuously It is his duty to watch, that his peoplemay live Herodotus says, that when he succeeded in safetyand to the Median crown, he was thus addressed by a quiet; to burden himself with be exempt of the Persians : anxieties and cares, that they may deputation is salutary whatever for Since God has given dominion to the Persians, from them ; to choose
" "

his peoplewas The care of Cyrus over very A prince," said he to his courtiers, remarkable.

and the

of sovereignty from
our

brave

men

to you,

them, and
; to

permitus
are

to

remove

scanty and rugged


a

and country of Persia,

to occupy

many such in off. If we occupy


reasonable than

our
one

and vicinity, of

better. There further many

own

is hurtful and prejuwhat remove dicial in seeing them increase placehis delight his and valiantly and multiply; expose in their defence and protection. person

shall be more we these, highlyrespectedby the world; and it is but that rulers should
a

This," he adds, "is the natural

idea, and the

justimage of
the him make
same

act in this

manner.

at good king. It is reasonable, should render time, that his subjects


a

And when, indeed, will


now,

offer fairer opportunity


many

all the service he stands them that he

that

we

rule

nations,and

all

is still more
end

in need of; but it that he should labour to reasonable,

Asia?"

happy ;

Cyrus,having
approved
he warned
not

heard

their

speech,though he

it is for that very because is their king, as much it is as


care

of it,desired them to do so : but them, at the same time, to prepare themselvesno longerto rule, but to be ruled ; for
men

to the end

and office of a shepherdto take of his flock." It may be observed, that it is somewhat that

markable, re-

that fertilecountries naturally nate produced effemito bear

The

Xenophon representsCyrus as to soil comparing kings,and himself in particular, not usual for the same ; that it was both admirable fruit and warlike men. shepherds, seeingthat it is the very character Persians, therefore,acquiescing, givesto this prince. quitted which Scripture

54

HISTORY

OF

THE

PERSIANS.

camped endead before the Persians arrived,) A battle ensued, and his army. The routed. Persians purthe Egyptianswere sued soon them to Memphis, which was reduced,

(who

was

with

built temple of JupiterAmmon, the midst of the desert. In the mean time, Cambyses forwards he

on

an

in oasis,

army, as long as the earth afforded them any to fight sustenance, were content to feed on refusing vegetables ; but as soon their descendants ; the sands and as they arrived among againstthe Carthaginians, the deserts, of them, prompted by famine, some but being resolved to invade the other two nations, into Ethiopia,* he sent ambassadors proceeded to the most fearful extremities. They who, drew lots, and every tenth man destined to that character,were under to act as spiesfor was the hunger of the rest. of the satisfy him, and to learn the state and strength This appalling action seemed to alarm even the country. of Cambyses carried preThe dotus, ambassadors Cambyses himself. Alarmed, says Herosents mad at the idea of his troops devouring one alongwith them, which they delivered to with this address : byses, Camhis designupon the Ethiopians, the king of Ethiopia another,he abandoned and returned to Thebes. From of Persia,from his anxious desire Thebes sovereign he proceeded to Memphis, from whence has sent he perof becoming your friend and ally, mitted the

taken, after a reign of six after put to death, for by Cambyses, B.C. 525. fomentingrebellion, After the conquest of Egypt, Cambyses resolved in three different quarters to make war : and Ammonians, against the Carthaginians, Macrobian, or long-lived Ethiopians. The first he was of these projects compelledto abandon,
and Psammenitus He was months.
soon

pushed madly the Ethiopians.Before, however, against had performeda fifth:}: pedition, part of his exthe provisions he had with him were
The which army then

consumed. the beasts also


were was

proceeded

to

eat

carried the

baggage, which

soon

consumed.

Stillthe rage of Cambyses

creased. unabated, and his infatuation stillinHe proceeded on his march, and his

Phenicians

in his service

"

us

to

communicate

with you, and to desire your

the Greeks

to embark.

The fate of the expedition of the Ammonians acceptance of these presents,from the use of stillmore disastrous. There which he himself derives the greatestpleasure." was was road no and the Ethiopian nor Their designs tract through the sandy waste that the invaders were suspected, The had to traverse ; no hill nor tree which prince dismissed them with this reply: in their onward to guide them king of Persia has not sent you with these presents might serve The army, moreover, course. from any desire of obtaining was placedat the my alliance; of Egyptian guides, whose minds neither do you speakthe truth,who, to facilitate mercy were the unjustdesignsof your master, are come to galled by their country's wrongs, and who felt a
"

examine

the state of my

dominions.

If he

were

fraternal affection for

the

Ammonians.

The

influenced

he of integrity, by principles

be satisfied with his own, and not would of another; nor reduce those to servitude from whom
no

result was, that the Persians were would deserted by the posthese guides, scribable about in indecovet " and they wandered sessions confusion. he attempt to The greater part of them he has
ceived re-

were,

injury.Give him, therefore,this bow, and in my name speakto him thus : The king of sends this counsel to the king of Persia, Ethiopia shall be able to bend this bow When his subjects
with the
superiority of numbers, he may venture to attack the Macrobian time, let Ethiopians. In the mean him be thankful to the gods that the Ethiopians
same ease

to the Ammonians, whelmed overaccording finally times by the moving sands that winds some-

raise in the has been


"

desert.

This

fearful catastrophe the poet


:
"

thus described
the

by

that I

do, then, with

Now And

o'er their heads

whizzing

whirlwinds

breathe,

beneath the lone desert pants and heaves ; rise Tinged by the crimson sun, vast columns

with the same ambitious been inspired their possessions." extending When Cambyses received this message, he his army to begin and commanded was enraged, without providing, their march immediately, says have
not

the skies, amid Of eddying sand, and war In red arcades the billowyplain surround, And whirling turrets stalk along the ground.

views

of

the south. the north, and the great Libyan desert on included, consequently, the desert that contains the The on term Wahs means Egypt. or Oasis,dependent
on

It

an

insulated

fertile spot, like

an

island

in the midst

of

an

flecting sustenance, or reof sand or desert, surrounded commonly by expanse in one of these,(the Libyan Oasis,) It was about to visit the extremities higher lands. that he was and the temple and oracle of the Ammonians that lived, of the earth. He left the Grecians behind him was placed. This Oasis was visited by a Jupiter Ammon in his newly conquered country, to keep it in has described both it and the ruins traveller in 1798, who called the Oasis of of the ancient temple. It is now subjection during his absence. Serwah. On his arrival at Thebes, Cambyses selected

Herodotus, for their necessary

from his army


to make

an

he orwhom dered about 50,000 men, incursion against the Ammoor

and nians,t
*

to

plunderthe Ammonium,
determine this

great

that Cambyses never this it appears penetrated t From beyond the desert of Selima, that is,says Rennell, on the he out from set and that Senaar that Thebes, supposition into the country of the Macrobian opians. Ethithe entrance was The suffered such
to was desert alluded that in which dreadful hardships, namely, that

Bruce above

It is

impossible to
under

is meant

nation what particular thinks Rennell they appellation.

Syene.
it plain makes of the army the Persians, led them they should have departed astray amidst the from or to the temple of Ammon, from the lake Mareotis of Memphis. The Egyptians, intending the the enviruns to the of their enemies, led them from Thebes destruction that

were the Abyssinians ; and Bruce imagines that small the Guabas inhabit two and Gangas, who Whoever or districts of Abyssinia. they were, have considerable been a nation, since their

they were provinces they must


monarch

" Savary says, that the guides, who

the route

detested deserts ; for

sent

message

of defiance

to

Cambyses. days
of Herodotus,

t The
a

Ammonians,

in the

occupied

considerable

the east, and the Nomadic

Upper Egypt on space in Libya, between the desert of Barca on the west, and between tribes,along the coast of the Mediterranean,

great Oasis, three days'journey from

brought

them

into
over

the

vast

solitudes

Abydos, and having of Libya, they delivered

them

to death.

It 1 STORY

OF

THE

PERSIANS.

55

Long
To

ranks

in vain

their

shining

demon gods their knees form Wheel in wide circles, And Pierce From
now

blades extend unhallow'd bend; in hollow square;

found where he
eyes.

it was the

Ecbatana, an

obscure

town

in

Syria,

they fly,and
deaf

now

they

front

the

air;

the their

tempest

with lamenting cries


close

him warned should die ; but which he mistook for tana Ecbathe capital of Media, and the depot of his

Egyptian oracle

of Butos

and parched lips, ! o'er the waste the whirls,and

their

bloodshot

treasures.

Gnomes Climb'd Onward Clouds Wave Bursts Man Hosts

on

you led your myriad powers, ! showers arm'd the flinty


surge;

Upon lamented bitterly


brother Smerdis whom
;

this his the

it is
error

recorded, that he
in

destroyinghis
was

resistless follow
over

rolls the infuriate mountains

"for," he said,"it

dis Smer-

clouds, and

mountains

urge;

mounts

the driving desert swims, wave their strugglinglimbs; o'er their head, inhumes rush : camels camels man on ; on o'er hosts; and nations nations

march

crush;

winged islands fall, all. And one great earthy 01 ean covers Then ceased the storm. Night bow'd her Ethiop To earth, and listened to the graves below ; awhile the livinghill shook Grim Horror : Wheeling
in air, the Heaved with convulsive

brow

deity foretold in vision should rise up against me." That Cambyses felt when death stared him compunction for his guilt in the face can be readily believed ; for guilt later bringsmisery, and his was sooner or guilt of no ordinarynature. byses Reader, the life of Camshows left to should what them
us a

Magus

monster

man

may
not
on a

become

if

himself; if his actions have

restraint

throes, and

all

was

still." Darwin.

put upon
"

by

power

from

high. It
sins;

teach
back

to pray

with the psalmist,


presumptuous
me
:

The
a

remainder

of the
most

reignof Cambyses

was

extravagant cruelties and of every kind, committed againstthe excesses family. Egyptians,the Persians, and his own According to Herodotus, he slew the magistrates
tissue of the

Keep
Let Then And

thy
not

them

also from servant dominion have over

shall I be

upright, great [ormuch]


gression." trans-

from the I shall be innocent Psa. xix. 13.


"

for suffering of Memphis at his return public SMERDIS MAGUS. the occasion of findingtheir new on rejoicing in calf the wounded their the As god Smerdis divinityApis, soon as Magian ascended the the priests to be scourged. throne and commanded himself of Persia, in order to secure thigh, of his brother Smerdis, because He grew jealous thereon,he sought to gain the affections of his pian he was the only Persian able to bend the Ethioto grant them an subjects.His first act was to Persia, and soon bow, sent him home exemption from taxes and from all military of a dream portendingthat service for three years. But his reignwas brief. after,on account Smerdis would be advanced to the throne, had and he was His gross imposture was discovered, of his own He married him put to death. two formed slain with his brother in a conspiracy by for lamenting the and killed the younger quence sisters, Persian nobles of the firstrank and conseseven death of he of her brother Smerdis. He shot the
son one Prexaspes, an

of his
arrow,

the heart with


was

officers, principal through by way of provingthat


mad. He violated the

It is throne
were

in the state,at the end probablethat Smerdis

of
was

seven

months.
to

raised

the

neither drunk of the

nor

of the priestly caste, who conspiracy their own desirous of restoring supremacy,

by

to examine the mummies. The result the Medes. Egyptians, and that of their allies, He insulted the pigmy statue of their chief god calamitous to them. of the attempt was very shown the head of the false Smerdis was Vulcan, and burned those of the Cabiri. Finally, When Croesus ventured, as his father's friend, when to and the impostureexplained, to the people, they the enormities he was on remonstrate committing, were so enraged,that they fell upon the magi, could be discovered. and to set before him the probable and put to death as many as consequences, he snatched his bow to shoot him with an arrow. The day on which this transaction occurred and he Croesus escaped by a precipitate annual festival among thenceforward became flight, an celebrated with ordered to be put to death. His it was was the Persians,by whom instantly The officers delayed the execution till the next called It was slaughter day, great rejoicings. which but he of that sect would of the magi ;" and none apparent satisfaction, gave him ordered them to be put to death for disobedience venture to appear in public upon that festival. of the of orders. Herodotus gives a romantic account after It was about this time, b. c. 523, that Orastes, adoption of a monarch by the conspirators had the of the satrapae of Cambyses, who one the tumult had subsided. He says that he gained from his competitors the crown by the stratagem brought about the death government of Sardis, the first neighingof his of Polycrates, ence of his groom procuring tyrant of Samos, to which referhas been in the history of the made horse, as recorded by a publicmonument: gainedthe kingdom Egyptians, Darius, son of Hystaspes, page 57. In the beginning of the eighth year of the of the Persians by the merit of his horse and of iEswhich The account reign of Cambyses, he left Egypt in order to his groom CEbares." into Persia. he disOn his way thither, coveredchylusgivesof the transaction is more return probable, that Smerdis his consistent with the after character of and more Magus, who personated he had slain, brother whom had been proclaimed Darius Hystaspes. According to this ancient to reign in This him from his aroused conspirators king at Susa. writer,the seven agreed lethargy. He instantly prepared to lead his rotation. The firstthat governedwas Maraphis,

tombs

"

"

Herodotus calls Artaphrenes,whom This Darius. last his horse to set out, his sword fell from the next mounted Intaphernes ; and and of superior abilities him mortallyin the the scabbard,and wounded nobleman was possessed also of the Achaeof enterprize a spirit thigh. ; he was and his father,Hystaspes, Herodotus says, that when the accident occurred, menian or royal line, the name and he anxiously of the place, of Persia,the first provinceof the was inquired governor his

army But

thither,in order

to

crush

the As

rebellion. he

who
next

is not
was

found

in the list of Herodotus

the

days

were

numbered.

hastily

HISTORY

OF

THE

PERSIANS.

empire. Upon
the

these
came

accounts, to his

when therefore,
to

wishing to
which should

leave

behind

him

some

monument

government
the

turn, he contrived

retain

transmit it to his
formidable

of it for himself, and to possession family. That he was the most competitorfor the crown, appears

exceed the efforts of his predecessors, struck off a coin of the purest gold,the Daric, which retained its name down to the Macedonian this on dynasty. The impression

death of Smerdis Magus, and the the throne,it was establishment of Darius on possessing greater enterpelling by comspired prizethan the rest of the conspirators, agreed that the Persian noblemen who had conhim should,besides several marks them to a prompt execution of their plan, against them if they of distinction, of free access have the liberty under a threat of informingagainst to the king's the delayed. presence at all times,except when with him. of these one Intaphernes, queen was OR GUSHTASP. DARIUS HYSTASPES, noblemen, being refused admittance under these attacked the officers of the palace, his reign b.c. Darius Hystaspes commenced circumstances, also

from the pages of Herodotus even ; for he relates, self, of Cyrus himthat his merit excited the jealousy who to Hystaspes, expressed his suspicions gaged enthe father,that Darius, then a youth,was treasonable designs. Herodotus in some

famous the and

coin,was

Darius the
an

attitude of

kneeling on

king, crowned, in archer, with a bent bow, the rightside,to take aim at

the enemy. After the

represents him

as

521. He appears to have been the firstwho used the old titleof royalty, Darawesh, or Darius, as
a

them on inflicting

severe

proper Before

name.

Darius

married the is unknown.


order to of the
secure

obtained the kingdom, he had daughter of Gobryas,whose name


When seated
on

insult,caused him, with his children and kindred, to be apprehended, to condemned them and founding death, conDarius, enraged
at

mitar.

wounds this

with

his scy-

the

throne, in

Through

thereby the innocent with the guilty. of his wife,however, the importunities
was

himself thereon,he married two

her brother

firstsaved

from

and destruction,
:

seen, in the lifeof Cambyses, that of the king's one Orastes, perfidious ors governin Asia Minor, brought about the death of for the crown. to regulate Polycrates, One of the first acts of Darius was tyrant of Samos, by treachery. His crime did not go unpunished. Darius,discovering and the finances of the the state of the provinces, that Orastes abused his power, by sporting empire. Before his era, Cyrus and Cambyses with the lives of those persons who from with receiving themselves had contented displeased him, sent an order to his troops at Sardis to put the conquered nations such free giftsonly as him to death, which order was executed without ber and with requiring a certain numthey offered, confiscated to the Darius needed. of troops when delay. All his effects were they were to his family for him to prethat it was impossible serve king,and all the persons belonging perceived in peace and removed and household to Susa. were to him all the nations subject In the second year of the reignof Darius, the without establishment of regular an security, tain sumed, rewas to mainalso impossible forces ; and that it was buildingof the temple at Jerusalem In order, revenue. a these forces without chiefly by the exhortations of the prophets he divided the to effect these objects, Haggai and Zechariah. Zerubbabel, the therefore, made whole plication apempire into twenty districts or governgovernor, and Joshua, the high priest, ments, to the Persian tain a certo pay annually each of which was court, and obtained a decree of Cyrus concerning renewal of the original for that purpose, to the satrap appointed sum did they that itserection. With so much The natural subjects, alacrity before recorded. as posts. now is,the Persians, were exempt from all imcarry on their work, that the top-stonewas raised in joy within four years and a quarter that is,in the sixth Plutarch observes, that Darius, in imposing from its recommencement, See Ezra v. and vi. ration. showed these tributes, year of the reignof Darius. great wisdom and mode1"15 inhabitants of He sent for the principal ; Hag. ii. 1"18. byses, CamDarius served in Egypt, under When best acquainted such as were province, every he had received favours at the hands of of their country, with the condition and ability brother to Polycrates, true and interested in givinghim a and were tyrant of Samos. Syloson, to About this time, b.c. 516, Sylosonrepaired When account. they arrived,he asked impartial the Persian court at Susa to solicit his aid in which he proposedto each exceeded them if such sums of Samos from the person who had able to pay ; his intention the regaining what theywere but he said, not to oppress his subjects, usurped the government since the death of his as being, nefactor, of them such aid as was to require proportioned brother. Darius acknowledged him as his bethe aid he sought. and granted him to their incomes, and required by the exigencies of the command under He sent an that the propositions expedition, of the state. They replied, lords of his court, of the principal densome Otanes, one not be burand such as would were reasonable, who performedit with success. reduced the to the people ; but Darius the Babylonians, to one-half,choosing rather to During this Samian expedition, proposed sums who had taken advantage of the confusion of keep within bounds, than to risk a possibility to of the times during the magian usurpation, them. exceeding In order to revolted. it may be here mentioned, these imposts, provideagainsta siege, Concerning natural was however, that the coinageof money prevent famine,they took the strange and unall their women resolution of strangling in Persia tillabout this time. Darius, not known It has been the

of Cyrus, Atossa, formerlythe daughters He likewise wife of Cambyses, and Artistona. married Parmys, daughterof the true Smerdis, petitor therebyfreeinghimself from all fear of a com-

the eventually perished.

eldest of her

children

the

rest

HISTORY

OF

THE

PERSIANS.

57

and children,except their mothers, and one the female to bake their bread : thus fulfilling of the prophet : prediction
"

for the invasion of Scythia,* great preparations under the pretence of retaliation for theirinvasion | of the Medes, nearlyone hundred and twenty years before. His real motive
was,

the extension

Therefore That That

hear

now

this,thou

that

art

given

to

sures, of his conquests and pleaDarius crossed


over a

empire.
or Ister,

dwellest

carelessly,
me

the

Lower

Danube,

sayest in thine heart, I am, and none else beside

I shall not sit as a widow, Neither shall I know the loss of children But The these in one loss
to things shall come day, of children, and widowhood: two
come

thee

in

moment

it first at the placewhere bridgeof boats, nels beginsto branch off to form the different chanby which it enters the Euxine, a littleabove the fortressof Ismail, in Bessarabia. The Persian sisted army issaid by Herodotus and Justin to have conof seven hundred thousand men ; it is probable that the real number was seventythousand. Darius had passed the Danube,he resolved having the bridgebroken down, that his

They
For And

shall

the multitude for the

upon of

thee

in their

perfection
enchantments."
Isa. xlvii. 8, 9.

thy sorceries,
of thine

great

abundance

When
upon army

might

not

be

weakened

by leavingthe

Darius
the

besieged Babylon,and was derided by of the and baffled by the vigilance insolence,

detachment necessary for its protection. In this, however, he was overruled by one of his officers,
who prove

months. for a year and seven At the end enemy of of that time, as he was beginningto despair success, it was put into his hands by a refined

represented to him, that, should the war unfortunate, they would not be able to
the enemy.

escape from

After crossing the Danube, it would of Megabyzus. This son appear stratagem of Zopyrus, eastward to the Tanais,or nobleman, who was one of the seven counsellors, that Darius marched Don. After crossing the Tanais, he entered the mutilated himself,and then deserted voluntarily

Babylonians, gainedtheir confidence by a tale of the cruelty of Darius,and after a piteous few preconcerted devoted successes over some

to the

territoriesof the
to the main

east Sauromatse, extendingnorth-

which of the Don itself, he may be supposed to have crossed below the mouth of the Medweditza, or Lycusof Herodotus. detachments of the Persian army, he was pointed apthence Darius entered the country of the commander in chief of the Babylonian From which having also traversed, he finally troops,and intrusted with the care of the city, Budians, that separated them from a great desert he halted,and erected where Thyssagetae, No sooner Darius in possession of Babylon, eightfortresses on the banks of the Oarus, prowas bably than he ordered itsone the Wolga. hundred brazen gates to In the mean hovered round be pulled time,the Scythians down, and the walls of that proud city his army, layingwaste the country,stopping that itsinhabitants might never to be demolished, up off straghave another of rebelling glers, opportunity convoys, cutting against the wells,intercepting cessant and keeping the army the alert by inhim. he impaledabout three thouon Besides this, sand without runningthe hazard of itsinhabitants ; after which, he obliged skirmishes, sian of a general the neighbouring thousand to furnish fifty provinces engagement. The whole of the Perto supplywives for the remaining indeed, reduced to so eventually, army was women, fore that theyhad nothingbefrom whom a condition, the race of Babylonians deplorable citizens, their eyes but inevitable ruin. Darius saw in the time of Herodotus were descended. living cordingly, This siege had been predicted by the prophet his danger,and began to think of a retreat. Acthe Persians, in the dead of the night, Zechariah two years before, who warned the in the camp, rethe sick behind them traced Jews to flee from thence. leaving The Scytheir stepstoward the Danube. thians did not discover that they had retreated Ho! ho! come forth, And flee from the land of the north, saith the Lord : before the next morning,when siderable they sent a con-

branch

which,

on

the

first favourable

he opportunity,

entered

delivered

to Darius.

the

"

For I have spread you abroad As the four winds of the heaven, saith the Lord. Deliver thyself, O Zion, That

detachment

to the

Danube, in order

to

they should comply with the request of the the nations which Unto spoiled you : of the Chersonesus prince Scythians.Miltiades, For he that toucheth you Toucheth the apple of his eye.""Zech. ii. 6"8. of Thrace, having the publicinterest at heart, of shaking for embracing this opportunity was Dr. Hales remarks : manders It is truly remarkable, off the Persian yoke, and all the other comthat the Persian kingswho punished the Babyloagreed with him, except Hystiseus, nians, who of Miletus, to the Ionian the Jews. The firstcapture of represented prince patronized linked to that of Babylon was followed by the decree of Cyrus for chiefs that their power was ' the Jews from captivity the liberating ; when * ancients divided The Scythia into two largeportions. Lord stirredup the spirit of Cyrus to make it, European and Asiatic; the former extending along the north of the Danube and the Euxine, and the other yond beEzra i. 1. And the second capture by Darius was the Caspian and the Sihon. The Jaxartes, now followed by the finishing of the second temple, latter was into two again subdivided parts by the chain in the seventh year of his reign the Lord ; when of Imaus, Beloor Tagh, a branch or the projectingnorth
" '

dwellest with the daughter of For thus saith the Lord of hosts ; After the {dory hath he sent me

Babylon.

who had the chargeof the Ionians, persuade and return home. to break it down bridge, The

the

Ionians consulted among

themselves

ther whe-

turned

the

heart

of

Darius

unto

them,

'

to

from

the

Indian

Caucasus,

now

in the work of the house " of God, the God of Israel,' Ezra vi. 1"22. After the reduction of Babvlon, Darius made hands
"

their strengthen

part of the

this side which the monarch

Himalaya ; which Scythia infra and extra It was and beyond Imaus.
of Persia

the Hindoo westKho, or ern subdivisions nominated dewere

Imaum,
the

or

Scythia on

European Scythia

invaded.

58

HISTORY

OF

THE

PERSIANS.

his protection, that under with ourselves ; to know was what acquainted I come lord in his own and that we of them was city, of men, but really are, not only in the sight also in the sight of Ionia would not fail to depose them, of God. the cities their liberty, and recover time in Thrace, Megabyzus continued some upon the downfal of the

Darius, since it

each

Persian

power.

This
were

was

sufficient ; their
to

own

whose have

privateinterests publicgood, and


Darius. In and

dearer

them
to

than wait

the for

they

determined

subdued one by one, and brought under the yoke of Persia. Some of the tribes, as and the better to impose Pseonians, the Syropseonians, to their request, the Paeoplae, etc., the bridge, were from their habitations, removed at the command upon them, theybegan to break down of Darius, at the same and transported time,to to Asia. encouragingthe Scythians, return Darius, on his return to Sardis, back, meet Darius, and engage his army. having learned The who to Hystiseus, had Scythianscomplied with the request, but that he owed his safety missed the bridge Darius, who arrived safe at the bridge, persuaded the Ionians not to destroy

one order,however, to deceive the Scythians, lence, were prevent them from using any vio-

inhabitants, to Herodotus,would according had they possessedthe disinvincible, cretion of unitingtheir forces, and of choosing commander. Being however divided, they
been

they declared

that

they would

retire pursuant

the

repassed the Danube, and


On his way towards

returned

Darius Scythia,

into Thrace. had sought

on

the

Danube,
what

sent

for he

him, and desired him


wished

to

name

left Megathe subjugation of Thrace : he now tyrant of Miletus,requested with part of his Mircina of Edonia, a territory the river byzus,one of his chief generals, upon of building army, to completethe conquest of that country. Strymon in Thrace, with the liberty With the rest of his troops, Darius there. His request was and he passed the a city granted, with his designs, Bosphorus, and took up his quartersat Sardis, was proceeding when, upon the where of Megabyzus, he was he spent the winter and the greatestpart representations recalled, his losses. under the plea of seekinghis counsel in some of the year following, to retrieve be dated b.c. This disastrous expedition great matter, and with a promise of ample posmay sessions in Persia, 513. in lieu of those in Thrace. Herodotus relates an instance of wanton panied accomcruelty Hystiseus, pleasedwith this distinction, for Scycommitted by Darius, on his departure Darius to Susa, leaving his thia, Aristagoras, which well deserved
a

reward who was Hystiseus,

for his services.

such had

disastrous issue.
sons

son,

to govern

in Miletus.

Oebazus,
them

Persian,who

three The

serving
one

in the army,

the petitioned be left at home.

monarch

that

of

Having subjectedThrace, Megabyzus sent Persian noblemen seven to Amyntas, king of

earth and water in the name king replied, Macedon, to require that since he was of Darius,as a token of his submission and had made a a modest friend, to that monarch. with their request, Amyntas complied request,he would leave him all his sons. Oebazus and entertained and hoped that they would them was duct rejoiced, hospitably ; but the conbe discharged of the Persians towards his wife and daughfrom the service ; but Darius ordered ters them delivered to be slain,and to the so enraged his son Alexander, that, by a princesoon after set stratagem, he caused them to be slain. Search parent. And yet this same to this effect : Darius, son of was made by Megabyzus for these ambassadors, up an inscription the best, and fairest of all men, Hystaspes, king but Alexander having bribed Bubares, who was of the Persians, and of all the continent,in his sent to inquireafter them, with largepresents, their death was hither to the Scythians, and the matter glossed came concealed, expedition against the springs of the river Tearus, which afford the over. About best and fairest of all rivers." the same water time, B.C. 508, the Scythians, Plutarch to be made What remarks, pertinently revenged on Darius for invading their the mask and wear Nero erect his tragic theatre, country, passed the Danube, and laid waste the buskins of the government of and as an actor, but the plaudits country of Thrace, under Were adulators? not ed kings in generalstyled, Persia,as far as the Hellespont.They returnhome without laden with booty, while they sang, Apollos? while drunk, Bacmeeting any chuses ? while wrestling at the games, Hercules ? oppositioneither from the Persians or the Thracians. in these titles, led on by flattery and, delighting with the it was Darius appears to have to the lowest depravity." Thus During this period, them paid considerable attention to maritime affairs. kings of Persia. Their courtiers spoiled and by it they He finished a canal of communication between by their base and gross adulation,

might

"

"

were

led to commit

the

most

fearful crimes

out with-

the Nile and

the head

of the Red

Sea, which

had

and without fear of restraint; been commenced by Pharaoh-Necho,but failed, compunction, make after a great loss of life among the workmen. it is, that flattery and indulgence so true the passions eager and ungovernable. Flattery According to Rennell, this canal, with others It often betrays made Adrian, and the is, indeed, a most base disposition. by Ptolemy Philadelphus, Omar for ostentation were afterwards, more to his ruin, and it declares the man a man caliph the than use. who about became ununconcerned it totally covets They soon, at least, The either from the failure of the Pelusiac, cynic navigable, misery or welfare of his brother. branch of the Nile,which or eastern supplied Diogenes, apt to being asked what beasts were
,

bite the worst,

answered,

"

Of all wild

detractor ; and. of all tame In a word, flattery is an leaves


a

the them with water, or from the stoppage of their beasts, beasts,the flatterer." outlet at the head, of the Red Sea, and by the of operation About the tides.
same

and ensnaringquality, dangerous impressionon the mind, which should carefully -we against guard. One of the chief objects lives should be, to beof our

the

time, Darius, ambitious of

extending his conquests eastwards,resolved to obtain a proper knowledge of the country. For

HISTORY

OF

THE

PERSIANS.

59

and other ahle This employed Syclax, projecthaving thus miscarried, Megabates of discovery the down threw all the blame upon Aristagoras, and voyage From this pointthey ruined his credit with Artaphernes. Aristagoras river Indus to its mouth. foresaw the loss of his government, and his own coasted westwards, along the Persian Gulf, and of two after a voyage the only as years and a half, they ruin,and he resolved upon a revolt, Sea from which the Red reached the port on expedient whereby he could save himself. His the Phenicians,employed in the circumnavigaseconded tion design was by the secret counsel of of Africa,had set out about a hundred that if any troubles who, imagining Hystiaeus, years From before. thence Syclax returned to Susa, should arise in Ionia,he should be sent to quell this purpose, he
on navigators, a

where

he gave

Darius

an

account

of

After this,says
the

Herodotus, Darius
became
no

his discoveries. them, took this step in order to be restored to his native country. Arist igoras, therefore, after subdued his designs having communicated to the principal
ocean,

Indians, and

master
more

of the than

which
Indus

probably means
of and its branches.

that

he

persons of with great

Ionia,began

to prepare

for the revolt

activity.

tract adjacentto the Historydoes not record the particulars of this expedition. the latter According to the Greek historians, turbulent,and part of the reign of Darius was

possessed himself

the

At this date,b.c. 502, the people of Tyre, who had been reduced to slavery, when their city was taken by Nebuchadnezzar, having groaned under
for seventy years, were oppression restored, to Isaiah'sprophecy, to the possession according of their ancient privileges, with the liberty of having a king of their own, which liberty they that

both abroad and at home. embarrassed In the seventeenth year of his reign, b.c. 504, kindled by a sedition at Naxos, from a small spark, and to Hawkins, is the largest (which, according circular of all the Cyclades in the iEgean most able which occasioned a considera flame arose, Sea,) In this sedition, the principal inhabitants, war. were being overpowered by the populace, banished the island. They fled to Miletus,and who was imploredthe assistance of Aristagoras, of that city, lieutenant at that time as governor both nephew and he was to Hystiaeus, to whom son-in-law.

enjoyedtill the
The
"

time of Alexander
thus
:
"

the

Great.

prophecy reads
it shall the she
come

And That And And

Lord

to pass will visit to

after the end

of seventy

years,

shall turn shall commit the world

Tyre, her hire,


all the

fornication with
earth.

kingdoms

of

Upon
And

the face of the her merchandize

Aristagoras promised to
their native

restore not

the

exiles

to

and her hire shall be holiness to the Lord: It shall not be treasured laid up ; nor For her merchandize shall be for them that dwell before the Lord, To
eat

country ; but

enough
to

to

accomplishhis

being powerful designalone, he went


the matter
to Arta-

and sufficiently,

for durable

clothing."
Isa.

xxiii. 17, 18.

and communicated Sardis,

phernes,the king's brother, who governed in that city, in order to obtain his assistance. He
represented
once

to

that Artaphernes,

if

he

were

master

of that be

island,all the

rest

of the

that this favour was granted probable, by Darius, in consideration of the services he expected to receive from the Tyrians, who were powerfulat sea, in reducingthe lonians to their ancient subjection.
seems

It

them

Cyclades might
that the isle of
was as

brought

Euboea, now

would

be

largeas Cyprus,and easily conquered;


have
a

subjection ; Negropont, which lay very near them,


under

of the people. He then through Ionia,where, by his example sufficient for the enterprize. and influence,he prevailed all the other upon with the project, and then called them, Artapherneswas pleased or, as the Greeks petty princes, could if the king'sconsent to do the same. promised 200 ships, tyrants," Having thus united be gained.In this matter them all into one there was of which he no common difficulty. league, Charmed with the mighty hopes held out, and himself was the acknowledged leader, he openly of the enterprize, revolted from Darius. To strengthenhimself of the injustice as regardless well as of the perfidy and Artaphernes,the more of Aristagoras the Persians, in the beginning against the king approved of the project, of the following and to Lacedaemon to year, he went in his interest. He made for puttingit into exethat city cution. made were preparations engage ing tempt-

Darius would He concluded

by

and that from thence free passage into Greece. would be sayingthat 100 ships

next stated rein501, Aristagoras year, b.c. the lonians in their liberty, and in all their former privileges.He began with Miletus, where he divested himself of his power, and resigned

The

it into the hands

travelled

"

offers to

Cleomenes, who

was

at

that

time

b.c. was 503, Artaphernes king of Lacedaemon spring, ; but Cleomenes proof the number sent of ships he had promised to cours. them, and declined sendinghim any sucagainst then proceeded to Athens, of Megabates, a Miletus, under the command Aristagoras noble Persian,of the Achaemenian and the Athenians family. The being at this time at variance with the Persians, for having shown order Megabates received was, to obey Aristagoras. favour to This gave him great offence, the son of Pisistratus, and led to Hippias, tyrant of Athens, the two generals ; and Megabetween a breach bates, whom they had exiled ten years before,availed themselves of this opportunity of revenge, and to be revenged of Aristagoras, gave the Naxians of the designformed ordered a fleet of twenty shipsto be sent to the secret intelligence them. They prepared for their defence, assistance of the lonians. against after having spent four months In the year b.c. 500, the lonians,having coland the Persians, lected of the island,and contheir forces,and being reinforced with in besieging the capital sumed from Eretria, all their provisions, and five more were compelled to these twenty vessels, in the island of Eubcea, set sail for Ephesus,and retire.

During the

next

60

HISTORY

OF

THE

PERSIANS.

at Lada, as had been and so vigorous had they been in their appointed, that they bad collected a fleet of preparations, 353 sail. At the sight of this fleet, at in order to re-embark the Ionians retreated, the Persians, afraid to join Ephesus ; but before they had reached that city, though double their number, were till by their emissaries they had issue, overtaken they were by the enemy, and defeated secretly caped, with great slaughter. The corrupted the greatest part of the confederates, Athenians, who escause. immediatelyset sail,and returned home ; and engaged them to desert the common The defection took placeat the commencement the urgent solicitationsof and notwithstanding of the engagement and Lesbians, ; the Samians Aristagoras, they would not return to the combat. with others, of these returned to their reDarius informed sail, spective proceedings, hoisting being countries. The remaining fleetof the enraged with the Athenians for the part they confederates did not consist of above 100 ships, war had taken, resolved from that time to make into the air, and these were sians, Greece. quicklyoverpowered by the PerShooting an arrow upon and almost entirely venged O Jove, to be rehe exclaimed, Suffer me, destroyed. After this, the cityof Miletus was that his And and became these Athenians." a besieged, on one prey to the conquerors, who levelled it with the might not slumber, he commanded revenge ground. of his attendants to repeat to him three times This event occurred six years after the revolt ber he sat down to table, Rememevery day,when of Aristagoras.All the other cities that had A wiser admonition, and the Athenians." revolted returned to their allegiance of the monarch, soon conducive to the happiness after, more either voluntarily, or sentiment,so well would have been the following by compulsion. Those that opposedthe victors were treated in a barbarous poets: by one of our own expressed The handsomest of their youths manner.
" "
.
"

their shipsthere,they marched by land leaving The soon taken, and an Sardis. city was Ionian soldier having set fire to one house, the to the rest : flames spread and communicated of them most being built with reeds, the whole into The citadel only, reduced to ashes. was city which Artapherneshad fled, escapedthe general conflagration. After this accident, the Persians and Lydians for their defence, their forces together assembling
to

to the

The result of their deliberations that the people of Miletus should defend their city vigorously ; that the alliesshould provide and equip every vessel in their power ; and that as soon as their fleetshould be in readiness,
was,

Panionium*

they should

meet

at

Lada,tand risk a

battle

in favour of Miletus. The Ionians assembled

"

Bid

o'er revenge

the charities

Cawthorn. prevail.""

were

and Hystiseus. Aristagoras after taken by the Persians, soon and carried to Sardis, where he was crucified by observation in a future page. The Ionians, though deserted by the Athenians, order of Artaphernes,who hastened his end less without consulting and weakened Darius, lest his affection for by their late overthrow, nevertheThe conjecpursued their point with great resolution. him should incline him to mercy. ture cf Artapherneswas the Hellespontand well grounded. When Their fleet sailed towards where was the Propontis, he they reduced Byzantium, the head of Hystiseus brought to Darius, those cities on of the other Greek at the act, and caused and most expressed his displeasure the remains of As as coasts. they returned, they obliged the it to be honourablyinterred, he owed to whom Carians to joinwith them in this war ; the people one great obligations. tiseus Hysthe most was and enterprising of Cyprus likewise entered into the confederacy, bold,restless, The and were genius of his age. With him all means openly revolted from the Persians. Persian generals, however, having divided their good and lawful that served to promote the end the he had in view, acknowledging no other rule of three different ways against marched forces, the Greeks. Their
true

the templeof Cybele, burning of Sardis, totally goddessof that country, was afterwards used as a prewhich was tence destroyed, men, by the Persians for burning the templesof designing
In the the tutelar

made eunuchs ; the young women were into Persia ; and the citiesand temples were reduced to ashes. Such were the effectsof the revolt of the Ionians, a revolt into which the people had been drawn by the ambition of two
sent
was Hystiseus

motive will fall under

and defeated them rebels, in of


one

in several encounters,

his actions than his which he


was ever

own

interest and ambition, to


of his
own

slain : the island was Aristagoras to the Persians. Cyprus was againsubjected he of Hystiseus, According to the expectations
of which
sent

ready to sacrificethe good


even name

his country, and


page of
*

kindred.
as a

In

the

his history, supposed


to

stands forth

witness

was

back he

to

Ionia,in order

to restore sooner,

the ever, howhe


"

affairsin king's
had
a

that

province.

No

It is

that

the

than arrived at Sardis, into

he

formed

suggested
Meanwhile Of And A At Of

Milton

the idea

Panionium here mentioned of his Pandemonium :

plot againstthe government,


a

which

great number he retired detection,


drew

of Persians. For fear of to the isle of Chios, where


to

the winged heralds by command sovereign power, with awful ceremony

sound, throughoutthe trumpet's


council and his forthwith the
to

host

proclaim

by

artifice he

himself justified
to

the the

Ionians,
war

solemn Satan

be held

and engaged them vigour. The generals of that Miletus forces.


was

prosecute Persian

with

Pandemonium,

high capital peers."

the

forces,finding
Ionian
federacy, con-

the

centre

of the

thither with all their resolved to march of the Meanrier, it is joined to the main alluvions land, When the Ionians received intelligence is a full mile within the margin of the sea; that and so of this armament, which not only menaced inland Sirnis is become the Latinicns an or lake, seven Miletus,but the rest of Ionia,they sent delegates eight miles distant from the sea.

divided into t According to Pausanias, this island was of which Astecalled Asterius, from two, one parts was of Anactes. At the present period,by the rius, the son

69

HISTORY

OF

THE

PERSIANS.

Although honoured
Miltiades ' would
not

with the

command, general
own

to attempts

escape, and

those that

were

consumed the

day
came,

for he

engage in battle tillhis When that governing arrived. endeavoured make

in their obtained vessels.

burningships.f The
possession of
seven

Greeks, moreover,
of

by

with a design to reduce to were come cityto which he owed his birth. An useless. and render the Persian cavalry ignominiousdeath,with lasting infamy entailed of the Persians, was the result of his treachery. Datis, the commander was upon his name, not advantageous for The Persians had considered victory sensible that the placewas so sure, of his troops, that they had broughtmarble him ; but relying to Marathon, in upon the number he determined to sustain a battle. order to erect a trophy. The Grecians took this and the sacrifice,marble, and caused a statue to be made of it by All thingsbeing disposed, of the Greeks, performed, Phidias, in honour of the goddessNemesis, whose to the custom according the signal it was to be given for was to punishinjustice Miltiades commanded business, supposed, armies there was the two had and who an battle. Betwixt and a temple near oppression, Marathon. interval of about eight furlongs ; and the Persians that immediately after the Plutarch relates, seeingthe Athenians approachby running, pared preashes that
to
receive

up for his He drew up his army at the foot should neither be of a mountain, that the enemy able to surround him, nor charge him in the rear. sides of his army he caused large On the two his flanks, trees to be thrown, in order to cover

ground to
and

day advantageof the in strength deficiency


the

enemy's
fidious per-

Hippias was

killed in the battle.

