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Robot had come to human life for the past almost 90 years ago. Robot once was created with the purpose as a human assistant tool. But nowadays, people create robot for many reasons and purposes. Other than as human assistant tools, people make robots for hobby, entertainment, and personal use. Some people think or sense a robot is just about wires and wheels but several just think over the limit. Math rules physics, and physics rules robots. The laws of physics and math are evident in everyday life. Throughout the history of science and technology, the path to great discoveries has almost started with the observation of simple events. Newton‟s apple, Einstein‟s empty room in space, and Shannon‟s word games are clear examples. Making a vehicle that can autonomously drive around, both indoors and out seems, at first, like a simple thing. Build a chassis, add drive wheels, steering wheels, a power source (usually batteries), some control code that includes some navigation and obstacle avoidance routines or some other way to control it, throw some bump sensors on it, and there it go, a robot. Unfortunately, soon after these first attempts, the designer will find the robot getting stuck on what seem to be innocuous objects or bumps, held captive under a chair or fallen tree trunk, incapable of doing anything useful, or with a manipulator that crushes every beer can it tries to pick up. Knowledge of the mechanics of sensors, manipulators, and the concept of mobility will help reduce these problems.
The main aim of this project is to design and develop a tree climbing manual control robot in which control by using radio frequency (RF) signal. With the RF control, the movement of the robot can be much easier and not too limited because it is not attach to a wire. The objectives of this project are as follow: 1. To design and develop a robot that has capability to climb tree and control by a remote control that using RF as the command transmission between the robot and the remot. 2. To modify a RF circuit from a normal control car toy and integrate to the robot mechanical system. 3. Able to receive and send command signal between the robot and the controller by using the RF signal. For future development of this project, this kind of robot can be develop or modify so that it can help human .
In this project, the literature research will cover about the wireless communication system such as radio frequency (RF), infra red, and microwave. Each type of the
wireless communication has its own advantages and disadvantages. Furthermore, this project will cover on the types of motors, materials, and mechanical parts such as motor ,flanges screw in making the robot. Other than types of robots, the movement style of robots also will be covered. Therefore, the research will the decided the design and movement style of this tree climbing robot. Moreover, some analysis on different materials for robot structure also will be covered in this project in order to build the robot. In this report of the project which consist 6 chapters, Chapter 1 discuss generally about the background of this project. The objectives of the project also are stated and elaborate in Chapter 1. Furthermore, the scope and the problems statement of the project also discussed. The Gantt chart is provided in this Chapter 1. Chapter 2 in this project report discusses all the literature research and the information obtained. Generally, in Chapter 2 consists discussion about particular aspects such as introduction to robots; history of robot, types of robot, properties of typical robots, and application of robots. Furthermore, wireless remote control system; wireless transmission. Moreover, components of stair climbing manual control robot, such as joypad, dc motor, and other mechanical parts. Structure, which includes aluminium and acrylic also, be discussed in Chapter 2. Last but not least, there is previous research that related to this project done by other provided and discussed in the project. In this methodology, generally explain on how this project will be implement, project planning, and the process flow of the project. With the flow chart provided, particular process flow and methodology which consists robot structure, design, mechanical system, and radio frequency control circuit in the project will be briefly discussed.
1.4 Problem Statement
In order to design a tree climbing robot, one of the aspects that need to concern about is the movement method of the robot. There are many methods that can be attached to a robot so that it be able to move on tree such as robot legs, pin leg. All this depends on the size or diameter of the tree, the cost of the materials, movement style of the robot and the speed movement of the robot. In the other hand, in order to modify a circuit for the controller and for the robot so that the controller be able to send command by RF signal and for the robot to receive command from the RF signal, the method on how to modify the circuit with the transmitter and receiver of RF signal attach to it, will be need to studied. Besides, type RF transmitter and receiver and power supply use in the circuit will put in consideration depends on the circuit system, cost of the equipments, and the robot needs itself. Furthermore, suitable types and quantity of motors to be used for the robot such as power widow motor, servo motor, or stepper motor, will depend on the design of the robot, speed movement of the robot, the power and torque of motors the robot need
and the cost of the motors. In developing and fabricating the robot, it will consider the materials use depend on the size of the robot, the shape or design of the robot, the cost of materials, and the ability to fabricate with the materials in order to developing the robot. Other than aspects mentioned above, there are particular parts and aspects that need to learned and studied in developing the robot such as types of gears to be used, types of wheels to be used, materials to be used for the robot structure, chains, wireless remote control system, and mechanical system of the robot.