That

number.

in order to recover the unjust citizen, dominion usurped by his father, over Pisistratus, the Athenians, had put himself at the head of those who

them

as

men as

devoted

to

tion. destruc-

an battle,

Athenian
to

As with
no

soon,

however,

the Greeks

mean

the enemy, foes.*

they discovered that After a long and obstinate contest,

mingled they were

hastened with When the

stained with blood, soldier, his fellow-citizens Athens, to acquaint of their


at the

success

army

at

Marathon. the

he arrived

where public palace,

barbarians in the centre, composed of the Greeks to the Persians and the Sacse, obliged give way, and pursued the flyingfoe into the
the middle ever, time, howcountry. At the same in who were and Plataeans, the Athenians of the

were magistrates having uttered

is

ours

assembled,he was so spent that, the victory these words, "Rejoice, !" he fell down, and expired.
news

The

the throughout

of this victory spreada generaljoy nations around, to which the poet has
a

the two enemy,

wings,having
came a

defeated

the

wings of

the

Wordsworth
"

fine allusion:

up to the relief of the

centre, and

obtained

a prodigious killing completevictory, number, and pursuingthe rest to the sea, where they set fire to the vessels. brother It was thisoccasion that Cynsegirus, on who had of the celebrated tragic poet,iEschylus, in order to get into laid hold of one of the ships hand cut off, had his right itwith those that fled,

When The

and

was

drowned Lucan

;
:

of which

we

find

similar

example in
"

He, the bold


Fix'd Full And The Nor But His And The And
on on a

youth,as
arm a

Roman limb

his

board and board they stand, ship his daring hand ; blow mighty descends, from off his shoulder rends:

of morn, far and wide, swift as the beams tidingspassed of servitude repealed, the Isthmian of that joy which shook And field, The rough ^Etolians smiled with bitter scorn. would adorn Tis known,' cried they, that he who His envied temples with the Isthmian crown, Must either win through effort of his own, it won to see The prize,or be content Yet so ye prop, deserving brows. By more Sons of the brave who fought at Marathon, ! Greece her head hath bowed, Your feeble spirits of libertythereon As if the wreath Would fix itself as smoothly as a cloud, Pelion's top.'" on Which, at Jove's will, descends
' '

the

torn

rigidnerves
sunk

are

cramp'd with stifFningcold,


:

Convulsive

grasp, and still retain their hold his valour,by the pain deprest, his

the Persian Instead of sailing by the islands, in order to return to Asia, doubled the cape fleet, Athens of Sunium, with the designof surprising before defence. to march much
same

nobler rage inflam'd left remaining hand

mangled

breast:

the combat tries, forth to catch the right he flies ; fiercely left the hard same demands, destiny he stands." now a naked, helplesstrunk

country,

the Athenian forces should arrive to its The latter, however, had the precaution their to secure thither with nine tribes, with so and these performedthe march there the
were

that they arrived expedition,

of the Persians day, and the designs

Amongst
the Greeks

those
were

that

were

Callimachus

slain on the side of and Stasileus. two


;

frustrated. This battle occurred b. c. 490. Lacedaemonians had promised assistance The
to

of their chief commanders. They had not above killed on their side in this engagement 200 men whereas
on

the

Athenians,but they were

hindered

by

ridiculous action.

from takinga part in superstition visible have

the

the side of the those who


were

Persians about
drowned

6000

Mankind, in all ages of the world, from


of the moon operations supposed its influence
to

besides fell,
*

in their
to
mies ene-

observingthe
upon
the ocean,

made Xenophon relates, that the Athenians sacrifice to Diana as goats as they should many
; and

vow

kill

being

unable

to procure

sufficient

they determined
the
same

every year to sacrifice 500. fact with some slightvariation ; and we read in of the the Scholiast on Aristophanes, that Callimachus, one Athenian to generals, vowed they should slayenemies ; and number, he substituted goats is silent the the
on

number, iElian relates

sacrifice unable in their

as

many
a

oxen

as

to obtain
room.

sufficient

Herodotus is blamed

and the foot of the Agherlichi the between t It was that Miltiades ranged his troops. mountains Charadrus the Charadrus by the Persians being driven across The the only where for the defile, Greeks, the whole body made afforded was hardly broad enough to admit of two passage other. abreast of each Every attempt to escape persons impossible, as the sea or the swamp in this direction was of such an it. The to consequence

interposed
attempt

prevent

this The

matter,

for which for Callimachus

he

by

Plutarch.

account

which

Xenophon
a vow.

most

probable ;
not

ever, gives is,howbeing killed in

is obvious ; and hence it follows, that the vast loss was as much owing to their ignorance of of the Persians to as and defileleading to it, of this swamp, the existence the valour of the Greeks.

could battle,

have

performed

HISTORY

OF

THE

PERSIANS.

68 of the God of revive the supremacy Ahriman, the evil principle ; and

but to the state extend not only to human affairs, of the human body. Travellers have observed, that in the countries of the east it is customary the time of the new to begin a moon prefer ence journey. And to this there appears to be referin Scripture.Thus Solomon made puts into
to

kings;
heaven
to teach

to

over a

the mouth
"The He He And

of the adulterous home, long journey :


at

wife these words

judgment,in which the apparent good and evil in this life, designedin the state of probation to promote God's glory, should be redressed in the next, by the reward of the good in heaven, and the punishment of
mixture of the wicked in hell ; all which have been derived from some the the articles appear teacher superior
to to

future

goodman
is gone a hath taken will
come

is not

with him, a bag of money home at the dav appointed." Prov. vii. 19, 20.

magi, to
sacred

have

collected from, been, in fact, the oral instructions of of

or writings,

Daniel himself.
Instead of the former and mode
on

keeping the
in the

Or, in other words,


is also made 24, where Saul is
to

at "the

new

moon."

ence Referxx.

sacred open

fire in
where air,

caves,

mountains

extinguished, Darius built firetemplesthroughout to his dominions, His principal when the new fire temple, moon was come. as at Jerusalem. meat, or to a feast, called Azur Gushtasp, It was the influence of this superstition erected at Balch, the under was deferred sending their of the province of Bactria.* After the that the Lacedaemonians capital After the moon, death of Zerdusht,in the fifth year of his reformation, promisedaid to the Athenians. Darius the office of archimagus assumed however, had passedthe full, they sent a body of which arrived only to offer them their Hence but died the following the himself, 2000 men, year. the victory. Happily,this on succeeding kings of Persia were congratulations always initiated is now factory into the sacerdotal order of the magi before their satisexplodedby the more superstition the related in the section on deductions of a sound philosophy. It has as inauguration, of Persia. been reasonably polity urged,that as the most accurate Next to Cyrus, says Dr. Hales, Darius was and subtile barometers not affected by the are various positions it is very unlikely the greatest prince of this dynasty. If Cyrus of the moon, that the human blished estabody should be within the sphere founded,Darius Hystaspesunquestionably the empire. His political wisdom of itsinfluence. and The lesson conveyed in these disasters was and moderation, his system of laws and finance, His revenge was, indeed, still his reform of the national religion, all lost upon Darius. were veries discoadmirable ; and his attention to maritime excited againstthe Athenians, and he more him from all resolved to head another in person, and commerce armament distinguished the other kings of Persia. which ever, howHis greatness, put all Asia in a ferment for three years. But his designs were of those evil frustrated. In the year sullied by the indulgence was ambition and revenge, which brought B.C. which caused 487, the Egyptians revolted, principles, him to delay his expedition, his own his enemies, but on that he might increaseruin not only on his preparations endowed he was both nations ; and subjects. Notwithstanding, against with many excellent qualities the point' his wisdom, two of ; and years after,as he was upon he died,after and in many instances, justice, carryinghis plansinto execution, clemency, are much commended having reigned thirty-six by the ancients. His greatest years. mighty During the last six years of his reign, appointedby the AlDarius, honour is, that he was to oriental writers, to complete the work was according begun by Cyrus, engaged also in reforming the corruptions that had crept into namely, the restoration of the Jews to the Holy the national religion, by the progress of the Land. Sabian superstition Before his death,Darius appointed and adoration of fire, Xerxes, his and of the other elements of Cyrus,to of nature ; and by the prevalence eldest son by Atossa, the daughter of the notion of the two principles, succeed to Artobazanes, his the him, in preference which are referred to in Isaiah's eldest son by his first wife,the daughterof Gogood and evil, his born when prophecies respecting Cyrus,who acknowledged bryas; because the former was " the Jehovah father was as ing God," Ezra i. 1 3. Accordking,but the latter when he was only to Mohammed Mustapha,Darius was assisted in a private station. It is probable that the in his salutary the mind of Darius work influence Atossa had over then master by Hystaspes, of the magi in succession to the prophetDaniel, decided the choice. who held that high office from B.C. 569 to b.c.
"

this observance, 1 Sam. down as sitting represented

it was

liable to be

534

who, from his rank and residence at ; and from the time of Belshazzar, Susa, the capital,

(Dan. viii. 2,) must have been well known to and probablyto Darius himself. Hystaspes, chief associate of Hystaspesand Darius, The
the younger Zerdusht, or says Dr. Hales, was second is represented by the Zoroaster, who Arabian and Persian historians as a native of the
and a disciple of one of provinceof Aderbijan, either Elijah, Jeremiah, or prophets, The real prophetwas Daniel. Ozeir, Ezra. The designof the reform was to bring back the religion of Persia to its primitive in purity, the days of Abraham and of the Pischdadian the Jewish

having ascended the throne,employed the of his reign in carryingon preparations begun by Darius for the reduction of Egypt.
Xerxes the first year In the
same

year,

the

Samaritans

wrote

to

* Balch is situated on the river Dehash, the Bactrius of Curtius, Pliny, and Strabo, and the Zariaspis of Ptolemy. it called writers is different Zariaspa, Balk, Balakh, By to be the oldest city in the and Bilahj. It is considered Omool denominated Belad, "The world, and is hence of cities." reduced mother to Elphinstone says it is now comparative insignificance.

04

HISTORY

OF

THE

PERSIANS.

habitants wiser nor in accusation against the inless ambitious by his ill success, and him, (Ahasuerus,*) iv. 6 ; anxious to obtain the command and Jerusalem, Ezra of the army, not of Judah this opposition, he confirmed but notwithstanding only approved of the determination of Xerxes,
to that

grantedthem peopleall the privileges

by

but the

extolled him dishonour

above

the grant of the Samaritan especially father, the building for carrying of the temple, on tribute, and the support of the temple worship and his

endeavoured
rest of the

to show

and all his predecessors, the necessity of avenging


name.

done

to the Persian

The

sacrifices.
In the Xerxes second marched

year of his

againstthe

reign,b. c. 484, Egyptians,and

having defeated and subdued them, he made the confidence from his relaand prudence, tionship, more : then grievous deriving yoke of their subjection vours Xerxes, used all his endeaaddressing giving the government of that provinceto his his present resolution, brother Achaemenes,he returned to Susa. to divert him from Mardonius with in his tragedy of the The and at the same time reproached poet iEschylus, he was his preand showed how much of sincerity, want Persians, decessor's representsXerxes as following the Perfor desiring sians to blame to engage rashly plan of conquest. Atossa,the mother ambition in a war which nothing the ghost but his own of Xerxes, is introduced as addressing
of her husband
"

that this flattering council, perceiving speech was well received by Xerxes, remained time silent, for some fearful of opposing the will of the monarch. At length Artabanus, the uncle,who was venerable both for his age king's

Darius thus

and

could tempt him self-interest


ear

to advise. to

This

with bad men, frequent converse learned : these caught his ear The impetuous Xerxes With thy great deeds, as winning for thy sons Vast riches with thy conquering spear : whilst he, in sport, Timorous and slothful, save never, Lifted his lance, nor added to the wealth This his noble fathers. Won reproach, by Oft by bad men repeated,urged his soul To attempt this war, and lead his troops to Greece." from too

advice. deaf to wholesome delivered his sentiments in

but flattery, Although Artabanus a respectful manner, and with great sincerity, Xerxes was indignant that if he were and assured him at the liberty, The of Xerxes
was

open

not

his uncle,he should have suffered for his presumption. Tacitus has well observed,that it is to the misfortune of princes spoiled by flattery look upon every thingas austere that is sincere

preparatory

the reduction of Egypt was only and ingenuous, Accordingly, livered all counsel deand to disregard his grand expeditionagainst to freedom. with a generous and disinterested Plutarch Greece. honest man represents him as boasting They do not consider that even an not his intention to have the figsof that it was discover the durst not tell them all he thinks, nor excellent, bought for him Attica, which were whole truth ; and that what they stand most in till need of is a sincere and faithful friend. A prince and that he would eat no more any longer, of the country. Before,however, he was master ought to think himself happy if in his whole he Xerxes enterprise, engaged in this important he finds one who ventures to speakhonestly, reign
his council,in order to obtain the assembled advice of the most illustrious persons of his court. laid before them the designhe had in view, He them with his motives, which and acquainted
were,

for he is the most of

government.
is
to
our

instrument necessary and rare Cicero justlyremarks, that whether affairs,


true
as

there

nothing so agreeableto

convenient
or

nature, or so in prosperity

the

desire of
was

his predecessors imitating ;


under
to revenge

as adversity, a

the

he obligation

the burning

sincere

friend

lost honours

of recovering their of Sardis ; the necessity in an hour of ; and the prospectof the advantages " from a heart sound Take advice proceeding that might be reapedfrom this war, which would Sincerelyyours, and free from fraudful art."" of all with the be attended He added

is so friendship ; and who impartsgood advice ? difficulty


he who
Dryden.

Europe. conquest had been resolved that this war further, But, alas ! advice is seldom welcome, and those that on in the by his father Darius, and consequently as like it the least, who want it the' most he was cluded only completing his designs;he conThe reason of Xerxes. be, that the case may
should

by promisinglargerewards to those who and another's acknowledgment of our weakness in the expedition. themselves distinguish are better sense implied in the act of taking that the poet had the speechof It is probable nature the pride of human advice. Whence the following in his mind when he wrote Xerxes turn and makes us the voice of conviction, stifles
Mardonius
utter
on

which he makes lines, Athens


"

ing entera

deaf

ear

to the

charmer, charm

he

never

so

Is this the Invade Mardonius

citywhose

presumption dar'd
sternlysaid

wisely. According to Herodotus, when


of his rage were conduct towards
over,

the lord of Asia?

Xerxes

repented of
sent

the ebullitions his for him


to

audacious The Where'er you

fled are now entering. Whither train,whose firebrands Sardis felti lurk, Athenians, if in sight, view
to
a

Artabanus, and

shall you Soon Or if retreated No distant land

your citadel in flames distant land,

and express his intention acknowledgehis fault, the war Greece, which gave of foregoing upon author the same After this, the nobles great joy. of a vision,which romantic account Artabanus made a nd even their opinion, changed and zealous promoter himself become a sanguine relates
a

of

Against avenging

refuge shall you find Glover. Xerxes."


"

Mardonius, the
in the
*

same

who of

had

been

so

cessful unsuc-

reign
must Dr.

Darius, grown
that this is
a

neither
and title,

The
a

reader
name.

remember Hales

not

proper
to

Xerxes,

Esther Darius

i. 1 ; and the Mede, Dan.

plied says that this title is apEzra iv. 6 ; to Artaxerxes Longimanus, the father of to Astyages, Cyaxares, or of ix. 1.

of the war. in prowas portion The greatnessof the preparations Nothing to the grandeurof the scheme. omitted which could contribute to the success was federacy entered into a conof the undertaking. Xerxes

with the

who Carthaginians,

were

at

HISTORY

OF

THE

PERSIANS.

65 the richest

that time the most made the


an

of the west, and potent people while the agreement with them that, Persians invaded Greece, they should fall upon Greek colonies in

considered noble Lydian,who was of mankind after Xerxes, entertained


a

army

with

the Persian for which he was great magnificence,

illrewarded, as related on that tory. Italy, page 35 of this histherehythey might be diverted from rendering The of the year arrived, each other assistance. as the spring b.c. Carthaginians pointed As soon apleft Sardis, Hamilcar who and directed his march not only raised 480, Xerxes general, towards the Hellespont.Being arrived at Abywhat forces he could in Africa, but with the in hired mercenaries A sent him by Xerxes dos, he wished to witness a naval combat. money throne was erected for him upon an Gaul, and Italy Spain, eminence, ; so that it is said his army consisted of 300,000 men, all the sea and a proportionateand in that situation, crowded seeing and the land covered the projects with his vessels, number of ships, in order to execute with his he felta secret joy diffuse itself through and stipulations of the league. See the History troops, his soul, that he was of the Carthaginians. the most considering ful powerIn the beginning of the fifth year, after war and the most happy of mortals. Reflecting, had been determined on, Xerxes however, soon afterwards,that out of so many began his march with his mighty army. time there would, from Susa,the metropolis, thousands,in a hundred years' the earth, his joy was The time of his departure, on ed turnliving says Dr. Hales, is not be one of the sun, into grief, and he could not forbear weeping determined by an eclipse critically of human things. and instability visible at Susa about eightin the morning,April at the uncertainty Herodotus 19, b. c. 481. represents this eclipse As down in a cloudless for the sun as total ; disappeared The' immeasurable ranks his sight was lost, and clear sky, and day became night;" but it A momentary gloom o'ercast his mind ; that it While this reflection fill'dhis eye with tears : Dr. Brinkley's computation appears from time a hundred as That, soon years had told, somewhat less than a half eclipse.This was was should survive ! Not those millions

Sicilyand

"

and sufiicient to excite observation,


at at the Susa, especially moment

create

alarm

one

of their departure, been

and

have might easily


a

magnified
eclipses
known

into total, at by tradition,


were

time when
cause

considered

and the portentous,

that cloud thy pride,arose humanity could touch A tyrant's breast? Or, rather, did thy soul Repine, O Xerxes, at the bitter thought, Glover. mortal?"" That all thy power was

Whence,
Was

among to obscure
once

it,that

but to few of the learned. alarmed Xerxes was the magi upon and consulted at the incident, what God their it might portend. The magi affirmed that the failure of to the Greeks prognosticated the progstates,saying that the sun was

Xerxes

might
and

have would

found have

another
more

which reflection,

of subject ed meritjustly turned have his


sidered con-

his

tears

had affliction,

he

thoughts upon he deserved for being the the reproaches nosticator of the Greeks, but the moon of the lions that fatal term to milinstrument of shortening Persians. With this futileand lyingexposition whom he was of people, goingto sacrifice Xerxes was his march. and proceeded on satisfied, as victims to his cruel ambition. From which of Susa Xerxes marched to Sardis, no opportunity Artabanus,who neglected the place for the general rendezvous was and appointed making himself useful to the young prince, of all his land forces, while his navy advanced sentiments of goodness, of instilling into him towards the of the workings took advantageof this moment along the coasts of Asia Minor into farther reflections of nature, and led him Hellespont. It was on his way thither, at Celsenae,* Py thius, upon the miseries with which the lives of most
men are

himself.

He

might

attended, and

which

render

them
same

so

Phrygia Major, on the road from in the Susa to Sardis. It was a city of great note days of the Lydian and Phrygian kings, and during the time of the Persian in ruins, and modern empire. It is now divided in opinion respecting geographers are much
*

This

city was

situated

in

at the and unhappy ; endeavouring, painful him sensible of the duty and to make time, of the sorrows of princes to alleviate

gation oblikind. man-

its ancient

site.
a

It is noted

in

the march site has

Cyrus,

and

Anabasis of Persian satrap, and erected by Xerxes, and


a

descriptionof its It was Xenophon.


was as

of the younger been given in the of the the usual residence

In the

same

Xerxes conversation,

asked

tabanus Ar-

if he would
war

adorned well
as

with

with

other

palace,probably establishments,
room

park

of such of wild
to

precincts. Through the middle of this park, says Xenophon, runs the river Maealso ander, but the head ot it rises in the palace : it runs A similar through the city of Celaenae. description is given of this river, also,by Quintius Curtius, in his life of
encamp
within its Alexander
streams

great hunts 12,000 men

extent, as not only to afford animals, but to permit an

for of

army

self he himupon Greece ; at his mighty appears to have been staggered that the land and replied, project. Artabanus the sea stillgave him great uneasiness : the land, there is no because country, said he, that can feed the
about

advise him not still and, for the moment,

to make

and

maintain

so

numerous
are no

an

army;

and

sea, because
the
same

there

ports capableof
and

the would
was

Great.

The for

confluence the

of

these

two

naturallybe
abandoned

below
a new

Celaenae

city. In city built by

after ages, Antiochus

distance

south

of

Cotyaeum,

116 east

of Sardis.

Soter,
streams

son

of

Seleucus,
the

which

was

surrounded

of the

Marsyas,Obrima, and
Maeander.

regarded Askkly as its opinions are evidently erroneous. site; but both these Apamea Kibotis. exist at Ophium the Maeander nor the Marsius Neither According to Rennel, the modern Sandukiy occupies the latter river the site of the ancient Celaenae. This place is actually Kara Hissar, and Askkly is too far down thinks that Celaenae to the Meto answer description. Kinneir of the Maeander, now situated on one of the sources of Kara south Hissar, where stood miles, seven inder, which was generally allowed to have its principal in wood, said to be erected fine the branch at Celaenae, and is formed there is a villageembosomed source by some hills, on the site of an ancient town, not far from one of the springs which flow from the foot of a ridge of lofty of the Maeander; so difficult is it to identifythis and as is reported of that city. Pliny calls the hill Sigria, sources ancient it lies sixty English miles direct north-east of Colosse, cityof renown.
themselves into called ancient Celaenae
; and

Orga, which This city was

by the empty

Ophium
miles

German a geographer, supposed Marmert, is twenty-two geographical Kara Hissar, which of

north-east

Sandukiy,

to

answer

the

site of the

Dr. Pococke

66

HISTORY

OF

THE

PERSIANS.

of vessels. such a multitude These receiving overruled by Xerxes, however, were objections, the momentary and ambition again prevailing, succeeded by a fixed determination irresolutionwas go forward. commanded Xerxes
to
a bridge of boats to for the transmission Hellespont, Asia into Europe ; which from was

he marched

southwards

with

his army

in three

attended by his fleet, divisions, through Thrace and Macedonia, several cities of which tained enterhim

hospitably.Herodotus
expended
"

Thracians
be of
a

400

says, that the talents of silver on a

laid over
his forces work of

the

more

ostentation

than

use, since

ander, Alex-

and

afterwards the

in after ages, same amount straits, this vastly greater effect. The space that separates the two pont, nation,who continents, formerlycalled the Hellesthe Dardanelles, is seven now breadth,or nearlyone Englishmile. arose storm on a sudden, and broke
;

Ottomans,passed the with less parade, and

single banquet; and that a wittycitizen told the Abderites, they should bless Heaven that Xerxes did not require two repasts in the day, or they would be ruined." Herodotus ferent givesa minute account of the difof the various nations that constituted Besides the generalsof army. every commanded the troops of their respective
was

stadia in A violent command

country, the land army


of six Persian

under

the

generals, namely,MarThe

first erected bridge

the down and Xerxes more appointed architects to build two others in its experienced for the army, and the other for the one room, beasts of burden and the baggage. Major Ren-

donius, Trintsehmes, Masistes,Smerdones, Ger-

gis, and
called the

Megabyzus.
Immortal

10,000

Persians,

commanded Band, were by had, also,itsparticular Hydarnes. The cavalry Rennel commanders. sians observes,that the Permay the army be of

has ingeniously explainedthe construction of these two bridges, and shown the anglewhich they formed with each other, the one to resist the strong current from the Propontis, the other the strong winds in the JEgean Sea, to withstand each protecting the other.

nel

compared,in respect

to the rest of

Xerxes, with the Europeans in a British army in India, composed chiefly of seapoys and native troops.
Xerxes

having ranged
was

and

numbered

his

mament, ar-

desirous

of

reviewingthe whole.

Herodotus

relates
on

story concerningthe

duct con-

the occasion of the failure of the firstbridge, the import of which is, that he threw two pair of chains into the sea, as if he
meant to

of Xerxes

in his car, he examined Mounted each nation in turn, to all of whom he proposed questions, the replies noted down to which were by his of Xerxes in his secretaries. The procession
car

shackle

and
to

confine
be

ordered held

300

strokes

it,and given it, by


among
the

that way

he of

through the ranks of by Glover, in his


The monarch and will'd, horses.

his army,
"

is well

scribed de-

Leonidas :"

chastisement.
was

Now,
be
one

water

Persians

"

to

of the

and this storymay, nature)1

symbols of Divine be accounted therefore,

fabulous The
throw

for Xerxes

to directly opposite

would have acted so not the tenets of his religion.

of Mount Athos,and the circumstance perforation of sending a letter to it, to threatening

suddenly he heard High on silver wheels The sapphires shone, ivorycar, with azure Cerulean beryls,and the jasper green, The emerald, the ruby's glowing blush, The flaming topaz, with its golden beam, The pearl,the' empurpled amethyst, and all
His

trampling

The To A His

various deck

itinto the

sea, may
one

also

be justly

doubted.

gems the pomp

which of

India's mines
In behind

afford

kings.

burnish'd

gold

Xerxes was not he certainly was

of the wisest of

but princes,

sculptured eagle from

display'd steeds,

only have
do not

been

idiot; and these actions could no committed by a madman. They


with the anecdote his army at that

statelyneck, and o'er the royal head Outstretch'd his dazzling wings. Eight generous
on

Which In The Ten Down Of vast The


*

the famed
* *

Nisaen At the

plain were
car.

nursed,

accord,moreover,
into tears of life.
the

wintry Media,
attentive thousand
to the

drew

the radiant

Xerxes,after havingreviewed
dos, burst
short term upon

Abytheir

steeds horse sea-beat bands.

on reflecting

bound signal, behind : the chariot flies; in thunder the field; sweep on a plain margin, battalia To these
a

When
was

the second

was bridge a day completed,

expansion, in
in

wait the'

eastern

imperial wheels,

appointedfor

commencement

of their

By princes followed
Swift He Roll

as passage over. Accordingly, soon as the first sweet odours of various rays of the sun appeared, kinds were spread over the bridges, and the

cars, of Caria,t and her son, The queen Proceed. The With king's approach Hyperanthes rode. is proclaim'd. arrangement host nigh. The' innumerable admit their and lord by nations, With all his satraps. As from crystaldomes, arch of pendent seas, Built underneath an whose trident rules the floods, When that stern power With each cerulean deity ascends, all the deep in his pearly chariot, Throned to the' emerging god, its bosom Divides

hundred

through
draws

the wide

way

now

was

strewed

with
out

myrtle. At

the

same

time,

back

Xerxes

poured

libations into the sea,- and

face towards the sun, the principal the Persian worship,he implored the assistance of that god in his enterprize this : done,he threw the vessel he had used in of object

his turning

his

making

So Xerxes On either

rode side

between

the Asian

world

libations, togetherwith a golden cup and a Persian scimitar, into the sea. His army was seven days and seven nights in passingthese straits. It was an immense host, but there were
few real soldiers among them.

receding."
the land
a changing forces,Xerxes, exSidonian vessel, re-

After

viewing
a

his chariot for


writers of later date, conceive

that

such

Xerxes spent a month


near

the mouth

of the army

in Thrace, Doriscus, Hebrus, in reviewingand


at

numberinghis

and

fleet.* From

of belief, and reduce beyond the bounds which would still leave about one-fifth, of soldiers compared with the handful to such with results observe. t Justin of
a

the
a

statements numbers

are

to

mighty

thence

force.

The

latter

statement

these

* Herodotus states, that the rmmher of the followers of Xerxes was 5,283,220. Isocrates estimates the land army, round m numbers, at 5,000,000. Plutarch agrees with

and probability,

with the

of the

invasion, which
of this who

Greece is more sistent conthe narrative of the will reader attentive

army, could pose op-

observes

woman:

"Artemisia,
forces with

statements

; but

and Diodorus,Pliny, jElian,

other

Kalicarnassus,

joined

her

queen of those

HISTORY

OF

THE

PERSIANS.

67 sunk 400 ships of war, besides an of transports and number provision the promontory of Sepias. From this

viewed

his

fleet in

similar

manner,

and passing destroyed the shore. he had immense


at vessels,

betwixt the prows


Elated at the

of the

shipsand

prospect before him, when

station they therefore removed asked Demaratus, reviewed his forces, Xerxes southward. The Grecian who had taken refuge exiled king of Sparta, an
at

he thought the oppose his progress through their country. After being assured by- to oppose their passage southward. The Greeks were not inactive whilst the eneXerxes that he wished him to speakb.is thoughts my Demaratus to the was replied approaching. They sent to Gelon, the freelyand sincerely, the Persian

court,* whether
venture
to

Grecians

would

ther to Apheta,furof 300 ships, fleet, assembled in their neighbourhood, at Artemisium, the northern promontory of the island of Eubcea,

effect, that,bound by their laws to defend their country, they would conquer or die.
Spread on Eurota's banks, of soft risinghills circling The patient Sparta stood; the sober, hard, which no And shape man-subduing city, of pleasure charm. nor Of pain could conquer, the solid base on Lycurgus there built, Of equal life, so well a tempered state, in each just poise, each government mix'd Where Each so checking, and supporting each, power
Amid
a

and to the islesof Coreyra tyrant of Syracuse, and Crete, to desire succour from them, and to form
a

league against the

common

enemy.

Gelon was them prevented from joining his ambitious views ; the inhabitants of
deceived them
;

and

the

consulted the Delphic into the league. Added

people of oracle,refused

through Corcyra Crete, having


to enter

firm for ages and fort of Greece, without one giddy hour, of party rage : of faction, shock or For, drained the springs of wealth, Corruption there That The One

unmoved

it stood,

to these disappointments, the defection was of many other cities of Greece,of whom Xerxes had demanded by his heralds earth and Fear so wrought upon them water. generally, that none but the Lacedaemonians and Athenians,

Lay
Had Loved

withered
not

at the

neglected art
sunk the
:

Thrice root. happy land, with weedy vice if Athenian


arts

and
to

the

peopleof Thespia,and Plataea, mained re-

Confounded not

but

to combat

coming danger, and they were abled endirect the whole force of their genius of the peopleagainst justdescription to prevent its realization. This was the one his hosts ; and though whom Xerxes was leading of their deliberations ; and the result object he laughed at the reply of Demaratus, he soon shows how wisely they acted. found that the battle is not always accorded to The of their deliberations principal points the and that
This is
to
a

soil, yet then the calm abode Of wisdom, virtue,philosophic ease, Of manly sense, and wit, in frugalphrase, Confined and press'dinto laconic force ; self, There, too, by rooting thence still treacherous The public and the private grew the same: The children of the nursling,public all, And For that they toil'd, at its table fed. For that they lived entire, and ev'n for that The tender mother urged her son to die."" Thomson.

they
to

did

the enemy. These were solved reor die; and the first thing conquer in this emergency to put an was end
was

all discords and peace and the


at

concluded

intestine divisions. Accordingly, between the Athenians

at this period This was a great pointgained; for their attention thereby was left undiverted
were war.

who peopleof iEgina,

from

the

strong,
"

were

the

choice

of

commanders,

and

at

what

Thrice

is he arm'd

that

hath

his

just." quarrel

The

of Greece

sion first information of this formidable invawas given to the Lacedaemonians

in order to placethey should meet the Persians, their entrance into Greece. The Athenians dispute chose Themistocles,and the Spartans conferred upon of the supreme command of their forces

patriotism vailed prehis private over By an ingenious wrongs. of the king's stratagem, he carved an account by Demaratus
himself, whose
determination
covered the
to
on

two

tablets of
wax,

wood, and
so

then

writingwith
blank

that

they appeared
were

tion Leonidas,one of their kings. The situathey adopted for the conflict was the straits Thermopylae. The appellation, The means Thermopylae,
"

be

tablets.

When

these

or ceedingly, Sparta, they puzzled the peopleexoffers the only approach to causeway till Gorgo, the wife of Leonidas, gaciouslypaved saIt is bordered on either side by a deep the alarming Greece. the wax, when removed it is further and and impracticable morass, truth was culated cirLacedaemonians The revealed. bounded by the sea towards the east, and the the intelligence try. throughout the counG5ta to the west of Mount Here is precipices situated the Turkish dervene, or barrier, Xerxes upon a proceeded through Achaia and Thessmall narrow stone bridge,marking the most and without meeting any opposers, reached saly, It is still the famous and important straitsof Thermopylae, importantpointof the whole passage. in ancient times,and is, as occupiedby sentinels, the key of Greece, while the Carnian and Olympic considered as at the present time, even therefore, were celebrating. games mae, of the southern provinces. The TherAt this time, a furious Hellespontine wind, the pylae hot springs, are at a short distance from or blowing from e.n.e., raised such a hurricane as the bridge,a little further on to the north. issue is from two mouths at the Their principal commanders in Xerxes, appeared amongst the forwardest the hottest engagements. side there And the man's as on of (Eta,on the foot of the limestone precipices

delivered at

of the Hot extensive bog,

Pass

Springs."On

the north is fen, through which a narrow

an

observed was cowardice, on the woman's which here passes close left of the causeway fect, efcourage." Herodotus speaks to the same the under mountain, and at this part of it and adds, that there was who not one gave such.good counsel advice and to Xerxes; but not he was abreast of each prudent scarcelyadmits two horsemen enough to profit by it. The critical part is at the hot other. most * favourite Demaratus of Xerxes, because he was a the Turkish deror at the bridgewhere vene springs, in preference to his elder suggested his plea to the crown is placed. At the former, the traveller has brother, on the grounds before recorded.
was a an

effeminate

masculine

68 the mountain the

HISTORY

OF

THE

PERSIANS.

the one close to him on and little side, band ; but at length, oppressed by numbers, hog on the other ; and a few hrave troops they all fell, who except one man, escapedto the march of the where he was might, therefore,intercept Sparta, treated as a coward and mustered. traitor to his mightiest army ever country. The brave Leonidas was It
was

at

this situation that


a

Xerxes hand
was

found of

one

of the first that fell

on

this memorable

casion. oc-

waitingfor him, with The haughty monarch 6200 men. determined to find that they were
Leonidas passage. He had the Grecians would approach, to flight. Perceivingthat he sent out a spy disposition, This spy brought him word

to

On the barrow, or tomb of this devoted only surprised band, an appropriate was epitaph which inscribed, his reads thus : dispute his
"

flattered himself betake this


was

that,on
not

The

themselves their

That

Lacedaemonians, O stranger,tell, here, obeying their sacred laws, we records that


men,

fell."
on

to view the enemy. that he found the

Herodotus
occasion above

Xerxes
which

lost

this

20,000

is probably

Lacedaemonians
that

was

for

an exaggeration.It appears, however,that he out of their entrenchments, and was dismayed at the valour of the Lacedaemonians themselves with military diverting ; for he interrogated Demaratus,if they had exercises,and combing their hair. Such the Spartanmanner that of preparing themselves yet many such soldiers; to which he replied, about 8000 and it indicated that they were equal in valour to battle, fully they numbered

they were

determined
To such

to conquer

or

die. informed

effect Demaratus

Xerxes;

but the monarch stillincredulous, and maintained was his position for four days,in expectation of them retreat. seeing Xerxes During this interval,
to
master

Herodotus also says, that to be buried secretly, lest the remainder of his troops should be dismayed. Thus lightly could he sportwith human life. Surely, in all ages of the world,

those who he caused

had

fallen.

great numbers

used

his utmost

"

endeavours make his him

corrupt Leonidas, promising to


of all Greece if he would

join

his proposals with party. Leonidas rejected afterwards Xerxes moned sumcontempt; and when him
to

a game, their subjectswise, which, were would not play at. Nations would do well To' extort their truncheons from the puny hands Of heroes, whose infirm and baby minds Are gratified with mischief; and who spoil

War

is

Kings

Because

men

suffer it
"

their

toy the

world."

surrender

up
"

his

this laconic

reply:

turned arms, he reCome and take

COWPER.

The

same

them."
On
sent

day on which

the action at Thermopylae

the fifth

bring them

occurred, the two fleetsengaged at Arteday, Xerxes, enraged at the pertinacity The misium, a promontory of Euboea. fleetof in retaining of the Greeks the pass, the Grecians consisted of 271 vessels, exclusive of Medes, with a command detachment to of galleys and small boats : that of the enemy
alive to his presence. These were ; and the Immortal great slaughter
were was

much

more

defeated with

recent

losses

the inhabitants
to

them, shared against 200 ships with orders to sail round the island of the same fate. After successive efforts, indeed, Euboea, and encompass the Grecian fleet, that with large bodies of their troops, made to gain none of their shipsmight escape. The Greeks the pass, the Persians were desist from to obliged had intelligence of this design, and set sail in the attempt. the night, in order to attack them by day-break. Xerxes was perplexed ; but in the midst of his They missed this squadron, and advanced to perplexity, treacherypointed out his path to Aphetae, where the bulk of the Persian fleetlay, Greece. One Epialtes, a Melian, in the hope of and after several brief encounters, to they came a great reward, discovered a secret passage to a considerable engagement, which was long and the top of the hill, and which led to the rear of and resulted in nearly obstinately maintained, This point is beyond the the Grecian camp. equal success. in the north, and it is stillused by hot springs, Though the Persians suffered very severely,
next sent

Band, which

by

numerous, the storm.

its notwithstanding The Persians


sent

of the country in their journeys and half of their yet the Grecians suffered also, spatched Salona, the ancient Amphissa. Xerxes deSuch being the case, they disabled. were ships a detachment which, marching deemed it expedient thither, to retire to some safer
to

themselves of that advantageous night, possessed post at day-break. Leonidas his danger,and convinced that saw it was to oppose so whelming overimpossible successfully all
a

place

refit they sailed to Salamis, ; and, accordingly, island in the Saronic Bay, nearly midway an between Athens and Corinth. Herodotus justly

force, with

so

small

observes,that though the engagement


misium

number

of he

troops,he obligedhis allies to retire; but


remained

himself with his 300 Lacedaemonians, the now convinced that the Greeks, who were to die in their country's dience cause resolving ; in obetheir great number, was enemy, notwithstanding either not invincible. The to an oracle,which foretold that for liberty is struggle
"

at Artedid not bringmatters absolute deto an cision, yet it contributed greatlyto encourage

Sparta or

her

king

must

fall."

Leonidas exclaim,on circumvented him :


"

hearingthat

makes the enemy had

Glover

A Not often unsuccessful


:

cause

now

behold art thou

the oracle fulfill'd. near, thou

Then

glorioussacred
! the

hour

usurp'd power when Is weakness opposed : conscious of wrong, and prone to flight. 'Tis pusillanimous conceive the glowing thought But slaves, that once
Of freedom, in that hope itself possess calls for" spirit, All that the contest strength, of danger, and united hearts, The scorn The surest presage of the

Which shall my country'sliberty secure Thrice hail,thou solemn period! thee


Of virtue

fame,

and

freedom

shall

tongues proclaim,

Shall celebrate

in ages

yet unborn."

good they seek."

"

Cowper.

of Prodigies

valour

were

performed by this

After

his

over inglorious victory

the

brave

70

HISTORY

OF

THE

PERSIANS.

and advise him of their design, let slipthis favourable opportunityof divided when were Grecians the they attacking of resistance. themselves, and incapable among sian and ordered the PerXerxes credited the report,
to

him apprise
to

women,

and

the

women

men." have been

To
a

reflective

not

mind, the sight would


To and
woman

one. pitiful

belongs only
affection. the

tender

These

when
war,

fleet to range and

themselves the

in three
as

divisions, of
cut

they are of corruption

the offices of love and her prerogatives are ; laid aside for the savage din the human heart is

stretch
of

across

bay, so

to

off the
to

retreat

the

Greeks, and
Salamis.
ill success
own

in that

array

exhibited in its most fearful forms. Many such, however, are instanced in the annals of profane
it may be safely that this asserted, of the bitter fruitsof paganism. In the school of Christianity, is taughtto walk woman the earth as an angel of mercy, to soothe the
was one

advance
at
to

towards

history ; and

Imputing the
sea

of his former

to his

absence,Xerxes
the
to

engagements resolved

witness

this from
a

top of

an

eminence,
Around of the down the

where him

he caused

throne

be erected.
manner

rugged path of human


Such
most
was

life.

were

after the several scribes,


were

the

battle of actions

Salamis, one
recorded in

of the

Persian monarchs, who

to write

memorable

ancient

in themselves of such as should signalize names the conflict. This was, no doubt,a wise arrangement, inasmuch as it tended to animate his hosts ; rewards and honours being the onlymotives they had
to

incite them

to deeds

of

arms.

history. According to Plutarch, it was fought the 20th of the Attic month on Boedromion, correspondingto the 15th of September,b. c. the sixth day of the Eleusinian 480, which was the procession of the mystic rites,*on which held by the Greeks. Iacchus was
"

" Xerxes, who enthroned JEgaleos anxious state to view which never nature A scene yet display'd, Nor fancy feigned. The theatre was Greece, that stage, to equal Mankind spectators, Themistocles, great actor."" Glover.

High

on

king

Which
And And He But
men

sate looks

on

rocky brow,
Salamis;

ships by
counted when

o'er sea-born thousands


;
"

lay below,
were

in nations them the


sun

all

his !

at

break

of

day,
were

When

the

found Peloponnesians

themselves

set, where

they ?"

encompassed by the Persian armament, they dangerswith their prepared to share the same sides prepared for battle. The allies. Both
Grecian
fleet consisted of 380

sail; that of the

Themistocles, takingadvantage of the alarm caused by his defeat,contrived, in order to hasten his departure from Greece, to
of Xerxes inform
to

him

that itwas down


to

the intention of the Greeks

Persians, upwards of 2000. Themistocles avoided the engagement tilla certain wind began to blow, time, the case each day about the same as was
be unfavourable to the that it would found himself favoured As soon as he enemy. which for battle, the he this wind, signal by gave who fought described by iEschylus, is thus finely

break

the

bridgeover

the
to

Hellespont.
of his
secure cover

Xerxes
retreat.

sent immediately

the remainder under

fleet thither

protect it, and

his
of the of

knowing

This he commenced
men, to subdue

leaving Mardonius, with night,


300,000
The would Greece.

an

army

Grecians,who
have it renewed fast

in this battle himself:


"

expected

that

Xerxes

"

of Greece, from thraldom save Advance, ye sons Your save, country, save your wives, your children of your gods, the sacred tombs : this day Where ancestors rest your honoured of all demands The cause your valour." common The

having learned
as

the combat that the fleet had

day, departed, pursued


next

the

temples

They had purpose. besides those ships,


the

they could. But it was to no 200 of the enemy's destroyed which : they had captured rest,having suffered by the winds in their
as

the coast of Asia, and Perpassage, retired towards desperate. The sians, engagement entered into the port of Cumae, a cityof finally arch's knowing that they foughtunder the monJEtolia,where they passed the winter. They with great resolution ; but eye, advanced into Greece. returned no more in their faces, and the the wind blowing directly of his army marched with a portion Xerxes size and number of their ships embarrassing victuals had the Hellespont. As towards no their courage in a place so narrow, them soon great The Greeks noted this circumstance, been provided for them, they underwent abated. duringtheir whole march, which lasted hardships and rushed onwards all the forty-five days. After having consumed Amidst the ruins of the fleet, the soldiers were fruits they could find, obliged The
was

As

through a shoal of fish caught in Spreading destruction." JSschylus.