2.1 Introduction to Robots
The field of robotics is very interesting to anyone that curious about how living things or organisms (including people) interact with the real world. Robotics is a very comprehensive, applications-oriented field of study. A complete understanding of robotics involves many different technical areas such as electrical principles, electronic devices, digital principles, electromechanical fundamentals, basic programming techniques, hydraulics, pneumatics, and basic manufacturing process. Generally, robots had been created for certain purposes or agency. A robot has artificial intelligence programmed which running by its own or control by a controller. A robot is not necessarily only in form of physical appearance that is touchable, but also in virtual form. Sometimes software also can be called a robot. Specifically, the definition of a robot that stated by Robot Institute of America as “A reprogrammable and multifunctional manipulator, device for the transport of materials, parts, tools or specialised system with varied and programmed movement, with the aim of carrying out varied tasks” . But, this definition is far from perfect and needs additional definitions to completely define a robot.
2.1.1 History of Robot
The research about robot actually had started from 12 century consider about the high level of achievement of watchmakers whom made clockwork robots called automaton. These automatons are be able to write separate sentences, draw different pictures, play musical instruments, and perform simple tasks such as perform magic. The automatons are examples of the true robots as they were programmable via a system of interchangeable cams. As the time flows, the coming of industrial age, with its heavy use of machines, had a big culture impact. The sense that the technology was running away by itself was felt during this time and people felt that it is unwise to develop a high functioning mechanical human
packaging and palletizing. Of course. assembly. except where such orders conflict with the First Law. 2.with no emotions no humanoid behaviors in it. it means about a very long lasting labour. speed. that accomplished with high endurance. In this case. pick and place. ironing.R – Rossum‟s Universal Robot. Cartesian coordinate robot. there are two types of robots that widely use in human daily life which are industrial robot and mobile robot. From the play.U. There are commonly seen as robotic arms. „robota‟. Use of these robots is to improve the quality and productivity of the industry productions. first.1. painting.1 Industrial Robot From the word ‘industrial’ itself tells that industrial robots are robots that widely use for industries that can easily found in many factories.2.linked manipulator) and gripper assembly or end effector that is attached to a fixed surface . Therefore. there are major differences between these two types of robot. product inspection. Delta robot. And in early 1930. human-like mechanical creature produced by Rossum‟s factory as shown in Figure 2. Industrial robot usually consists of a jointed-arm (multi. parallel manipulator robot.1. or. Generally. came the Three Laws of Robotics which are designed to protect human from robots. and Third. through inaction allow a human being to come to harm. . a Czechoslovakian name Karel Capek introduced the word „robota‟ in the play of R. as the idea was there. 2. serial manipulator robot. liquid handling robot. which means labour . a robot may not injure a human being. Thus. in 1942. and SCARA robot . There are many types of industrial robot such as articulated robot.2 Types of Robots Basically. a robot must obey the orders given to it by human beings. Second. The Three Laws of Robotics are stated as follow. different robot conveys different tasks such as welding. gantry robot. and precision.2. it certainly defines the stereotype of a modern age robots. and testing the products. a robot must protect its own existence as long such protection does not conflict with the First and Second Laws . The word robot eventually comes from the Czech word. in the year 1920. a programmable humanoid robot named Electro was invented by Westinghouse Electric Corporation .
DESIGN DETAILS OF RF TRANSMITTER AND RECIVER Design Details of allied circuits:- .
HT 12A/HT 12E with encode chip SM5162 and HT12D with decoder chip SM5172 is available. consideration of RF transmitter is as follows: Some design Frequency Selection Range Modulation Power Supply According this. one needs RF transmitter and a receiver.2.b shows internal circuit diagram of transmitter. +12vDC and +12vDC. Fig. RF Transmitter Section RF Receiver Section Relay section Regulated Power Supply of +5vDC. Design consideration and explanation of RF Transmitter:For remote control of any gadget.1. .2. pair is considered for current project.1a shows transmitter block diagram and fig. 5. 5. Here.
If proper antenna is used then the range may be increased up to 30 meters. Data input:- . Circuit Description: i.2. 5.BATTERY DATA INPUT ENCODER HT12E/ SM5028/ SM5162 RADIO TX ADDRESS SELECT Fig.1 a – Transmitter block Diagram This unit is powerful transmitters with a range of 30 feet without any problem.
‘LOGIC 0’ is send to data pins along with TE (Transmit Enable) ii. Transmitter frequency is 315 MHz (selected. Only when it is connected to GND will the encoder send the transmission. The final pin 17 is the DATA OUT (DOUT) which sends the serial steam of pulses containing the address and data. ‘LOGIC 1’ is fed to data pins. Pin 14 is an input pin called as Transmit Enable (TE). HT 12E/SM5028/SM5162:It is an encoder IC. ‘LOGICO’ is send to this pin thus making it active and enabling transmissstion.) iii. But. Antenna:- . If they are closed. D0-D3 data input (pin 10-13) to the encoder have been connected to the input switches as shown in fig.2.1b. in this project.These are simple push buttons. There are two more pins on the encoder. Whenever a button is pressed. When they are open. Each address pin must be connected to GND or 5V. This is connected to the radio transmitter module. There are 8 inputs to the IC (pin 1 to 8) called the ‘address input’. The decoder IC HT12D has same inputs and addresses on both ICs must match for the data is valid. 5. it is connected to 5V. It tells the encoder which address should be send.
Working of HT 12E/SM5028/SM5162:Fig. But in this project ‘Loop Antenna’ is used. Loop antenna is the cheapest and more compact. Power ON Stand by Mode Working of HT 12E/ SM5028/SM5162 TE Pin Enabled? 4 Data Words transmitted No TE Pin Enabled? .It is the most important part of RF remote controlled devices. This antenna consists of feeder capacitor C1 which can connected directly to the transmit pin on the radio module.1. There are many antenna configurations available.2 shows working of Radio transmitter module. Theoretical length is 1500cm practical length taken is 15cm. This antenna always takes the form of track on a PCB. 5.
Working of Radio Transmitter Module Specifications of RF Transmitter:- Following are specifications of RF Transmitter.Ye No Radio transmitter module Yes Fig. Frequency: 434 MHz. .
The receiver module receives the ASK signal and demodulates it to get back the address bits and data bits. RELAY 0 LATCH/ MOMENTARY MODE SELECT ANT VT RELAY 1 RF in RADIO Rx DECODER HT12D/ SM5038/ SN5172 MUX 4519 ULN 2003 A RELAY 2 RELAY 3 . Range: 30 feet (with proper antenna-30m) Modulation: ASK Power Supply: 9V to 12V (Battery Operated). Fig. The frequency selection for transmitter and receiver must be same.1a shows RF receiver block diagram. Following are the consideration for RF Receiver: The address of transmitter and receiver must be same. Design Considerations and explanation of RF Receiver:The data transmitted by RF transmitter reaches to receiver module. 5.3.
ADDRESS SELECT DC S U P PS DC L U YP 12V P L Y 12V INVERT/ NORMAL OUTPU MODE SELECT RELAY 4 IC 7805 Basically. RF receiver is PLL based receiver having range of 30 feet. The D0-D3 DATA PINS (pin 10-13) pf decoder then sends the suitable 4-bit data. There are 8 inputs to IC called ‘address inputs’. These tell the decoder which address to acknowledge upon receiving one from a transmitter. this is a detector IC. If proper antenna is selected. HT 12D/SM 5038/SM 5172:Output is simple serial data of 4 data bits and 8 address bits. Circuit Description:1. . the range can be increased up to 30 meters to 50 meters. The addresses on the both encoder and decoder must match for the data input to be valid. The Din pin receives the address bits and data bit serially from RF module.
. While rest 4 are connected to data output lines of decoder IC.Each address pin may be connected to ground or 5v. relay will be switched OFF. Inverts / Normal Mode Selection:This allows the user to select between normal output and the inverted output. When the latch mode is selected. When VT pin is active LOW. Signals are coming from the latch/ manentary mode select and from invert/normal output mode. In momentary mode. 3. In latch mode. When manentary mode is selected. data at the output pin is available as long as the VT pin is high. Latch / Momentary Mode select:This setting gives us the selection of either latch or momentary mode. action stops. Mux 4519:It is Quad common addressable 2:1 Mux. it is connected to 5v. In this project. data output form decoder is latched and same particular action keeps repeating. data at the output pin is latch. 4. 2. When VT pin is active LOW. the action continuous. as long as VT pin is active high.