"

the

net,

to live upon herbs, and This leaves of trees.

even

upon

the bark
a

and

occasioned

The

Ionians
to

were

the

firstthat betook

selves them-

flight.Queen Artemisia had a narrow Her galley was pursuedby an Athenian escape. commanded vessel, by the brother of the poet and would have been vEschylus, captured had she not turned suddenlyupon one of her own of with the commander a Calyndianvessel, side,
which
the

in the army, and with that he arrived at the Hellespont


a

ness great sickdied, so great numbers


"

scarcely

of pittance When the

his

army."
reached His

Xerxes

the

he Hellespont, down and stroyed de-

found him

broken bridge already


storms.

by
and

fleet, however, conveyed


remains the coast of his host from of Asia,

the shattered
to

she

was

on crew.

with allthe it,

ill terms, Deceived

the Chersonese attacked,and sunk this by stratagem,


*

Abydos, on

it is said, from So called, Eleusis,son cf Mercury. serted deGrecian, conceivingthat she had now of Athens, on submitted The Eleusinians to the dominion the barbarians,quittedthe pursuit. In of celebrating of having the exclusive condition privilege the battle, she had behaved with such intrepidity, of great a source these mysteries, which proved to them that Xerxes exclaimed, "My become wealth. are men

HISTORY

OF

THE

PERSIANS.

71

whence The their

he returned earliest

to

where Sardis, of the war.* of the


to

he remained after the

"

Not

all the

gold in
most

duringthe continuance
care was

and richest,

the world, nor the greatest, beautiful country, shall ever

Grecians

battle of Salamis

send

where to Delphi, victory Their

of the first-fruits they enriched the


not

reasons

to enslave Greece. Many and forbid us to do this, if we even firstand greatest is, : the the disposed

tempt

us

cogent
were so

temples
to

temple with the spo Is of those who


it. soughtto pillage
to next

fore long be-

and

statues

of the
we

gods,burned
are

and

reduced

reward the
was

those

who

had

thoughtwas themselves signalized


consent

ashes, which

above honour

rest, and
bestowed

by

universal

this

upon Themistocles. not yet But the liberty of the Greeks was this unjust war Xerxes had commenced secure. by the advice of Mardonius ; hence it was that defeated at Salamis, when the monarch was Mardonius, for fear he should feel the royal vengeance, deemed of Greece

to the avenge uttermost, rather than compromise with the perpetrator monwealth, ; in the next place the Grecian comall of the same blood and same
to

bound

having common language,


the

altars and sacrifices of

by

it better to propose in his means, or

customs, which it would Athenians to betray. Know, not well become it not before, that therefore,now, if ye knew whilst one of the Athenians shall survive,we the subjuWe admire gation never will compromise with Xerxes.

gods, and

similar

some

great

your
our

with forethought houses and harvests


our

respect to
are we

us,

now

that

His counsel to Xerxes, death. effort to meet narrated by Herodotus, is graphically as given by Glover in his Athenaid :
"

in offering destroyed,
to

to

entertain

families,and
we

abundantly ;

but

shall seek

without
11

burdeningyou.

thank you sistence subprocure In the present

Be Not

not

discourag'd, sovereign of
not

the world decide

oars,

sails and

timber

can

In shiftingstrife, Thy enterprise sublime. By winds and billows governed, may contend of traffic. On the solid plain The sons The genernus steed and soldier; they alone swell where no establish, Thy glory must breath of casual gales Of fickle floods, nor Assist

be it your care to bring your posture of affairs, forces into the field with as much as expedition possible ; for the barbarian* will not fail to invade
our so territories, soon as

he

shall hear

the

By
The

the skilful coward, and control nature's wanton, but resistless might, brave

man's

arm."

his he shall be able to penetrate into Attica, it becomes into Bceotia, us to march and divert his attention to that quarter." As the Greeks foresaw,so it happened. As
account
our

of

utter

refusal to comply with

Before proposals.

Mardonius
the monarch lesson had

concluded with
was

himself offering

for

which enterprise,
not

accepted.The haughty

yet been taughtwisdom by the lesson of adversity,had not yet learned the
"

heard from Mardonius Alexander the resolutions of the Athenians,he led his troops from Thessaly into Attica,wasting and which he destroyingthe whole country over
soon
as

fixed

of mercy the made

from

humanity. On sight of suffering


b. spring, c.

and collecting passed, troops from every quarter. his way through Boeotia, the Thebans advised him in their country, as the to halt and encamp
most

On

approach
an

of

donius 479, Marthe Athenians,

convenient all

; and

by

so

doing, he might

in them off from the confederacy. the several states. and draw With this view, he sent Alexander, the son of Had Mardonius listened to this treacherous tageous have been Greece would Amyntas, king of Macedon, with very advancounsel, it is possible offers. These offers were, to rebuild, at overruled, however, by his conquered. It was reduce the leading men Greece, by bribing
t

attempt to gain over

the

every other edificedemolished the year before in Attica ; to suffer them to live according laws ; to their own
to

king'scharge, their city,and

desire

to

take

Athens

second

time, and

his

reinstatethem
to

in all their former


on

to show the king at Sardis, vanity ; for he wished stationed throughout the islands, by fire signals, nius in possession that he was of that city. Mardopossessions ;

and

bestow

them

what

other the

dominions Athenians

they might desire. Steady to the common cause, replied, Tell Mardonius, Thus
"

he found deserted, entered Athens, which in the tenth month after it had been taken by Xerxes, and he demolished whatever had escaped the monarch's

Whilst the
never

sun

holds

Athensay the ians, will its course, we

fury.

compromise with Xerxes ; but relyingon the aid of the gods and heroes,whose still entertained temples Mardonius hopes of bringing and statues he has contemptuously of accommodation, and sent burned, we them to some terms resolve to resisthim to the last extremity. And the former another proposals deputy to renew for you, Alexander, as dred, more of the council of five hunamong appear no Lycidas,a member the Athenians with such messages ; nor, under bribed or either approving the proposals, colour of rendering exhort us to that they should us good offices, by Mardonius, recommended is abominable. do what For we wish not that be referred to the people. Fired with indignation, on treatment the Athenians gathered round him, and you should suffer any unpleasant
the well
to
as part of the Athenians, as a

Not being able to withstand such a torrent alone, the Athenians again retired to Salamis.

friend."
were

Then

who deputies,
an

accommodation

stoned him to death ; and the women, being a guest as following turningto the Spartan their example,rushed to his house, and stoned fearful lest they should come his wife and children. By this second tragedy, with Xerxes, they said, Mardonius perceivedthey were termined deobstinately
to carry
on

the

war

tilleither he should
used it :

is said to have passed over the Hellespont in a fishingboat. Herodotus rejectsthis does story; and the whole of the narration of this event to be introduced to calumniate it appear Xerxes, whence is rejected in these pages.
some

By

historians

Xerxes

The

term

"barbarians"
sense

was use

much here

milder used.

than

we

by the ancients in a generally it imports


in which
ranse

strangers,

an occasionally

enemy,

it is

72
or they buried expelled,

HISTORY

OF

THE

PERSIANS,

be

in the ruins of their had


sent

country.
In the
to
mean

time, the Athenians

with powerful effect, has put a siiEschylus, milar in the mouth of the ghost of prediction when puties Darius, deevoked by Atossa and the chorus :
In Beneath the Doric

to complainof their tardiness, Sparta, their breach of promise, and desertion of the in in not opposing the enemy common cause, Bceotia;and next to requirethat they would in order that to their assistance, send an army they might oppose him in Attica,recommending Thracian the to give him plainas the fittest

Plataea's plains,

spear, the clotted mass Of carnage shall arise : that the high mounds, Piled o'er the dead, to late posterity Shall That Weak Puts Yields

give this silent record to men's eyes : proud aspiring thoughts but ill beseem mortals ! For oppression,where it springs,
forth the blades
a

battle.

Freed

from

immediate

danger, the Pe-

ripe harvest

of vengeance, of repentant

and woe."

its fruit

seemed careless about the matter ; loponnesians before the battle of Plataea, but at length, Mardonius fearingthat the Athenians, who Shortly realize with furnished were at their conduct,would was a exasperated strikingspecimen of their threat of quitting the confederacy, he was making Grecian spirit.Among his auxiliaries, Phocians, who peace with the king, and becoming his allies, joinedby a body of a thousand force of 5000 Either driven to his ranks from necessity. a were troops to they sent off hastily toward the isthmus. their assistance, their fidelity, or to prove their courage, suspecting with destruction by and fearing to be them menaced Mardonius Mardonius, discovering this, which attacked his cavalry, which surrounded them on all sides. by the confederates in Attica, feated The Phocian for his cavalry, and if dehis men exhorted commander to was disadvantageous in the narrow die like heroes,"and to show that they were by them, to be intercepted When he reached Grecians : upon which they faced about every passes, retired into Bceotia. which The the Theban territory, convenient for in column. and closed their ranks was way, in which his chief strength had directed, his cavalry, Mardonius consisted, Persian cavalryretired, as the river Asopus, he fortified a large and he sent a herald to inform them that camp near for a placeof refugeshould he be defeated. ed he only meant to test their courage, and exhortthe The in the war, at the which prevailed them to act with alacrity disposition among time holdingout largepromisesof reward Persians at this time, and the fear that possessed same them the issue of the campaign, is for their services. respecting dotus well illustrated by an anecdote related by HeroRoused by the example of the Lacedaemonians, Whilst the barbarians were : employed the rest of the Peloponnesians preparedto prosecute this work, Attaginus, with vigour. They raised their the war on a Theban, prepareda ians and AthenMardonius the Lacedaemonians and joined to which entertainment, magnificent quotas, ed invited. From thence they marchand fifty Persians were At table,they at the isthmus. in the neighon into Bceotia, a Persian and a Theban to Mount Cithaeron, reclining bourhood chequered, couch.* Their army of the Persian army. After supper, as they were every the assoof Pausanias, king of the Persian who the conduct ciate under was was drinkingfreely, in chief of tion of Thersander, of the firstconsiderac ommander of and a man Aristides, Sparta, in Greek what him the Athenians. at Orchomenos, asked Mardonius, in order to try the he answered, countryman he was ; and when courage of the Greeks, sent out his cavalryto This led to a fierce the Persian proceededthus : An Orchomenian,' skirmish with the enemy.
" " ' 4

Since you

and

I share
to

the

same

and table, you


a

the

same

I wish libations,

leave

memorial

of my

you see those Persians at supper, which left encamped on the and the army we banks of the river ? Of all these,in a very short !' space of time, you will see very few surviving sander, the Persian shed many tears. TherSaying this,

may have an interest. Do

that being forewarned, you sentiments, of consulting opportunity your own

routed, engagement, wherein the Persians were in next was and their leader, Masistius,who himself, slain ; an consideration to Mardonius in caused great dismay and sorrow event which
for the To denote their grief the Persian army. loss of Masistius, they cut off their hair,and the of their horses,and all Bceotia resounded manes After this with their cries and lamentations. the Grecians removed conflict,
to not far Plataea,

astonished it not become


and

at the to

remark, replied,Does
' '

from Thebes.
The
men,

consisted of 110,000 of the Greeks army nians, the Lacedaemothe flower of which were numbered who and Athenians, the Persian, 'it is not for man returned friend,' Tegeatae, The None Persian army, in the whole the decisions of Providence. to counteract 19,500 men. besides visers, to 300,000 men, of them it is said, amounted are willingto hearken to faithfuladas A multitude of Persians share the same 50,000 Grecians who joinedthem voluntarily,

you

to those

next

donius, this to Marcommunicate ?' him in dignity My

sentiments
on more

from

man's says

as the Phocians, with me the Thebans, or by compulsion, they follow ; but, like me, life is and others. Thessalians, necessity.Nothing in human the two armies than that the wise From motives,* to be regretted, superstitious deeply This,'' voice should be disregarded.'
" "

* The soothsayers,upon inspecting the entrails of the Herodotus, M I heard from Thersander, the according to Herodotus, foretold to both parties municated victims, Orchomenian, who also told me that he had comthe if they acted only upon should be victorious

the Platffia."
* as we

same

to many

before the battle of

that

they

them defensive; and threatened the first attack. if they made Potter

with

an

utter overthrow
. .

In more

remote as
we

times, the ancients


read
custom

sat round

table

do,
of
a

in

however,
was

that the
very

This Homer. of recliningon

shows, passage couch at meals

early date.

tion of divinaof the mode account gives a particular whole and If they were by inspectinghe entrails. all had their natural place,colour, and proportion, sound", wanting, evil out of order, or well : if any thing was was unof the entrails was was portended. The palpitation

HISTORY

OF

THE

PERSIANS.

remained
on

in their posts for ten side of the river of


an

each
was

days,encamped Asopus. Mardonius,

sacred others merit.

given to purposes, was rewarded each were

Pausanias,and the

according to

his

impatient temper, grew uneasy at so menacing long a delay. Famine, also,was for him, for he had only a few days'provisions his army. Accordingly,he held a council of
who
war, and, contrary to the wise counsel of Artato retire under bazus, who advised Mardonius the walls of Thebes, where they would be able to obtain to

Diodorus
taea
was

Siculus says, that the battle of Pla-

foughtin the second year of the seventyfifth Olympiad, when Xanthippuswas archon of Athens, B.C. 479, and on the third or fourth day of the month to the Boedromion, corresponding 28th or 29th of August, nearly a twelvemonth
after the battle of Salamis.

and eventually forageand provisions, of the confederates by bribes on some prevail


common

to desert the

cause, to be

battle

was

decided

upon the next The attack

day.
was

made
came

Alexander
to

of Macedon

by surprise ; but night about midsecretly


Aristides which of
to

their camp,
"

and

informed
event

all that had

passed; an

Glover

alludes in his

Athenaid :"
Aristides hastes
:

The day on which the Greeks gained the for another victory at Platsea is memorable gainedby their fleet over that of the Persians,at wherein of the Persians most Mycale, in Ionia, were put to the sword, their shipsburned, and immense an booty captured. This battle was and that of Platsea in the foughtin the evening, each decisive in their morning. They were nature. By them the great designsof Xerxes
were

To

whom

Hear, Mardonius,
At

the stranger: credit, weigh the

"

Bulwark

of this

camp!

and frustrated,
were

the liberties of Greece the

and

tidingswhich I bear: press'dby fear of threatening want,

of Ionia

from (colonized of
a

will pass, night'sfourth watch the fatal stream determined, though forbid Inflexibly By each diviner,to assail your host With all his numbers. I, against surprise, Am
come name

Nor secured. these contests

Greece) restored and benefits resulting from


nature.

momentary

They
invasion,

freed
and

Europe for ages from during the subsistence of the


even

Asiatic Persian

monarchy,
pires em-

to warn

you both

thee

alone realm friend

I trust, and

till the the

erection of the and

fanatical

My
Am Of

revealing.
thus hazard my Macedonian
a

of the life,
one

Saracens

I who

Turks, of whom

the

Alexander,
Athens. me."

subverted

Kindly,on

future day,

and

the other Persian

Constantinopolitan empire, penetratedthrough Africa into

Remember

Spain.
nishes invasion, says Dr. Hales, furand awakening lesson to all salutary free states to disputetheir liberties to the last, and never let to compromise with the enemy,
a

this timely information, the Acting upon generalsordered their officersto prepare for battle. The next day,however, passedwithout any decisive engagement, and night coming
Greek
on,

The

numbers

of the

Greeks

deserted

from

the

them

be

ever

so

numerous

and

formidable. upon

It

confederate army, in order to escape the enemy's which had annoyed them greatly cavalry, ; and, about retiring Platsea, twenty stadia towards they encamped near the temple of Juno, opposite to the city. of these deserters brought on The movement a the ensuing day. general engagement on Mardonius, imagining that the foe fled before him, led on his army, shoutingas though they
were sure

comment a striking also, affords, of the psalmist :


"

the words

There A

is

no man

king

saved

by

mighty

is not

delivered

the multitude by much

of

an

host

strength."
xxxiii. 16.
;

Psa.

Victory belongs unto


can

God

alone

and

none

for liberty, of this struggle read the account in without observinghis overruling /providence the result.

tbe

they had and Tegeans,to Lacedaemonians, Athenians,


the number of 53,000 men, which in which the engagement, of the led to Persians the
a

of their prey. As soon, however, as passed the Asopus, they encountered ral genewere

inflexibly patriots, country's their laws, and religion, cause, to host their liberty, triumphed over the mightiest
A

littleband

of

determined

conquer their preserve assembled gave


or

to

or

die in their

that

was

ever

Who

success?

solation. for the purposes of deNot Jove, or


or

completelydefeated, chiefly by
valour

determined

Juno,

or

Mercury,

Ceres,

Bacchus,

or

Lacedaemonians and Athenians. Mardonius himself was and of the Persian slain, host,according to the Greek historians, not more
than
3000 men,

escaped, except
under the

select of

body

of

40,000
who

in but Him any of the fabled gods of Greece, " the issues of lifeand death,"and who whom are earth for his own overrules all events glory. on What, though both the armies of the Persians and and
was

command

Artabazus,

Grecians

were

with all expedition the towards whence he transported the remnant Hellespont, slain by the Thracians, (formany of these were
or

marched

though theywere
exalted,and
hand. To

them pagans, He ruled over unmindful of Him, the one other humbled

the

by

his almighty

of the patriotism ourselves,

died with fatigue and hunger on the way) from If they lesson. reads an important the Greeks Byzantium,or Constantinople, loss to Asia. The for so ardently, fought so nobly,and struggled of the Grecians,according to Plutarch, amounted all which were their religion, laws, and liberty, The spoils the only to 1360 men. taken from we of paganism,surely the principles founded on Persians were of vast sums immense, consisting ought to prize our own, which are established of money, gold and silver cups, vessels, tables, upon the enlightened foundations of and broad and all kinds of furniture. The bracelets, tenth ance for their maintenand to contend Christianity, of these, after devoting a certain portion to the host of infidel foes with which against
we are

surrounded.

Our

fortunate

; if the

liver

weapons,

it must

be

was

Thus,
upon

it may be seen, that the choice of the animal.

farther. bad, they inspected no their repliesdepended solely

are not, remembered, and that with thankfulness, steel ; at the present day, those of life-destroying

74

HISTORY

OF

THE

PERSIANS.

which need onlyuse " the sword of the Spirit, wield Christian patriots, of God." is the word this to the honour of God, and the salvation of
we

mankind

for the

of infidelity are principles

as

tive subversive of order in the state,and as destrucof domestic happiness,as the hosts of in their wild career. Xerxes
"

whole of the royal family. accused the eldest son, the hapless falsely of killing Darius, Xerxes, to the third Artaxerxes, and prevailed on him, throughfear of death himself, rashly to consent to the assassination of after which he placed Darius, He
ARTAXERXES

annihilation of the

LONGIMANUS

Or

own

the soul

immortal,

or

invert

Ail order.""

Young.

The
that from

defeat of the Persians at

Mycale, in
Xerxes

the

of Sardis, drove neighbourhood where city,

Greece.
marked

to

After this, Artaxerxes was called upon to sus-* carried off from thence a statue tain a war with his brother who Hystaspes, cubits high,probably the claimed the throne. The unhallowed conflict work of Nebuchadnezzar, as mentioned Dan. iii. continued for two years, when was Hystaspes who endeavoured 1, and slew the high priest, and Artaxerxes secured to himself the defeated, which he deemed

his treason, and cut off Artabanus anticipated and his family before his plans were ripefor by plunderand devastation through execution. Thus the mischief that he designed all the Grecian Asia. He pillaged and destroyed for,and which he had brought upon others, turned retemples in his way ;* nor did he respect even head. his own upon the ancient and venerated of Belus at temple

dismay to

he had resided since he driven with disgrace He was and Susa, his capital.His route thither

from retired

the throne,in exclusion of Hystaspes, upon the second was of the province son, who governor of Bactria, in which he had succeeded Masistes, in his turn. to put him away But his intending of wickedness career brief. Artaxerxes was

was

Babylon.

He

of solid

gold,twelve

prevent conduct
the expenses

Perhaps
for the

desire of

making

himself

sacrilege. of quietpossession amends


dition, expe-

the

empire.

To

ther prevent furin every

incurred

in his Grecian

he placed governors disturbances,

and

he could depend province,on whose fidelity ; motive for such might be a prevailing after which he appliedhimself to the reform of found he for immense certain it is proceedings ; abuses in the government. in the temples, which had been amassed treasures Artaxerxes Longimanus is celebrated as the of and the superstition princes people through Ahasuerus of the book of Esther,and some other during a long series of ages, or been deposited parts of Scripture.In the third year of his there for safety. Ahasuerus ment, reign,gave a sumptuous entertainof the reign of this of The remainder son and sent for his queen Vashti to grace the described violence,"as he was by the Grecian banquet. This mandate was contrary to oriental clouded by the most horrid and unwas natural oracles, and the queen refused to obey ; but the notions, and ravaginghis crimes,ragingthrough, monarch being inflamed with wine, was enraged The household and his own cious atroown family. and consulted with his sycophant at her refusal, which he comand complicated mitted injuries council what stepshe should take to punish her his of the Masistes, brother, family upon for her
"

over

which

we

of that indignation
sons

roused so veil, that he fled with prince, draw


a

the his

and he

some
was

attendants

towards

Bactria, of

which

governor,
revolt.

warlike

Sacse to

the intendingto rouse Xerxes apprehending

the way, and put him, on To crown his sons, and his adherents to death. in a transport of his cruelties, the horrid measures mother of rage, he slew his own Atossa,the
the whose influence he owed atrocities at length, however, his head. His drew down upon vengeance chamberlain, Mithridates, introduced into his

him this, intercepted

disobedience. They representedthat her disobedience to her husband was to have likely the worst effects upon at large,and society that she should be disadvised,as a prevention, carded his presence. from Their advice was listened to ; he deposedher for her contumacy : upon which it has been said,
"

Severe If it
was

the

punishment
a

for so

slighta fault,

indeed

fault."

daughterof Cyrus,to
crown.

These

After

probationof

four

years, he

chose

Esther,an orphan Jewess, who

possessedpeculiar

and beauty, to be his queen, in pregracefulness ference who were to all the virgins candidates night Artabanus, the captainof who assassinated him while he slept, for that dignity. his guards, In the fifth year of the reign of Artaxerxes, b. c. 464. b. c. 459, the Egyptians revolted, and chose " O joyless power, that stands by lawless force! for their king. The Inarus,a Libyan prince, his dire portion, Curse3 are scorn, and hate, bed-chamber
at
Internal And Him if old

darkness, and unquiet breath; judgments keep their sacred course, from that height shall Heaven precipitate
and

called Egyptians who

in the Athenians

to

their

sistance, as-

By violent It
''

ignominiousdeath."

"

Wordsworth.

was

that wiselysaid by the psalmist,


the violent
man to overthrow

Evil

shall hunt

him." Psa.

cxl. 11.

After the murder

of Xerxes, Artabanus
crown

tated medi-

having a fleetof fortysail lyingoff the island of Cyprus, considered it a favourable opportunityof weakening the Persian power, sailed to Egypt for that purpose. and [The of this revolt will be found in the particulars Historyof the Egyptians.] In the seventh b. c. 457, year of his reign, Artaxerxes issued a decree, empowering Ezra,
the go law of the God of heaven, to Judea, to restore and enforce the law of and judgesthroughMoses, to appoint magistrates out of the land, and to punish all transgressors
to

securing the
*

for

himself,by the
war;

scribe of the

Xerxes of

those

spared only two temples in the Grecian Apollo at Delos, and of Diana at Ephesus.

HISTORY

OF

THE

PERSIANS.

75
who fought for the Egyptian Amyrtseus, In

the
or

law with

confiscation of goods,banishment,
"

as

well

as

death,Ezra vii. 1 26. The Jews, however, were

in

great danger of
in the

extirpation by
fourteenth the

the edicts of this monarch

b. c. 450. year of his reign, Amalekite, an inveterate foe of the

Haman,
Jewish

the year b. c. 45Q, however, the exerted themselves to send another fleet of 200 sail to Cyprus, .under the command of Cimon, the son of Miltiades, whence he sent
crown.

Athenians

sixtysail
fens. then

and a lineal descendant of Agag, the king nation, of the Amalekites, in the days of the prophet at this date prime Samuel, (1 Sam. xv. 33,) was minister of Persia. an bitious amHaman, who was and
over

the assistance of Amyrta^us, in the Persian admiral, being off the island of Cyprus,with a fleet of 300
to

Artabazus, the

Cimon ships, the third

revengefulman,
the mind
to
use

had

an

undue

cendancy more. as-

of the
own

monarch, which
unhallowed

attacked and defeated him, and took and destroyed part of his ships, many He pursuedthe rest to Cilicia, ing and landhis men by stratagem, as if Persians, he

and defeated Megabyzus at Eurymeposes. surprised purroyal don, whose army consisted of 300,000 men, and returned to Cyprus with a double triumph. edict for all persons to do him homage. The this edict ; but Morservile multitude respected Artaxerxes, acting upon the advice of his of Esther, doubtless from with the council, now decai,the kinsman sought an accommodation the refused to bow His proposals Athenians. of conscience, listened to ; and were some scruple Haman's knee to the Amalekite. to haughty spirit accordingly they sent ambassadors Susa, and he resolved to could not brook such a slight, was Callias; and the Persians amongst whom and sanand take revenge of the most ample,unjust, guinary their side sent Artabanes on Megabyzus he failed not for his

On

one

occasion,he

obtained

nature.

For

this

one

man's

offence

he

to Athens.

The

conditions

sought the destruction of the Jewish race ; thus the ancient enmity of the Amalekite displaying his own ! towards as well as Israel, personalre!venge. Haman to the proposed this measure that the Jews were dangerous to king,alleging j

to humiliating
as
"

the Persian

of peace monarch.

were

very
were

They

follows : citiesin Asia 1. That all the Greek Minor should be free, and governedby their own of the prolaws. Persian governor 2. That no vinces should march
coast.
an

jness,

jthe

state ; and

Artaxerxes, in

moment

of weak-

journey of
of
war

the

3.

within three army Persian That no the the Thracian thus

days' ship
porus, Bos-

and jscription dominions. in determined

passeda royal decree for their public promassacre throughoutthe Persian


After that much

should and

sail between

Cyanean rocks,
the ern southexcluding the

at the northern

extremityof
of

deliberation of the

spirators, con-

the Chelidonian

near Isles,

Persians from the entire iEgean Sea, and that placeon the part of the Mediterranean bordering upon Asia vade Adar. the Athenians should not in4. That Minor. defeated of In the meantime this dreadful plot was any part of the dominions of the king Persia. by the piety and address of Esther the queen, who Haman stroyed, This peace, so advantageous deand turned upon was to the Athenian himself,
with wicked for
man

it was the most lucky days, selecting should take the tragical event thirteenth day of the twelfth month

promontory

Lycia;

all his

family.
snare

Thus in the

did he had

this laid

fall into the

which

of the Grecian establishedthe independence states, concluded It was colonies on the Asiatic coast.
b. c.

others,and
a

his

name

as history

warning to mankind

not to

mense imThe loss of life was invasion of Greece. and revenge. See Esther iii. viii. Thus, also, and the blood that was during this period, his did God exhibit his providential stain the care over conflicts must in the various shed take it was the Christian of all those at whose instigation people, from whence may memory If Israel earth. in his pilgrimageon undertaken courage throughoutall generations. watched over to the flesh was according tenderly human
" "

to encourage nature

page of of every generation dent incithose evil passions from the fall ambition stands

449, in the

fifteenth year

of

Artaxerxes,

thirtyyears after the victories of Plataea and Mycale, and forty years after the first Persian

the great Father of mankind, how much Israel share in his Divine spiritual watchful care !

by

more

"

shall the On

and

this occasion was the mischievous displayed law of the Medes and Persians, which set forth that the king's decree, when could signedby him, and sealed with his seal, effect of that
not

the lure of honour draws, whom of your cause, write in blood the merits defence, Who strike the blow, then plead your own your pretence ; Glory your aim, but justice fires in ^Etna's emblematic Behold The mischiefs your ambitious prideinspires! Ye

monarchs,

Who

"

"

"

be

revoked.
counter

Artaxerxes

was

obliged to

issue a
arm

themselves who

decree, empowering the Jews to in self-defence, and to slay all


attack them. The result of

abroad; trumpet sounds, your legions swarm road Through the ripe harvest lies their destined At every step beneath their feet they tread
The The life of multitudes, a nation's bread! dress Earth a garden in its loveliest seems a wilderness. Before them, and behind her first-born sons, and pestilence, Famine Attend And
to finish

those

might

this was, the slaughter of 75,000 men, among the ten sons whom of Haman. See Esther were

what

the sword

begun ;

ixThe
under and

Greeks, who
the command

sailed to the
of
as Inarus,

rescue

of

Egypt

related in that

the Persians in the first battle, slew their leader Achsemenes. Afterwards, In the twentieth year of the reign of Arta- | the Persian monarch whelming having assembled an overthat to the Jews b. c. 444, he granted in xerxes, force,re-established his authority to rebuild which he had long refused, Greeks from the that permission and Egypt, expelled country,

defeated history,

such as fiends might earn, echoing praises, And follypays, resound at your return. succeeds" but plenty, with her train A calm again ; not soon Of heartfelt joys,succeeds show must And years of pining indigence below.""CowPEK. rule that What scourges are the gods

76

HISTORY

OF

THE

PERSIANS.

This favour was the walls of Jerusalem. granted it till his death. To Megabyzus the king of he appointed Persia owed both his lifeand crown, at the instance of Nehemiah, whom when he of Judea. ascended the throne,which Nehemiah makes his conduct tirshatha,or governor the wall, and set up the repair unfavourable light: it may appear in a more wards be, that the monarch envied the renown palacefor himself,and afterof valour and wisdom to rebuild the city of Megabyzus, ; and, in conjunction the for he the best counsellor and and scribe,to establish with was Ezra, the priest greatestgeneralof of the nation, the Persian empire. the civil and ecclesiasticalpolity he In the thirty-fourth all which he accomplished notwithstanding axerxes, year of the reignof ArtSanballat with great opposition from the the oppressive system of the Athemet nian Samaritan the Ammonite, and his army, Tobiah armed the confederates against that policy in the course the Arabians, and the Ashdodites state in the Peloponnesianwar, which lasted of his administration of twelve See years. twenty-seven years, ending in the overthrow of
was

empowered

to

to build gates,

"

"

Nehemiah ii. iv. ; vi. 15 ; vii.1 4 ; and xi. 1,2. the Athenian dominion. The assistance of Artaxerxes of Artaxerxes This change in the conduct was but he sought by both parties, declined to assist either. The Athenians counted wisely the Jews, says Dr. Hales, may be acrespecting
" "

not

and for upon sound political principles, merely from regard to the solicitationsof Nehemiah, or the influence of his queen ; and

another embassy, but Ephesus they received news


sent

when

they

of the

reached death of

Artaxerxes.
"

the

conditions humiliating
corroborates the whole from

of the this line of

treaty with
Put not your
Nor His in the breath
son

the Athenians excluded

opinion. Thus
sea

coast,

trust in princes, of man, in whom

there

is

no

help.
;

goeth forth,he

returneth

to his earth

Dr. Hales

adds, and

precluded from
maritime

keeping

In that very day his

thoughtsperish."" Psa.

cxlvi.

3, 4.

Artaxerxes was By Persian writers, prudence surnamed to the conciliate the Jews, to attach them Bahaman, signifying "kind," or "beneficent." from the detach them Persian interest, and his favourite maxim Accordingto Thucydides, " that the Persians the gates of a king should never Grecian, by further privileges, was, that be might have the benefit of a friendlyfortified shut." He carried this noble maxim into practice within three days' who town had like Jerusalem, journey with Themistocles, done much so of the sea, and a most importantpass, to keep mischief to Persia,and for whose head he had Persia and between offered a reward of 200 talents, the communication^ open (nearly 40,000/.,) it may be on his accession to the throne. When banished Egypt. To confirm this conjecture, from Greece and every part of Europe by the remarked,that in all the ensuingEgyptian wars inveterate persecution the Jews remained faithfulto the Persians,and of his countrymen, he invasion ; and it may threw himself upon the mercy of Artaxerxes, even after.the Macedonian had of the polity who, as we have seen in the history reasonablybe supposed,that Artaxerxes of Persia, to the made such argument as this to oppose a for him. some provision princely excited in Themistocles used to say to his children, and displeasure in referthis measure ence jealousy
to

in any of the garrisons both of a matter

betowns, it came and necessity

the him In

hostile neighbouringprovinces
remonstrances

to the

Jews,

whose

had

so

much

weight with

in former the

days.

engagement in which the Greeks had been driven from Egypt, Inarus,and a body of his auxiliaries, themselves to had surrendered the Persian monareh, after obtaining a promise
of
a

pardon from Megabyzus. The queen-mother, enraged at the loss haughty and cruel princess,
son

this treatment, " We should have been had not been undone if we ;" and the strongestinducement afterwards held out by any Persian to a Greek that " he should live was, with him, as Themistocles did with Artaxerxes." The chief praise due to Artaxerxes is the played regardhe had for the temple of Jehovah, as dis" in these verses And I Artaxerxes I, even : the king, do make decree to all the a
to

undone

of her

Achaemenes, entreated Artaxerxes

to

treasurers

wine,and to an hundred baths of oil, and salt without how much. prescribing Whatsoever is commanded by the God of heaven, let it be diligently done for the house of the God of heaven : for why should there be wrath of the king and his sons ? his own terms, and he returned to court. Shortly againstthe realm Also we seized for the certify after, however, he was perfidiously you, that touching any of the and Levites,singers, Nethinims, offence of shootinga lion at a royal hunt priests slight porters, ministers of this house of God, it shall not be his arrow, and before the king had discharged or he was exile at Cyrta, lawful to impose toll, condemned or tribute, to perpetual custom, upon This And of thy Sea. the Red a citystandingon thou, Ezra,after the wisdom cruelty them. and and of the sons God, that is in thine hand, set magistrates provoked afresh the hostility which may turbulence friends of Megabyzus,whose again judges, judge all the peoplethat are ment, banishdisturbed the state ; but after five years' beyond the river,all such as know the laws of he secretly returned to Susa, when, by the thy God ; and teach ye them that know them And whosoever will not do the law of thy intercession of his wife and mother-in-law, he not. was reinstated in the king's favour,and enjoyed God, and the law of the king,let judgment be
hundred baths of

capitulation granted to Inarus by taken at Megabyzus, and to deliver the prisoners He resisted the proposal Byblus to her revenge. into for five years, but was at length wearied and the unhappy captives perished compliance, Indignant at such conduct, by cruel tortures. ported Megabyzus revolted, (b.c. 447,)and being supdefeated the repeatedly by the Syrians, royalforces. He was at lengthallowed to dictate
violate the

the done and

that whatsoever beyond the river, the scribe of the law of priest, God of heaven, shall requireof you, it be talents of silver, unto an hundred speedily,
are

which

Ezra

the

to

an

hundred

measures

of

wheat, and

to

an

78

HISTORY

OF

THE

PERSIANS.

Darius was incensed presence of their kings. him, both for the heinous deed, as well against honours due only to himself for challenging as in the empire,and designedto deprivehim of his

when rejoicings, of his own ancient Cyrus


"

he

was

about

to

government.
but

He

was

his mother, Parysatis


to to

recalled for this pose, purwho tenderly

loved all her

him, reconciled Darius


influence have him
reason ;

him, and

used

ther's
robe, and put
on

self himstrip

that of the

he came brother's But

the robe worn by the latter ere the throne ! It was the day of that on coronation in sightof the court of Persia,and in the very temple of the gods !
to
"

the

design of Cyrus was


secret

frustrated.
one

He

declared heir
which he Darius

to

had

entrusted the fatal


educated the
to

to

only, the
it was
vealed re-

for the same the crown, Xerxes to the throne

namely,that

after his father's accession. this request, but bequeathedto him of his his the
own same

had exalted born was resisted

who priest

him, and by him

the government

provincesin
to

Asia

Minor, confirming

condemned Cyrus to die the death of a traitor. But the intercession of with Artaxerxes ; he his mother prevailed doned pardismissed him againto his him, and even

king,who

crown

Arsaces, his eldest


This

ascended the throne scarcely fluence engaged, through the inwill be in a most of his wife Statira, tragical scene nothingmore history ; than which presents marked and murder In the same incest, year that the Lacedaemonians, terrible. Adultery, ians, every step of it ; and it broughtthe queen-mother, by the aid of Cyrus,triumphedover the Athensucceeded and the reigningqueen, Statira, into Darius Nothus died, and was Parysatis, such a fiery that the flames of revenge Athenaeus collision, says he gave by Arsaces, to whom the best instruction in the art of reigning; couid only be quenched by the death of one or the other of the unlovely princesses. namely, "to do justly in all things,toward which The Artaxerxes God, and toward man." generous forgiveness in history had extended to his brother Cyrus ought for ever The reignof Darius is memorable the latter in the bonds of love and to have bound by the reference thereto in sacred prophecy. He But the nature of Cyrus to the former. the firstof the four kingsforetold to precede fealty was thus affected: "he had not the dissolution of the Persian empire : the proinjuredand phecy was :" his ambition remained as the could not forgive out of the seventy weeks, pointing menced time of the coming of the Messiah, also commounting as before it had received a check ; and of was one in the fourth year of his reign, or b.c. superadded to this active principle, for See Dan. ix. and xi. 420. equalfire and buoyancy" that of resentment mother. rise to the most as depravitybetween the two brothers, article. in the succeeding seen gave of Persia when be
was

son, by for supremacy struggle of human fearful display

government.
Artaxerxes
had

On

his accession to the title of

the

throne, Arsaces

sumed as-

A fierce desire of had suffered. within and he resolved upon him, revenge the dethronement of his brother. With this view
the he disgrace burned he
to

ARTAXERXES

and from
or
"

he

was

distinguished by the

Greek

writers

employed Clearchus,a Lacedaemonian raise a body of Grecian troops, under

general,
the pretence,

meditated of a war others of that name others, against Mnemon, among by the epithet the same Thrace ject, obto forward tellectual ; and, doubtless memory," he beingremarkable for that "inof two he presented to Lysander a galley power,"which is one of the choicest cubits in length, a congratulatory faculties bestowed as compliment upon man. This gift was subsequently It has been recorded in the life of Darius upon a naval victory. consecrated to Apollo in the temple of Delphi; his queen, had soughtthe Nothus, that Parysatis, find Lysander at Sardis, and afterwards we kingdom for Cyrus,because, like Xerxes, he had been born after his father's succession to the charged with rich presents from the allies to in Cyrus. throne, and that she had been disappointed occasion of this visitthat Cyrus It was her views. The monarch, influenced either by upon of justice,had the celebrated conversation with Lysander, the dictates of affection, or a sense related page 32. and the her importunities, disregarded gave in The seeming virtue which Cyrus displayed crown to Arsaces, bequeathingthe provinces this conversation, was to Cyrus. only the instrument for This action of Parysatis, her priand perhaps vate forwardingevil designs. This, and all other

conduct, kindled
the breast
once

the

flames

of ambition in

pretences of
attract

Cyrus ; and when ambition has ever there is no crime, howthe heart, engrossed is not ready foul in its nature, which man
of

similar kind, he made a the notice and win the esteem

use

of

to

of the

to

barbarians under his government ; and with the with Cyrus. Despairing aid of Clearchus and others,he raised secretly, and under various pretexts, a ascending the throne of Persia, in several places, he placedhis which his too fond mother had taught him to body of Grecian troops, on whom this all. Influenced by chief reliance. Nor was consider as his legitimate he resolved upon right,
summit Thus may be. of otherwise it
was

the himself towards perpetrate to advance of his desires, however unhallowed they

were or degenerate powerful,who unwary, enough,to abet his unnatural rebellion. By arts of he won the affections of the a like description

the death
near

his of his brother ; and, regardless of the ties which united them, he decided upon inflicting

that death with his own hand. "" "" ; If any circumstances could deepen the guilt of this atrocious project, it was the time at which, and the place where, the dark deed was intended to be performed. It was the day of his broon

of the governseveral provinces ment intrigues, selves and placedthemof Tissaphernes revolted, and this incident under his jurisdiction; him and Tissapherrise to a war between nes, giving his designs used as a cloak to cover was

upon

Persia.

the life of his Under the

of brother, and the crown pretence of warring with

HISTORY

OF

THE

PERSIANS.

79

he sent information of the proa purpose, slight troops from ceedings to the king,accompanied with an to amuse mation intispeciously saphernes Tisof what he believed to be the real designs complaintsagainst to the king, and submissively implored of Cyrus. The his protection. roused Artaxerxes from his intelligence and threw the whole court into alarm. lethargy, Artaxerxes, deceived by these appearances, lieved Recollections of her former criminality bein imprudent and indolent security, drew now reposing all eyes upon made the mother that the preparations of these belligerent by Cyrus were and all employed in her service were directed againstTissaphernesalone. Taking brothers, suspected of being in leaguewith Cyrus. The Cyrus redoubled advantage of this supineness, endeavoured of emissaries, two his efforts ; and, by means and the wife of Artaxerxes, queens, the mother of the people for evinced on this occasion the most deadly the minds to prepare flamedhatred for each other. emissaries inthe approachingchange. These Where," cried the latter, and where is now the faith which you have so often discontent where they discovered it, not. They pledgedfor the conduct of your son ? This is sought to create it where it was tion, in their fiend-likeavocaour reward for listening laboured to those ardent prayers industriously that preserved from death a traitor against the feignedmerits of Cyrus,and the exalting of Artaxerxes, whom the qualities king his brother ! It is your unhappy fondness depreciating of peace, sayingthat that has kindled the flame of war, and plunged as a moth they represented into an abyss of evil." us the state requiredsuch a ruler as Cyrus,one he Tissaphernes,
now

assembled

quarters ; and the court, he forwarded


various

more

"

"

who who

loved war, served

and
a

showered valiant

favours

on

those

Summoning
marched
to meet

numerous

force in and

xerxes Artahaste, of pride


war

him,

noble ambition of of the state. glories

king,fired with the the and extending upholding


to endeavouring cours sucdesigns by obtaining
was

in all the pomp his brother.

The

of Cyrus is amongst the expedition

most

At the
crown

same

time, Cyrus
of his the

the whole from

Lacedaemonians, whom
of Greece.

he

had

in ancient remarkable recorded history and classical geography. It is interesting, not only from the importance of the prizeat stake the
"

masters assisted to become letter he wrote them, he terms. magnificent

In a spoke of himself in
told them than he had his brother
meant
a

diadem

of

Asia, but also from


travels.

the circumstance

of its combiningtogether a
a

and history military

He

of journal

greater and
that he
was

more

royal heart

in the knowledge of the magi, by which better versed science of

and philosophy
was

The firstpart of the march from of Cyrus was miles in a Ephesus to Sardis, about fifty-eight Mesdirect distance. He then crossed Mount dis and the river Maeander, south-east of Sarsogis,
;

the

and government ; and that he religion wine without being intoxicated could take more rians, meritorious quality a very amongst the barba"

and

then

came turningnorth-east,

in four

days'marches

to

Colosse,to the inhabitants of

him to the which St. Paul addressed an epistle upwards of proper to recommend less, Neverthethose he addressed. four centuries afterwards, miles about eighty-five From the Lacedaemonians sent orders to their fleet more. Colosse the army of Cyrus came and to obey in three marches about sixtymiles to jointhat of Cyrus immediately, to Celaenae, of Tamos, his admiral,in every north-east. the commands From thence in two marches they of' came the least mention in the which Rennel but without to Peltae, particular; recognises but not
so

of good opinion

intimation of the evil designs Peloti of Edrisi, situate on the road from Tarsus miles distance of twenty-eight to Abydos, a of 130,000 the amount brate allowed to celenorth, where the Greeks were the command and placedunder the Arcadian festivalcalled Lycaea.* In men were collected, Clearchus commanded leaders. of experienced marches to the two north, they came more, the Peloponnesiantroops, except the Forum of the Kramians, the ancient Cotyaeum Kutahiah. led by Socrates of Achaia. of the Roman Achaeans, who were times,and the modern The Boeotians were from Broussa the Theban, under Proxenus This city stands on the road leading and the Thessalians were headed by Menon. to Cilicia, Syria,and Cyprus through Iconium, the chief The barbarians had Persian generals, have to pass for upwards that Cyrus would so of whom Ariaeus. The fleet consisted of of two hundred was sive miles throughdeep and exten-

Artaxerxes,
of

or

Cyrus. At length, troops to

and twentythirty-five shipsunder Pythagoras, five commanded admiral by Tamos the Egyptian, of the whole fleet. this formidable With

lying at valleys,
army
came

Pisidian and Cilician Taurus.


to
was

the northern foot of the The first cityhis about eighty-five Caystrus, of the

host,Cyrus

set

forward, miles south-east from the Forum


and

Kramians,

cret stillkeeping his unholy purpose a profoundseTo this from all, Clearchus the Greek. save

to the modern which answers Sakli,called From or Sakli, Ketchluk by Kinnier. Caystrus,

an

he was instigated policy by the fear that so bold less no might dismay his soldiers, enterprise of concealing his intention than by the necessity from his the Persian court. made known. the wilystratagist and was baffled, Nevertheless,
was object was

in two marches to Thymbrium, Renthey came Kinnier's Akshehr,or nel's modern Karatepe,and
*

An

Arcadian
was

festivalresembling the Roman

Luperca-

lia. It

He had given out

that he

leading this force againstthe Pisihad infested his

in which the conqueror with games, celebrated with a suit of brazen A armour. was generallyrewarded sacrifice was human anciently offered at this festival. It of Jupiter, surfirst observed was by Lycaon, in honour

dians,who
pretext
could
so

incursions ; but
never

or the with their named name, Lycaeus, either from Lycaon's own province mountain Arcadian Lycaeus, which the Arcadians tended preTissaphernessaw through a whence the true Olympus, was they called it the shallow,and assured that preparationssacred hill," was to have received because feigned Jupiter there. his education be made on so mighty a scale for so
"

80

HISTORY

OF

THE

PERSIANS.

the White City, a distance of twenty-eight miles. These tidings ill-receivedat first; but induced were distance they came In the same to Tyriseum, by the promise of a considerable gratuity, considered by Kinnier to be the modern Eilgoun, as well as encouragedby an artifice of Menon's, thinks lies twelve geographibut which Rennel the Euphrates cal they passed from thence over : miles farther east. In three marches thus devotingthemselves to the service of more,

miles,they came to Iconium, the ancient fifty-six of the Aladinian sultans, and standing capital in the ancient Lycaonia* mentioned in the Acts of the Apostles xiv. 6, 1 1.) From this (chap. the march continued five days almost due city east throughLycaonia, and terminated to a little the south of Erekli, anciently Heraclea, a few
or

After
the

having passed

the

Cyrus. in nineteen Euphrates,

further, Cyrus reached the Araxes, Khabour, about two hundred and which is about fifteen miles eightymiles distant,
marches modern per diem. On the desert of the Araxes,Cyrus crossing

Arabia,
vast

now

Sinjar. This

tract

entered called the Desert of he crossed by forced

miles from

the

northern

foot of Mount

Taurus.

distance traversed in this five days'march At the end of it, Cyrus made With one a division of his army. division he marched himself to the valley of Tyana, seventy miles distant ; whilst Menon, with the
was

The

-fivemiles. eighty

" marches to the PylseBabylonia?, Pass out of or the hillsinto the plains of Babylonia," which he reached in eighteen days. The firstfive of these

marches

were

through

trees,and often covered other thirteen marches


and

flat,without perfect absynthum. The were through a rugged


a

with

other,took
ascended

the route

of

and Erekli, south-east, face of Taurus.

the north-west is

This
came

hilly tract, on both extending to


At the
end
to

one

phrates, sides of the river Euhundred miles in

part of Taurus

is called by the Turks


so

Ramadan

breadth.

of the fifth march

they

and cross it, in the way. That by which Cyrus himself entered Cilicia is denominated the Northern Pass,and is on the direct road from

Oglu Balakklar, and hours to twenty-five


difficult passes

broad

that it requires there are several

rounded surCorsote, a largeuninhabited city, by the river Masca, the modern Sacco-

three days, and where they stayed Corsote provisions.From they came
ras,

made
to

their Car-

Cappadocia, to Tarsus. Cyrus arrived at Tyana,f he found the pass occupied king of by Syennesis, Cilicia, and that therefore he encamped in the before it, which was since denominated from plain of Cyrus." According to Xenohim, The plain phon, the army of Cyrus reached TarsusJ in four marches, the probabledistance of which is miles. At Tarsus, Cyrus halted for twenty sixty to the Sarus, or days, after which he marched modern miles in two days. Seihoon,twenty -eight Another day'smarch, eastward,fourteeen miles, broughthis army to the Pyramus or Jeihoon ; and two more, where forty-twomiles, to Issus, the battle was afterwards fought between ander Alexand Darius. From in another day's Issus, march of fifteen miles, they came to the Syrian or Strait, other ; and in angates of Cilicia and Syria of the same distance they reached Myriandrus, which was a largemaritime city, traces no of which now From remain. this placeCyrus made twelve marches to Thapsacus, now Ul
"

Cesarea Mazaca, in Rennel says that when

mande, which Rennel supposes to be the modern miles above the Hit, about twenty geographical

thirty Pylse, Cyrus marched and then, plainsof Babylonia, after reviewing his troops at midnight of the third day,he marched about ten miles farther on the fourth day in order of battle. On the sixth day he arrived at a place called Cunaxa, from

Pylae. From
across

the

miles

the

whence

was

discerned
was

thick dust like


first by
a

white

cloud,which
the

succeeded

darkness,
then This

and which envelopedthe entire plain, of glitter resplendent of of


an

by
was

standards the army


crown

the armour, almost countless host.

and lances,

in his The

his brother, for whose Artaxerxes, Cyrus had undergone so many hardships expedition.
two

armies his

were

soon

in arrayed

order of

battle.

Der. While

at

the generals desired them and


to

Thapsacus, Cyrus declared to his real objectof the expedition, and


to

sand righthand Cyrus posteda thouphrates, Paphlagonianhorse,supportedby the Euand the light armed infantryof the Greeks ; and next them, Clearchus, Proxenus, officers to Menon, at and the rest of the general The leftwing, the head of their several corps. and other composed of Lydians,Phrygians, commanded Asiatic nations, was by Ariseus, self who had a thousand horse. Cyrus placedhim-

On

endeavour

it to the soldiers, in the centre, where the chosen communicate to gain their willing service. Persians and the barbarians were had round him six hundred satrapy of Cappadocia, salt,and containing and habitants The occupation of its inthat of pastors or shepherds. all
were as points, breastplates.

troops of the

posted. He
at

horsemen, armed
with

Lycaoniaformed
was a

and
a

part of steppe impregnated


named

the

their horses

frontlets

with

salt lake

Talta.
to have

The been

sole

appears

t This
name gave celebrated

city was
to

and whose lostratus.

Anti-Taurus, and it of a birth-place impostor called Apollonius, who lived a.d. 90, life and feignedmiracles are recorded by Phiat the district. It
was

the

foot

of the

the

commanded of Artaxerxes was by army which division consisted the left, on Tissaphernes and of with white cuirasses, armed of cavalry, the infantry. In the centre was light-armed
were foot, a great part of whom heavy-armed covered with wooden and entirely Egyptians,* The rest of the light-armed infantry, bucklers.

X Tarsus, now Tersoos, or Tarasso, situated of at the mouth cityof Cilicia,


In the Greek it is celebrated of its inhabitants. In annals

was

the river

Cydnus. learning and refinement Scripture it excites an interest as the birth-placeof St. Paul, who calls it " no xxi. It Acts made 39. mean was a free colony by the city," which mans conceded to it by the RoGreeks, an honour was whence his privilege as a freeSt. Paul asserts also,
for the born

the

principal and of the horse,formed


foot
were

the
as

drawn

up with

much

wing. The right depth as front,

"

Zeune

were

been

here mentioned, that the Egyptians, supposes of those who are spoken of as having the descendants and confidence of the elder into the favour received

Roman,

Acts

xxii. 25.

Cyrus.

HISTORY

OF

THE

PERSIANS.

81

and The with 6000

king
the

in that order composed square battalions. had posted himself in the main body, flower for of the his whole horse

the

guard,

and army, commanded

had

by

centre, he of Cyrus, the army did the front of his own exceed in exmuch tent so A hundred and that of the opposingforce. chariots armed with scythes were placed in fifty

Artagerses. Though he was was beyond the left wing of

in the

bitious daringefforts and final overthrow of an amaims were whose narrowed to the spirit, attainment of mere worldly power and grandeur, ! a lesson for thine own Happy he, the humble on who, duringhis sojourn wayfarer, earth,prepares

for forward

an a

inheritance that fades not, and looks


crown

to

that is eternal. the head and


to

Artaxerxes, after having caused


hand right the of his brother be
cut

off,pursued

I the front of the army,


to
mow

down army
on

and they were all before them.

so

fixed

as

The moved

of

Artaxerxes,
noise
or

numerous

as

it was,

and there possessed to their camp, enemy himself of great part of their baggage and provisions. The Greeks had defeated the king's

left wing, commanded When by Tissaphernes ; and the had reached that of Cyrus,the Greeks command, King's wing,under his own right theyhad nearly began to singthe hymn of battle : and drawing routed the enemy's left; and as neither knew what had occurred imagined stillnearer, they shouted after their usual wont, elsewhere, both parties their darts upon their shields to frighten they had gained the victory. Tissaphernes, striking in a body, the king that his men the horses,and then moving onwards however, acquainting had been who fled at the diately by the Greeks, he immeput to flight they sprang upon the barbarians, without

confusion.

onset.

The

them to the neighbouring hills. the Greeks now laid As it was almost night, successfully improved down their arms with rest. to refresh themselves was boldlythough prematurely that neither Cyrus nor proclaimed king by all around him. They were surprised any The crown from him appeared, and imaginedthat either He one not to adorn his brows. was he was had climbed the unstable ladder of ambition of the enemy, or was to engagedin the pursuit be precipitated that. making,haste to possess himself of some to destruction. Perceiving ant importArtaxerxes was to attack him to return place.They determined,therefore, wheelinghis right in the flank, he marched him to their camp, where directly against, theyarrived about nightfall, with his 600 horse. With his own the greatest part of their baggage hand he deand found stroyed which who commanded the king's taken, with all their provisions, obliged Artagerses, them to pass the night in the camp without refreshment. guard of 6000 horse,puttingthe entire body to his brother,his eyes flight.Then, discovering with fury as he cried," The I see him !" and next morning, the Greeks heard of the sparkled he spurred forward his horse, eager to commit death of Cyrus,and the defeat of that part of the the two-fold crime of destroying his brother and to Ariseus, Upon this they sent deputies aiTny. his king. of Persia. him, as conquerors, the crown offering The them battle now became tween Ariseus refused the offer,and acquainted a singlecombat bethat he intended to set out early Artaxerxes and Cyrus ; and the brothers next morning on his return to Ionia, them to join him in with the deadliest rage, were seen advising transported each endeavouring into the the night. They followed his directions, to plunge his sword and, other's heart, and thus rid himself of a rival under the conduct of Clearchus, began their the spectators of Eteocles and Poly- march, and arrived at his camp about midnight, reminding of whom the Greek nices, poets say, that their whence they set out on their return to Greece. ashes separatedon the burningpile, in the very heart At this time, the Greeks were as if sensible of resentment, and hostile to reconciliation. of the Persian empire, surrounded ous by a numerFor a time,the advantage with Cyrus,who and victorious army, and they had therefore was their succeeded in killing the horse of Artaxerxes, no way to return into Greece, but by forcing which fell with him to the ground. The king retreat througha vast tract of the enemy's country. recovered Their valour and resolution, and mounted however, surmounted himself, another,when of a powerful all these difficulties, Cyrus againrushed upon him, inflicted a second and, despite wound, and had uplifted his arm for the infliction army, which pursued and harassed them all the of a third, when Artaxerxes, like a lion wounded they made good their retreat, travelling way, the space of 2325 miles,throughprovinces furious from the by the hunters, over only the more the and reached in safety smart, sprang forward,impetuously to the enemy, pushing his belonging horse against Clearchus had Sea. Greek cities on the Euxine his opponent, who, running headlong, and without regard to his the conduct at first; but he being of the army person, threw himself into the midst of a flight the military slain by the treachery of Tissaphernes, of darts aimed historian Xenophon was and at that instant receiving appointedin his |at him on all sides, from his brother's javelin, a wound owing to his valour and Cyrus fell stead,and it was chiefly forces : and these were by the Greeks, that he
so
"

of war was now erted, exspirit fully savage beheld the advantages and Cyrus exultingly which were occasionally presentedto his

them.

troops, in order to attack the command of Greeks, under Clearchus, easilyrepulsedthem, and pursued
The

rallied his

dead

not

his chief lords were to survive him.

slain

ing resolvlikewise, of mitable indo-

wisdom The

that his countrymen

surmounted

their

dangers.
celebrated retreat of the 10,000 is equally of Cyrus,but that with the expedition history of Greece. moje properly belongsto the history had Artaxerxes The victory which gained followed his brother Cyrus was cession over by a sucin of atrocious crimes
o

Behold, reader, the fitting reward

ble admiracourage, energy, and ability, when directed to the accomplishqualities ment of proper ends, but only casting additional

blackness on the crime when furtherance of unworthy ones

employed
!

in the

Behold, too, in

in his court.

Fearful

82

HISTORY

OF

THE

PERSIANS.

as

the deed

of

sheddingthe
alone.

blood

of

brother

is, of Persia.
to

the monarch

was

ambitious that the action should

Agesilaus swept whereupon Tissaphernes sent


what he had
was

all
a

before

him,

a young Mithridates, that he gave the mortal cruel and wound, and he suffered the most A Carian soldier death for his boast. revolting

be attributed to him

Persian nobleman, boasted

why

that he

end he was come taken up arms. Agesilaus replied, to assist the Greeks come inhabiting them their ancient

quire to inmessenger into Asia, and

Asia, and

to restore

liberty.

site exquidays,and then put him to a cruel death. Masabates, by whom, at the king's the head of the fallen Cyrus was decapitated, order, him, and a truce was phernes agreed upon ; but Tissasuffered death for the deed also, made other use of it than to assemble no by the command of queen and to obtain aid from Artaxerxes. Pary satis. Nor did she stop here. troops on all sides, conceived an implacable Having, as before stated, she was hatred againstStatira, As soon had received the aid he poisoned by as Tissaphernes Arin a most her command refined manner. he commanded to departfrom sought, Agesilaus him in case Asia, denouncingwar against of retaxerxes, beingafflicted for the loss of his beloved fusal. his mother, caused all her The Statira,and suspecting and their confederates Lacedaemonians domestics to be put to the rack,when alarmed : but Agesilausheard Gygis,one were the the whole. discovered Arheralds of Tissaphernes with composure, and desired |of her accomplices, Itaxerxes put the informant to death,and confined them tell the wily satrap that he was to time havunder great obligations jhis mother to Babylon ; but at length, to him for having made he allowed her to return the gods,by his perjury, enemies to Persia and { ing alleviated his griefs, entire submission friends to Greece. to his to court, where, by an Having thus dismissed the heralds,he made a show of invadingCaria ; but will,she regained his favour, and bore much tillher death. findingthat Tissaphernes had caused all his sway at court he turned After the death of Cyrus, Tissaphernesbeing troops to march into that province, towards sent back to his former government, and invested Phrygia, the greater part of which he the fallen prince, with the same with the spoils as of began overran : after which, loaded power cities within that province, and to harass he marched back by the sea-coast oppress the Greek cities sought into Ionia,and wintered the limits of his authority.These at Ephesus. the aid of the Lacedaemonians, who sent Thimbro, The next spring, took the field, Agesilaus giving into Lydia. Tissaphernes out that he would march them, which being B.C. 399, with an army against march believed that he would strengthened by the forces brought back from directly his troops thither for its Tissaphernes. for Caria,and marched Persia,they took the field against Thimbro plaints, comdeceived. protection. But he was Agesilaus was, however, recalled upon some and sent into banishment, and the next phernes entered Lydia, and approached Sardis. Tissahis successor. his horse hastened was to its relief; but appointed year Dercyllidas and a famous was a brave tacked atgeneral, Dercyllidas having arrived before the infantry, Agesilaus attended were and defeated them with great slaughter, engineer,and his movements with some phernes and enriched both himself and his army with the success. Having heard that Tissaand Pharnabazus at variance,he of the conqueredPersians. were spoils with the former, and entered the ful In the greatestprosperity should be mindmade truce a we of a change. Hitherto, Tissapherneshad advancingas far as JEolis. provinceof the latter, driven from Pharnabazus and revelled in the smiles of Artaxerxes. The loss was cityto city, would invade that the conqueror favour. At of this battle forfeited the monarch's at length, fearing the chief province of his government, the same at the Persian time, Conon, arriving Phrygia, wider he made the breach truce with a him, leavinghim in possession court, made by a complaint he broughtagainst him of depriving the soldiers of the citieshe had captured. his arms The turned abling now against on board Conon's fleetof their pay, therebydisconqueror he usually in Caria, where the king any service. resided. him from rendering Tissaphernes united were against The charges Tissaphernesand Pharnabazus aggravated by queen Parysatis, him in a disadvantageous actuated by an irreconcilable hatred him, and surprised was post. who Pharnabazus advised an attack upon the Greeks, againstall who had a share in the defeat and had but Tissaphernes, who experienced their death of Cyrus. Artaxerxes resolved upon the valour at Cunaxa, sent heralds to Dercyllidas to destruction of Tissaphernes ; but,being afraid to and a truce ensued tillthe of the great auinvite him to a parley, attack him openly,on thority account should be had of their respective he had in Asia, recourse to masters was answers for the accomplishmentof his designs. known. treachery ing In the mean He charged Tithraustes,captainof the guards, time, the Lacedaemonians, receivmost

the glory, and he also claimed whose tender mercies Parysatis, inflicted on him and who cruel,
torments

was were

delivered
at

to

all times

the

for ten

for war, now had to stratagem. He assured recourse Agesilaus, that Artaxerxes would grant him his demands, of hostility acts till no provided he committed the return of his couriers. Agesilausbelieved

Tissaphernes, unprepared

'

accounts

from

Asia, that Artaxerxes

was

with

this commission.

He

gave

him

two

letters,

nian, fleet under Conon the Athethe one directed to Tissaphernes, a powerful empowering him equipping exile in Cyprus, and supposing, to pursue the war the Greeks at his own then an against addressed to Ariaeus, that it was solved discretion ; the other was designedagainstthem, rerightly, into of their kings, of Larissa,commanding him to assist one to send Agesilaus, governor Tithraustes with his counsel and forces in seizing Asia,to make a diversion. erable The will of the kingsof Persia was Tissaphernes. Accordingly, Agesilausset sailwith a considbody of troops, and arrived at Ephesus law ; and had this not been the case, itisto be feared before his expedition of at the court that his wishes would have been too readily heard comwas

HISTORY

OF

THE

PERSIANS.

84
to

have been, in In every country,and in all ages of the world, those have been met with imbrue their hands in the blood who would readily in order to gainthe favour of of their fellow man

with, base though they may plied


order
to

the with

surroundingcountries

supply

his

obtain his favour.

army

provisions. Tithraustes,findingthat Agesilaus was for carryingon the war in Asia, sent Timocrates of Rhodes into Greece, with largesums of money,

aside the rights of to corrupt the leadingmen in their cities, superior, setting utterly to rekindle the laws of Heaven. a war humanity,and disregarding againstthe Lacedaemonians. Gold, Ariaeus. Such of which is at all times a powerful incentive to good an one was Upon the receipt this letter, he desired Tissaphernes had in this case to come to or evil, the desired effect. The him, that they might confer about the operations cities of Thebes, Argos, Corinth, and others,entered of the ensuing campaign. Tissapherneswent into a confederacy, and war raged again he was with a guard of 300 men these unhappy states, b.c. 395. ; but while among In the beginningof the next spring, custom, bathing, according to the Persian Agesilaus, he was who had already made the provinces seized,and disarmed, and put into the of Upper who caused his head to be Asia tremble hands of Tithraustes, at his name, formed the designof It was into Persia. struck off,and sent the king of Persia in the heart of his given, attacking an ceptable dominions. acAs he was upon the point of putting says Xenophon, by the king to Parysatis, temper. his designs into execution, the Spartan Epicypresent to one of her revengeful Well has it been said of revenge, that it sitslike didas arrived to let him know that Spartawas threatened with a furious war, and that the poisonupon the stomach : itswells and convulses nature, and there is no good health to be expected Ephori recalled him for the defence of his country. tillit is conqueredand expelled. Agesilausobeyed the summons, thereby This dark deed of Artaxerxes to have seems the truth of what was demonstrating said, That te been considered by ancient writers as a retribuat Sparta the laws ruled men, and not men of justice; and it is certain that Tissaphernes the laws." On his departure, e act he said, That looked as probityand honour 30,000 of the king'sarchers drove him out of upon that he made a of Persian coin, the to a species jestof the most Asia,"alluding empty names; sacred oaths ; and believed the whole ability and side the figure Daric, which had on one of an consisted in knowing how of a statesman archer,and which had been dispersed policy to that number others by hypocrisy, to deceive in Greece, fraud, perfidy, to corrupt the leading in the men and perjury. The fact is,in these dark ages of other states. It was by these acts of deceitful the world, there was bond of union betwixt no and deceiving that the Greeks were led policy All had strayed into the pathsof and man. man onward to ruin. The poet has well said : of the rulers of the earth sought error, and none Unless corruption first dejectthe pride which after that lightfrom heaven could alone And guardian vigour of the free-born soul, It remained into the of truth. them guide paths All crude attempts of violence are vain : of the Redeemer for revealed religion For firm within, and while at heart untouch'd, inthegospel Ne'er yet by force was freedom overcome. mildly beaming on the heart of man, to teach But soon as independence stoops the head, the world true honour, humanity, and justice. To vice enslaved, and vice-creating their
" " "

As

reward

for the execution


was

of the command
to

wants,

of

Artaxerxes, Tithraustes

to appointed was,

ceed suc-

Then These From

to some

heightened
man

Tissaphernes. His

first act

send

to

him that the cause telling presentsto Agesilaus, of the war being removed, nothingcould prevent
an

Till the

whole

corrupting band, whose waste with fatal bounty feeds, the slackening ruin runs man state, unnerved, in slavery sinks."
wants

foul

Thomson.

accommodation the

allow

Greek

; and cities in

that Artaxerxes

would their

On

his return

from money

the
to

Persian court, Conon,

Asia

to

enjoy

having brought
mariners

liberty, paying him

the

which customary tribute,

allthat the Lacedaemonians requiredwhen was they with arms firstcommenced that The the war. board, and sailed in quest of the enemy. replied, Agesilaus he could do nothingwithout orders from Sparta. Persian fleet consisted of nearly 100 vessels; As he was that of the Lacedaemonians not was so ous. numerhowever, to give Tithraustes willing, the satisfaction from of freedom out of his province, and his march.

pay the soldiers and their arrears, and to supply the fleet and provisions, took Pharnabazus on

danger, he
marched

moved re-

They
a

met

with

each

other

near

into

maritime
in
"

cityof
measure

Asia

Minor.

Cnidas, Conon, who

Tithraustes defrayingthe charges of Phrygia,


On his way thither, received Agesilaus the magistrates a letter from of Sparta, givinghim the command of the fleet, of the land as well as forces
;

had

some

occasioned

the capture of

the sea-fight at iEgospotamos, Athens, by losing The Goat's River," determined to make an or effort
to

regainhis
was

lost honours. desirous of the choice made

On

the other

by

which

sole commander drew him down the fleetin

became of all the troops in Asia. This


new

commission

he

hand, Pisander
conduct his him and

valour The

to

the

sea-coast, where

he

put

brother-in-law, had
admiral.

justifying by his which Agesilaus, in appointing


a severe one

order,and appointedPisander

ral, admi-

strugglewas

him forthwith to stand out to sea. but Conon ordering havingboarded Pisander's own vessel, Having settled the maritime affairs, Agesilaus slew him, when the rest of the fleet soughtrefuge his design of invading renewed of in flight.Conon pursuedthem, and took fifty Phrygia. He the country,and from thence marched which the power of the spoiled by their ships, destroyed the invitation of Spithridates, noble Persian, Lacedaemonians a by sea. into Paphlagonia. He concluded After this victory, Conon and Pharnabazus a league with king of that country, and returninginto sailed round the islands and coasts of Asia, Cotys. took the strong city most of the cities which, in those of Dascylium,and and reduced Phrygia, wintered in the palace of Pharnabazus, obliging parts, were The to the Lacedaemonians. subject

84

HISTORY

OF

THE

PERSIANS.

the revolt of of the victory was, consequence several of whom almost all the allies of Sparta, declared for the Athenians, and the rest resumed their ancient liberty. with this The Lacedaemonians saw concern

which

agreed

to

this treaty, the against


clause the

tory, refracenforced

by

which

treaty

was

upon all. Such was which

great revolution
to

;
war

maintain

themselves and finding with men of equal

unable

By

the fruit of the jealousy and divisions the Grecian citiesagainst armed each other. this treaty, the articles of the former Athenian of
b.c.

bravery

peace

449

were

and rescinded,
states
were

the

themselves,they despatched Antalcidas, one of their citizens, of Sarto Tiribazus,governor him to conclude dis, entreating a peace with
the best terms Artaxerxes he could. The upon other cities of Greece in alliance with the nians Athesent
at

with

mount parapendent inde-

influence of Persia in Greece established.


all the By it, which the clause enabled of various had rendered and
;
"

of each

other,and those powerful confederacies

Persian

the

same

time The that the


;

with their deputies,


terms

so longharassed empire,demolished enforcingthe peace

endangered
the last

while

with

shipsand

Conon

at their

head.

which

cidas Antalpossess

proposedwere,
all the Greek and other and liberty,

king should
should

cities in Asia be

cities in Greece

but that the islands enjoy their

of discord, money," proved a fresh source and afresh over the states Spartato tyrannize that refused obedience and into her volved authority, her in
a

ruinous

war

with

the

bans The-

laws. under governed by their own Epaminondas. Thus when Sparta in reThe Athenian unanimous were jecting shook the astonished deputies Artaxerxes on his throne, aside the interthese proposals.Setting ests from her division with the other states, in the of the Greeks in Asia, they saw themselves languageof the poet, she gave up, exposed by this treaty: the Athenians to the loss of the isles of Lemnos, Imbros, and Scyros; the o'er Asia's sunny fair-spread shore, Their kindred cities to perpetual chains. Thebans to the cities of Bceotia ; and the Argives What could so hase, so infamous a thought to Corinth, with the loss of Argos in prospect. In Spartan hearts inspire? Jealous, they saw therefore withdrew The deputies without concluding Bespiring Athens rear again her walls : And the pale fury fired them, once anything. again
"

Tiribazus,however, was resolved to carry into first thing he desirable a treaty. The so resolved upon was, the ruin of Conon, who was the great barrier in the way of its accomplishment.
effect In this he
was

To For Of But

crush
now

this rival
no more

Libertymy
by
as

city to the dust. the noble social soul families combined ;


selfish

short

views, and

passions,broke,

aided

by

the

nians. Lacedaemosuccess

Revenge

for this brave

man's

in the restoration of Athens dictated to them a which line of policy reflects the greatest disgrace talcidas upon the Spartancharacter of this period. Anwas

when friends are rankled into foes, They mixed : severe, and waged eternal war Nor felt they, furious, their exhausted force; Nor with false glory, discord,madness blind, Saw how the blackening storm from Thracia came.

Dire

Long
The And But Of

the purloining of the there which further with


was

chargedby them king's money


Athenian the shadow

Conon of to accuse for the ment re-establishaccusation But zus Tiriba-

a battle stain'd years rolled on, by many blush and boast of fame ! where art, courage, military : gloryshone supreme let detestingages from the scene

Greece

self-mangled, turn

the

sickening eye."
Thomson.

state,in which
of truth.

not

grasped at it, and


act he
was

imprisoned Conon, by

Artaxerxes
of his whole who

assured that there would be no his part bazus This done, Tirion opposition aided secretly the

delivered from all fear being now long dreaded opponent, Greece, turned his againstEvagoras,king of Cyprus, power
refused the whole the next
to

next

Lacedaemonians

had

agree

to

the peace, and


385.

he

of money for the purpose of large sums that theymight be able to oppose out a fleet, fitting the other
states

reduced another

b.c. island,

During
war

of Greece.

After

he this,

went

year, Artaxerxes engaged in the Cardusians,who against probably

to the

had revolted from him. This people inhabited count give Artaxerxes an acArtaxerxes the Euxine between and Caspian was negociation. pleased the mountains with the terms, and urged their adoption. At the Seas,in the north of Media, and being inured from their infancy to a laborious life, time, Tiribazus laid before the king the were counted acsame accusations which Lacedaemonians the a warlike had people. Artaxerxes marched with Conon of 300,000 foot, some an cording against them authors, acbrought against ; and army and 20,000 horse : but the country, by reason that to Cornelius Nepos, have affirmed, of its barrenness,not affording he was executed cient suffitaxerxes. at Susa provisions by the order of Arthe silence of Xenoto maintain so numerous an Notwithstanding they army, the statement reduced of feeding be corwere soon to the extremity rect phon on this subject, may their beasts of burden. Their been the policy of despotic upon provisions ; for it has ever

(Jourtof Persia, to

of the

oppose

rulers to put to death all those who their wishes and designs.

were

able to

became

so

scarce,

that

an

ass's head

was

sold for

Upon

the

return

of

Tiribazus, B.C.

387, he

the deputies summoned of the Grecian states to be present at the reading of the treaty, which read Asia and thus:
"

sixtydrachmas, about thirty-five pounds sterling, The king'sprovisions and only a began to fail, few horses remained. In this critical juncture,
Tiribazus army
two

contrived

stratagem which
The

saved

the had each

1. That

all the

Grecian

cities in

from

destruction.
were

Cardusians

Minor, with the importantisles of Cyprus be subject to Persia : and, 2. That all the cities of Greece, both small and great, should be free, and governed by their
should Clazomenae, laws." and

kings,who
Tiribazus

encamped apart from


that there
was a

other. between

found

division

own sea

Artaxerxes

land,with

engaged to shipsand money,

assist the

by

states

their them, and that jealousy prevented in concert. he advised acting Acting upon this, the king to enter into a treatywith them, which both princes were brought sepabeing adopted,

86

HISTORY

OF

THE

PERSIANS.

DARIUS

OCHUS,

OR

HARAB

I.

The Ochus and his

the
:

death of minds and the

ated Ariaspesand Arsames had alienof the nobles and people from this publicodium, he concealed fearing of his father for
ten

still maintained who joinedthe Egyptians, Ochus independence. At first, sent his generalsagainstthem ; but these having failed their
to

and

reduce

them, Ochus

himself took the command

of the
was

death

months,

children,with all their treasures. ashes, which contained great of the empire,as though by his the whole of melted for a high quantities gold and silver, At length, father's order. with Tennes, the traitor, however, he openly price,and rewarded the tbrone, taking the name death. The ascended of Arfate of Sidon terrified the rest of'j in history into submission, among taxerxes. He is known whom chiefly by his the Phenicians the Jews be included, who Ochus. seem to have proper name, may
sold the No and
sooner -was

and administration of affairs in until he deemed his own name, authority established. By one of his decrees, women, sufficiently he caused himself to be proclaimed Ochus out king throughconducted

the

expedition.He besieged Sidon, which betrayedto him by Mentor, the Rhodian, Tennes, the king of that place. The Sidonians set fire to the city, and destroyedmen,
and

the death

of Artaxerxes

made

joinedthe
the ninth

common

cause.

known, than
many
were

all Asia

Minor, Syria,Phenicia,

other

revolted. provinces, the


revenues

By

this

half general insurrection,


crown

of the

diverted would

the

remainder

into differentchannels,and not have been sufficient to

invaded Egypt, b. c. 350, in which he reduced year of his reign, chiefly by the assistance of Mentor, the Rhodian, and his Greek of See the History mercenaries. the

After this, Ochus

Egyptians.

All the revolted princesbeing reduced, and the war so many mal-contents, against carry on But this formidable had they acted in concert the empire, Ochus peace established throughout the destruction of the menaced and luxury, revolt,which leavingthe gave himself up to ease administration of publicaffairs to nought, through the Persian empire, came to his ministers. of the leading and corruption partisans,The chief of these were Bagoas, the Egyptian treachery of especially Orontes and

Rheomitres, chiefs of

eunuch, who
the Rhodian

delivered up their forces into Asia Minor, who Datames the monarch's hands. alone,governor of

and Mentor, great favourite, of whom governed the of Upper Asia, and the latter those of provinces
was a

the former

Cappadocia, gave

him

much

trouble, and

Lower

Asia.

About assassinated to Cornelius Nepos,he was b. c. 344, alarmed according by the greatnessof of his Philip, king of Macedon, Ochus sent some by Mithridates,one of his intimates,who had been suborned trustiest ministers on an embassy to Philip, to the act by Ochus. under him his friendship Ochus was the most cruel and wicked monarch ance, and allipretence of offering of the princes of Persia. To preof this race but in reality to discover his strength, vent future disturbances and abroad, he and designs. The young at home resources, Alexander, then about twelve years old,entertained the amwithout cut off in one day all the royalfamily, and gained i Ocha, bassadors in the absence of his father, age, or sex. any regardto consanguinity, sister and mother-in-law,(for he had his own their affections by his politeness and good sense. { buried alive ; and he married her daughter,) Even was at this early age, he exhibited signs of j caused his archers to slaywith their arrows one approaching greatness. The ambassadors were j which related to their j of his uncles,and 100 of his children and grandat his questions, surprised children. This uncle appears the monarch and their kingdom, and the geography ; to have been who was mother of Darius of their country. father of Sisigambis, They counted the famed j Codomannus that Ochus shrewdness of Philip as nothing compared with j ; for Q. Curtius relates, in the vivacity and enterprizing caused eightyof her brothers to be massacred geniusof his son, who were one suspected and said to each other, This boy,indeed,will day. All the nobility is a rich one ;" an observbe a great king ; ours of disaffectionthroughoutthe empire,shared the ation The sorrows fate as the relatives of Ochus. which remarkably accords with the Scripsame ture of mankind characters of both kings,of the goat and seem to have been his sport.
"

"

But
reverse

the cruelties that Ochus effect of that which

had practised he intended.

the If
a

monarch
must

he desires the fidelity of his subjects, alike upon of love ; severity their and, towards that people ; trampling gain it by a spirit stillmore, and filling the whole laws,and liberties, crueltyonly estrange their affections religion, In the fifth year of his reign, country with dismay. In revenge for his counfrom the throne. try's Artabazus, governor of one of the western Bagoas, who had long waited for vinces, prowrongs, to rid his country of its oppressor, an revolted, and, by the assistance of Chares opportunity at length, in B. c. 338, poisoned defeated and an Athenian force, 70,000 of the Ochus, and placed ing Arses, his youngest son, upon the throne,allowking'stroops. Ochus threatened to make Avar of king,while he himself rehim the name the Athenians, and on tained they recalled Chares. all the authority. sistance Afterwards, however, Artabazus procured as'

the ram, Dan. viii. 5 7 ; xi. 2, 3. It has been recorded in the historyof the Ochus acted Egyptians in what a cruel manner
"

Thebans, and defeated the two engagements ; but the Arses did not long enjoy his shadow of power ; king having bribed the Thebans, Artabazus was and after three years' for in his third year Bagoas, findingthat his again left single-handed,
from the armies of Ochus in with he resistance, of Philip This
was

forced to flee and

take

refuge

treasons

were

to likely

be

punishedby

the joung

Macedon. rebellion was no

sooner

Sidonians,Phenicians, and

than the quelled, Cyprians revolted,

his intention, and put him monarch, anticipated and his whole familyto death,in the third year of his
b. reign, c.

335.

HISTORY

OF

THE

PERSIANS.

S7

DARIUS

CODOMANNUS,

OR

DARAB

II.

and

the fourth

shall be far richer than

collateral branch a of this prince was brother to Darius was dynasty. His grandfather Nothus, one of whose sons only, Ostanes,escaped the ruthless massacre of the family by Ochus. Ostanes married Sisigambis, his own sister, by whom he had

This

and by his stir up all

strength through againstthe realm


not

they all : his riches he shall of Grecia,"Dan.

xi. 2. Darius
collected
to

did

measures:
a

confine himself to such underhand he raised a powerful army,


able officers be
tioned men-

Codomannus.

and engaged largefleet,

Duringthe reignof Ochus, this princelived in and supported himself as an astanda, obscurity,
or

command

both, among

whom

the royal despatches. At courier, by carrying

however, length,
a

Cadusian
to

army

himself in killing he signalized champion,who had defied the Persian manner as singlecombat in the same the armies Codomannus he of Israel.
was

Memnon the Rhodian. Darius Codomannus; therefore, in the beginning of his reign, involved himself in a war with this mighty monarch, of whom the voiee of
had

may

said, And
"

mighty king shall

phecy prostand

Goliath defied

For

this

exploitDarius
Ochus
upon with the the from whence

rewarded
to the

by

important government
was

of Armenia,

up, that shall rule with great dominion,and do accordingto his will,"Dan. xi. 3; which received a remarkable in the event accomplishment

we about to narrate, and others that will be are found in the history of the Macedonians. It was of the year b. c. early in the spring Bagoas. 334, that Alexander set out on his expedition. On the accession of Darius Codomannus to His army consisted of 30,000 foot,and 5000 the throne,he had no competitors ; for the royal horse. With these he arrived in stroyed had been defamily and the principal nobility twenty days at the Hellespont, on Sestos, which he had ever, howover by Ochus and Bagoas. The latter, caused him some fear for his life. Finding them conveyed to Asia by a fleetof 160 galleys, that Codomannus not to be entirely was governed, besides transports.No army opposed his landing. Before he set out, Alexander him assembled Bagoas resolved to remove done as he had his his predecessor, covered, army at Dios,in Macedonia,where he exhibited by poison. The attempt was disand sacrifices in all the and Bagoas was games compelled to drink pomp of Grecian It was the fatal potion this occasion that he himself. on superstition. The empire was now, had a remarkable dream, or vision, in which, as and Codomannus therefore, established, was fully " " he related himself, far richer" than while he was the last three kings" of how considering

advanced and

throne,

murder

of

Arses

his

familyby

because Persia, additional

he

high priestappeared to him, and encouraged him not to delay, but to pass over Ochus, after the reduction of Egypt and the with for that he himself would other revolted provinces. His personal bravery confidence; head his army, and give him the Persian empire. gained him universal respect and admiration This circumstance, which is related by Jothroughoutthe empire. Darius ascended the throne shortly sephus,has been questioned, because it is not before the noticed by any heathen historians; assassination of Philip of Macedon, which event but their silence is not sufficient took place near to invalidate his positive the end of the same year ; and, as Alexander testimony.As these questioners complained, belong to the by Persian instigation, of those who doubt the verity and bribery of the assassins. of the This was alleged number of his public supernatural details of the sacred history as one who itself, grievances ; and Bagoas, it is impossible then governed the Persian empire, would that the principle not to see of not their have scrupled here is the same. There are five to remove objection foe by such a mode, a as especially Philip had been elected captain cogent reasons, however, which demand our belief
treasures
-

was possessed of the vast of procured by the plunders

to

subdue

Asia,

person

in

the

dress

of

the

Jewish

general of the Grecian

that an operation sion, upon his mind by dream, or viwas as likely of Nebuchadnezzar as the cases proached openly reand similar to them. 2. Because it him by letter. The assassin employed and Belshazzar, to be as necessary that the Almighty seems was should Alexander,son of iEropus,commander of have been made known the Thessalian cavalry but the to him as the bestower of covered dis; plot was to the other great conquerors, as empires* all of by Parmenio. In his letter, had been broughtto avow it. 3. Because Alexander complained of the whom underhand ing of Darius, and charged an operation upon the mind of Alexander, showaggressions him in what position him with sending improper he stood,was a sary necesletters" through all parts of Greece to excite them sequelto the operations to make war upon the minds of on those former conquerors. him, and with sendingmoney the im4. Because pression to the Lacedaemonians and others, described as being made by this dream to corrupt his friends and break
with which Alexander also
"

states,for the purpose of Persia. Codomannus himself set the invading priceof 10,000 talents upon the head of Alexander,

of this statement. 1 Because Alexander had been clear and conspicuous a of prophecy,and object
.

the peace. This accords with Scripture, which

in

remarkable

manner as

represents Darius

the
now

upon from

Alexander, and the conduct which resulted is in unison with his character and conit, duct
as

" first that ensued. And aggressor in the war will I show thee the truth. Behold, there stand up yet three kings in Persia,

shall

Artaxerxes
:
is "

Mnemon, and
to that

Darius Ochus

thus, [DariusNo;*]

described cause by other historians. 5. Bethe Jews which are enjoyedthe privileges described the result of this transaction, as and which it would not otherwise be to account

easy

The

short

omitted both it is sometimes

reign of Arses, which was merely nominal, by Justin and Scripture.In chronology,
added of

for,or
The may

to refer to any

other

origin.

Hale's Analysis.