This requirement is fulfill by ULN 2003 driver IC. ULN 2003 driver IC:Micro controller never drives the relays or load directly. ULN 2003 is having continuous output current up to 500mA. 7 A current will be withdrawn by the load. Therefore. if is used to drive the relay of 12V having resistance 400. 200mA for driving the motors. Multiplexed LEDs and heaters. it is active HIGH. it is selected to drive the relays. solenoids. 5. stepping motors. ULN 2003 relay driver chip is used. i. the output of Mux is active Low. It is suited for interfacing low-level logic circuitry and multiple Power loads like relays. Hence. Hence this relay is preferred. Also. while normal Mode.e. In this project. Fig. Hence.In invert mode.4 shows partial Schematic of ULN 2003. Input 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 16 15 Open collector output ULN 2003 14 13 12 11 10 . 12v/400 = 30 MA will be required to energized or de-energized relay. relay is having 7 A contact rating. (Motors) we have 5V.
This kind of modulation is known as Amplitude Shift Keying (ASK). RF transmission is more strong and reliable than IR transmission. In this RF system. The corresponding frequency range varies between 30 kHz & 300 GHz. as the name suggests. while IR mostly operates in line-of-sight mode. Transmission through RF is better than IR (infrared) because of many reasons. operates at Radio Frequency. RF communication uses a specific frequency unlike IR signals which are affected by other IR emitting sources. signals through RF can travel through larger distances making it suitable for long range applications. RF signals can travel even when there is an obstruction between transmitter & receiver. Firstly. . Also. the digital data is represented as variations in the amplitude of carrier wave. The RF module.All devices have features of open collector outputs with integral clamp diodes with seven Darlington pairs. Next.
The RF module is often used alongwith a pair of encoder/decoder. The transmission occurs at the rate of 1Kbps .10Kbps. are some commonly used encoder/decoder pair ICs. Pin Diagram: Pin Description: . An RF transmitter receives serial data and transmits it wirelessly through RF through its antenna connected at pin4. HT640HT648. HT12E-HT12D.The transmitted data is received by an RF receiver operating at the same frequency as that of the transmitter. etc.This RF module comprises of an RF Transmitter and an RF Receiver. The transmitter/receiver (Tx/Rx) pair operates at a frequency of 434 MHz. The encoder is used for encoding parallel data for transmission feed while reception is decoded by a decoder.
5V Antenna output pin Name Ground Data Vcc ANT RF Receiver Pin No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Function Ground (0V) Serial data output pin Linear output pin.RF Transmitter Pin No 1 2 3 4 Function Ground (0V) Serial data input pin Supply voltage. not connected Supply voltage. 5V Ground (0V) Ground (0V) Antenna input pin Name Ground Data NC Vcc Vcc Ground Ground ANT . 5V Supply voltage.
1 SW1 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 SW DIP-8 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 D14 D13 D12 10 11 D11 12 13 16 14 D18 D17 D16 D15 HT12E/DIP18 2 BT1 BATTERY GND Vcc DI/P U14 A0 A1 A2 A3 A4 A5 A6 A7 AD8 AD9 AD10 AD11 OSC1 TE DOUT OSC2 17 15 R41 GND ANT E1 SW5 SW4 SW3 SW2 <Value> 1 .
I could not find the type of spur gear needed to mesh the legs together. Finally.R48 E2 ANTENNA +5V WZ-R01 1 RV+ 10AV+ 12AV+ 15AV+ U15 ANT SW6 DOUT 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 10 11 12 13 16 14 DIN A0 A1 A2 A3 A4 A5 A6 A7 D8 D9 D10 D11 OSC1 U17 Z0 Z1 Z2 Z3 10 11 12 13 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 I1 ULN2004 O1 I2 O2 I3 O3 I4 O4 I5 O5 I6 O6 I7 O7 COMMON 9 1 +5V D19 VT OSC2 17 15 2 3 Q9 2N3904 1 R47 RGND RGND AGND TP <Value> HT12D GND L3 D20 R49 L3LED 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 D20 R49 L3LED D20 R49 L3LED D20 R49 LED U16 6 7 4 5 2 3 15 1 9 14 X0 Y0 X1 Y1 X2 Y2 X3 Y3 A B 4519 Design of robot We started out by creating a basic design in Sketchup. securing the robot. Then the spine would be retracted. the spine would extend. To climb. Also. The robot was to consist of two segments. pushing the top segment upwards. with all the legs linked together. Each segment would have four legs with very sharp points as feet. and the top segment would release. Firstly. original design (show in the images above). the robot would have a hard time gripping . I decided to ditch this idea for a few reasons. pulling up the bottom segment. and the process would repeat. all four legs in each segment were controlled by one highly geared down motor. joined by a spine which could be extended or retracted. the legs on the top segment would pinch together and the sharp feet would dig into the bark. The climbing sequence is somewhat similar to the way an inchworm climbs. The legs on the bottom segment would then grip the tree.