Ochus, as

in that

of Dr.

in which Alexander invaded Asia spirit be learned from the following circumstances. Before he left home, he disposedof almost all

88 the and

HISTORY

OF

THE

PERSIANS.

his friends, of the crown among or a he took with him only seventy talents, When Perdiccas for his army. month's pay for himself, he he reserved what him asked " Hope." This it was that furnished him replied,
revenues

of 100,000 foot, and 20,000 horse, army his passage ; contrary to the advice of that experienced the Rhodian, general,Memnon whose opinionwas, that they should not hazard
an

with

to oppose

into Europe ; as well as to to return into war powerfuldiversion, by carrying Macedonia This plan was and Greece. rejected with scorn, as " unworthy of the magnanimity accomplishment of designsthat seemed almost of Phrygia, beyond his reach. To hope is the way to have, of the Persians." Arsites, governor that he would and the issue is often owing to belief and expectsuffer never moreover, protested ation. the country over Transcendant all other hopes, the Greeks which above to lay waste he presided. however, is the Christian's hope, of which the which was The Persian cavalry, ous, very numerpoet has said, make
a

to advise and execute ; this it was energy that set both his head and heart to work, and him to do his utmost that animated ; this it was in the all difficulties, and aided him overcame

with

but lay waste the plains, a the and even battle, cities, and oblige therebyto starve the invaders, Alexander

lined the
"

banks

of the

Granicus

and

the

Hope
Whom

! let the wretch


now

once

conscious well

of the

joy,

despairing agonies destroy,


can.

Speak,
What Had That The Were he

for he the

and

none

so

as

he,

treasures

centre,

boasts

the gems, the treasure

delights in thee. spices,and the land all at his command,


what of thine." Cowper.

foot, consisting mercenaries, chieflyof Greek was posted behind the cavalryon an easy ascent. of the Macedonian fantry, inParmenio, commander
of observingthe disposition the

enemy's

mine, fragrant grove, the' inestimable lightwhen weighed against one smile

the oppoto encamp on army, advised Alexander site that his troops might have banks of the river,

rest,and

not

to

attempt the passage

tillthe banks

next

morning, the
As
to
soon as

river

Alexander

landed

in

Asia, he

went

sacrificed to Pallas, the patroness of the Greeks, and offered libations at the tomb of the hero Achilles, he proposedfor his whom and model. From order

Troy,*

their march, and steep, his whilst those of the enemy had rested for several that it would be a disgrace replied days. Alexander and his army should they, after to him be suffer the Hellespont, crossing stoppedby a rivulet. their progress
to

being deep,the with troops fatigued

craggy

Troy Alexander
to

marched

he had determined to The armies continued some time looking two punish the rebellion of its inhabitants. at each other on the opposite banks of the river, who had been Anaximenes, a famous historian, if dreading the event. The Persians waited as intimate with Philip his father,and his till the Macedonians entered the river,in order very native of this to a own (Alexander's) tutor, was charge them to advantage upon their landing, ander, and the latter seemed to be to meet him, and Alexcity. Anaximenes came making choice of a that he would pleadfor his city suspecting the dispositions and observing placeproper for crossing, hand in order that he might be beforeto be spared, of their enemies. Alexander, at length, with him, declared that he would not grant manded having ordered his horse to be brought,comThe favour I request he might make. any his nobles to follow him. He himself have to desire of you,"said Anaximenes, is, commanded Parmenio the the rightwing, and that you would destroyLampsacus," by which left. The king first caused a strong detachment saved. evasion the city was witty himself following it with into the river, to march from Alexander Lampsacus, the rest of his forces. Parmenio passed onward wards afteradvanced and came to the river Granicus, % in the lesser with the left wing ; the trumpets throughout Phrygia. On the banks of this river he found and the whole army the whole host sounding, the governors of the western assembled, raising provinces cries of joy. advance The Persians,seeingthe detachment Respecting the site of ancient Troy, modern phers geograand into the river, to let flytheir arrows, began classical antiquaries have been and at a greatly where the declivity not march was so to a place loss. The plain of Troy has been repeatedly visited by

sacus,twhich

Lampin destroy,
to

"

"

in order to verify Homer's description travellers, of IlUs,the green fig trees, the hot and cold of the Scamander, Simois, and springs,and the sources of them have Thymbrius ; but none agreed in fixing the In the days of Strabo, however, localities of the Iliad. ancient to have stood within three Troy was considered miles of New Ilium, which, as Strabo informs us, was only a small village, distinguished by a temple dedicated classical of the tomb
to

great, in order

to

landing.

As

they drew
ensued
;

prevent the Macedonians the bank, near


the

from
a

fierce vouring endea-

engagement
to

Macedonians

land, and

the Persians

pushing them

Minerva.

commanded again into the river. As Memnon in this place, the firstranks of the Macedonians the rest,after having with great perished ; and into gainedthe shore,were driven anew difficulty the river. Alexander, however, who had followed with his best reinforced them them closely, himself at their head, routed troops, and putting lowed folwhich the whole the Persians, upon army the enemy all sides. on The Persian horse and the first defeated with great slaughter, was fantry fate. The Grecian inshared the same infantry after and attacked A

is about t Lampsacus from Ilium, and was once

thirty miles
renowned

in

direct

distance
capacious Sea of

for its safe and

at the entrance harbour of the Propontis, or and its noble cated Marmora, opposite Callipolis, temple dedito Cybele, the Phrygian goddess. It was also famous for its excellent it was wine, on which account given to Themistocles, the Athenian exile,by Artaxerxes Longiits travellers ruins have been manus. identified By some with those latelydiscovered at and around called a village

sickeningscene

ensued.

Tchardack.

t The Granicus in direct distance.


in originating the

miles lay thirty-five It is


a

from

Lampsacus

narrow,

deep, and rapid stream,

retired in good order

steep, and

running a Propontis. Its rugged.

the northern north-east course


western

slope of the range of Ida, and of fortygeographical miles to hanks said to be high, are
name

hill,whence

they
leave

sent
to

to a neighbouring deputiesto Alexander,

demanding
Alexander

retreat

Its modern

is the

Oostrola.

the following

unmolested dictates of wrath

but

rather

HISTORY

OF

THE

PERSIANS.

89 of

than this

those

of reason, of

rushed

into the midst

of

himself Having possessed marched


nassus,

Alexander Miletus,
to

body

and soldiers,

except 2000, who were In this engagement, the Persians lost 20,000 horse. On the side of the foot, and 2500 of the Macedonians, twenty-five royal horse

destroyedthe whole, taken prisoners.

into the

his power.
;

Halicarbesiege which defied of that province, capital || difficult acThis citywas of most cess

Caria,in order

nature

and

art

combined thrown

Memnon,
with b~
a

moreover,

had

in its defence. himself into it

perishedat the first attack. Alexander ordered Lysippus to make their statues in brass,which set up in Dios, a city of Macedon, from were after carried whence they were years many to Rome According to Arrian, by Q. Metellus. and about sixty of the other horse were killed, laid day were foot,who the next nearlythirty with their arms and equipage in one common
grave.
*

considerable

,nother

body of troops, and seconded of greatprowess, Ephialtes, he general


the

resolved to withstand the utmost. Whatever

Macedonian

power

to

could be

expected from the

and the most consummate most intrepid bravery, on knowledge in the art of war, was practised The Macethis occasion by the adverse parties. donians,

with immense
and works
were soon

filledup the ditches, labour, the walls


; but

Their

fathers

exemption granted them


tribute and service.
The

children and from every

had

an

near broughttheir engines

their

kind

of

burned. have

demolished, and their engines Repeated attempts of this nature were

in of the Granicus put Alexander victory the capital of Asia Minor, of Sardis,f possession of the Persian empire on which was the bulwark The citizens surrendered the side next the sea. which Alexander gave his approach,upon on them to enjoy and permitted them their liberty, their
own

but Alexander would made, and any other general the enterprise foregone ; but he encouraged his troops to persevere, and at lengththey succeeded. the city, Memnon abandoned and, going of which he was board the Persian fleet, on miral, ad-

laws.

Four daysafter, Alexander arrived at Ephesus, J with him those who had been banished carrying from thence for beinghis adherents,and restored form of government. Here he offered its popular sacrifices to Diana, and assignedto the temple of that goddessall the tributes that were paid to ambitious of having the the Persians. He was of the celebrated temple of Diana, which name then rebuilding, was changed for his own, and he offered to defray the whole cost of the work on such conditions ; but the Ephesians evaded the him that it was inconsistent request,by telling for one god to erect templesto another !
"

he conveyed the inhabitants with all their to the island of Cos, not far distant. Alexeffects ander, habitants, findingthe citywithout riches and inrased it to the ground,the citadel only

excepted.
To conciliatethe Asiatic colonies from Greece, Alexander now declared them free, and exempt tribute. This from had the wished-for effect; all the Greek citiesof Asia declared in his favour, which his progress. facilitated very much The last action of this military cording campaign,acto

Diodorus border
a

was Siculus,

with

the Marin

an arians,^[

inconsiderable
of
was

the

western

placedon

rock,and

people inhabiting Lycia. Their citywas accounted impregnable.

The

force of

could flattery

no

further

go."

the rear of the fell on These rude mountaineers and capMacedonian army, destroyed men, tured many
raged a great part of their baggage. This eninvested their Alexander, who immediately

the deputies left Ephesus, of the cities of Tralles and Magnesia waited upon him with From

Before

Alexander

for two sucthe keys of those places. and attacked it by storm cessive stronghold, the besieged, Alexander marched to Miletus," Ephesus, days. The old men among -which city, deceived by the hopes of a powerful seeing no prospect of a longer defence,would have men advised surrender; but the young support from the Persian fleet then lyingoff the him. scorned such advice. Their elders then advised Memnon coast, closed their gates against had shut himself up in this fortress, them to put all their superannuated with many together men, of his and soldiers,
was

determined

to

make

with their

women

and

and then, to death, children,

donians. defence. After several days' fruitless if possible, to force their way vigorous through the Maceacted upon. This advice was efforts, Every sieged however, Alexander compelled the beto capitulate. He one treated the Milesians going home, made a great feast,and after with great humanity, them and drinkingwith his wife and children, to live eating cording acallowing
to

their
out

own

to march

with
were

laws. Memnon allowed was his Greeks unmolested ; but

shut

the

While
six

the

door of his fires were

house, and
to raging,

set

it

on

fire ! of

the

number the

the Persians slaves.

put

to the

sword,

or

sold for

hundred, they forced their way

through the
tains. moun-

Macedonian
Greeks,
It
seems

guards,and escaped to

is taken from the account have of the battle nf the Granicus. we that in the combat with the Greek

only one into winter Alexander now put his army incredible, did this, in order to he before but quarters ; mercenaries, who were of equal courage men with themselves, they should all have been killed on the spot, after a brave in direct of Miletus out defence, withliThis citylay forty miles south-east a proportionatecarnage on the part of the MacedoniIt was ans. once distance. It is now a heap of ruins. False love of their country'sglory,doubtless,caused or tomb, erected in famous for the stately mausoleum, the Greek historians to depart from the truth in honour of Mausolus, narrating king of Caria, of which this citywas this event. the capital, by Artemisia, his widowed queen. Herodotus, Dioborn here ; so also was the father of historians, was + Sardis lay about 138 miles in direct distance, s. e. of the Granicus. nysius, the Greek historian of Rome, and the poets HeraI Ephesus
Roman miles

This

the

lay south-west

of in direct distance.

about Sardis,

sixty-three
of is

clitus and 11 The

Callimachus.

in

" Miletus lay twenty-eight miles south-east direct distance, on the Lalmian Gulf,which
some

by

Ephesus supposed

to be

the Lake

still exists in MarmoMarmarians, appellation, side of the Gull of a bay on the south-east the name rice, habitants the present inside of Lycia; and of Macri, on the west described are as being of the same predatory habits
as

of Ufa

Uashee.

their ancestors.

90 conciliate his

HISTORY

OF

THE

PERSIANS.

dismissed he such the foot of the pass, of which as soldiers, the Telmessians that year, and sent them had possessed themselves, to their at the close of night, homes, with orders to return againnext spring. hoping that the fear of an attack would induce and seems them to withdraw. This was To his great joy they did a wise military regulation, had

married

to

have of

by Moses,
tutor

the law prescribed heen derived from Deut. xxiv. 5. ProbablyAristotle, the it from mention
a

so

Alexander, learned
makes honourable

the
:

Jews, of
the

withdraw, and shut themselves up in their city, that he passed through without tion. any obstrucHe passed their cityby as one of inferior
his great

whom in him

he

indeed, speaksof Asia, as


in the Greek

Jew, whom

communicating more languagethan


same

he met information to

losopher, phiconsequence, of possession

object beingnow

to

gain

he received in

return.

From Minor. the defile of Telmessus, Alexander crossed the which Bochart deduces high upland of Milyas, from the Phenician word mulia, an elevated
"

the interior of Asia

which time, Alexander adopted the mound," to Celgenae,t surrendered after a his fleet, which was of dismissing bold expedient truce of sixtydays, granted by him with a mise procollected if no to that effect, should arrive too small to cope with the Persian fleet, succours for from Phenicia and Egypt, and yet too large in the interim. In doing this he declared From his treasury to maintain. Celaenae Alexander marched the over that by conqueringthe chain now called the Moorad to his lieutenants, lofty Dagh, to Gordium,t the ancient and celebrated residence of land,he would render himself master of the sea, since every harbour that surrendered to him must king Midas, situated on the river Sangarius.

About

the

of the enemy, diminish the naval resources and he was desirous of seeing Having taken the city, the famous tend to disable them from invadingGreece in his chariot to which the Gordian knot his absence ; and also contribute to hold tied. This knot, which fastened the yoke was open troduce with his own tied with so much dominions, and incommunication to the beam, was art, and the from he fresh in so intricatea manner, thence, when supplies were strings adjusted into the that it could not be discovered where should find it expedient to advance menced, they comheart of Asia. where An oracle had or they ended. recommenced that the man Next spring, who could untie it should B.C. 333, Alexander foretold, the

reduction of the maritime


with

first met at progress Near Phaselis, a small of the of the

provinces. His possess the empire of Asia ; and Curtius relates, that Alexander interruption. being fullypersuaded that this the west side promiserelated to himself, on sea-port, he, after many fruitless
some

and on the eastern shore gulfof Attaliah, Lycian Peninsula,is a defile along the sea but shore, which is always dry in the summer, when the sea rises is impassable. As the winter his forces were to march not yet past, was obliged a whole day in the water, but they surmounted Some rians histothe difficulty, and passed onward. relate that the sea, by the Divine command, opened a way to him, contrary to the usual course of nature ; but this is evidently a parody, suggested the astoundingmiracle of on by flattery, of the Israelites through the Red the passage

trials, exclaimed, It is no matter which way it be untied," and thereupon cut it with his sword. an however, who was Aristobulus, eye-witness of the transaction,assures that Alexander us,
"

wrested

wooden

which chariot, held it up, and In make the


a mean

pin out of the beam of the the beam being driven in across it. In this so took the yoke from
coincides.
was

version of the story Plutarch

time, Darius

to preparing

defence. vigorous him


to

Memnon

the Rhodian
war

advised

the retaliate, by carrying

into

Sea.
While allusion The for his From in

Alexander
has before
was

was

in the the

he discovered Phaselis, been

neighbourhoodof to which conspiracy made ; [seepage 87.]


suffered death

that the Lacedaemonians and Macedonia, stating adverse to who were several other Greek nations, be ready to join him, the Macedonians, would and that Alexander his
own

would

be

compelledto
admiral

turn re-

to defend

country. Darius approved


of

traitor

discovered, and

of the the

plan,and
for that

appointedMemnon expedition.Memnon
he

perfidy.

of all the forces designed and captain fleet, general


was

marched to Perga, Alexander Phaselis, Pamphylia, on the river Cestrus ; and from the river Eurymedon, thence to Aspendus, on east of Perga ; which, though a well fortified without a surrendered sustaining siege. place,
From hence Alexander marched north-west
to

at the

island of Cos and this Memnon himself

when

placewas
soon

received this commission, for the fleet. the rendezvous

commenced of the

operations.He
island of Chios

made all

master

and

the pass of Telmessus, a strong defilein the range which of Taurus, and which, had the inhabitants of that but he died before Mitylene, vantageous placeknown how to avail themselves of the adcompelledto besiege. of position did
on

Lesbos, the city of Mitylene excepted. From into Eubaea, to pass over thence he was preparing

cityhe

was

their

which city,*

manded com-

The his have

the pass on one as a high mountain side, it the other, they might have defended

Persian monarch.
and place, saved his

death of Memnon No the

was one

a was

severe

loss to the

against all Alexander's attempts to penetrate through it into Phrygia, and compelled him to
attempt a passage in
knew
some

to supply could which only enterprise empire w7as therefore abandoned.

able

this, and

ander other quarter. Alextherefore he encamped at

t Celsenae
north-west

lay about seventy-five of the defile of telmessus.


little east

geographicalmiles
It is difficult to the

This

citymust

on once

the south-east
a

large and

with the Telmessus be confounded was angle of the Gulf of Macri, which and flourishingcity, as the sarcophagi,
not

fix its

% Gordium lay a but all site, founded It was by

of Celamze.

honours

agree that it stood on Got dius, but it did not of Strabo it had ; for in the time

Sangarius.
retain
a mere

long
become

its

other

remains

found

there,

certify.

village.

HISTORY

OF

THE

PERSIANS.

91 the younger
came

The

sole

resource

of Darius

now

lay in

the

mies ar-

pass
was

by
a

which

Cyrus had

entered that

of the east, and these he resolved to command in person. The rendezvous of his army
was

country. He
march for very the

to

Tarsus,* which, from Sora,

of 430 this

miles direct.

Babylon,where,
to be
;

upon

mustering, they
or

were

Through

found
men

about
are

400,000, 500,000,
the

600,000
of
cient an-

citythe Cydnus runs, a river remarkable its clear and limpid streams, but
a

for such authors.

different accounts

cold,with

gentle winding current.

ander Alex-

of the king'scounsellors, Charidemus, a ing had opposed the monarch's headrefugee, his own that he ought not to troops ; saying, risk his life he pledged himself that,with ; and One Greek the command

bathed in this river in having imprudently heat of the day,and when covered with sweat

and dust,a serious illness was the consequence, which threatened his life. He was recovered from his sickness by the skill of his physician,

part should

compel

the

of whom of 100,000 men, Greek mercenaries, he his to abandon conqueror be


was

third would
prise. enter-

Philip,an
in he had bribed

Acarnanian, and
a

his

own

nimity magnawas

drinking the potion prescribed,after


that he letter, intimating

received

by Darius to poisonhim,while Philip was it without any emotion. He knew the atreading tachment and fidelity which his physician bare to It was him, and doubt was removed. well said by in he called them cowards Fired at this insult, that friendship is composed of a single Aristotle, he was ordered soul inhabiting the king'spresence, for which a pair of bodies. Where true As he went to his death, friendship to instant execution. exists, pain and joy are mutual ; and he exclaimed,that the king would shortly touches repent he that touches the heart of one friend, and be punishedwith the loss of of his injustice, the heart of the other. verified by the event, and his empire; which was In the mean his time,Darius had commenced march at the head of his numerous requiredno giftof prophecy to suppose, now army, and left to themselves. that the Persians were had advanced far as the plains as of Mesopotamia. Before Darius departed cording to meet Alexander, acHere the Greek mercenaries advised him he had an ominous to ancient historians, to wait for the enemy ander's ; but imaginingthat AlexHe the Macedonian dream. tirdiness to meet him was the effect of thought he saw waited on him, that he would flee from him phalanx on fire ; that Alexander terror, and fearing
as a

disposed to accede; but his ministers, generally, rejectedthis course through envy, and insinuated that Charidemus their cause to the Macedonians. meant to betray
Darius

and

and

courier dress ; servant, and in his former that he then went into the temple of Belus, disappeared. Plutarch says, that by this seemed would
a

to

avoid the the

an

he hastened action, the number


nature

toward

Cilicia,

where from would

cavalryand
mountainous

of his troops, of the country,

dream, Heaven
that like

to

that signify the

honour

and

would prosperity

attend

Alexander

become

Darius, who, from

king ; but that he would This glory behind him. prophecy in a remarkable
viii.5 Hales
"

Macedonians; and of Asia, master became simple courier, soon die,and leave his
result
manner,

be of little service to him. The order Darius observed in his march was as follows. Before the army were carried silver which burned the fire, called by them on altars, sacred and

eternal ; and

these and

were

followed

by
in

accords

with Dr.

the

magi, singing hymns,


After these
drawn
an

365
a

youths

(see Dan.
been closed dis-

scarlet robes.

came

by white horses, and size,which they called extraordinary horse of the sun." The equerries by the magi, who understood these prowere phecies, The though they dared not unfold them to dressed in white, each having a golden rod in the king. his hand. riots, chaNext appeared ten sumptuous We return to Alexander. in gold enriched with curious sculptures Big with the hope of conquest, he passed from Gordium east to Anand silver; and then the vanguard of the horse, ferent cyra,*a cityof that part of Phrygia,afterwards composed of twelve different nations, in difcalled Galatia, seized upon from the Gauls, who This succeeded armour. by body was it. From Ancyra, Alexander proceedednorth to those of the Persians,called " The Immortals," the lofty Paphlagonia, pus, ridge of Olymcrossing amounting to 10,000, who surpassedthe rest of which the barbarians in the sumptuousness of their separates Galatia from Bithyniaand march the terminus of which was Paphlagonia, * Tarsus miles north of the mouth, twelve about was miles in probablythe cityof Sora, eighty-three of the pass and brow thirtymiles south of the southern direct distance from had passed. In the days of the Ancyra. From thence he through which Alexander rus Taumarched Augustus, this cityrivalled Athens, Antioch,and south-east by the Halys and Mount emperor science. and Alexandria, in wealth, grandeur, literature, in his way, the same to Cilicia, crossing, It was of Julius Cesar, who called Juliopolis, in honour might
have
one
"

8, xi. 3, 4 ;) and suggests, that it

it is

probable, as

carf

consecrated followed by

of

"

Ancyra lay fifty-five geographical miles


assumed of
one a

south-east of
map, the
near

it

the
source

site of Gordium

in Rennel's south-east
to

the It
two

river, which
of the three taken raised

flows

Halys.
other in

formed

of Galatia, the capitals It is celebrated the the consul rank of Cneius the

and Tavium i"eing history as being Vulso


;
as

Pe"sinus.

profane
Manlius

by
to

being

cityof that province by Augustus; and as his way to the Persian In the apostate Julian, on war. sacred history,Ancyra is noted for having received the impress of the feet of the great apostleof the Gentiles. It In the was here St. Paul preached to the Galatians. cyra Anmade fourth century, Ancyra was an episcopal see. which is the modern is a cityof considerable Angora,
note

metropolitan entertaining

Here days here in his pursuit of Pharnaces. patra. with the fascinating CleoAntony first met it was, Here also, that the great apostle of the it to Political changes have reduced Gentiles born. was spent a week comparative insignificance. Kinnier, who or at Tarsus, could not discover a singleinscription, any two of beauty or magnificence. It contains monument several handsome of mosques, public baths, a number said to have of great antiquity, caravanserai, and a church erected During the winter, been by the apostle Paul.

spent several
was

that

there
remove

are

30,000 inhabitants;
the hot
seasons

but

during

to the

of the many mountains.

families

Jupiter; gods, by

dedicated was to t Quintus Curtius says, that this car unknown to the Persians, it but as this god was he calls Mithra, the first and greatest of their is probable that
name.

in the east.

92

HISTORY

OF

THE

PERSIANS.

dress; for they all


were

wore

collars of

gold, and

At

length Alexander
He

clothed in robes of goldtissue, having large quest of Darius. with precious miles About stones. twenty-eight garnished sleeves,
from them
came

himself set forward in first came to Adana,* due east of Tarsus, on the
to

thirty paces
or

the

relations, rightor king's

west

bank

of the Sarus. due

to the number cousins,*

and more like women, the of their dress than After these came Darius his The and guards, chariot the
was

of 15,000, apparelled Alexander in direct remarkable for the pomp of glitter their
arms.

marched

From this city miles Mallos, thirty-five south of

distance,almost

Adana,

and From

the southernmost

seated

himself, attended by as on a throne. chariot, enriched, on both sides,with


on a

the coast between Tarsus and the head of the Issic Gulf. hence he pursued his march north-east to

of projection

images of
the middle

gods in gold and of the yoke, which

silver
was

and

from with

Castabala,the modern the head hills, fronting

Kastanlae, a city amongst


or

innermost

recess

of the

covered

about 160 two rose statues, a cubit in height; the jewels, yards in breadth. From one War, the other Peace, having a Castabala,about three miles distant, mences comrepresenting defile of five miles long,through the a goldeneaglebetween them with extended wings. belt of level shore, stretching The king was clothed with a garment of purple hills, to a narrow with silver ; and over it was a long robe, striped nearlytwo miles east and west, and about three with goldand precious glittering stones,on which quartersof a mile broad from the foot of the hills The mouth of this defile is called falcons rushingfrom the to the sea. two were represented Kara Capi, The Black Gate." Around his waist he wore clouds at each other. Along this belt whence his scimitar hung, the the road runs to Issus,where the contest for the a golden girdle, scabbard of which was covered with gems. On empire of the east took place.
"

gulf. In his way a large stream,

thither he crossed the

Jeihoon,

each

side of Darius

walked

200

of

his

nearest

Parmenio after

had taken

the little of city

and Issus,

himself of the pass of Syria, had possessing left a body of forces to secure it. Alexander lances were left the sick in Issus, the rear his whole army f and marched gold. After these marched 30,000 foot, 400 horses belonging of the army, and, lastly, to through the pass, and encamped near the cityof the king. Myriandrus,where the badness of the weather him to halt. About 100 paces from the royal division of the obliged In the mean vice time, Darius, came Sisygambis,the mother of Darius, contrary to the adarmy of the Greeks, was and his consort seated on a chariot, on another, advancing towards the straits of Cilicia. They advised him to wait for with female attendants of both queens riding on the enemy in the plainsof Assyria Afterwards horseback. in fifteenchariots, came ;J but his courtiers biassed his mind against the king'schildren, which were their advice, and those who that Alexander's long of their education. and had persuaded him had the care Next to these the effect of terror, inspired the royalconcubines, of 360, to the number were delay was by the all attired like so many lowed approach of the Persian army. folThe adverse These were queens. hosts missed each other in the night, and Darius by 600 mules, and 300 camels, which carried the king's treasure, and were guarded by entered Cilicia by the pass of Amanus, which lies beyond that of Syria, After these came the wives ander a body of bowmen. through which Alexfollowed relations,

by 10,000 horsemen, whose and tippedwith platedwith silver,

of the then

crown

and the lords of the officers,


servants
were a

court
.

the sutlers and in the rear, finally, Such with and


was

of the army And body of lightarmed

had entered that country. Darius had not far into Cilicia, when he was advanced informed fled before him, and was that Alexander retiring

troops, with their commanders.


the army pomp, of Darius. he fancied

Surrounded
he
was

this
was

mighty

great,

great disorder into Syria.He therefore turned short towards Issus, where he barbarously put to had left therein, death all the sick that Alexander
in
a

In his arrogance, letter to Alexander,styling he wrote himself a king,without givingthat titleto Alexander. His
success. was arrogance illustrate the

confident of

few Word

soldiers view every


was was

excepted,whom,

after

making

them

soon

part of his camp, he dismissed. brought to Alexander, that


him that he in the straits of Cilicia. taken as in a net, was the conflict.

returned

with interest, which


the

may

Darius
and he

behind
eye
saw

of dispositions

mobelligerent

His keen

narchs.

immediately prepared for

Alexander, upon
towards detached Cilicia,

that Darius learning the Euphrates, in order with

was

vancing adis a largecity,superior to Tarsus, and the population, is and Turkmans, chiefly composed of Turks It is beautifully situated on a nearly equal in number. by groves of fruit trees and rising ground, surrounded vineyards. There is a bridge over the Jeihoon, (Sarus,) cient been erected said to have by Justinian ; part of the anket-place wall still remains, and a noble gateway in the mar*

to enter

Adana

Parmenio

part of the army

that he might secure to seize the pass of Syria, a free passage for his army. As for himself,he from Tarsus marched west to Anchialos, a city which is said to have been built by Sardanapalus. From

mocks the mean architecture of the Turks. hence he came where he offered to Soli, act is a great diversityof opinion concerning the ext There sacrifices to iEsculapius, the god of physic,in site of the cityoi Issus, and consequently of the precise f or the ander Alexgratitude the battle was recovery of his health. fought. D'Anville conceives spot where headed the ceremony himself with lighted that the ruins of Ayasse represent the ancient Issus; and Arrowsmith Kinnier places it at Pias ; whilst Rennel tapers,followed by the whole army ; and he there tix it on the site of Oscler,called Karabolat by the Turks. solemnized he returned after which to it is as games; the most likely, Of the three, the latter seems Tarsus. supportedby the authority of Xenophon, the Jerusalem travellers. and five different reports of modern itinerary, J Arrian calls them the plainsof Assyria,but they were * It Latin writand ers, thus the plains of Syria. By Greek that this body was in reality was and probably called, of them some Assyria often comprehended all might be the king'srelations; but it must however, the term
not

be

so

understood

of all.

the

tract from

the

Mediterranean

to the

river Indus.

94

HTSTORY

OF

THE

PERSIANS.

Persians hastened In the his

and
to

mercenaries.

From order
to

hence have

he the

Thapsaeus, in
him

Euphratesbetween
mean

most Syria, approach. Being arrived


a

and Alexander. into advanced of the cities of which surrendered at

time, Alexander

at

Marathon, he
was now

received
to

letter from his

Darius, who
his

at

chadnezzar, accordingto the voice of prophecy, had laid ancient Tyre in the dust,and that the Tyrians continued without a king for seventy the duration of their subjection years, to which period limited was by prophecy, Isa. xxiii. 15 17 ; that is,to the termination of the Babylonian with some monarchy, when the Tyrians,
"

Babylon,complainingof
ransom

ing offeraggressions,

other remote

were nations,

restored

to

tive compara-

independence by the Persians. But Tyre, after she had recovered to treat about her losses in the usual the fall of Darius, and repaired her ruins, notwithstanding forgother former state of the kings of the east. ander Alexof humiliation, and the guilt which had reduced haughty style him in the same ing concludanswered her to it, unmindful of the fingerof prophecy spirit, When with this sentence which : pointedto her future ruin. Yes, while you write next that you write to the king of Ezekiel to me, remember speaks primarilyof the destruction of but as Asia. Treat me more as no continental Tyre by Nebuchadnezzar, he, by a your equal, K you dispute transition not unusual lord of all you possess. in Scripture, my title, glancesat engagement ; the subsequentdestruction of the insular Tyre prepare to do so in another general for wherever but attempt not to flee, 400 by Alexander, near you go, I am years after the first. he like a Its doom was also foretold by the prophets Isaiah determined to pursue you." Thus was bird seekingits prey. and Zechariah. ravenous
"

and wife,mother, and children, The letter was written, peace.

Alexander

marched

from

Marathon

into Phe"

where the citizens of Byblos opened their nicia, gates to him ; and their example was followed by others as he advanced into the country. The who had, as stated in the lifeof Ochus, Sidonians, been with treated by cruelly that
an prince, retaining

Pass There He He The

O daughter through thy land as a river, is no more strength.


out

of Tarshish

stretched shook Lord the hath

his hand

over

the sea,
chant mer-

abhorrenceof the Persians,received

Alexander

the first were among greatjoy. This people submitted to him, and they in the country who declared to their king,who opposition Alexander in favour of Darius. deposed him, to elect whomsoever and permittedHephsestion of the Sidonians he should judge worthy of so motely reexalted a station. Abdalonymus, descended taken from a low was from the royalline, the diadem, in compliance station in life to wear the Alexander commanded with this permission. prince to be sent for, and after newly-elected him attentively, spoke to this effect: surveying lated Thy air and mien do not contradict what is reof thy extraction ; but I should be glad to

against the city, To destroy the strong holds thereof. And he said,Thou shalt no more rejoice, O thou oppressed virgin,daughter of Zidon: to over Arise, pass Chittim, [Macedonia;]
There
"

kingdoms : given a commandment

did

so

in

also shalt

thou

have

no

rest."" -Isa. xxiii. 10"12.

And

Hamath also shall border thereby ; Tyrus, and Zidon, though it be very wise. And Tyrus did build herself a strong hold, And heaped up silver as the dust, And fine gold as the mire of the streets. Behold, the Lord will cast her out, And And Gaza he she will smite shall her power in the sea shall be devoured with fire.
see see

Ashkelon And And And Ekron the

it,and

fear;
;

also shall

; for her

"

king

shall

and be very sorrowful, it, expectation shall be ashamed perish from Gaza, be inhabited."
"

Ashkelon

shall not

Zech.

ix. 2

"

5.

know
"

thy poverty?" "

describes the conduct The prophetpowerfully he replied, Would to the gods," of the Tyrians after their redemption from with equal fortitude. bear this crown that I may of their second which is the cause have procured me all I desired; obscurity, These hands humiliation. I wanted and whilst I possessed nothing." nothing, Socrates
man

with

what

frame

of mind

thou

didst bear

has well

observed,that he is the richest


with the least
The
"

"

After

the end
an

who

is contented
more

for contentment

Take Thou Make That And That And And

harp,

of seventy years shall Tyre go about the city,

sing as

an

harlot.

is the riches of nature. is far

emphatic:

inspired cept preHaving food and

harlot
sweet

that hast been forgotten; melody, sing many songs,

1 Tim. vi. 8. raiment let us be therewith content," in Phenicia,some of the While Alexander was the slaughter who had escaped Persian generals at Issus,drawing togetherthe remains of the with the aid of the scattered army, attempted,

mayest be remembered. to pass after the end it shall come the Lord will visit Tyre,
thou she shall turn
to

of seventy years,

her

hire,
all the

shall commit

fornication with

kingdoms

of

the world

Upon

the face of the earth.""

Isa. xxiii. 15"17.

to recover Cappadocians and Paphlagonians, defeated in several engagements of obscurity, Lydia; but they were Thus, after her season seventy Alexander had whom that Tyre would by Antigonus, the prophet foresaw years, with the air of a to appear appointedgovernor of that province.At the again endeavour
same

time, the Macedonian


came

fleet

from sailing fleet

harlot; that she would

Greece
sent to

up

with

and

destroyed the

commanded

Darius had by Aristomenes, whom the cities on the Hellespont. subdued All Syriaand Phenicia were now by he to which Alexander, insular Tyre excepted, laid siege. next that NebuIt has been seen in former pages,*
recover
"

by

promote her commerce fraud and deceit ; that she would visit every and part of the world to collect the most rare
delicate the various every country, to inspire of the universe with a love and splendour ; and admiration for superfluities her and that she would use every effort to renew the confidence of and to recover ancient treaties, of productions nations former with correspondents, such had been the her trade

See

the

History of
59.

the

Assyrians,

and

the

present

her

history, page

credit. And

policyof

and the

HISTORY

OF

THE

PERSIANS.

95
to Darius, they would never fidelity other sovereign as long as he
now

Tyrians. Under
recovered much
As

the into

of Tyre Persians,the people wealth and


one common

an

oath of

of their former of

storehouse

portance. imacknowledge any they lived. Alexander with such vengeance


rare

tain, Prussia,the tin of Briof Arabia, the linen of Egypt, the spices the slaves of Caucasus, and the horses of Scythia. The king of Tyre was present at the which narch, council of war Xerxes, the Persian mothe Greeks, and his seat held concerning

collected the amber

in his

turned aside from Gaza, heart,to punishthem for

conduct, which

ought to

have

been

his

admiration.
In this exigency,Jaddua the high priest, who the proon governed under the Persians,relying tection of the Almighty, gave orders that public to implorehis assistance, prayers should be made and have offered sacrifices. No
ever

was

second what hand.

to

only from the king, which importanceTyre had againrisen


But her second took overthrow after
8000
a

shows in the
was

nations

or

individuals

scale of nations.
at

Alexander

Tyre,
it, slew

of siege of the

in vain.
was

of Heaven trulysoughtthe protection The night after,we are told,Jaddua in


a

seven

months, burned

commanded

vision

to

cause

flowers

to

to set Tyrians, crucified 2000 more, and sold 30,000 be scattered up and down the city, open all into the neighand to go clothed in his pontifical in order to strike terror bouring the gates, robes, captives, all the priests also in their vestdressed ments, states by the severity.His enlarged with Alexander not to fear any to meet views of commercial however, induced policy, ; and evil from the king,inasmuch as he would protect him tries, counto re-people Tyre from the adjacent them. the thus undesignedly Accordingly,this august procession, fulfilling prophecy. A in the distance for Tyre. A out of the cityto an was era very day after,marched brighter eminence called Sapha, which she should no commanded a longer be day was coming when view of the city and temple, and there waited the and a stumbling block to the nations a scandal

around,
"

when

her And

inhabitants Psa. xlv. 12 thus it was.

should
;

embrace
;

Christianity. (See
xxiii. 18.)

lxxii. 10

Isa.

arrival of Alexander. The came. conqueror struck


meet

Many
of the

of the

with the

awful

As he approached, alone to respect, he advanced


him and first, written
on

people of Tyre in the end and that citywas religion,


received

embraced
one

the Jewish first that


on

saluted high priest,

adored the who

the faith of Christ. He earth, himself visited the coasts

had, while

the sacred name of Jehovah front of his mitre,to the great the Phenicians
to

and surprise

of Tyre and the woman healed of miraculously Canaan's daughter. Paul found there some in his journey to Jerusalem ; faithful disciples and in the persecution under there Dioclesian, sincere believers were at Tyre, who many

of disappointment

and

Chaldeans,

Sidon, and

expected his orders

and plunderthe priests

destroythe Jewish city. Alexander recognized

in Jaddua the person whom he had seen in the vision at Dios. He explainedthis to his the followers; adding, that having undertaken

counted But

he should conquer mission, ceed empire,and sucdestruction ; and in all his designs. After this explanation, successive persecutions have it literally caused the high priest to and his brethren ; become, as the prophet he embraced Ezekiel prophesied it should become, then walking in the midst of them, he arrived at Jerusalem,where he offered sacrifices to God A place for the spreading of nets in the midst of the in the temple,according to the high priest's sea." Ezek. xxvi. 5.
not
own

their

lives have

dear

unto

them.

expedition by a

Divine

Tyre

still seems

to

been

devoted

to

Darius, overthrow

the Persian

"

"

directions.
of Tyre, Darius wrote again While showed siege at Jerusalem, the high priest to Alexander, offering all the to cede to him Alexander the passages in the prophecyof Daniel provinceswest of the Euphrates, to give him his demand and which now to himself, our relating friend and ally, as a and daughter in marriage, attention. which relate to the The prophecies of his family. In 10,000 talents for the ransom able remarkMacedo- Grecian empireare exceedingly order to gainhis consent to these terms, Darius in the the reader, in tracingthem ; and of fortune, dreams pointedout to him the inconstancy fail to observe, that and visions, cannot and described in pompous the numberless terms till at more definite, they become progressively stillat his command. When troops which were last the king of Grecia,"Alexander, is distinctly these proposalswere communicated to his privy mentioned. in the order We shall notice them Parmenio council, said, I would accept them, they were revealed. I Alexander." were "And I too," replied of a The firstdream, b. c. 569. This was he, I Parmenio." "were But Alexander returned silver, compound image of gold, brass,and iron, the followinganswer That he wanted : no denoting four successive kingdoms, Dan. ii, the
" "
"

During

"

would accept part of the money Now 31"45. in ancient coins and medals it is country, since he was lord of the whole ; that if usual to see cities and nations represented by he chose he could A vast image of male or female. marry the daughterof Darius, human figures, without his consent ; and that he required a human even of therefore a fit emblem was figure Darius to come to him, if he wished to make rials sovereignpower and dominion, while the mateAlexander his friend." it was of which peace with such a haughty foe, Darius continued his preparations for war, while of Despairing the typified succession and from which his character
was so

from

Darius,nor

of the various

of which has

Alexander conquest.
The his

proceededon

his

systematic plan of
had refused him

been

composed significantly the empires, foreshown by the vision, well explainedby the

prophethimself,and
own

people of Jerusalem

with the illustration derived future visions, that littleor no cavil


"

suppliesduring the siegeof Tyre, and


that friendship ; declaring,
as

essential points, on rejected has taken place except in that they had taken portion yet unfulfilled. The head of fine gold,"

"JG

HISTORY

OF

THE

PERSIANS.

after the succession of the Persian strength, under Cyrus ; ithad two horns,with which ward, pushingor butting, "westward, and northand southward," or subduing Lydia, nia, Babylobreast and of silver denoted the The and Egypt with their dependencies, arms and doing Medo-Persian to his will,and becoming kingdom. And it is remarkable according great, Dan. that their arms and shields were viii.3, 4. The ornamented the armorial ensign of ram frequently was cased with silver, whence Alexander the Persian empire, or and rams' heads,with unequal instituted that remarkable fantryhorns, one body of veteran inhigher than the other,are still to be called Argyraspides, their silver from the ruined pillars of Persepolis. seen on The shields ;" after the conquest of the Persians, lower horn denoted the Median the power; of the conquered nations. higher, which came adoptingthe manners up last," the Persian. This empire lasted from b. c. 536 to the battle While the prophetwas the ram, on meditating of Arbela, B.C. 331. The and thighsof he goat from the west, with a notable horn a belly brass" (see Dan. ii. 32) denoted the Macedobetween his eyes, (Alexander the Great,) who Grecian his sucand touched not the ground, (forswiftness,) cessors. kingdoms of Alexander traversed And the Greeks brazen the whole earth, wore and ran usually (orthe Persian empire,) whence the Egyptian oracle described at the ram armour, (Darius Codomannus) in the fury of them on one brazen men occasion as out his power ; and was with choler against "moved rising of the sea." This empire lasted 163 years to him, and smote the ram, and brake his two horns, the conquest of the first kingdom, Macedonia, and cast him down to the ground, and stamped
as we seen

have

in the article

Nebuchadnezzar,

his

the Babylonianempire. The other represented the great empires represented parts downward should successively arise upon its ruins. which

power it was

"

"

"

"

"

him : and there was that could deliver none years to the conquest of the upon " the legs of iron," the ram last, out of his hand. Therefore the Egypt, b. c. 30 ; when " and the feet,part of iron and part of clay," he goat waxed he was very great: and when which refers to the Roman broken ; and for it power, trampledover strong, the great horn was
b. c.

168, and

300

them The under

by conquest. b. vision, first

came
c.

558.

"

This vision

sponds corre-

up four notable ones [thefour kingdoms of and Egypt] toward Macedo-Greece, Thrace, Syria,
"

the same to the dream, portraying the four winds of heaven," ver. 4 The 8. things The four kingdoms in of this vision is givenby the anlivingemblems. gel interpretation it are represented by four ferocious wild beasts it to the prophet. who showed The ram out of the sea, agitated which thou sawest rising by the four winds having two horns are the The first for the mastery. beast resembled striving kings [orkingdoms] of Media and Persia. And lion with eagle's a wings, to denote the the rough goat is the king [or kingdom] of of Nebuchadnezzar, the fierceness and rapidity his Grecia : and the great horn that is between founder of the Babylonianempire, which accords that eyes is the first king [Alexander.] Now with the description of that monarch four stood up for it,four by the prophets being broken, whereas Jeremiah and Ezekiel. See Jer. iv. 7 ; xlviii. kingdoms shall stand up out of the nation, but not 40 ; and Ezek. xvii. 3. At the time of this vision, in his power,"ver. 20 authors state 22. Ancient and it was lifted its wings were of a goat was that the figure plucked, represented on the up from the feet as a stand upon the earth, and made kings; and that royalstandard of the Macedonian withCaraa man's man ;" and it also had heart," and not of this device commenced the origin the boldness of the lion ; that is,its career is thus was nus, the firstof those kings. The reason weakened tories assigned. Caranus, they say, was checked, and its stability a native of by the vicof Cyrus,Dan. vii.4. The second beast resembled Argos, of the renowned descendant and a remote -with three ribs raised on one side, Caranus a bear, Hercules. left his native city, panied accomin its teeth, the Medo-Persian aptlyexpressing by a considerable body of Greeks, in the being of a sluggish search of a foreignsettlement. Consulting empire; Darius the Mede until stimulated to conquest by Cydisposition, rus, oracle where he should establish his colony, his nephew, who reduced Lydia,Babylonia, he was that he should be guided in his answered his dominion, three kingdoms and Egypt under measures by the direction of the goats. He 5. The third into the country since known ver. answering to the three ribs, pursuedhis course in its nature the beast resembled and moa leopard tions, of Macedonia, and particularly by the name with two pairof wings to express rapidity, small principality of iEmathia, then governedby which aptlydenoted the founder of the Macedonian to its capicalled Midas, and drew near tal, a prince The Edessa. empire. This beast had also four heads, sky beingsuddenly overcast, forth the four kingdoms of the which shadowed and a great storm coming on, Caranus observed Greeks Macedon, Thrace, Syria,and Egypt of goats running for shelter to the city. a herd into which his empire was divided after the death he commanded the response of the oracle, Recollecting of Alexander, ver. 6. The fourth beast,which and entering his men to follow them closely, himself the most the Roman rible terhe possessed the cityby surprise, represented power, was of all, and afterwards of the kingdom. In gratiof it, exceedingly tude strong,with great iron with which it devoured and brake in pieces teeth, to his conductors,the goats,he changed the the others, the residue, the city of and trampled upon etc. of the place to JEgea, or name and made use ver. 7, 8. goats,"called his peopleiEgeates,
"
"

"

"

"

"

"

The second vision, At the date b. c. 556. this vision, fallen the Babylonianempire was
"

to perpetuate a goat in his standard,in order fore, As the ram, thereof this event. the memory into decay ; hence it describes more pire, emthe symbol of the Medo-Persian was ticularly parof Alexander the succession of the second, third, and that of a goat was so symbolical fourth empires. On the banks of the river Ulai, In this vision,the Roman the Great. Daniel saw established in these empires, ram a or to triumph over standing, power, which was

of

of

pidly ra-

HISTORY

OF

THE

PERSIANS.

9;

is

under represented

the

of figure

"king
more ple am-

of

and

he

soon

passed on
the

to

obtain this

tion consumma-

fierce countenance," which notice hereafter. The this


a b.c. fourthvision,

will claim

of his wishes. assembled

Before

he left Jerusalem, he ask any favour

Jews, and bade them

534.

"

after Daniel had vision, into which

In the revelationof been recovered from


"

trance

of the hand of the truth" is unfolded.

he had fallen, by the touch of angel,the plain Scripture That which

they pleased. They requested to be allowed to live according to the law of their fathers, well as the Jews resident in Babylonia and Media ; as
and to be exempt every seventh year from their usual tribute, that theywere forbidden explaining,

Perrelates to the sians will and Alexander reads thus : " And now I show thee the truth. Behold, there shall stand him from up yet three kings in Persia, [after whom

by their laws
could reap no and requests,
serve

to

sow

in that year, and

consequently

harvest. his

Alexander granted these

the vision namely, Artaxerxes

commenced, Darius Nothus Mnemon, Ochus, and Darius

CodomanCodomannus ;]and the fourth [Darius nus] shall be far richer than they all : and by his strength through his riches he shall stir up the realm of Grecia, [which, as we all against have seen, he did do.] And a mighty king [Alexander] shall stand up, that shall rule with great when to his will. And dominion, and do according his kingdom he shall stand up, [inhis strength,] shall be broken, and four winds of heaven
nor

promised all who were to willing that they should follow standard, their own mode of worship, and obey their own customs, which act of policy gainedan augmentation to his forces from that people.
under

Alexander
he he
was

had

no

sooner

left Jerusalem than

waited

who hasten then

of Samaritans, by a deputation upon him to visit solicited their temple, which


was

that he declined,stating onward


to the

compelled

to

conquest of Egypt.
from had been

They
venth se-

exemption requested
year ; but

paying the

shall be divided toward the Jews not to his posterity, ; and which he ruled
:

which tribute,
an receiving

granted the

for others beside From that the

to according his kingdom

his dominion shall be

the

whether question
matter

to ambiguous answer they were Jews, Alexander

plucked up,

even

for

suspended the
his march

those,"[namely,for his four generals,]

towards

till his return, and Gaza.

tinued con-

Dan. xi. 2"4.


these in the reader will perceive prophecies, all events which over Almighty presides

happen

over sway conceals

world, and rules with absolute he and empires cities, ; while man, the operations of his wisdom, and
of his the veil In all
causes

the

found it defended the command of Betis, of the eunuchs of Darius ; who being one of greatexperience in military a man and affairs,

On his arrivalat Gaza, Alexander

by

under stronggarrison

the wonders of natural that


or

beneath providence, ordinaryevents. exhibits to us, whether history profane and

faithful to his sovereign, resolved to hold Alexander to the last extremity. As against the only inlet or pass into Egypt,it was was
for him
to take

out

this
cessary newas

it,and therefore he
But

to besiege it. sieges, obliged


was

althoughevery
great braverywas
months

art of

the capture of established


as

war battles won pires emor cities, lost, deor overthrown, God is not scribed

resorted

to, and

played dis-

and But
so

some

to work
to

any concern suppose that to his own according would into falling and religion

having

in these
man

things,

is abandoned

will and such


a

prevent our

pleasure.on temptation, sold

fore beelapsed its reduction. Exasperatedat this impediment in his march, and his receiving two wounds, he destroyed ten thousand and takingit, men,

by

his

warriors,two

in the last assault, with unwonted barbarity. When of his proable broughtbefore him, covered with honourwondering eyes the secret springs vidence, his prophets his to foretell, as wounds, instead of usinghim kindly, by causing ages before the event, what shall befall the different valour and fidelity merited,he ordered a hole to be made when a cord beingput nations of the earth. He reveals here to the throughhis heels, "man the succession, throughthem, and tied to a chariot,he caused beloved," the order, greatly and the different characteristics of the four great him to be dragged round the city he expired. till lamentable that and denote empiresto which he has determined actions, to subject These were the different nations of the universe ; namely, the sentiments and conduct of Alexander began that of the Babylonians, to change with his prosperity. of the Persians and Ancient historians relate, that the conduct of Medes, of the Greeks, and of the Romans. Alexander towards Betis sprung from These, and other prophecies, desire in which God a plains exhimself so clearly, of imitating in dragging the ferocity of Achilles, should be considered as the dead body of Hector thrice round the walls of and serve as so many very precious, keys to open to our the secret methods Troy. This is one of the mischiefs of a warlike understanding by which he governs the world. education : it disposes in the the mind to delight These bright rays of light should enable a rationaland religious recital of deeds of carnage, and no poem is more to see man and acknowledgethe Divine hand in the varied than calculated to producesuch fiendish feelings
our

the reason itself, repugnant to Most High sometimes condescends to discover to

all the rest, with their wives and children. He treated the governor, who was taken prisoner,

events

of

profane history. Strains should follow


of this
of acknowledgment addressed Authorityenthroned above of

the his

Iliad of Homer. the

Alexander

excelled

even
was

the review
"

prototype Achilles in cruelty.Achilles


of passion loved
over

promptedby
of his much and slain,
accents.

To The

revenge Patroclus,whom

for the death Hector had

an

in the tenderest he mourned of Alexander towards conduct The effect which the narration of these proattended with exnot tenuating phecies his fallen foe Betis was had upon the mind of Alexander circumstances. He had no other motive may be conceived. He looked upon the conquest readily fence to satiatehis inhuman rage but the brave deof the Persian empire as of the city in his hands, which Betis made entrusted to already
reach

sight."" Wordsworth.

whom

The

93

HISTORY

OF

THE

PERSIANS.

unless we charge by his lawful sovereign, Achilles. except the vain desire of imitating in which this action There is yet another light his
was

the country through which he was But to pass. it was too late. With his usual rapidity, ander Alexhad reached and passed that rapid in river, about

hours' travelling, twenty-three to according Hadgy Khalifa,above MousuL and twenty-four miles below the ridgeof Zaco. At this season, the Tigriswas at its lowest ebb. the greatest Alexander encamped two days on the banks of brought up at the feet of Aristotle, himself reof his day, and who was nowned the Tigris. On the eveningof the second day, philosopher and philosophy. And for his learning Sept.20, there was a remarkable lunar eclipse, and his army great unsovereigns, which gave Alexander easiness. yet no action of those barbarous this in refined The soldiers exclaimed the Persian kings,could exceed that Heaven without Christianitydisplayed the marks of its anger ; and that they cruelty. Alas ! civilization It is only by the will of the gods, to the is but another term for barbarism. were against dragged, doctrines of the gospel that man extremities of the earth ; that rivers opposed the hallowed has their passage ; that the stars refused to lend their learn humanity. Already,Christianity can and revenge, of ambition the feelings usual light, and that they could see mitigated nothing but have arisen to the human deserts and solitudes before them. They were whence woes so many on upThis is a noble achievement. the point of an insurrection, when Hereafter, race. Alexander mankind will be taughtby its hallowed doctrines summoned the officersof his army into his tent, and in his true light, stroyer deas commanded the Egyptian soothsayers a to look upon a hero to declare under its benign what they thoughtof this phenomenon. These of his species ; hereafter, well acquainted with the nature men were influence, and they will weep over the recital of deeds of their the slaughter of eclipses of blood,and mourn over causes ; but without explaining these, that the they contented themselves with stating, species ; hereafter they shall universally pass from averse in Persia ; men as war," serving sun ruled in Greece, and the moon by securely suffered an eclipse, under the banner of the Prince of Peace. whence, as often as the moon the siege of had ended Alexander As soon as some calamity was portended to the country. satisfied the superstitious This answer there, and Gaza, B.C. 332, he left a garrison multitude, of his arms towards and their hopes and courage revived. the whole turned power Taking advantageof the ardour of his army, Egypt, of which country he possessedhimself Alexander recommenced without a single his march as related in the History after midnight. conflict, On his right of the Egyptians, to which the reader is referred hand laythe Tigris, and on his left the mountains called Cordyaei.* At dayfor the details. break he received intelligence that the army of Having settled the affairs of Egypt, Alexander in the spring of the year, Darius was set out from thence near ; but it proved only to be the Darius. into the east against detachment sent to prevent his passage across B.C. 331, to march the the He first halted at Tyre, where he appointed Tigris. These retired before him, and rejoined From of all his forces. the army of Darius. general rendezvous which he About this time, Alexander intercepted thence he marched to the Euphrates, some letters written by Darius to the Greeks,soliciting to Rennel, at Racca, or Nicecrossed,according the towards tray them, with great promises,either to kill or bephorium, and continued his march him. Tigris. Word time was During the absence of Alexander in Egypt, broughtto him about the same that Statira, the wife of Darius, was some dead. He Samaritans,perhapsenraged that they had the Jews, set the funeral obsequies of the deceased as caused not obtained the same privileges he had fireto the house of Andromachus, whom to be performedwith the utmost princess nificence, magin the their governor, and he perished and comforted the other royalprisoners appointed
must not
"

that it It must be remembered be viewed. the act of a half-civilized savage, (for better ;) it was were no the heroes of Homer who was one committed by a civilized prince,

flames.

The

to culprits

Alexander

other Samaritans delivered up the his return ; but the conqueror on

with

their from

so was enraged,that,not satisfied with the Samaritans punishment,he removed their city, and transferred thither a Macedonian the reconsideration colony. This event precluded the of'their previous claim,respecting

Darius was informed of great tenderness. and being assured of the respectpaidto her this, he is said to by the conqueror in her lifetime, for the

sabbatic year ; and thus excluded the Samaritans thenceforth made

Shechem

frojcn Samaria, their

prayedto the gods,that if the time ordained of the Persian empire into transferring other hands was arrived,none might sit on the throne of Cyrus but Alexander. Overcome by Alexander the tenderness and humanity which
have had shown his
ten dispatched him new offering

metropolis.
that there mean time,Darius, finding unless he hopes of an accommodation resignedthe whole empire, appliedhimself to for another engagement. For make preparations In the
no were

Darius wife,mother, and children, of his relations as ambassadors,


conditions of peace,
;
more

tageous advan-

him, indeed, offering him all that he had conquered,and returning for his kindness thanks to his royal captives. this purpose, he assembled Alexander a returned the following swer: haughty anvery considerable and "Tell tween that thanks, bearmy in Babylon,with which he took the field, your sovereign, marched Advice beingbrought towards Nineveh. each other, war against persons who make he detached him that the enemy was advancing, * This proves of the cavalry,at the that Alexander commander passed the Tigris above Satropates,
than

the former

head of
of

1000

horse, and Mazseus, nor goverthat province, with 6000, to prevent


chosen from the Tigris, and crossing
to waste

Alexander

try From the defile of Zaco to that place the counis for the most part a plain, having the Tigrison the at distance on and a of the the Zagros right hand, range the left.

Mousul.

HISTORY

OF

THE

PERSIANS.

99 of the empire of the east obtaining that he should reign without

are

superfluous ; and

that in

case

I have

behaved

confident fully

with
own

it was the morrow, for my on clemency towards his family, clination, ina rival. sake, and not for his ; to gratify my own Tne and not to please him. To insult the morrow is
a

and

thing to me unknown. attack either prisoners or women, such as are armed rage onlyagainst unhappy
If Darius were I then would but

I do and
turn

not

for battle.
same

my

and both sides prepared armies were drawn up in the in the centre, and the order,the infantry
came,

Both

for the

on fight. cavalry

the

wings.
with

The
two

front of the Persian

sincere in his demand


debate
on

what

was

since he still continues, by to spirit money, up my soldiers to betray me, and mined deterI therefore am me, my friends to murder to pursue him with the utmost vigour; and It indeed that not as an enemy, but an assassin.

for peace, to be done ; letters and by

hundred chariots, and twenty-five scythes, elephants. Besides his guards,which the flower of were his army, Darius had posted the Grecian infantry his person, believing this body alone capanear ble of opposing the Macedonian phalanx. As his army a spreadover largerspace of ground army armed
was

covered

with

I what him to offer to yieldup to me becomes he be satisfied with alreadypossess ! Would to be rankingsecond to me, without pretending Tell then hear him. I might possibly my equal, him that the world will not permittwo suns nor two sovereigns.Let him therefore either choose meet to-morrow or me to surrender to-day, ; and cess not to flatter himself with the hopes of better suc-

than and

to

that of the enemy, he intended to surround, time, both in charge them at the same

front and flank. Alexander and this, anticipated gave directions accordingly.He had posted,in the front of his first line, the

greatestpart of his

By
had how frame

than he has had hitherto." that Alexander this the reader will perceive intoxicated with his
success.

in order that and javelin slingers, men, they might counteract the effect of the chariots, their missiles at the horses, to by discharging Those them. who led the wings were frighten them ordered to extend as widely as possible,

bowmen,

become hard

Oh,

but in such

manner

as

not

to weaken

the main

with a proper it is to bear prosperity that when of mind ! Truly has it been said, of

body.

Parmenio the

Alexander

commanded right. The chariots Persian the

the left wing, and


two

armies
the

soon

the channels is

plentyrun
abundance
a mean

pliedwith

high,and every appetite that and variety, so


word express corruptionof
to

joinedissue.
intended, and

The

failed in the

effect left his


set

cavalry in
which Darius
to

satisfaction is but

its the

wing
whole

were

repulsed, upon
in

enjoyment,then
human
too

the

inbred

army

motion, in order

overwhelm

Alexander heart shows itself pampered and insolent, the Macedonians. Upon seeingthis, tion. and too big for correcemployed a stratagem to encourage his soldiers. unrulyfor discipline, When the strife was and fury perat the height, vaded formed The ambassadors of Darius returned, and inevery breast,Aristander,the soothsayer, clothed in his white robes,and holding him that he must now a branch prepare for battle. laurel in his hand, advanced the his camp he pitched a village of near Accordingly, among called Gaugamela,* and the river Bumellus, the an eagle (a sure troops, crying that he saw of victory)hovering over of the head Hazir modern Su, in a plainat a considerable omen led distance from Arbela,where he had before levelAlexander, to which pretended bird he pointed his chariots with his finger. The soldiers relyingupon the ground, that his cavalry and the At the and act with more word, and imagining that they also saw ease. might move the attack with greater resolution renewed time he had preparedcaltrops same eagle, f to annoy The obstinate and than ever. battle was the enemy's horse. ander Alexander prevailed.Alexbloody; but the Macedonians hearing that Darius was so near, of Darius the equerry continued four days in his camp to rest the army. having wounded well as the the Persians, as During this time,he was engaged in surrounding with a javelin, it with deep trenches and palisades, Macedonians, imagined that the king was mined being deterseized with killed ; upon which the former were to leave bis baggage there,and such of relations of The his troops as were unable to join in the conflict. the greatest consternation. On the fifth morning,he set out about the second at his left hand, fled away Darius, who were with the guards; but those who were at his right watch, designing the enemy to engage at break him from of day. Arriving surrounded mountains him, in order to rescue from whence at some that he drew his scimitar, death. Historians relate, he could descrythe enemy's army, he halted ; he ought not to lay and and reflected whether he debated having assembled his officers, rather than flee in an whether he should attack them violent hands upon himself, or immediately, in that place. The latter opinion the love of life premanner vailed, ; but encamp being ignominious he arrived he encamped there in the same and he fled to Arbela, where order in adopted, which the army had marched, and, after having the same night. of with his soothsayer, consulted After Darius had passed the Lycus, some his usual as was
wont
on

the

eve

of

he retired to repose, battle,


was

his attendants

advised

him

to

break

down

the

The of

north modern

camp the

of

Darius
or

about

ten

miles

to

the

Lycus

Rennel,

the ancient

and According to Niebuhr Gaugamela is to be recognized in the The


to the

Zab.

of the enemy in order to stop the pursuit ; bridge, of his own how but he, reflecting men many to pass over, generously were replied, hastening that he had When rather leave an open road to a pursuing friend. than close it to a fleeing enemy, those who he reached Arbela, he informed that he

offers little

village of Kamalis. no or impediment of the largestarmies.


were

ground
evolutions of

around and

here
ments move-

t These

of which were the cavalry was

spikes,several anciently laid in the field through which to march, in order that they might pierce composed

instruments

had

escapedwith him,
present
to

designedto leave
the
rest

all for the

Alexander, and
from

the feet of the horses.

Media, from

whence, and

flee into of the

100

HISTORY

OF

THE

PERSIANS.

northern

he provinces,
once more

could

draw

new together

during which
to

to try forces,

his fortune

in battle. of the Persians


;

Historians differ
slain
on

to the number as this fatal day. Curtius

time the people abandoned selves thempleasuresof the grossest nature, Alexander marched towards Susa, passingthrough

Arrian, 30,000;
first of these lost
not

and Diodorus, authorities states that


300 men,

says 40,000 The 90,000. the Arrian but this does


not can-

the fertile Susa in

provinceof Sitacene.

He

arrived

at

donians Mace-

only
if the army

while
;
so

allow

a
:

third

of that battle
so

number
was

twenty days. As he approached the Abulites, governor of the place, sent city, his to meet son him, with a promise to surrender the cityinto his hands, with all the treasures of

the
not

be true Persian

numerous

700,000, or (600,000, have bought the empire thus cheaply.There side exaggeration, the one and on is, doubtless,
the other

and Darius. The young nobleman obstinate, conducted ander Alexto the river Choaspes, where they make it, Abulites himself met 800,000 men,) they could him, and performed his promise.
as

The

treasures

of Susa

were

added

to the

coffers

of Alexander.

on

extenuation,with reference
The
battle
was

to

the the

numbers first of
to the

stated.

fought on

He found Harmodius

a Surelyhe was mightyrobber ! in this placethe brazen statues of and Aristogiton, which Xerxes had

October, b.c. 331. sacrifices magnificent Alexander, after offering

brought

out

of
to

Greece, and
Athens.

Alexander

now

stored re-

them

in the city of Susa, Leaving a strong garrison Alexander, after having appointed Archelaus of the city, rival Mezarus, governor of the ; but before his argovernor had fled over the citadel,and Abulites, governor of the prothere,the fallen monarch vince of his of Susiana, marched mountains of Armenia, attended into Persis. Having by some of called river small the Pasi and crossed a relatives, body guards (the modern Jerahi) Tigris because each of them wore a golden he entered the country of the Uxii. This proMelophori, vince from extends Susiana to the frontiers of appleon the top of his spear. In Armenia, he Greek mercenaries who Persis, and it was was governed by Madctcs, who joined by 2000 the who themselves had signalized Darius as far as Arbela in the

gods,for

and rewardingthose victory,

battle, pursued

had

Alexander

escapedthe slaughter. of Arbela, where took the city


sums

was

not

follower

of fortune.

Faithful

to

his

he then

seized on immense rich furniture and


returned The
to

of money,

with

all the

equipageof Darius, and


but
a

his camp. rested conqueror

he resolved to hold out to the last sovereign, extremity ; for which purpose he retired into a in the midst of stronghold, craggy mountains, and surrounded by steep precipices.Having been chased from

few

days. Some
some

thence, he

retired into the

cities yet remained untaken, and unsubdued, and he was uneasy


were

in his

possession.He
was

first

Babylon.
and retired

Mazaeus

he Madetes was battle, left at Susa, and to whom related, he not only pardoned him, but restored him to with the remains of the body he thither, his former dignity, He almost set all the prisoners commanded. was free,left powerless ; upon the city he delivered the Alexander's arrival, therefore, untouched, and the citizens in the full into the conquerand privileges. himself,and his children, enjoyment of their ancient liberty city, or's His followed hands. Having subdued the Uxii, Alexander ordered example was by march with wherein all Parmenio to Bagaphanes, part of his army governor of the fortress, while he himself, at the head of Darius the treasures were deposited through the plain, ; and of his light of his the city armed entered Alexander at the head troops, crossed the mountains, and province, whole army, as though he had been marching which extend as far as Persia. On the fifth day, he arrived at the pass of Susa. received the riches of and Ariobarzanes, againstthe enemy, with 4000 foot, and 700 horse, had possessed Babylon. During his stay in Babylon, Alexander held himself of this pass, and he had so posted his of with the magi, and acting littleband, that they were out of the reach conferences many upon their

governor had, after the late

whence the besieged sent citadel, thirty deputies till they to Alexander, to sue for quarter. Alexander ceiving proceededto would not at first listen to the petition ; but reof that city letters from whom he had Sisigambis, vinces pro-

advice, he

gave

directions
Xerxes had

for

arrows.

As

soon

as

Alexander

advanced

in

the temples which rebuilding

He

molished deorder to attack them, they rolled from the top of the mountains stones of a prodigious size, which, others, that of Belus. ; and, among deans, down conversed, also,with the Chalrebounding from rock to rock, smote frequently who
were

famous

for their knowledge in

whole

ranks.

The

conqueror

was

astounded,

and gave orders for a retreat. He withdrew nomical astronomy, and who presentedhim with astrowhere he lay encamped about thirtyfurlongs, sors observations,taken by their predecesand ashamed to return. some time, afraid to proceed, during the space of 1903 years, which were His pridewas about to be humbled, and ander, who sent by Callisthenes, accompanied Alexof victory he gave his career serter checked, when a Greek deto Aristotle. Before he departed, to MazaeuS, and the government of the province coming to his camp, offered to conduct the command of the forces he left there to Apol- him tains, throughby-paths to the top of the mounhe might compel the Persians to Alexander, at the head of Accordingly, chosen some to troops, having followed his guide arrived a he incorporated rocks and under the command of Amyntas. These precipices, by night over into his veteran at the top of a mountain army ; himself being littlebefore day-break, which commanded all the hills where the enemy present at the reviews as often as they were exercised. was posted. A chargewas made, and they fled ; After a stay of about thirty days in Babylon, and Craterus,who had been leftin the camp belodorus of

Amphipolis.

whence

About

received recruits time, Alexander the number of 2000 horse, and 13,500 foot,
this

retreat.

o*

102

HISTORY

OF

THE

PERSIANS.

themselves dispersed up and down, and many hope directed their steps,
were

as

fear or thousands

first Cyrus,under
to
b.c.

331

]H

of the slain. In the mean time, the horses that drew the Medes and Persians. But the dissolution of the cart in which the once mighty Darius was seated, empirewas not owing to the maladministration for the drivers had been killedby Bessus, of Darius Codomannus halted, ; it sprung from causes about half a mile from the highnear a village way. over which he had littleor no control. The a Macedonian, beingpressed seeds of its ruin had been sown in itsvery origin Polystratus, with thirstin the pursuit of the enemy, was soon and primitive institution. It had been formed after conducted by the inhabitants to refresh by the union of two nations,of differentmanners fountain. As he was ing fillhimself at an adjacent and inclinations. The Persians were a his helmet with water, he heard the groans modest people; the Medes were laborious, sober, of a dying man, and looking devoted to pomp, luxury, round, discovered and voluptusoftness, ousness. a cart,in which, on The exampleof frugality and simplicity drawingnear, he found the The hunters had long purwhich the truly unhappy monarch. sued great Cyrus had set them, and in the their beingobliged him, and they found him at length to be alwaysunder arms to cient suffiand support themselves agoniesof death. He had yet strength gain so many victories, in the midst of so many to call for a little water, which, when he enemies, prevented had taken, he turned to the Macedonian, and, those vices from spreading for some time ; but with a faint voice, their arms had prevailed, said,that in the deplorable when and all were state to which he was reduced,it was no small subdued before them, the fondness which the consolation to him that his last words would not Medes had for pleasure and magnificence soon be lost. He, therefore, ander | lessened the temperance of the Persians, and became chargedhim to tell Alexthat he died in his debt,without having the prevailing taste of the two nations. had the power of returning his obligations The conquest of Babylon added to the declension. ; that he thanked him for the kindness he had shown That " mother of harlots" intoxicatedher to his mother, wife, and children ; that he besoughtvictors with her poisonedcup, and enchanted the gods to givevictory them with her pleasures. to his arms, and She furnished them make him master of the universe ; and that he with ministers and instruments adapted to mote prothoughthe need not entreat him to revenge the luxury,and to foment and cherish voluptuousness traitorous death he suffered, the comas thiswas with art and mon delicacy ; and the wealth of kings. Then takingPolystratusof the richest provinces in the world being at cause " the disposal of their sovereigns, bled enaby the hand, he added : Give Alexander your they were hand, as I giveyou mine ; and carry him, in my to satiate their desires. Cyrus himself contributed I am in this able to give, without foreseeing the conseto this, quences. name, the only pledge of my gratitude After his victories, and affection." Having he inspired condition, his uttered these words, Darius expiredin the arms with an admiration for pomp and show, subjects of Polystratus. spise which, hitherto, they had been taught to dethat magniAlexander, it is said, as coming up a few minutes airytrifles.He suggested ficence and beholding the dead body of the fallen and riches should crown after, glorious exploits, monarch, burst into tears, and bewailed the cruel and be the end and fruit of them ; thereby thorizing aulot of a prince, them in their themselves to indulge who, he observed,was worthy of Vain tears, and mock a better end. bewailings naturally corrupt inclinations. He spread the these. He had pursuedhim through life, evil farther by compelling were the various officers of the onlyseason have for showing real kindness the empire to appear with splendour we before the and now he weeps and the better to represent his own to our multitude, fellow-man, ness. greatbewails over and unregardless The consequence his lifeless of this was, that these corse. have mistook of officials their ornaments and been, however, tears They might joy ; trappings for now he had gained of his ambition, for the essentialsof their employments, the height while he owned the empire of the east without a them as patterns for imitation, the wealthy now proposed rival. Alas ! what a miserable creature is man followed by the different and were soon of society. of Tbynature ! Tormented with the evil passions grades fritters his life away the ancient virtues of in These acts undermined a corrupt nature, he " none." the Persians. Scarcely was seeking rest,and finding Cyrus dead, when After having wept over the body, (whether there arose another nation,and up as it were for joy or sorrow, of a different geniusand character. who monarchs can say?) Alexander off his military education anciently Instead of the severe ed bestowcloak, and threw it over pulled the loathed object it to be emthe Persian youth,their young men were balmed, on ; then causing and the coffin to be adorned with regal brought and effeminacy ; whence up in splendour he sent it to Sisigambis, of that it they learned to despise the happy simplicity magnificence, and the nation became corrupttheir forefathers, might be interred with the ancient Persian moed. narchs. In one under this enervating generation, the Persian character became Such was the end of Darius Codomannus. He tuition, haughty, died in the fiftiethyear of his age, and sixth of vain, effeminate, inhuman, and perfidious ; and his reign. He was the most mild and pacific under the sun, were of all people a prince, they, his reignhaving been unsullied with injustice, to splendour, abandoned and luxury,feasting, of drunkenness ; so that it may be affirmed that the some any of those vices to which his predecessors had been greatly addicted. empireof the Persians was almost from itsvery In Darius Codomannus became through the Persian empire birth what other empires lengthI sunk under her corruptions, but | ended,after havingexisted from the reign of the of ages. Rome
or cruelty,

thirteen kings, from b.c. 536 from the time of the annexadating tion Babylonianempire to that of the

HISTQRY

OF

THE

PERSIANS.

103

her

decay

was

: the imperceptible

Persian from

pire em-

To That With Down

the

exhibited its own


This character been ages has Thomson :

ruin

almost

fancy. its inin different the

charm mad

of the

Persians

aptlycompressed by
in extreme, thence and

They
God's

pipe and wanton song, fear,they frolic it along, rapidity and unconcern, to the gulf, from which is no return. trust in navies, and their navies faildown
curse can

lascivious

poet
"

cast

away

ten

thousand

sail.

Beyond

Persia, sober the pitch of

man,

reversed

Into luxurious

waste."

One

great

cause

of the

ruin

of the

Persian confused It

the was empire, and discipline, multitude service of from their real

carelessness the who

in military displayed
a

substitution of
were

men,

impressed for the


was

They trust in armies, and their courage dies; In wisdom, wealth, in fortune, and in lies: But all they trust in withers, as it must, When He in whom commands, they place no trust. Vengeance at last pours down their coast upon A long despised, but now victorious host ; sends the claim that must Tyranny abridge The noble of all their privilege sweep ; Gives shock: liberty the last,the mortal Slips the slave's collar on, and snaps the lock."
"

COWPER.

their

countries. respective

Long time were the Persians enslaved. They valour was quentlygroaned under the Macedo-Grecian freand their dynasty for strength, any 102 years, and when that was of the overturned counteracted by the unwieldiness by the the Parthian yoke for 454 Parthians,they wore Persian hosts,and their lack of a knowledge of At the end of that time, a.d. 225, the tactics. The Cyrus knew the more.* younger military Parthians being greatly weakened ous of Greece ; hence, as soon as by their ruinvalue of the arms with the Romans, Artaxeres,a gallant wars brother's throne his was the design against Persian,encouragedhis countrymen to seize the his conextended nexions decided, he with great care of shaking off the yoke, which they The in opportunity them. soldiers, a lso, only among when of Darius, who the army performed their duty, did in a battle of three days'continuance, the enemy were defeated, and Artabanus,king to the last, were and continued faithful to him only in
mercenaries, the Greeks, that they
had the Greeks. The less
monstrous

of corruptions

the

court,
another

or no

rather of the

harem, says Heeren, was

of the Parthians at that time, taken and slain. The Persians, therefore, again appeared on the theatre of human action,and they played their

of the decay of the Persian powerfulcause here subjectto the empire. Every thing was of the

part
known

during
as

411
"

years,

their

monarchs

being

the

Sassanian

kings."

influence

eunuchs,
of the

or

of

the

reigning

queen, or, stillworse, is necessary to have of of

queen-mother. It in the court history studied,


CHAPTER
THE KINGDOM OF

the character and violent accusations Ctesias, a Paryan Amytis or Amistris,or still more an to form satis, adequateidea of the nature of of such a harem government. The gratification the the thirst for passions, of
were pride,

V.
PERSIA.

hatred,no
the

pulse revenge, and the imless than voluptuousness and

SASSANIAN

KINGS.

which moved springs every thing which acquire corrupted circle: passions of the force in proportion to the narrowness a circle in which The monarch, they are exercised. in this enervated is with instead of governpleasure, ing,

ARTAXERES,

OR

ARDSHIR

BEN

BABEK,

OR

BABEGAN.

Historians

governed by alone, for the most stagesof the Persian


any power

his courtiers.

from to the throne represent him as rising part, denoted, in the last while the oriental and spuriousorigin, a mean that he possessed empire, writers say, that he was the grandson of Sassan, In a word, all was in the state. ruin corruption prevails, for
and

Despotic

acts

family

of

differwidely in their account of the The ties Artaxeres. Byzantine authori-

corrupt, and where


in the train
"

lows fol-

brother of

of

Persian queen,

during the

Parthian

dominion

and

by

his mother's

side,the grandson

Babek, who
This

Not To

disposes prepares slumbers sweetly in her snares, tyranny's usurped command And bend her polished neck his hand beneath (A dire effect by one of nature's laws with its cause;) Unchangeably connected
The mind that

only

vice
to

stoop

Hales as Artaxeres
;

per. of Persia Prowas governor latter account is considered by Dr. credible ; and hence, he says, the most assumed the titleof

Babegan, and

the

dynasty that
On the who
a

of Sassanian. the death of his grandfather, taxeres Babek, Ar-

But To All What

Providence
throw
are

himself dark

will intervene the from


scene.

appliedto

be

his appointed
was

successor

in

his his
at

displeasure o'er
form
at
or

each instruments,

burns in

home,
her

threatens

of war, afar:

government, but

refused

Nature The Are And He In The She And And

strife, overset the joys of life, but his rods to scourge a guilty land, it at the bidding of his hand. waste gives the word, and mutiny soon roars
arms, storms, that

elements

of his merit, and was jealous dream, portendingthe loss of


to

by Ardevan, disturbed by
his life and

crown.

fled among whom

Artaxeres Upon this disappointment, and formed a Persepolis, strong party the Persian nobility, in conjunction with he effected the overthrow of the Parthian On ascendingthe throne, a.d. 225, he the of pompous title of

all her has mark

gates, and

standards
one

shakes of all nations that


one

her
are

distant unfurled

shores:
;

foe, and
doom them that with

if He

people
a

foe the world. with a frown, of wrath

empire.
assumed
"

Shah

in

Shah,

pressed down, Obduracy takes place; callous and tough, The race reprobated judgment proof: grows Earth shakes beneath them, and heaven roars above; But them from the course nothing scares they love:

seal

King
*

kings."
this of the

The

particulars,during

narrated and

in the histories Parthians.

period, will be found Macedonians, Seleucidse,

104

HISTORY

OF

THE

PERSIANS.

no Artaxeres was than he conceived a empire to its

sooner

seated

on

the

throne,

1.

When the

himself king applies


are

to render

tice, jus-

sian the Perdesignof restoring ingly, pristine greatness. Accord-

people

eager

to render

him

ence. obedi-

of 2. Of all princes, the worst is he whom the he gave"notice to the Roman governors the bad hope. provincesborderingon his dominions, that good fear,and from whom the successor 3. All the branches of a community are separably intitle, as he had an unquestionable with each other, and with connected manded of Cyrus,to all the Lesser Asia, which he comwell as the prothem to relinquish, as procal vinces the trunk ; hence kings and subjectshave reciand duties ; which, if neglected the frontiers of the ancient Parthian cares on on either side,produce ruin and confusion to both. alreadyunder his sway. kingdom, which were 4. He felt so much the danger of his high staAlexander at that The Severus, who tion, emperor from self-deception, that he appointed the Roman time ruled over empire,sent letters one of his courtiers to examine show his him every morning, to Artaxeres, importing that he would and to require if he kept within bounds, and not out wisdom as his confessor, of all an account that he had said or done the preceding of hopes of conquest rekindle war, which might day. 5. The cannot be supported be unsuccessful ; that he ought to consider he royal authority the
was

to

cope with

nation used

to war,

nation

without
taxes

troops, nor

and Severus, Augustus,Trajan, emperors, had often vanquishedthe Parthians. raised a of these letters, Artaxeres, regardless great army, and attacked the fortified posts of whose the Romans
over was on

without

culture of the

troops without taxes, nor cullands, nor this ture

the
were

river
so

them

quests Euphrates. His conthat Alexander rapid,

without well administered, and a justice well regulated. police 6. By the assistance of a council of seven and idolatry sages, he abolished the superstition that had Grecian reformed he and introduced been the Macedounder Parthian dynasties, and revived the
"

of Darius Hystaspes religion : hence that he proclaimedthroughoutthe empire, had taken the sword of Aristotle, the When Artaxeres heard of the approach of the away which had devoured the nation for Roman employed in the siege philosopher, emperor, he was he immediately 500 years ;" meaning the civil and religious novations inof Nisibis,or Antiochia, which of Alexander, the pupilof Aristotle, that he might prepare for the contest. At raised, the same time he sent 400 deputies, duringthat period. gorgeously which had prevailed succeeded in his kingdom by when should be Artaxeres was and commissioned, they arrayed, introduced* to the emperor'spresence, to speak the commands The great king Artaxeres thus : OR SHABOUR, SAPOR, of all to depart out Romans, and their prince, his the whose sians Perfierce and nature was son, a prince Syriaand Asia Minor, and to restore to of glory, was this side the iEgean untractable ; and who covetous all the countries on and cruel. and Pontic seas, as of right descendingto them haughty,insolent, Shabour seated on the throne, was sooner no from their ancestors." These deputies performed
to

compelled to raise an towards Mesopotamia in


career.

army, order

and

to march

check

his

"

their commission

with the Romans. He his than he meditated a war ; but Alexander, to show abetted in his designsby the traitor Cyrithem of their equipage, was stripped contempt of it, of the same he assigned ades,the son of a commander into Phrygia,where name and sent them
farms
to

them

Artaxeres
a

now

cultivatefor their subsistence. with to Mesopotamia, repaired


the Roman emperor. the Romans An
were

in

largearmy,

to meet

engagement ensued, in which


he

In conjunctionwith Cyriadeswasted general, the adjacentprovinces, and having at length prevailedupon the king himself to take the the

Roman
a

Odomastes,

army. Persian

of deserters, who, for he, with a number defeated, field, victorious. But though Artaxeres was followed him, attacked the the sake of plunder, He recruited his army, and not subdued. was of which the Roman having divided his forces cities of Antioch and Cesarea Philippi, emperor themselves. them quest into three bodies, he attacked Upon the conseparately,citiesthey possessed of these cities, Cyriadestook the title of and though repulsedby one body in Media, he

another,which destroyed
after which
to Rome.

had

invaded

tories, his terri-

the Roman

assumed what

He entered the the titleof Parthicus and Persicus. Artaxeres now employed himself in recovering
he had
name.

returned emperor cityin triumph,and

of emperor. these proceedings, Gordian, then of Rome, resolved to carry his arms emperor into the east,for the double purpose of chastising Cyriades, and checking the Persian power.

Cesar, and afterwards


Provoked

by

the Persian

With of the honour and in restoring lost, head He ruled with much tion reputatillhis death, which occurred a.d. 240. in

this of
a

view, he marched
numerous own

into and he

Syria at
chased

the bour Sha-

army,

into his followed

Dr. Hales observes that this re-founder of the of the best and one Persian monarchy was his wish greatest of their kings; and that it was
to retrieve the ancient
a

peror dominions, whither the emhim, takingCharra, or Haran,

Mesopotamia.

He

was

when conquest stillfurther,

to push his preparing murdered he was by

made whom he had the treacheryof Philip, the death of his fatherof his guards, on captain and religion.in-law. dadians and Kaianians in politics himself of the sovereign of the entire He composed a book for the use Philip, havingpossessed with made Sapor, and authority, entitled, Rules for living peace body of his subjects, to him wise poliMesopotamia and Armenia well,"from which, etc.,the following tical abandoned of his maxims again. The senate, however, disapproving are derived, as paraphrasedfrom of the treaty,he recovered conduct, regardless Herbelot.

gloryof

the

kingdom by

steadyadherence

to

the maxims

of the Pisch-

"

HISTORY

OF

THE

PERSIANS.

105

and then, leaving troops part of these provinces, he marched back into the frontiers, to secure

attentive to the welfare of his subjects, and the improvement of his kingdom in the construction of publicworks, such as cities, etc. Italy. aqueducts, forces were As soon as the Roman withdrawn, Mirkhond says that his administration of justice their incursions ", was that some of his rapacious so courtiers rigid, Sapor and Cyriades renewed and the latter growing stronger and alarmed, and set fire to his tent during a stronger, were affairs stormy night, that it might be thoughtto have The began to be treated as an emperor. that in such a sinkingcondition, been occasioned of Rome were by lightning. In the reign of Sapor, of its provinces took shelter, the famous Mani * or out of necessity, many under his protection. At length, however, Manes, the founder of the Manichaean heresy, and he is said to have favoured him, to the empire at a flourished, Valerian, though advanced

great age, took

measures

to reduce

the

numerous

and

to have

built for

him,

on

the borders

of the

carried his arms He province of Susiana, a place of retreat called provincesto obedience. This was Dascarah. -westward and northward, and there victoriously only, however, while he all again acted the part of a philosopher: when Mani was every prospect of uniting them under the Roman sway.
a

But

while he
army,

was

thus

attempted

to

reconcile mix the

his

philosophywith

of gospelwith some his national superstitions, the burned and pillaged the Roman and therebyto frame territories, advanced which he hoped to as far as Edessa, a new system of religion, country,and at length both to which he laid siege. Valerian hastened to its propagate among infidels and Christians, taken for comwho was pelling to any innovations in the and necessary steps were averse relief, Sapor, A mutiny of national religion, the Persians to retreat. persecuted him, and obliged who the soldiers of Cyriades, put him to death, him to flee for his life. The of the Manichaeans were of Valerian, for whom added to the power of errors some they the most that have ever declared. been promula however, resolved to venture pernicious Sapor, gated. Mani pretended to be an apostle action took place before Edessa, and an of Jesus battle, in which Valerian was 268. made Christ,and a prophet illuminated by the Holy a.d. prisoner, reform all religions, to and to reveal According to the Byzantine historians, Sapor Spirit, truths which the Saviour had not thoughtproper could used his fortune with an insolence the people endure. not Instigated they first, to reveal to his disciples.To carry out this by despair, he chose twelve apostles, of Callistus, and afterwards whom under the command he imposture, that of Odenatus, prince of Palmyrene, sent forth to preach his doctrines. His doctrines, under time from his insults,says Neumann, his symbolical themselves for some and in protected language, the division of his followers into layand finally compelled him to retire into particular, men, dominions. ent his own and priests, and the differauditores, electi, duties prescribed In his march, Sapor is said to have made to use to each of them, seem be His boast the hollow of the bodies of his prisoners to fill verbally copied from Buddhism. up riages roads,and to facilitate the passages of his carwas, that he had obtained a perfect knowledge of solicited all things, rivers. On his return, he was and that he had banished mysteries over from to teach every religion. He professed by the kings of the Cadusians,Armenians, Bacrian and other nations, to set the aged Valetrians, thing by demonstration, and the knowledge of of reason. But never free ; but this only increased his cruelty God, by the light yet has the world by wisdom him. known He him with the most towards used God, 1 Cor. i.21. When has tired shameful indignity, reason, mounting on horseback from says an excellent writer, his neck as a footstool ; and, to crown all,after and bewildered herself in searchingafter God, the result must several years' be non that is, He is he caused him to be est inventus, imprisonment, Faith may look upon him, alive. not to be found by me. flayed After his return, the affairs of Sapor were and that with comfort,but for unassisted reason straitened. Flushed with victory,Odenatus, to gaze too much upon him is the way to lose her clothed with the character of president the over sight. Roman in the east, not only checked provinces OR HORMISDAS. the progress of the Persian peopleterror in their own
arms,

with engaged,Sapor,

formidable

invaded

to or Christianity,

this

he the son of Sapor, whom princewas generaladvance as far as the cityof Ctesi- succeeded on the throne. During his reign, the celebrated Zenobia, which continued phon ; and when he died, only for about the brief space of his wife, continued successfully the interest occurred. one to oppose year, nothingof political tillshe was called Al Horri, Persians, soner By Persian historians he was conquered and made pribeloved the liberal ;" and they say that he was by the emperor Aurelian, who appeared is this to vindicate the honour of the Romans on by his subjects.An instance of his liberality sian The governor side of the empire. Aurelian also took ample on record. of Ormus, on the Permonds dialerian. for his ill-treatment of Vaon Sapor, Gulf, having purchased for him some vengeance He carried away informed and for of him, 100,000 pieces prisoners gold, many much he with which spoilfrom the Persians, in Persian, shown that Mani graced his triumphsat Rome. Notwithstanding, * Archbishop Usher"has Manes in Greek, and Menachem in Hebrew, mean cisely prehis dominions at the Sapor continued to enlarge His followers the same, comforter." a namely, of barbarous till his his adduce this as a proof that he was the Paraclete,or Comneighbours expense forter did This
"
"

but caused Twice country.

that

HORMOUZ,

death,which

occurred

a.d.

271.

wards Although Sapor was cruel and vindictive tohis enemies,according to Persian historians

This laid claim. rejectedthe Act3

he

was

liberal and

munificent

to

and his friends,

he promised by the Saviour, a pretension to which explains the reason why the Manichees of the Apostles ; the account of the descent of the Holy Ghost the day of Pentecost, comon pletely such destroyed pretensions.

1Q6

HISTORY

OF

THE

PERSIANS.

that if he did not of them dispose misdas per


"

choose
at

to

keep them,
the cost

he

might

induced and

double

; or,

in other

him to seek peace. This was granted, internal discords prevented the Romans from after intentions of
re-

words, might gain cent,

replied,To me is nothing. cent,


who and what

per cent, profit.Horhundred a thousand or But if I meddle in merchandize,


a

will undertake

the functions of the

carryinginto effect their invading Persia ; so that to have reigned in peace. reign,according to both
was writers,

Varanes be said may The duration of his Greek He and

Persian
292
;

king?
The
"

will become of the merchants?" saying is attributed to Hormisfollowing those those

seventeen

years.

died,a.d.
III.

and
VARANES

Princes are like fire, which burns das : that approachtoo near serves ; but greatly A wiser that keep at a proper distance." than this is attributed to his
cannot
successor
"

III.,

OR

BAHARAM

saying
nity Humafor the

his

son,

ascended Greek To

the

throne.
;

This

prince

reignedonly four
oriental and of notice.

months him

be

defined,because
would

it

comprehends
been

to both and, according did nothingworhistorians, thy

all the virtues." Well world had

it have

succeeded
OR NARSI.

of Artaxeres, This prince, actingin the spirit exercise of the virtues of sympathy ; and he lays soughtthe reduction of all the Persian provinces, held either by the barbarous quered nations, or conwho acts violent hands upon his own feelings, with towards cruelty his

all itsprinces thought thus,and acted Nature has formed of the maxim. in the spirit than any other living creature,for the man, more

NARSES,

with its own


"

species.The punishment.
; the

act is

companied ac-

Man

is dear
some can

to

man

poorest poor
been such

Long
When Of

for

they

in a weary life, moments, know, and feel that they have

The state of the Roman by the Romans. was empire seemed to favour his designs ; for war ragingin every part. Narses,with a large army, invaded Mesopotamia,and in a short time recovered which had belongedto of the places most his ancestors.

Themselves
some

small have

As needed
That
we

fathers,and the dealers out blessings; have been kind to kindness, for this singlecause
the all of
us

one

heart." Wordsworth.

At this time Diocletian and Ganomination lerius reignedconjointly at Rome, under the deCesars. of the two The latter took the fieldagainst Narses, and in two battles near Antioch

defeated him. Galerius passedthe river into the very heart of the and advanced Tigris, cumspection, and cirdominions king's ; but abatinghis care the Roman Narses fell suddenlyupon VARANES BAHARAM I., I., OR lerius Gadefeated. totally of whom army, and they were is known, than that very little more himself escaped with difficulty, to tell the Persian historians say he reigned three years. He was at Rome. at first received coldly tidings with great applause that he reigned ; and that his he was his Diocletian,but, importunities, by by he was which caused as was death, by treachery, sians. entrusted with another againstthe Perarmy a great grief to allay a tumult, was endeavouring He took a terrible revenge. Adding and loss to his subjects. his like Narses,he watched prudence to fortitude, der During the reignof Varanes, the Romans, unthe Persian and stole upon army of Saturninus, the command keptthe Persians opportunity, unawares, victory. whereby he gaineda complete the succeeded within their limits. He on was

Hormisdas

was

succeeded

in his

kingdom by

throne by his
VARANES

son,

Narses with II., OR


BAHARAM II.
a

himself small

was

wounded, and forced


of

to

flee,
the also

remnant

his army,
and papers,

into
as

mountains.

His

treasures

with queen, concubines, and children, of his reign, his sister, This prince, at the commencement It nobles,fell into the hands of Galerius. many and cruelty, that the acted with such haughtiness in vain that Narses endeavoured to retrieve was him the of t hat surname is, people gave Khalef, could be collected his misfortunes : no fresh army " thronement unjust." Hence they contemplated his debeingshortly ; and the victorious Romans the undertook his but ation reformmagi ; he consented to surafter joinedby Diocletian, render ; and they did this with such warmth, and the five provinces west of the Tigris ; on that Baharam listened to such evident loyalty, which condition, grantedhim, and his peace was excellent their sage admonitions, and became an The other prisoners restored. were tained requeen prince. These cumulated acto grace a triumph at Rome.
"

The

way

of

fool is

right in
unto

his

own

But he that hearkeneth

counsel

eyes: is wise." Prov. xii. 15.

misfortunes
a.d. was

broke

the heart of

Narses,
He

300, after he had reignedseven


succeeded

years.

by

his

son

most ranes, remarkable act of the reignof Vathe execution of says Sir J. Malcolm, was the celebrated Mani, about a.d. 277, who returned

The

MISDATES,

OR

HORMOUZ.

According
was

to

oriental

this prince historians, he


saw

during his reign into Persia. showed to embrace a disposition


most

At

first Varanes his faith, though

eminent

for his

justice.When

that

the

contend that this was a mere text prelull Mani and his followers into a fatal likewise devised many Misdates in awe. new to confirm this security.The result would seem for the encouragement of and almost all his discipleslaws and regulations opinion ; for Mani slain by his order. he was were careful of the maritime trade ; whence Varanes contemplated war with the Romans coasts and the ports of Persia. He is said to have
to
;

authors

poor, he established a for the redress of the latter ; and court of justice to keep the judges he frequently himself, presided

rich oppressedthe

but his resolution prowess of the

was

shaken

by

the

and activity

extended

his dominions
not

Roman

emperor

Probus, which

are particulars

related.

but the considerably, His reignwas brief,

HISTORY

OF

THE

PERSIANS.

107

that prince, the peace which and to renew pliment had recently subsisted between the two empires. elected his successor of the embassy ; but was having This was the avowed object that it would into the strength He was be a son. prognosticated they had seeret orders to inquire of the Romans, and to purchase arms, Schabour called that is, of which one Doulaktaf,"* upon

continuingonly seven years. of whom the dying,the infant,

When

he

was

queen was ; the magi

nant, preg-

"

"

whose

shoulder

the

government
form

devolved of

fore be-

he stood

in need.

Constantine

was

informed

of

of Sapor ; but he received his ministers expression, the designs which recalls to memory siah, to the Mesgraciously, granted their requests, and, at a reference their return, charged them his royalpower, with a letter for (seeIsa. ix. 6,)signifying as Sapor. King of kings. his birth

;" an

eastern

was, to intercede for In it the emperor gave a brief of his faith ; then of his success account and granDuring the minorityof Sapor, the Persians deur, and especially which he attributed wholly to the Divine were exposed to many disasters, to the ravages He of the Arabs, who, leavingtheir afterwards the odious on blessing. expatiated arid plains shores of the Gulf, folly of idolatry, the southern but without alluding on cumstance to the cirSAPOR

The

purport of this letter

II.,

OR

SCHABOUR

DOULAKTAF.

the Christians.

until he became a undertakings, he recommended persecutor of the Christians. Finally, the Christians to the favour of Sapor, and besoughthim, for his sake, to look upon them as good and loyal subjects.This letter appears to asserted that some have of their nation would, in had a good effect, for Sapor afterwards one subvert the Persian empire. Malek treated the Christians with less severity. future, ben But Sapor stilladhered to the plan of raising their ambassador, Nasser, an ancestor of Mohammed, with Sapor,and suggested himself and his successors remonstrated to the empire of the that either the prediction or that, east. After he had made sufficient preparations, might be false, if true, his cruelties would only provoke the he acquaintedConstantine with his intentions, Arabs to retaliate. This caused him to reflect, wherein he claimed to him a letter, transmitting and he afterwards treated the Arabs so kindly, all the dominions ancientlybelonging to the that they called him Doulaknaf, on the wings," Persian emperors ; and affirmed that the river their protector ; from the eagles or the legalboundary of his empire. their Strymon was carrying the wings. This was His letter read thus : I have on re-assembled ter, characa lovely young my
" "

desolation vast numbers, spread they came, and carried off the sister of the late king Hormouz, and the aunt of Schabour, into captivity. When of age, Sapor came he resolved to revenge these injuries. He put their king to death, and treated the inhabitants of Yemen, or Arabia, with great cruelty. Oriental induced historians say, that he was chiefly to act thus by the advice of his astrologers, who entered

Persia in

wherever

of Sapor's being an idolater. He next pathetically represented the miseries which had attended unjust and cruel princes, instancing constantly

Valerian,whom

he asserted

to

have been

happy

in all his

reminds us of the reference to Jehovah in the Hebrew Exod. Scriptures, xix. 4; Deut. xxxii. 11, 12, and to the Saviour in the Gospels, Matt xxiii.37. zealous supporter of the honour a Sapor was
one

and

which

numerous

I am resolved to avenge army. my who have been plundered, made subjects, tives, capIt is for this that I have bared and slain.

of the Persian

diadem, and

that pursued steadily

loins. If you consent arm, and girded my my to pay the price of the blood which has been shed, to deliver up the bootywhich has been plundered, and the city of Nisibis,which to restore is in and belongsto our Irak, (Arabi,) empire, though
war

Artaxeres had adopted,namely, that of uniting all the territories of the ancient Persian kings under his sway. In pursuing this plan,however,his measures differentfrom were those of his predecessors. Instead of waging war
he encouraged the himself, barbarians

policywhich

now

of

in your ; but

I will possession, you horse, which should

sheath

the sword

hoofs of my

refuse these terms, the hard as steel, shall are

of the Romans from the earth : dwelling efface the name the frontiers of the Roman on like fire, and my glorious that destroys vage scimitar, provincesto raand harass them. the peopleof your empire." This he did openly, shall exterminate when the Romans were in confusion, Constantine returned and covertly, Sapor a letter replete when with dignity and resolution ; and though he was they were free from internal alarm. After this,he extended his dominions eastward and But advanced in years, he prepared for war. now northward, increased his revenues just as he was on the pointof commencing his by encouraging trade and commerce, disciplined removed he was his troops, march for the eastern provinces, effected a profound veneration for the civil and religious institutions of his country. At the instigation of the magi, Sapor persecuted both the Jews and Christians ; the former and
as evil-minded subjects, and avowed enemies of their religion the latter, ; and as being attached to Constantine the Great, after his profession of

from

this world

of strife.

Upon the death of Constantine,Sapor, taking advantage of the dissensions that ensued in the Roman and reempire,entered their provinces,
annexed
ancestors to

his dominions lost.

the

parts which
were successes

his and

had

Many

in this
reverses

and struggle,

years with various

occupied

The Christianity.

great for Sapor


sent
*

too power of Constantine was to attack him fore openly; he there-

an

embassy to Constantinople, to comthis word, interpret


"

In pitched battles, of fortune. at as as at and in the defence of fortresses, Siugara, the Romans had the advantage, Nisibiu, usually

Some

authors

Lord

of

the

and say, that the name shoulders," derived from his was of chastisingthe Arab which to pierce tribes, was the shoulders of his captives, and then to dislocate them
manner

by

string passed through

them.

skirmishes and in rapidmarches, equestrian the Persians triumphed. surprises, All this happenedduringthe reignof Constans, Constantine who had succeeded in the empire of the Romans, and in the early part of the reignof but

108

HISTORY

OF

THE

PERSIANS.

his successor. Julian,

At

the length,

last-mentioned who ruler Persia have


was

VARANES
so

IV.,

OR

KERMAN

emperor, contrary to the sage advice of Hormisthe side of the Romans, on das,a Persian general far into the country, and being too advanced already half conqueredby thirst and famine, his destroyed by Sapor,and himself slain. army was with the Romans concluded A peace was on now of Jovian, the successor advantageous terms. Julian,ceded the five provincesin disputefor with the strong to the Persians, together ever had in Mesopotamia,which fortress of Nisibis,
so

SCHAH,

denominated Varanes
years,

from

his

having been
the ancient
event
seem were

of

the

provinceof Kerman, during which


These

Carmania.

governed the kingdom of


no

eleven

of

occurred. importance
to

Internal revolts

only
quently fre-

disturbed

and dangerous,

his peace. he was

by

an

tumult The

long been
363.

the bulwark

of the

eastern
was

boundary
concluded,

when arrow, in his army. throne of Persia


OR

killed eventually endeavouring to quell a


was

next

filled by
AL ATHIM.

of the Roman
a.d.

empire. This

peace

ISDEGERTES,

JEZDEGARD

turned his attention to that part of Sapor now bounded by Tartary and empire which was time ; thus occupied for some India. He was but Jovian, the Roman emperor, dying,and the him as a monarch while the former represent affairs of that peoplebeing again embarrassed, for his many renowned virtues. Both deservedly between the of the peace subsisting regardless Dr. Hales are and overcharged, accounts, says Roman tories. territhe invaded he two empires, again ascribe each to his partiality for the we may of this invasion have The particulars his
not

is differently Isdegertes given by the Byzantineand Persian historians. By the of cruelty, latter he is represented a monster as hailed as a blessing whose death was jects, by his sub-

The character of

been he

handed slew
a

down

to

us.

All

we

know

is

that

Arsaces, who
arrival
a

reigned in

Armenia,
;

and reduced the that on that upon

under territory large of

his obedience

Christians,whom he, first of all the Persian monarchs, favoured and protected. that the emperor relate, Procopiusand Cedrenus
Arcadius
son

to abandon

empire, a seat to this he transferred the imperial The Greek Parthian of the the old capital pire, emCtesiphon, for that he might improve such opportunitiesreign,
offer ; and that after this act he did not
utmost

strained conArinthius, he was great part of his conquests;

left

guardian of Isdegertes

his

Theodosius
trust

n., and

of the Roman protector

that he writers also with

faithfully discharged.
that during his relate, he lived This in the

twenty-one years,

as might gain any great victory.

harmony

Theodosius.

fully

The

restless and the

ambitious
the
a.d.
or

days in
emperor

of beginning

Sapor ended his reignof the Roman


375, or 377, after seventy-two years

vindicates the character of this princefrom the who calumnies of the Persian priesthood, tised pracseveral ordered dominions the

churches throughout his the penallaws enacted repealed (for authors differ on this point)with great It was less doubtthem by his predecessors. against varietyof fortune ; a varietythat might have and toleration that extended this indulgence the of honours taught him the folly pursuing of Isdegertes the fame strangers,and among of this changing world. He and possessions with execration down caused it to be handed by have lacked wisdom. to seems by no means selves, of his own the priesthood country. They themof his observations have been preserved, Some of his saysome however, have preserved ings, mind. which exhibit a knowledge of the human racter that contradicts the chaa spirit breathing be more vivifying Words," he used to say, may He often remarked, they have given of him. and sharper than the than the showers of spring, say they, That the wisest of monarchs sword of destruction. The pointof a lance may he who never was punishedwhen in a rage, and cruel word the body; but a from be drawn to the first impulse of his mind followed who the from heart has it be extracted never can serve obused also to the deserving." He reward wounded." " That whenever a king ceased to do good : Saporwas succeeded in his kingdom by committed bad ; and that he necessarily actions, could not for a moment OR the thoughtof eternity ARDSCHIR, ARTAXERXES, its verging the mind, without be absent from life and is whose corded, renothing origin concerning sin." Such sentiments as these are

Gratian, about

piousfrauds magi to be
build
and

upon him, for which he the decimated ; allowed

having reigned seventy

Christians

to

"

"

"

save

that he

maintained

Romans,
To him
SAPOR

and

governed his dominions


SCHABOUR
BEN

peace with the four years.

towards At

worthy

even

of

Christian

succeeded
III., OR

the death

of

philosopher. a.d. 418, the magi, Isdegertes,


set

SCHABOUR,

through hatred to him in opposition to his son


who
was

up Kesra, a nobleman, Baharam Gour, or Jur,*

governed the kingdom of Persia for five He was contemporary years in greattranquillity. he the Great, whose with Theodosius friendship enjoyed during his reign. Persian writers say killed by the fall of his tent ; the that he was broken by a whirlwind,* and the cordage was polestruck the monarch while he slept.Sapor succeeded m. was by his brother
who
* Malcolm in Persia. These violent gusts are common levelled line of tents a whole by says, that he Iras seen from carried to a distance their force, and some of them

prince. By
Baharam which

Arab then abroad, educatingby an the assistanceof the Arabs,however, his crown, raised an to recover army
without
BAHARAM
was a

he did almost
V.,
OR

struggle.
GOUR,
OR JUR.

VARANES

The who those the


*

firstact of Baharam him had educated who


crown.

his

Noman, second, to pardon


to reward

had

endeavoured

Such
surname was

of to deprivehim and clemency disgratitude


derived
ass.

This

from

his

fondness

for

the

spot where

they

were

pitched.

hunting

the

jur, or

wild

no

HISTORY

OF

THE

PERSIANS.

strict in the administration of was particularly cient justice.He restored the anequaland impartial that had fallen into disuse, and regulations laws by the advice of his council. framed new in his army out withHe likewise kept up discipline and never ance, severity, punishedbut with relucthe was whence called Siphadost. a lover
"

and he therefore retreated as forces, soon enabled,by the ; but he was devotion of one of his chief officers, not only to his country, but to destroy his foes. preserve This officer, after communicating the plan he had formed, entreated his prince to order the

the Persian

they advanced

mutilation the
route
;

of his of he the
was

body, and
Persian

then

to

cast

him
was

in

of his soldiers."

soldiers.

This

According to
broke the
;

the

Persian

Varanes historians,
war

peace, and but this is not

waged

with

the

mans Ro-

for probable,

annals make further mention of him no he was contemporary with Theodosius


successor

the Greek than that


n.

taken up, and carried to Peroses, him who had reduced him to this sad condition. " That cruel tyrant, Khooshwho asked

done

and

and

his

old and faithful servant, Persian writers the character of Vaof his bad governranes to represent the consequences By some ment, is represented and as and to tell him how unchaste, avaricious, to unequal he was cruel: they stylehim ence Aitam, which has referthe troops of Persia,conducted meet by such a
an

Martianus.

Nuaz," was the answer for what the deed was I took the liberty of

and

being interrogated
"

done, he replied, Because

to

and violation, pillage, arisen from their

massacre.

This

hero

as

Peroses.

But

I will be
"

revenged,"he

at his displeasure which, by the preachChristianity, ing countenancing of Manetha, bishopof Diarbekr, in Mesopotamia, and his coadjutors, made great progress in his dominions during his reign.

may

have

added, as he writhed with pain; I will lead you in a few days, by a short route, where you shall,
his army, Peroses berid the world of a monster." lieved marched the tale,and the Persian army to his directions. It was not tillthey according had been several days without water, and famine the tyrant's intercept retreat, defeat and
was

Varanes died a.d. 459, and in his kingdom by his son PEROSES,
OR

he

was

succeeded

raging among
no

their

FIROUZ.

themselves surrounded

led to ruin,and that the conquest had for this purpose he sent away them had been effected by one, who over Peroses to be governor of Nimrouz,* including courted death to obtain the titleof " The preserver and Makran. of his country." Sigistan Accordingly,upon his father's death, Hormouz the throne,and assumed The greatest partof the Persian army perished Firouz enin this desert, to and Peroses was was gaged supportedby the nobility ; but only permitted been succeed him
;

Varanes had two sons, Firouz and Hormouz. His wish was, that Hormouz, the younger, should
and

they had they had

hopesof

ranks, and they saw by enemies from whom escape, that theydiscovered

who Scythian tribe,


to

of

Indowith the survivors through the clemency an return provinces, of Khoosh-Nuaz, to whom he sent to solicitpeace, in the recovery of his right, assist him nant he entered into a solemn covemising and with whom protheir king, Khoosh-Nuaz, the province to invade his territories again. never With these auxBut Peroses was tormented iliaries, Nimrouz, as a recompense. by the thought of The generosity and some of the Persians who he had suffered. espoused the degradation the

White or Haiathelites, bordered

Huns,
his

on

his

brother

invaded Peroses Persia,defeated his Hormouz, and put him to death. In the beginningof the reignof Peroses,there
cause,
a

of his enemy conduct own

Hence,

no

continuance, droughtof six years' his kingdom to a in that superstitious which was an interpreted, age, army, delivered over his brother,) Heaven for the crime of as a punishment from regent,(who, the Greeks say, was crossed the Oxus, resolved to ranes. and once more actingcontrary to the will of the virtuous VaAccording to the Tubree, this drought conquer or perish. the appearance that not even Peroses was so excessive, perished. The Haiathelites having of moisture was left in the beds of the Oxus and prepared to meet timelynotice of his intention, some him. Jaxartes. Concealing their forces behind In the seventh year, plenty was restored ; and mountains, they issued forth suddenly on all routed it.f the first act of Peroses, after this national sides of the Persian army, and totally thelites,Almost the country of the Haiaall the soldiers of which it was to invade composed scourge, was of his and Peroses The great object his benefactors. either slain or taken prisoners, were the Persian the after he had worn himself perished, life, indeed,appears to have been to destroy
was

dreadful

it made his inexcusable. and base appear ficulties, he extricated from his difsooner was lected than, in violation of his oath,he colwas

also
more

hateful,as

the reward he Such was to whom of the generous monarch diadem for twenty years. power from vice never mentioned by any He pretended to discover, owed his throne. of ingratitude, a of detestation marks that their heathen writer but with particular Tartar exiles, the evidence of some should be it Christians lieving doubly king was a tyrant ; and with the pretext of re; among from his subjects Tartary. Khoosh-Nuaz
"

his
was

yoke, he invaded
too weak
Seistan.

abhorred. The

to oppose
The sians, Per-

faithlessPeroses
of the oriental
a

was

succeeded by his son


say, that the army
was

is part of the modern says Malcolm, have a tradition with a lake, which covered formerly the name genii in half a day, whence Nimrouz

that this country was drained was by some of Nimrouz, or half-

t Some taken by

writers

day
used and

; but

metaphorically in
and this

also mid-day, it is probably man, Persian, as in French, Gerseveral other languages, to designate the south ; ancient the south of province lies directly Bulkh,
as

Nimrouz

means

the

stratagem. They dug, say they, a large dyke it over, in the middle of a plain,and after having covered they entrapped the Persian army into it. But this must ficient dug a pit of sufas romance be looked ; for to have upon have dimensions for such a they must purpose, would have which with the earth, reared up a mountain the Persians look well to made have told the tale,and
their feet.

capitalof Persia.

HISTORY

OF

THE

PERSIANS.

11

mander, they
VALENS,
OR

were

BALASCH

BEN

FIROUZ,

The of
a

onlyexecution
detachment
on were

tender, proved to be an excellent prince, ing and desirous of lessenand just, compassionate, the misery of his country, which, at the to rendered of Peroses, was death tributary Khoosh-Nuaz. He paid the tribute for two years, with the Haiathelites two more, and waged war
who

of

almost entirely destroyed. they did,was the destruction whom Haiathelites, theyfound of
a

alone which

the

banks

river,the

streams

of

Cobad
over

dyed with their blood. had scarcely gained his second victory
he
was

the his

Romans, when
broken into the

informed that the


northern he
was

Huns of
to

had

into the
which

when,

worn

out

with

cares,

he

died.

He

was

empire; upon

provinces compelled

succeeded

by

his brother CAVADES,


OR

return

Persia, whence

he

expelled the

invaders. After
COBAD,

of Cobad, the Romans, in departure Amida, in order to who was of a martial and enterprizing tion disposifrom receiving provisions. prevent the garrison the extension ; ready to undertake to betrayGlones, the any thing for They also devised means to the last of his kingdom, and jealous Persian commander, into an ambuscade, in which and the glory of the degree of his authority, with 200 of his forces. The garrison he perished, Persian name. to capitulate was compelled ; and some eventually In the tenth year of the reignof Cobad, Maztime after, for seven concluded a truce years was dak, an impostor, appeared in the desert,who between the Romans and Persians, and hostages and pretended to introduce set up for a prophet, both sides were on given for its due observance. than had hitherto been revealed a purer religion in the afterwards A lasting negotiated peace was Cobad to mankind.* sanctioned the impostor days of Justin,but this failed; and in the days several

bodies, surrounded

and

his

which enormities, the

struck

at

the

root

of

of

a Justinian,

new

war

broke

out

between

the

and property. chastity in which

This

rection, two produced an insur-

Persian nobles dethroned

empires,in
;

which

the Persian

Peroses,was
and

defeated

Cobad, and

asp, a person in his stead. Some time after, however, Cobad contrived to escape from to the king of prison, fell also under the power of the Romans. But the Haiathelites, with whom it would appear he Cobad stillkept the field. He raised new armies, had made peace in the days of his prosperity,which defeated Belisarius, and invested the city who assisted him with an his to recover army of the last importance of Martyropolis, to a place kingdom, which he accomplished:he deposed the Roman trigue, empire. The citywas saved by inGiamasp, and put out his eves. afterwards concluded and a truce was soon As soon Cobad restored to the throne, between as was the two empires. he embarked in a war with the Romans, to repay Cobad also During the last years of his life, the king of the Haiathelites large sums of money with with the Haiathelites, carried on a war which he had borrowed, and for the charges varied success. He died,a.d. 532, after a long of the expedition to restore him. He marched and diversified reignof forty-nine ing years, includinto Armenia, raised excessive contributions rapidly for the period in which he was imprisoned, from the inhabitants, and then laid siege to which Dr. Hales allows eight years. Amida, the principal fortress in those quarters. he always apCobad left several sons ; but pears As the province had for many years enjoyedprofound for shown decided preference a to have tack peace, the citywas unpreparedfor the atin every Chosroes, or Nouschirvan, who seems ; the citizens, however, refused to open their respectto hare been worthy of his father's favour. and prepared to make obstinate defence. an gates, At his death, Cobad bequeathed his kingdom to He took it after eightydays, and the citizens committed to was Chosroes, and the testament were onlysaved from destruction by a well-timed it whom the

imprisonedhim, appointingGiamof greatwisdom and integrity, king

by

army, under Belisarius in Mesopotamia

sian the PerMermores, who commanded twice defeated by forces in Armenia, was Doritheus. Two with the dependencies, castles,

though flattering from one of their compliment, number. Cobad having asked him why they
treated

mobud, principal
read
to

or

by high priest,
nobles

was

the assembled monarch

of the

empire.
to the

These

declared the
"

their cheerful
;
on

submission

Because," said the enemy ? citizen, it was the will of God to deliver Amida not to your power, but to Pleased your valour." with this reply,Cobad spared their lives,and
as an
" "

him

will of the deceased


to reform inability

diadem, proffered
the

but Chosroes fused rethe ground of his

time afterwards he restored their privileges, M and men filled by worthless are ; despicable and directed the walls and public buildings to be tempt atmake a vain and who, in such days,would repaired. He left therein Glones, a Persian nobleman, this kingdom according to principles to govern with a garrisonof 1000 and treated men, of wisdom and justice ? If I do my duty, I it rather as a benefactor than a conqueror. make must great changes,the result of which The tidings of these proceedings at length may be bloodshed ; my sentiments toward many reached Rome, and an army was which immediately of you would perhapsalter ; and families, marched to the frontiers, under the command of I have no desire I would be ruined.
some

ment. great abuses of the governhe exclaimed, offices." All the principal

Ariobindus.
were or these,

now

Greek writers say, that there better forces sent against the Persians

never

to be

than tles, batcom-

of greaterreputation. In two men however, through the neglect of the attempted

they are

of strife and ruin ; such scenes neither suited to my inclination nor my The assemavoid them." bly and I must character, assented and
to

regard, engaged in

the

of justice

convinced, for the moment,

these observations that a reform

* some

Mazdak

additions of heart.

to revive the system of Mani, with of his own, very far from tending to purity

was

in his measures,

requisite, they took an oath to support him to obey his directions implicitly

112

HISTORY

OF

THE

PERSIANS.

and to devote their persons and property to his service and that of their country; upon which he ascended the throne. CHOSROES, When Chosroes
OR

NOUSCHIRVAN.

the throne,he asascended called Buzurge Mihir, by his prime vizier, sembled " the well beloved,"who his court, and addressed them as follows : raised from was the " The which I derive from my office lowest station to the first rank in the kingdom ; authority and the minister's virtues and talents have shed is established over your persons, not over your a lustre even those of the hearts : God alone can on into the secret monarch penetrate

lations
these

were introduced for the management of governments, and every check established that could prevent abuse of power in the officers for their administration. appointed In all these regulations Chosroes was sisted ably as-

great

who,

called them into action. The penetration, wisdom of Buzurge is greatly from celebrated by Pertrol consian of whom extend only over writers, can not over they relate the following your actions, anecdotes,which prove it. One day, in council, your consciences : my judgments shall alwaysbe when others had spoken at great length, founded the principles of justice, on not on the Chosroes asked why he remained silent ? dictates of will or caprice said a : and when, by such Because," he, a statesman I shall have remedied the evils which proceeding, ought to give advice,as a physician have medicines, only when there is occasion." crept into the state,the empire will be At another time, of the assemblies of the at one powerful,and I shall merit the applauseof posterity." of debate, sages, the king proposed as a subject What is miseryin the extreme ?" of toleration, it is said A Greek Acting upon this spirit of his reign, he temthat,in the commencement lookingonly to the present life, porized philosopher, answered, with the followers of Mazdak. At length, Poverty in old age ;" in the same rit, spiIndian replied, Great pain, an with dejechowever,he caused that licentiousand false protion phet of mind ;" but Buzurge, and sentenced to death ; to be apprehended, lookingbeyond the it is said that he was his determined resolution to extirpate grave, (for tian,) a Chrisdeclaring privately the followers of this pestilent damental answered, A late repentance at the close heresy,the funof which was, the annihilation of life;" to which a universal assent was principle given. And of property,and its result, trulyBuzurgewas right. Bitter indeed is anarchy. There are several reasons given for this act of that man's cup, who, at the close of his earthly of sin and shame, because most consonant career, looks back upon a life severity.The most probable, and forward to a just and an with the character of the monarch, is, that avenging God. he can hardlydare venof his subjects one Hope, that solace of life, ture complainedto him of his wife to entertain ; he doubts if his repentance be of having been taken from him by a disciple sincere ; he cannot adoptthe promises of mercy as Mazdak. The king desired the false prophet to his own the darkness of despair his follower to restore the woman thickens command ; and ; but around him. We will not attempt to limit the the mandate of the earthly monarch treated was or with scorn and contempt, when true penia its effect was Holy One of Israel, discourage tent it is highlyimproper, and may sacred precept. a ; but surely contrary to what was deemed in the time of to neglectthe Saviour fatal, Chosroes, enraged at this opposition to his authority, be

thoughtsof

men.

I desire that you should that my vigilance and this,

derstand un-

by

his

"

"

"

"

"

"

and trust to a late repentance. And yet health, ordered the execution of Mazdak, which how thousands build on there who are followed by the destruction of many of his many that their hopes for eternity ! of his delusive and and the proscription followers, abominable tenets. All promise is poor dilatory in his endeavour Chosroes was man, to indefatigable And that through every stage : when indeed, young, of his dominions. One promote the prosperity In full content, we sometimes nobly rest, of his first the public acts was, to disgrace officers Unanxious for ourselves, and only wish, As duteous fathers were who had been obnoxious more in the last wise; to the people sons, our At thirty, man a fool; suspects himself which had fallen into decay reign. All bridges Knows it at forty, and reforms his plan; he ordered to be repaired, and he directed many At fifty, chides his infamous delay, edificesto be built. He also founded schools new Pushes to resolve; his prudent purpose
was
"

and
court

colleges ; and
men,

gave

such

encouragement

to

learned
of his for

that

from

Greece.

resorted to his philosophers For the generalinstruction


"

In all the magnanimity of thought, then dies Resolves, and re-resolves

the same." Young.

with the he circulated the admirable Chosroes early engaged in a war Rules people, of his living well,"written by Ardshir,and required Romans, and throughoutthe whole course he maintained this war, at intervals, long reign, every familyin Persia to possess a copy. For his berius; of the faown he procured a work mous with the Emperors Justinian,Justin, and Tiinstruction, Nahad from India, entitled Homaioun the former Pilpay, notwithstanding chased purmeh, The Royal Manual," or fables on the art a disgraceful peace in the beginning of of governing, his reign. Four times he invaded the Roman was lated transwhich,by his direction, into Persic. He captured Sura and territoriessuccessfully. Chosroes divided his kingdom into four great Antioch, reduced all Syria,conquered Colchis
"

governments.

The

first of these

governments

and

Iberia,and

established

his

power

on

the

and Kerman comprisedKhorassan, Seistan, ; the second, the lands dependent upon the citiesof Ispahan and Koom, the provinces of Ghelan, and Armenia; the third, Fars and Aderbigan, Ahway ; and the fourth,Irak, which extended to the frontier of the Roman

and on the shores of the banks of the Phasis, he levied great Euxine. During these invasions, dismantled territories, in and plundered the rich offerings cities, the churches. After he had captured Antioch, Justhe inhabitants into Persia, and transplanted contributions in the Roman their

empire.

Wise

regu-

HISTORY

OF

THK

PERSIANS.

113

the field taken which consequences result from such a number of Christians may If,however, Nouschizad will acquiring power. At return their fidelity. Christian to his allegiance, send back the prisoners to shake subjects duced,he has released to their places of confinement, the same time, he intimated that he might be inofficers and nobles put to death some particular by a sum of money in hand, and an annual who have espoused his cause, and allow the rest home and make a lasting to return peace. subsidy, of his followers to disperse and go where A peace concluded was they very advantageous to choose,I will consent to pardon him ; but should to the Romans himself,and ignominious ; but he continue in rebellion, With fond and not submit when Chosroes did not hold it sacred. he a of mercy, Ram-Burzeen desire of accumulating wealth, he went on taking receives this assurance is directed not to lose an instant in attacking him. contributions wherever after city, and raising city
; to resist the aggressaid, by the Persian nobility, sions stirred up of Justinian,who enemies him on every side, and tamperedwith his against

tinian expostulated by his ambassadors upon this of the first peace. The breach wily Persian with civility, received the ambassadors and with the miseries of this tears in his eyes deprecated into which he was driven, he reluctantly war,

that went abroad of my death,has,without waiting for its confirmation, taken up arms has : he released many sure prisoners ; he has expended treawhich I meant the enemies to employagainst of my without

kingdom

and
on

reflection

he the

has

he

came.

Covetousness

was

his besettingsin
the Romans Chosroes

and to fill his coffers he in alarm. Nor


was

long kept
arms

A man of illustriousdescent, whose disposition should be treated according inclines him to evil,
to his

it by his

own

onlythat

cens terrified the Romans. He encouraged the Saraterritories and Goths to invade the Roman ; and when Justinian remonstrated,Chosroes plied rethe Roman that his brother, emperor, had
no

conduct,not his birth. It is a good action in arms the king, slaya wicked man against who is the sovereign Let no fear of the earth. the thread of his days; it prevent your cutting will be by himself, not by you, that his blood is shed. He flies with ardour to the religion of
to

his
to

since it could be proved, to complain, right by that he had practised the same own letters,
and

and Christ, But should

turns

away

his head

from

our

crown.

arts with the Saracens

Huns,

to induce

them

invade Persia.

extended

After all his successes, the empire of Chosroes from Syria and the Mediterranean Sea, from the to the river Indus, eastwards; and Sihon and Jaxartes,to the frontiers of Egypt, southwards. the

in acbe made tion, prisoner hurt not a hair of his head ; shut him up in the same placewhere he was before confined, along with the slaves who attended him. Let him be furnished with all he wants, and allow

Nouschizad

on

the dome of Khosru," from its stillit is from us that he derives his existence, in the vault of which he deand our affection continues his security." posited magnificent cupola, his treasures. The mandate ble of Chosroes was This building was so duraobeyed. RamBurzeen in which in construction, that the caliph Almanzor was broughtthe princeto action, forced to desist from an attempt to pull it down, Nouschizad was quested slain. Before he died,he re-

He Thak

He erected his capital, Madain,* about a day's Tigris, journeyfrom Bagdad. with a stately adorned this city called that princehas dishonoured his although palace

officers to use military expressions in any degreeinsult or wound ings the feelof a son whom If any still hold dear. we should abuse Nouschizad, let him lose his life; for
none our

of

that

can

birth

Khosrou,

"

on

account

of the Most of

greatnessof the expense


the
a

and unde-

that his that he

labour.

palace remained
Persian poet
wrote

body might be sent might have the burial


the house father
was

to

his
a

ther, mo-

of

tian. Chris-

molished,upon
"

which
:

the
the

Thus

was

distich following
See here the reward

itself:the against
of
an

of Chosroes "divided

divided

against

excellent the

work

time All-consuming

still spares

palace of Chosru."

The only insurrection which disturbed the reign of Chosroes, was that of his son Nouschizad. The mother of this prince tian, was a Chrisand he was broughtup by her in her faith,
to the

the worship son," because he had relinquished the of his forefathers, therebyverifying words of our to Saviour, Luke xii. 53. It were be wished, however, that Nouschizad had suffered these

with persecutions
dwelt

Historians have
the courts

Christian the on

wish of Chosroes. The profescontrary sion India which this youth made of his belief in the doctrines of Christ was a bold one, and he poured

raged contempt on the rites of the magi. This enThis may, before seen. however, be oriental Chosroes,who, to punishwhat he deemed torians and other Persian hishim in confinement. Nouschizad, hyperbole ; for Mirkhond heresy,placed because with the dwell on deceived subject, a of the delight death of however, rumour by roes. the act tended to exalt the character of Choseffected his escape, released other prihis father, soners, collected a number of followers, of whom The of the kingdom of internal regulations and attemptedto establish were Christians, many He excellent. himself in Fars and Ahwaz. Chosroes,says Malcolm, were Chosroes sent an land tax oyer established and fixed a moderate this to letter of and revolt, quell a army gave

which soughtthe Among these,the emperors of Chit. a and Their prethe most are distinguished. sents described as magnificent, as to him are in curiosity and richness any that were exceeding

resignation. of magnificence of Chosroes. friendship

instruction to " effect : My


*

son

Ram-Burzeen, the general, to this Nouschizad, a rumour hearing

the
was

same

is supposed to have been If this be correct, the city erected roes during the Parthian domination, and Choswould therefore onlyimprove it,or add thereto.
some

By

with

writers,Madain Ctesiphon.

He also imposed a capitation all his dominions. under tax on Jews and Christians. All persons vice. were exempted from sertwenty and above fifty the discipline The regulations for preserving of his army even more were than those of the civilgovernment.

stringent
But all the

114

HISTORY

OF

THE

PERSIANS.

could not preof Chosroes and justice vent vigilance the officers of and tyranny among corruption to the government. The knowledge of this came the monarch's ears, and he appointeda secret

commission

of

thirteen

persons,

in

whom

into and he confidence,to inquire placed implicit ferior bringhim a true report on the conduct of the inThe result of this officers of the state. commission was, the discoveryof great abuses, and the execution of twenty-four pettygovernors, and tyranny. injustice this intelligence in which was conveyed to the monarch, aptly illustrates the oriental states, of ancient despoticprinciples able and good ministers could only hint where sian of incident. Perat abuses through the medium writers say, that during the latter years of of immense number the reign of Chosroes, an from the fields of Tartary into the came jackals provincesof Persia, the inhabitants of which alarmed at the horrid shrieks and were greatly of visitors. Intelligence of their new screams this was sent to court, and Chosroes partaking of the of the age, demanded in the superstition it portended. what chief mobud, or high-priest, The officer gave a replywhich, while it shows was denotes that Chosroes his own uprightness, truth could oriental despot, ear to whose a true only be spoken indirectly. By what I have said the of former times," learned from the history that beasts it is when mobud, injustice prevails, took of prey spreadover a kingdom." Chosroes the hint, the commission described. and appointed in the That Chosroes lover of justice a was convicted The of
manner
" "

tented
to

tillhe had gained the possession, though its pricewas blood,this action is well calculated raise the character of Chosroes in the reader's be considered as may, indeed, of the greatest of Asiatic monarchs. Had been a Christian, how had he blessed mankind! And how nominal Christians are many

estimation.
one

He

he

shamed This

by

his conduct

!
we

have seen, was ally genersuccessful in his wars, (of which he was too Towards fond,) by his arts or his arms. the of his reign,however, a campaign latter end

great king,as

againstCappadocia proved disastrous. Justin,


the emperor of Rome, had in his last years been of directing the affairs of the empire. incapable

Under

these

circumstances,his wife Sophia sent


the pathetically describing empire; beseechinghim of former emperors,

letters to Chosroes miseries of the Roman


to remember

the

kindness

the sending him physicians presenting particularly ; and rethe uncertainty of all worldlygreatness, and the small glory that would result to him and from
a

conquests made

over

headless
on

nation

woman. helpless

Chosroes,

reading

these letters, withdrew his troops immediately from the Roman and consented to a truce empire, for three years, Armenia excluded. This truce favourable to the Romans, and their affairs was
were success was

of of
to

and quicklyre-established by the diligence of Tiberius, the successor of Justin, who active and vigilant an and a warrior prince, great experience. Chdsroes,who had no idea these changes, prepared earlythe next spring enter to Armenia, resolving padocia, penetrate Capand
to make

strictestsense
A of Persian

of the

word,

cannot

be doubted. and

himself master

of

Cesarea,

manuscriptrelates
he used to

the

account, which

rious cufollowing of the sense give,


"

first springing justice up in his mind.


at
a

one a

other cities in that quarter. the consequences of this ambassadors to dissuade Chosroes and
to
;

foreseeing Tiberius, sent invasion, from


a

this

pedition, ex-

day, when
stone

youth, dog,and break


a saw a

man

on

foot throw

engage

him
same

to make

the animal's and passed,

leg;
with
a

ment mo-

lasting peace

but at the

solid and time he sent these


to assemble

afterwards
broke the man's

horse

kick

ambassadors,he directed Justinian


the forces in the eastern force necessary, to repel

all

this animal had only in when its foot slipped a short distance, galloped I gazed with broken. a hole,and its leg was

leg;

and

ceived the
them

ambassadors
to

in order,if provinces, by force. Chosroes re haughtily, commanding he should Not

wonder

and

awe,

and

have

since feared to commit

to follow him

Cesarea, where
them.

injustice." Though this anecdote may partake of oriental exaggeration, yet it shows that in all of retributive justice ages of the world, a sense
pervaded the minds of
"

be at leisure to hear with the Roman met his expectations, was eager
some
a

men.

to

engage

his

he long after, army, which,contrary to and extremelynumerous, forces. It is thoughtby

the date, time, and justicemarks For long forbearingclemency to wait ; That hour elapsed,the incurable revolt Is punished, and down the thunderbolt." comes
a

There

is

historians that he would have retired to convenient camp, instead of enduring a conflict,
not

had

who Curtius, a Scythian, of the Roman army,

commanded

the left

Cowper.

right wing
of the combat

chargedthe
was

Persians,where
was

Chosroes
but
at

in person.

An

anecdote interesting
to

is related illustrative The

J of
!
'

Chosroes' love of

sador,sent
of the

ambasjustice.A Roman when Ctesiphonwith rich presents, from


an uneven

admiringthe noble prospect remarked royalpalace,


asked said the
"

the windows spot of it


was

sians length the Perand the royal treasure, and were defeated, the sacred fire, before which the kingworshipped, taken in his sight. The under the next night,
severe,
cover

of

darkness,Chosroes retaliated upon


of the Roman

one

ground, and
rendered

reason

why

not
an

uniform.

It is the

property of

aged woman,"

Persian noble, "who

has

army, routingthem with great slaughter, after which he marched to in order to winter in his own the Euphrates, minions. do-

detachment

the Roman to do ever, howto sell it, objections Justinian, though often requested general, him so to have so his design, followed penetrating willing by our king ; and he is more his prospect spoiled, violence." that he was than to commit forced to pass the river on closely, " That with great risk of being drowned, an irregularspot,"replied the Roman, elephant, " which was it is by justice, of his folthe lot of many lowers. more consecrated a death as appears The Romans beautifulthan allthe surrounding Contrasted the scenery." pursued them across with the conduct of

Ahab, who

coveted
con-

and for the firsttime wintered in the Persian river,

the field of Naboth, and who

could not rest

provinces.

HISTORY

OF

THE

PERSIANS.

115
is
or long life,

The almost heart. him


to

Greek

writers

immediatelyafter

say, that Chosroes died this loss of a hroken

What If
our

what

gloriousreign,

successors

It is certain that the effects of it brought

My
Mu3t

fathers
soon

in our train ? left this crown, and I the trust resign,and mingle with the dust.

follow

the grave ; but it would appear that he till the followiug and that on lingered spring, before he died,he made peace with the Romans, and enacted
a

decree

that

none

of his
a

successors

should
;

own

and in such an age. His own a situation, had cause to regret his loss; others, country oppressed in his death. however, doubtless rejoiced ing Copyhim most, were, the the loss of the sacred fire, of his predecessors, he toiled ardently some content mutinous behaviour and the disof his soldiers,

risk their persons


The

in

generalengagement
censure on

the mighty Chosroes! His name was and perhaps high in the pages of history, he approachednearer to the character of a good than any human and justprince being placedin ranks such

Such

therebyconveyinga

tacit

his

rashness.

disasters

which

in general, who, subjects ever communities, were ready to murmur


cast adversity

of his

like other when

to raise

monumental had the

that might record pile

the

mischiefs he

done.

But
of

this
of

was

its dark

shadows

over

their rulers.
to

owing
may

to

despoticnature
The monarchs

the

in part Persian

died a.d. 580, after he had His last instructions forty-eight years. Chosroes and
son successor were

admirable

for

wisdom and piety, resemblingthose his offspring. They read thus :

have been their dispositions, were compelled their constitution to repress rebellion, retaliate by patriarchal and to attain power over attack, nations foreign of Cyrus to his

reigned government.

whatever Persia,

humanity and justice.Such was their state archies policy. Nor theirs alone. The four great monof antiquity stood mostly upon a foundation of injustice. They grew up by unreasonable vigation through the wilderness,a pole star in his naand excessive revenge, by ravage and quarrels the of this through tempestuous ocean and bloodshed, by depopulatingcountries, by world. cities and villages into ruinous heaps. Let him remember, in the midst of his ness, great- laying observed,that if the Romans would Tullyjustly that kings rule not for themselves,but for have been exactlyjust, redeundam erat ad casas, their people whom they are like the ; respecting the must have they given conquered nations their heavens the earth. How the earth be to can have resignedtheir country again; they must unless it be watered,unless it be fostered fruitful, and wealth, shrunk into peasantry, and empire the heavens ? let all by My son, your subjects
last words to Hormouz, him serve as a lamp my son, that they may in the day of darkness,a path in his journey
"

I, Nouschirvan, India, address these my

"

sovereignof

Persia

and

in order led them with

to

to

preserve commit

their

own

in peace, which
at

many

actions

variance

retired to their old cottages. The same feel your beneficence : the nearest may be to you first, modern states. Their power has been and so on by degrees, If I durst, said of some to the remotest. also reared upon the ruin of other nations. I would propose to you my own example ; but I choose " rather to remind Lands intersected firth you of that glorious by a narrow

luminary which
Behold the
sun :

has

been

an

example

to

me.

Abhor Make Like Thus And As

each enemies kindred


man

other.

Mountains who been

interposed
had else into one.

it visits all partsof the world ; and if sometimes visible, at other times withdrawn from view, it is because the universe is and cherished by itssplendid successively gilded Enter not into any province beams. but with a prospectof doinggood to the inhabitants ; quit
where. doing good elsebe punished: to them the sun of majestyis necessarily eclipsed ; but the good deserve encouragement, and require Bad
men

of nations

drops
than

it not but with

the intention of
must

needs

his destroys; to be deplored and most all, foulest broadest, blot, Chains his sweat him, and tasks him, and exacts With that mercy with a bleeding heart stripes, she sees inflicted on a beast. Weeps, when Then is man what ? And what man seeing this, And does not blush having human feelings, And hang his head, to think himself a man?" devotes
worse

mingled brother,and

human

nature's

Cowper.

to be cheered

with

itsbeams.

Alas ! that it should

be

the

maxim than

before Heaven "My son, often present thyself to implore its aid ; but approach not with an Do impure mind. thy dogs enter the temple? Should

world, that he

that is

strong enough, may

of the do

what he pleases ; One stronger bringthem to judgment.


was

they will

thy soul ? thy prayers


shalt be
cause
a

Chosroes evil lusts be admitted into the temple of If thou carefully this rule, son, observe shall be heard, thy enemies shall be
HORMISDAS

succeeded

in his

kingdom by his

confounded, thy friends shall be faithful.


to

Thou Hormisdas
under
was

II.,OR
n.

HORMOUZ

BEN

NOUSCHIRVAN.

to thy subjects, and shalt have delight in them. Do justice, delight abase the love your children, proud,comfort the distressed, be advised by ancient protect learning, your

ascended

the

throne

of Persia

very

circumstances. His empire auspicious but he had for his not only extensive,
the in celebrated

counsellor

suffer not the counsellors, in to meddle young and let your people's state affairs, good be your sole and I leave you a object. Farewell, mighty empire; you will keep it if you follow for you to my counsels ; but it will be impossible supreme do so, if you follow strangecounsel." That Chosroes took Cyrus the Great for his

wisest

man

Persia, and
had had The

Chosroes. arduous

Buzurge
trust.

Buz urge Mihir, the the first minister of been the preceptor of

Hormisdas, and

example,may

be

caused a similar his tiara.

from gathered to inscription

the be

that he fact,

engraved on

royalpupil were cruelty ; and these sad features in his character, far restrained so though not corrected, were the court, that in the while Buzurge frequented of his reign, Hormisdas to surbeginning pass promised Chosroes himself. He treated Buzurge even

faithfully performed that of the dispositions indolence,luxury,pride,and


natural

116

HISTORY

OF

THE

PERSIANS.

that he would not wear much so deference, of his the tiara in his presence ; and when some this extraordinary, and asserted courtiers thought with that it
was more

than say

due

even

answered, "You
more

right, my

to a father,he friends,I owe

their numerous but undisciplined hosts. The khakan slain ; and was his son, who re-assembled his defeated army, also killed in a second action. was The spoils of the Tartars, which were immense,were sent to Madain Orders
to

completevictoryover

to him

I received
a

than to my father : the lifeand kingdom from Nouschirvan, will expirein

Hormisdas.
was now

I shall acquireby years ; but the fame the instructions of Buzurge, will survive following few
to the latest

ages."

fine prospect of a happy reign ; but vanished. When it soon the venerable Buzurge retired from the court, Hormisdas fell a prey
was a

Here

the Romans. against pass the river Araxes, and to ravage the Roman territories that side. on To oppose him, the Roman Rosent emperor with a powerful army, who manus feated deentirely
sent
to
were

Baharam

given him

the Persian
a

conqueror,

and

thereby gave

fatal blow

to the

Persian affairs.
received advice of thisdisaster, woman's a tempt, garment, in conto

to

the

adulation Released

and from

sycophancy
His

and which

false counsellors. the

of character

changed.

the wholesome

younger became restraint

When
he
sent

Hormisdas
Baharam

and threatened

decimate his troops. The


"

and the lessons example of his father, rough soldier put on the dress he had received, himself to his soldiers. he plunged into every of his tutor had imposed, and presented Behold," said he, himself and his empire in the reward with which the monarch I excess, and involved calamities. His most faithful judges serve has deigned to crown the greatest services." A my
"

either removed, or put to and counsellors were fell a death,and multitudes of his best subjects prey wise
to his violence
treason.

It is

even

for imputed disaffectionor said that he put to death the

the consequence. The soldiers hailed their sovereign, and demanded to be the reckless monarch led against who had dared, revolt
was

Baharam from

as

Buzurge himself! The early of this change of rule, consequences He and internal rebellions. wars were foreign firstquarrelled with the emperor Tiberius. When
that monarch peace made and in
sent

such

the midst of his luxurious court, to cast insult on the defender of their country. Baharam too indignant was lence to repress the vioan

ambassadors

with Chosroes, he

requireda

sum

of his troops, his ambition,he but veiling the overthrow of the house of Sassan ; and commanded that money should be struck in the last to renew of Chosru Parviz, the son the name of Hormistreated them disdainfully, das. caused dissensions in the This measure of money as a forbade

before he grantedit, which tribute, with the Romans. In the first campaign,no
a war

involved him

to which

decisive engagement

took

of place.The Romans, under the command his ruin. The friends of these nobles Philippicus, capturedmany Persian towns, plundered precipitated not several provinces, but and took many only liberated them from prison, prisoners, while the Persian army withdrew into the mounwere sufficiently powerfulto confine Hormisdas, him from tainsforfear. Thenext year, however, Philippicus whose eyes they put out, to disqualify in future. defeated the Persians, Determined under the command to do as of Carreigning they with great slaughter, and the Romans, they also put to death his younger son pleased, dariganus, he recommended fitter to sions incurHormisdas, whom as at the close of the campaign,againmade into Persia,burned the villages, a prince and plundered reignover them than Chosru, who was of the people. The next spring, to vice of every kind, and the tide of regardless prone the public turned. The Persians gained some was success good. Such was the end of the reign He was gave removed, of the wicked prince Hormisdas n. advantages, upon which Philippicus and was ruined. in his place. heed to flattery, and Commentiolus sent to command Chosru learned the fate of his father, As soon as Bat matters better aspect, and Philipwore no picus he returned, and ascended the throne of and his want was again sent into the field, of success a. d. 588. He Persia,' again restored Commentiolus. now engaged the Persians, but he fled at the PARVIZ. CHOSROES CHOSRU II., OR the command, entirely onset ; and Heraclius taking call him, When defeated the Persians, with the loss of Aphraates Chosru, or, as we shall now and the and

escape the danger ; and the king, after his son's flight, ternal imprisoned two of his maand Botham, which act uncles,Bundawee he
saw

to royalfamily. Chosru fled,

himself exposed

Nabades,
mean

two

of their best
a.d.

generals.
585, the hordes
of

In the

time,about
of
a

after the Greek writers, Chosroes, ascended the throne,he received the homage of the principal

amid loud acclamations and ardent Tartary crossed the Oxus, persons present, for his felicity. Then supposing prayers through Persia,on himself firmly seated on the throne, he gave the pretext of making war with the emperor of distributed the and The alarmed Hormisdas at first sumptuous entertainments, Constantinople. consented ; but their conduct satisfied him royaltreasures amongst those he thought most soon that he had admitted into his kingdom the most capable of renderinghim assistance; largesses also bestowed upon the people, and the prison were dangerous of all enemies. Baharam, one of the doors opened except to his own chiefs in the Persian army, was selected to head father f that the fame of his lenity and liberality the troops against the ferocious invaders. ram Bahamight secure the hearts of his subjects. selected twelve thousand of the bravest of the forces, and marched against them, and was ancient writers say, that he caused his father t Some successful. In the strong mountainous ever, howMirkhond, country,* to be put to death soon afterwards. to the relates, that after his restoration where he opposedthe Tartars, throne, lie his veterans gained

great khakan
demanded

free passage

"

"

put
*

to

death

his

two

uncles,

to whom

he

owed

his

life

Some

engaged

authors it was sav the Tartars ; others

in Khorassan say, Mazanderan

that

Baharam

and

throne,on the speciousbut dared to lay violent hands upon

cruel

pretext that they had


of his father.

the person

118

HISTORY

OF

THE

PERSIANS.

threatened to make doomed war was to be confounded upon by the power he of his duties towards the and unmindful despised. Roused from his lethargy by this in* he ruled them with a rod of iron,treating suiting and impious reply, Heraclius concluded latter, with the other barbarians on them with great rigour. a peace their own not It -was fort, long before Chosroes carried his terms, resolved to make a last and desperateefand to put all to the hazard of a battle. He empire. In a. i". 602, the army into the Roman Maurice successful. murdered He out-generalled was was the Persians, by Phocas, and emperor Chosroes, under pretext of avenging his murder, and defeated their army with great slaughter.

ambassadors, and
them
:

and army

the assassin, marched punishing into the Roman


a. d.

powerful

The but

conqueror

made

fresh overtures

for peace

year,

603.

frontiers in his sixteenth In vain did the assassin, by his


to appease

abled they were rejected.Again and again,enby the plunder of the Christian churches,

with large Chosroes raised fresh armies to oppose Heraclius ; ther, but he,preserving the strictestdiscipline, defeated regardedneiand marched forward. In the firstyear of them as soon and as they appeared in the field, the war, he succeeded in laying he proceededso rapidly the country under in his conquests, that the contribution. several In the next, he reduced haughty tyrant was forced to flee from cityto and recovered others that he had given citywith his wives and concubines,in order to fortresses, for his aid. to the emperor The Romans in one direction Maurice in gratitude marched escape death. In the eighteenth pahan, he plundered to Isfar as the Caspian; in another as year of his reign, all Mesopotamia and Syria, mense in their progress all his splenand carried off imdid destroying riches. In the succeedingyear, he ravaged plunderinghis hoarded treasures,* palaces, with fire and Palestine and Phenicia and dispersing the slaves of his pleasure. Yet sword. in the wretched his fortune And in his twentieth year, his generals even state to which wasted Armenia, Cappadocia,Galatia, Paphla- and character had reduced him, he rejected an and offer of peace made by the humanity of his conqueror. gonia,as far as Chalcedon, burning cities, The the inhabitants without respectto age But his career was soon at an end. destroying or sex. of Chosroes had lost all regard for a subjects In a. d. of monarch the sole cause whom 609, Chosroes took Apamea and they deemed the desolation of his country, and they formed This induced and blocked up Antioch. a Edessa, the Romans him. but they were That his cup of misery terly conspiracy utto hazard a battle, against left to seized by his eldest son that scarcely he was was so a man defeated, might be full, excluded from mourn the death of his companions. The death whom he wished to have Siroes, of Phocas, and the accession of Heraclius, did the throne. This unnatural prince treated him The year following, with the greatest severity.He first cast him not put a stop to his career. sands thouhe took Cesarea, afterwards put him to and carried away many into a dungeon,and soon of people into captivity. He the parricide conquered death ; justifying by the assertion Judea also, took Jerusalem, which he plundered, that he was compelled to the deed by the carried away the pretendedcross which of the nobles and the clamours and on importunities superstitious people. fondlybelieved that the Redeemer stance inaffords a memorable The fall of Chosroes and sold 90,000 Christians for slaves suffered, of human to the Jews in his dominions, who of the instability greatness. At put them mands all to death, thereby displaying to the detheir ancient the time he sent the impious answer of Heraclius for peace, he was of the gospel. They still livingin enmity to the cause such as Persian monarchs their Messiah, as of Galilee," splendour and luxury, the man despised his armies The vast territories exceeded. whence they persecuted his followers,though never and Jews brethren according to the flesh. Thus had subdued were exhausted,that his palaces and pagans combined to root out true religion the gorgeous state of his court might exceed all of kinglygrandeur. from recorded the earth ; but the more ever they raged,the that history had it grew and prospered, He had with the more watered a ; he palace for every season called that dew of God's blessing. invaluable thrones, particularly of These conquests inflamed the ambition of Takh-dis, formed to representthe twelve signs Chosroes. In his twenty-seventh year, a. d. the zodiac and the hours of the day; 12,000 language of the 614, he invaded Egypt,took Alexandria, reduced ladies, who, in the hyperbolic in beauty, attended both the Lower and Upper Egypt,to the frontiers east, were equal to the moon of Lydia and Abyssinia, his court; and mirth and music were and added this kingdom to his dominions ; a conquest which of his heard throughout his halls. But, like Belshaznone

ambassador, endeavour
presents and

him

largerpromises;

he

"

predecessorshad

been

able to effect.

The

year

he once turned his forces against more following, the Constantinopolitan empire,and he reduced the
to cityof Chalcedon, at

which

he had

long laid
aclius Her-

siege.
Alarmed
his progress, the emperor
sent to

mighty, lifted up his heart and defied the Aland sentence againsthim that moment spised, he had long defoes whom forth. The went and longtrampledupon, driven to despair flew to arms, and went violence, by his oppressive in their conquests, tillalmost the whole of his on
zar,

he

and he himself their feet, beneath implorepeace upon any conditions. empire was of the The the dust. laid in But Chosroes, spoiler with his and haughty elated ditating mesuccess, in its glory. world fell as an oak cut down nothingless than the destruction of the Roman that he would replied, name, arrogantly never grant him or his subjects peace, till they "The * called Badawerd, of these treasures was

abjured their crucified God, and


Persian He

embraced

the

One

or,

religion. never more. prospered

gift of the winds," because its way when on territory,


benefactor.

it had
to

been Roman

cast

upon

his his

the

emperor,

The

proudboaster

HISTORY

OF

THE

PERSIANS.

119

"

The Which Ye

forked weapon
into

of the

skies

can

send

and Constantinople, announced himself


as

Chosru
a

Parviz

in

Persia,

Illumination thrones

deep, dark

holds,

Pity

to pierce. hath not power the mild sunbeam and cast defied remorse, that have shall ye shake with fear." soon away,

Wordsworth.

For some time, he prophet. was unheeded, except by a few intimate friends. At length, however, the impostor began to preach in Mecca, and daily added to the number publicly took the Koreish soon The of his disciples.

"

Chosroes

was son

succeeded who
was

in his

kingdom,

a.d.

alarm, and

Mohammed

with

his friends

were

627,

by that

the instrument

of his

death,
SIROES, The first act
OR

obligedto take refugein flight. He retired to Tayef, apparentlyyielding to the storm, but for an opportuuity of exerting waitingin reality
himself with

SHIROTJIEH.

advantage. The
in which

time he chose the


caravans

was

the sacred

month,

of

grims pil-

of Siroes was, to conclude a perto came petual Mecca, and which was, like the " in the middle called " the truce of God peace with Heraclius, and to set at liberty period the and Mohammed rest, ages, a season of universal peace. all the Roman among captives, j it returned to Mecca He of Jerusalem. and announced also, at this season, Zacharias,patriarch the superstiwho thither back the wood which came tious his mission is said, sent to the strangers, to have formed on partof the cross on pilgrimage. Among these strangers were supposed and which had crucified, Jews from Yatreb,or Medina, who longed which the Saviour was pilgrim been trous coming of the Messiah, and a tribe of idolaheld these who from the same city, of When the Medinese Arab in subjection. Siroes did not long survive the parricide Jews of the new heard the account which he had been guilty, He died after he had prophet at pilgrims to the oriental, Mecca, they asked, of Can this be the Messiah months, according reignedseven ? Let us than a year, accordingto the little more the Jews are constantly whom or a speaking interests." historians. Rozut-ul-Suffa states that his Roman to our find him out, and gain him over from terminated the advantagehe should gainby life was Mohammed saw by melancholyarising historians say that he was the person his crime ; but Roman that he was and replied their alliance, ceeded murdered but that his mission the Jews whom by one of his generals. He was sucexpected, universal ; for all who believed in God and his was by his son prophetshould share its advantages. From that moment BEN theyjoined his cause, and it flourished. OR ARDESCHIR SCHIROUIEH, ARDESIR, After having given his disciples permissionto carried

by

Chosroes

in

triumph from

salem Jeru-

for the

into Persia.

Arabs

"

child of

seven

years of age,
seven

a.

d.

628.
was

Ardesir

stand
was

reignedonly
and murdered

months.

He

deposed

of the forces, the commander the unbelievers," Scheheriah, who When usurped the arms. ye encounter until ye ha,ve throne ; which, however, he held but a few days, said he, "strike off their heads bind them being slainby the adherents of the royalfamily. made a great slaughter ; and among After the death of Sarbarazas, accordingto mission them in bonds ; and either givethem a free disof the name of Pooranuntil the Persian writers, a queen afterwards, or exact a ransom This command dokht, the daughter of Chosru Parviz, reigned war shall have laid down its arms." Shahof his followers. one consonant was to the feelings ; then her cousin, year and four months Shenendeh, who onlyreigned one month ; then They first waged war with the Mecanother of the name of Arzem-dokht, Success Medina. and the Jewish tribes near cans queen sister to the former ; then from all recruits crowded Kesra, reportedto crowned their efforts, have belonged to the royal family,who was quarters to join his banners, and at lengththe were quickly murdered; then Ferokhzad, the son of armies of the Mussulmans spread over Chosru terminated Parviz,whose days were by Arabia, and were to be seen on the shores of the under whose rule in Syria. Red Sea,and the Persian Gulf,and even Jezdegerd, poison;and finally the Persian monarchy sunk to rise no more. of his predatory Elated with the success incursions,

by

his power defence,when up in their own he issued his comstillfurther strengthened, mand to propagate the new religion by force of
"

Sarbarazas,

or

Nothing of interestis recorded duringthe pesent a letter to Chosru riod it is said that Mohammed in which the above kingsand queens reigned. Parviz, inviting his doctrines, him to embrace jTheir rapidelevation and destruction denotes a which was rejected with contempt.* Such was state of greatanarchy, and shows that the managewhen its founder the state of Mohammedanism ment affairs was of public at this period a subject died,and succeeded to the khaliphate, Abu-Bekr the nobles, who of contest veiled their among a.d. 632, the same year that Jezdegerdascended ambition under the garb of loyalty ment and attachthe throne of Persia. The khaliphnot knowing to the house of Sassan. how to find employment for the vast multitude
of enthusiasts that
HORMISDAS,
OR arose

in every

part of Arabia,

JEZDEGERD

BEN

resolved in

SCHEHERIAH.

lam the standard of the faith of Isdisplay ments the fields of Syria. He first sent detachof Syria and Babylonia. to the borders
to letter commenced thus
:
"

Jezdegerd was
aj".
one

632.

He

was

of his sons, branch of the royalfamily. The reignof Jezdegerd was


a.d.

to the throne of Persia, grandson of Chosroes by the only surviving and, it is said,
a

raised

This

Mohammed,

son

of

brief and

trous. disas-

who born was at Mecca, Mohammed, 569, had, during the reign of Heraclius in

Allah, the apostleof God, to Chosru Parviz,monarch of Persia, greeting." When thus far, it had read been the monarch seized hammed Moit,and tore it in pieces,because had his Mohammed first. When name placed heard of this, he exclaimed. Thus God his tear dom," kingmay an expression which after events justified as a prediction in the sight of his enthusiastic followers.
"

Abd

120

HISTORY

OP

THE

PERSIANS.

This speech,wherein and returned laden the marks are no obstacles, displayed heard by the envoy plunder, upon which the khaliphinvited all of pride and weakness, was he projected,unmoved, and he replied thus : Whatever thou the Arabs to joinin the enterprise the former condition of the and great numbers respondedto the invitation. hast said concerning Their food was of the Byzanand treachery Arabs, is true. From the cowardice tine green lizards ; tered they buried their infant daughtersalive ; nay, provincial governors, the invaders encounof them feasted on dead carcases, and drank some effective opposition no ; and in less than two subdued. blood; while others slew their relations, and years, the greater part of Syria was from this While the Saracens,as the Arabs were when thought themselves great and valiant, by such an act they became thus pursuing their time generally were possessedof more called, perty proclothed with hair garments ; Abu-Bekr ceeded sucof victory, career died, and was ; they were knew evil ; and made not good from in the khaliphate tion distincno by Omar, who thirsted

These encountered

with

"

would not believe in the prophet. Omar placedat the head of affairs, than the armies of the Mohammedans seemed to have acquiredtenfold vigour. The
to
massacre

all who

No

sooner

was

between that which is lawful and that which is unlawful. Such was But God, in our state. his mercy, has sent us, by a holy prophet, hammed, Moa

sacred the
true

volume, the
faith.

koran, which
it
we are manded com-

greater part of
subdued of armies

Syriaand Mesopotamia had been quest ; the conduring the life of Abu-Bekr and these countries was now completed,
sent

teaches

us

By

to
our

war

and infidels, against

to

exchange

were

into

Persia, Palestine,Phe-

ened weakso and Egypt. The Persians were nicia, by the incessant wars of Chosroes, and the civil commotions, that they could not subsequent hope to repeltheir powerfulassailants. Hence, their appearance, Jezdegerd sent an envoy to on had appointed to Omar Saad, the leader whom of his forces in Persia; and the chief command Saad, in compliancewith their request, sent a of three old to Madain, consisting deputation seated in the Arab chiefs. When these were

miserable condition and for wealth We now ceive solemnlydesire you to reour religion.If you consent, not an Arab shall enter Persia without your permission ; and poor and power.
our

leaders

will

only

demand

the

established

If taxes,*which all believers are bound to pay. you do not accept our religion, you are required to pay the tributeffixed for infidels : should you both these reject for war."

propositions, you
too
;

must

prepare

Jezdegerdwas

proud to
and
a

conditions

addressed that monareh of Jezdegerd, cityof Cadessia, which presence himself to the principal them, fury for three days,and which at length ended among person lowing in the total defeat of the Persians,and the greatShaikh Maghurah, in the folwhose name was est fell into the have always held you in words : " We part of the Persian dominions the been lowest

submit to such degrading battle ensued near the was fought with great

only known

estimation. Arabs, hitherto,have as in Persia in two characters,


as

merchants and lizards ;*your

beggars.
coarse

Your
;

food your But of

is green

hands of the conquerors, a.d. 636. On the loss of this great and decisive battle, fled to Hulwan, with all the property Jezdegerd
he of could collect. Saad, after taking possession Madain, pursued him, and sent his nephew

drink, salt water


of hair.

covering,
late, you

garments made
have of

had Hashem in bands to Persia; you have eaten to attack a body of troops which come This force arrived from Shirwan and Aderbijan. good food,you have drunk of sweet water, and where You took shelter in the fort of Jelwallah, have enjoyed the luxury of soft raiment. they have reportedthese enjoymentsto your brethren, were captured;upon which Jezdegerd left his Hashem advanced to But, army, and fled to Rhe. and they are flocking to partake of them. the have after, Hulwan, which he reduced ; and, soon not satisfied with all the good thingsyou the same fate. Saad gion relishared thus obtained, you desire to impose a new city of Ahwaz from marched order, to to receive it. You thence, by Omar's on are unwilling us, who like the fox in our fable,who went Amber, and from thence to Koofah, a place appear to me From fah, Kooof after acquired which soon into a garden, he found an abundance where celebrity. of a turb recalled by Omar, on account Saad was The generous gardenerwould not disgrapes. him those under his yard vineabundant made his of The by him. against complaint produce Yuseer cessor. was rule ; and Omar be littlediminished by a appointedhis sucwould, he thought, mal, the anipoor hungry fox enjoying himself; but and went with his good fortune, not content Jezdegerd,encouraged by the removal of a informed all his tribe of the excellence of the grapes, and the good-nature of the gardener. gent The garden was filledwith foxes ; and its indulforced to bar the gates,and kill owner was ever, himself from ruin. Howallthe intruders, to save
as

leader from the


more

he

so

much

dreaded,

Khorassan, Rhe, and Hamadan,


the command

it under

an army and placing the bravest of of Firouzin,

assembled

Persian
for the

resolved generals, empire.

to

contest

once

am

satisfied you
which with you

to the conduct

want, I will
your camels

Omar heard of these preparations, been compelled as As soon solute he ordered reinforcements to be sent to his army pursuedfrom abfrom every quarter of his dominions ; in Persia, not only pardon you, but load to Noman, and dates,that,when wheat and committing the chief command have have
to exert

to your you return your countrymen.

insensibleto my
you shall not

native land, you may feast he directed him But, be assured, if you are and remain in Persia, generosity, my

his utmost

efforts to de-

escape

justvengeance."
Arabs, by
way of
tempt, con-

The

and-a-half per
was a

charityfor the poor, was twozukat, or religious or fifth, cent, property : the khums, upon to support the family of the prophet. tax
tax

The
"

Persians naked

usually called the


lizard eaters."

The

paid by

infidels was

thirty-five per

cent,

on

property.

HISTORY

OF

THE

PERSIANS.

121

stroy for
force

ever

the

worship
at

of fire.

The

Arabian

Koofah, and thence marched about to the plains of Nahaound, forty miles to of Hamadan, which the Persians the south on surrounded established a camp, had by a deep
assembled

ten of which years; from the battle


was a

he of

was

ing reckonfugitive,
a.d.

Nahaound,
of the Persia

642.

He
411

the

last

sovereign

house

of

Sassan,

family
;
a

which

governed
ancient

during

years

and

entrenchment. During two months in sight of each continued armies


many and skirmishes drew occurred. up At the

these

great other, and


of that

by
with

the memory nation whose


names

of which

is stillcherished

the

of

glory is associated Artaxerxes, Sapor, and

end

Chosroes.
Thus closes the ancient historyof Persia. So the Persian rapid a declension, from a.d. 614, when at its height,and empire was larger than it had been since the days of Alexander the Great, is unexampled in history. But the rod had blossomed, pride had budded, and violence had risen up
went

time, Noman
thus prepare
sweet

addressed

his army in order of battle, the soldiers : " My friends,


or

sherbet* Tukbeer your ; and

yourselves to conquer, of martyrdom.


three times
at
:

to drink

of the call will your

I shall the

now

the

at

first, you
mount

gird
steeds

loins;
at

the

second,

lances, and rush to victory or to paradise. As to me," said I shall be a martyr! with a loud voice, Noman, I am When slain, obey the orders of Huzeefahthe
"

third, point your

into

rod

of wickedness

and

hence

its doom stroyed. dewas

the

Heaven, that it should be The extraordinary Saracen* power instrument its overthrow was by which
;

forth

from

fected ef-

ebn-

Aly-Oman."
Tukbeer
was

but
own

the

seeds

of destruction That his

were

found

The

(Allah-Akbar,
;

or,

"

God

is

in

its

bosom.

impious

monarch,

great")
the

sounded

and

when

it had

ceased,

Chosru

Parviz,
the his

by
rage

rapacity and
war

Mohammedans
Noman the Persians

irresistible.
but

charged with a fury that was he predicted; was as slain,


sustained
a

alienated

affections of his
for

cruelty, generals from his


had

family,while

drained

the

total

overthrow.

country of its ablest defenders, and

left it wasted

The lost ; and that and distracted ; thus it became empire of Persia was for ever an easy prey to the the dominion of the mighty nation fell under needy and ferocious Saracens. They came upon Arabian the Persians khaliphs. as an overflowing flood,and swept their power from off the earth. Animated a Jezdegerd protracted for several by an years wretched and He which first enthusiasm made them precarious existence. despise the most fled to Segistan, then and to Khorassan, lastly fearful odds, as the ministers of vengeance, they the river Oxus, or Gihon. on to Merou, The sought battle as a feast,and counted danger a of this city invited the khakan in their mouths of the the maggovernor sport. They had ever nificent Tartars! to take possession of the person of the orientalism, traditionallyascribed to monarch. The invitation was In the shades is of the scimitars fugitive accepted ; Mohammed, his troops entered Merou, (the gates of which paradiseprefigured;" and under the influence of were these feelings, their power irresistible. Such opened to them by the treacherous was or,) governand made is the everthemselves of it,after a of all mundane fairs. afmasters changing nature resistance from brave the inhabitants. In this age, power gerd Jezdeand empire are in the of one escaped from the town heard during the contest, hands people ; in the next, a nation unmill eight miles from and reached a of before Merou, and comes forth, and rudely plucks
"

entreated

the

miller to conceal

him.

The

man

it from

their hands.

By

whose

direction do these

promised his protection; but, yielding to the temptation of making his fortune by the possession
of the rich
arms

things occur?
Happy
In the
man

and

robes

of the unfortunate

who and

sees

God

employ'd
life ; effects will

prince, he
governor in a few of the of

murdered treacherously

him.
had aided

The

all the

good

ill that

chequer
their the

Merou, and those who

him,

Resolving all events, with And manifold results, into

days began to suffer from the tyranny And arbitration wise of the Supreme. Cowper. khakan, and to repent of their treachery. They encouraged the citizens to rise upon the Tartars Reader, let it be your prayer, that you may ; and the city, they not only recovered but forced the Divine that you may the khakan see enjoy this happiness, to fly with great loss to in past, present, and coming events hand Bokharah. ! The fate of Jezdegerd was now discovered, * and the rapacious and treacherous there Saracen, miller fell a Concerning the etymology of the word is have been various victim opinions; but its true derivation to the popular the and of the rage ; corpse the eastern in Arabic, people." Sharkeyn, which means, monarch was embalmed, and sent to Istakhr,to the This first into Greek, was Saracenoi, by corrupted be interred in the sepulchre of his The writers. and thence into Saraceni, by the Latin ancestors,
"

a.d.

652.

name

seems

to who

have

been

applied by Pliny
the and countries the of the faith Asia

to

the

douin Bethe

Jezdegerd possessed the royal title nineteen


countries, where wine is forbidden, sherbet beverage in which they delight. it was t Khondimir the says king of the Hiatila, of "White whom Huns." he invited; but Ferdosi it says
warm
or
"

Arabs, and Euphrates


in

inhabited

between Roman the

the

Tigris,
from of who the

separated

In

Asia
course

dominions it became the

possessions Parthian
name

lemonade

is the

kings.
all the

In Arab

time,

general
of and

of and

tribes

embraced

Islam,

was

chief

or

Turan, who

ruled

at

Samarcand.

spread their conquests and part of Europe.

widely through

Africa,

BRIEF

SKETCH

MODERN

HISTORY

OF

PERSIA.

The

hand
be
as

of the great Ruler

of the

universe
as

[from

the

Caspian

and

the

sea

of

Aral, to the
vanished.
of the

traced in the modern, clearly may For more the ancient history of Persia.
two

in

than

Indus and the Persian Gulf. This mighty power, however,


redoubtable

soon

centuries after the Mohammedan


was a mere

conquest, Gengis-Khan, the


the

ruler

Jaxartes, invaded Persia, of the caliphs. With the decay, however, of a. ". 1218, with a mighty host, and chased the power of ence of the caliphs, the spirit of Takash, from his independ- Mohammed, the successor dominions. The son of Takash revived, so that about a.d. 868, Yakub Ibu fully manstruggled
Lais threw off his allegianceto the caliph, for the kingdom ; but he dying,a.d. 1230, the Khorasmian founded the Soffarian dynasty,and fixed at Shiand Persia dissolved, power was of a dominion including ras the capital nearlyall laid prostrateat the feet of the Moguls. Persia. ruled in Persia Gengis-Khan and his successors His brother and successor, Amer, was subdued during about ninetyyears, when Persia became divided and distracted by numberless a. d. 900, by the Tartar family of the Samanasties petty dy-

the country

province in

empire

Moguls beyond

the

nides, who
till
a. d.

999, while

936, when

with each other. This at war perpetually for another invader. the signal was knowledged again acThe the caliph till a.d. celebrated Tamerlane, already of to master allegiance of the Abbaside Trans-Oxiana and Tartary, invaded the utter Khorassan, disruption

ruled

Khorassan

and

Trans-Oxiana,

Western

Persia

threw power of Bouyah, among them.

in 1381, and in twelve years subdued Persia to his it into the hands of the three sons In a few years after his death,however, Amad-ed-doulah, Ruku-ed-doulah, sway. the kingdom Persia relapsed and Moazz-ed-doulah, who shared into a state of division and anarchy, their successors, ruled less success, tilla.d. 1028, had who, thirtyyears before, in dynasty of the Ghazneoides
or

than even that which had precededhis worse His son, indeed,ruled over Khorassan, irruption. and Tartary ; but his descendants Trans-Oxiana, founded the were expelled by the Uzbeks, at the end of the Cabul and Khorassan, subdued their last succestested consors provinceswere century, while the western in Eastern Persia. by two races of Turkomans, distinguished of the Black and White the pointof fallingby their emblems The whole country was on Sheep, when into the hands of this conqueror, a.d. the Sel- the latter of which finally prevailed, 1469, the Tall, ruler of received as vassals by under their leader, Hassan jukian Turks, originally Diarbekr. the Ghazneoide from snatched the prize princes, of brief duration. their hands. The White Sheep dynasty was Pouring down from Central Asia, the superior Hassan of the Tall,encountering they defeated Massood, the son and successor Mahmood, a.d. 1040, near Nishapur,and placed power of the Ottoman sultan, Mohammed il, their own sustained of a sultan,Togrul Beg, in possession signal defeat in Anatolia, 1473, weakened his power, and his relatives Persia,to which, a.d. 1055, he added Bagdad which greatly of the caliphate, and descendants and Irak,with the guardianship were finally supplanted and crushed, in 1502, by Ismael Shah, the deposingthe last of the house of Bouyah. This Perso-Turkish nasty. monarchy rose to great founder of the Seft,Sooffee,or Seffavean dysplendour commencing between ; but civil wars the sons This of sovereigns, of Malek race Shah, about a.d. 1120, and by their rule and their devastations to the next genecontinuing ration, character, imparted to the Persian monarchy tled setand a more their power a was weakened, so gradually greater degree of stability, form of government, than it had enjoyed that,a.d. 1194, Persia fell under the yoke of the Khorasmian the throne of centuries. They sat on Takash, who slew their last for some sultan, and twenty years, at extended his sway Persia during two hundred successor, Togrul hi., and

These,with

Persia,with more when Mahmood,

HISTORY

OF

THE

PERSIANS.

123

of the end of which time, a. b. 1722,the Afghans Cabul and, Caudahar revolted,and, under their the Persians at routed chief,Meer-Mahmood,

for royalty reduced were to two, Lutf Ali Khan Goolnahad, and invested the Persian capital, Khan Kajar, the Ispahan,which, after enduring the horrors of Zend, and Aga Mohammed famine for seven a. d. months, was obligedto capitulate. latter of whom prevailed, 1795,and founded the Kajar, or Hussein, the last of the familyof Ismael reigning dynasty. This ruler was assassinated by his own his crown whom he had to the conqueror, and Sooffee, attendants, resigned Persia fell under the yoke of the Afgh