I decided that the robot would be much easier to build if the motors drove the legs directly. I used a rack and pinion type gearing system to extend and contract the spine. In my model. Brass Tubing 4X 5mm Aluminum Universal Mounting Hub . Finally. However. and let you organize your wires easily) Heat Shrink Tubing Hardware 12' 3/4" x 1/8" Aluminum Bar (These come in 6' lengths at my local hardware store) 6" x 3" acrylic sheet (Electronics are mounted to this) 6x Standoffs with screws 1' Threaded rod and corresponding 1/2" nut 2X 1' x 3/16" steel rod 1' x 3/16" I.uneven surfaces. 2. so I did not even need to buy a charger) 5V regulator (To regulate power to the motor controller logic circutry) 9V Battery clip Barrel connector (Must fit the Arduino power connector) Other Electronics 4X 7 RPM Gear Motor (These power two legs each) 4X Thin linear trim pots (Rotation sensors for the legs) DPDT Toggle switch (Power switch) SPDT Slide switch (User input) 2X Mini Snap Action Switch (Limit switch) 3 10K resistors (Pull down) Headers Signal Wire (Old IDE cables work really well. so I ended up using a threaded rod coupled to a motor to actuate the spine. The strange leg shape came from resizing the legs all at once in Sketchup. I could not find the necessary parts to build such a system. The other significant change I made from my original design was the way the spine worked.D. Image Notes 1. Front on Tools and Materials Terminal Strips 22AWG Solid core wire 3X Aluminum heatsinks (I cut in half an old northbridge heatsink) Thermal paste Power 9V Battery (to power the Arduino) Approximately 12V LiPo or Li-ion battery (I modified a laptop battery.
Bits of Meccano work well) Stick on Velcro (For holding on the batteries) Hard Drive reading head bearing 3/4" Plastic angle Electrical Tape Zip Ties Tools Electric Drill / Drill press (As well as a lot of bits) Hacksaw Soldering Iron Pliers Allen wrench Assorted screwdrivers Wire Strippers C Clamp (These can be used to make nice 90 degree bends in the aluminum) Ruler Files Nonessential Bench PSU Multimeter Breadboard .Pack of large T Pins 4X 3/32 screws (to mount the motors) An assortment of 4/40 screws and nuts Assorted hex screws and nuts 4X Bic pens (I used the plastic shafts to fix the pots on the legs in place) 4X Locknuts 5 Minute epoxy Sheet metal scraps (For spacing and mounting things.
e. IV) Use of templates is essential if you are new designer. . IX) Track routing i. the track width and the track spacing should be as maximum as possible. which will help in reducing the number of wires. if the design is manual i. XI) While routing the tracks. XV) To avoid weakening of the pup tool.PCB DESIGN Designing of PCB : I) After selection of electronic circuit. II) The designer should have the complete idea of the circuit regarding the function and signal flows through.<40 mm. X) Artwork making with ink or ready made tapes and pads. etc. the perforation length should be kept minimum i. hand made and not with software such as Orcas. carrying AC mains voltage. XIII) In power system i. Pads. high current. make a block diagram of various circuits to know various inter-connections required. XIV) While placing the components on the PCB preferably the load on PCB. Ideas.e.e. VI) Preferably. VII) Sequential stage after PCB size is decided. V) Standard PCB size should be decided in the beginning only.e. Circuit maker. warping of PCB etc. should be evenly distributed to avoid the problems at completion stage during wave-soldering i. Auto CAD. VIII) Component placement. consider the safety rules ands regulations.e. layout. XII) In analog and digital systems together. care should be taken that analog and digital ground will not mix each other affecting the stability ands fluctuations in the display. III) Keep each and very component you need. layout ands artwork should be in 1:2 scales. while starting the designing.
etc. coils. diodes. III) In case separate analog and digital ground.g. cut pads should be provided to avoid the blocking of the holes during shouldering COMPOMENT PLACEMENT : I) Preferably. and trim pots. which alignment of calibration are placed in such that. may be mounted vertically which doesn’t affect the performance. VI) The design should such that minimum jumpers are allowed. place the component in X-Y direction subjected to mechanical construction. components like present. they are accessible after the assembly of the PCB on cabinet also. Ics) should be connected in between the analog and digital ground .- .e.e. V) Sufficient clearance is provided around component so that inversion or replacement ands repair is easy. provide the sleeve for leads. However in case of space limitation the components such as resistors. switches.XVI) For the manually shouldered components vent i. flat placed to avoid of leads and for easy requirements. IV) Orientation of multi-lead components(e. II) All components should be flat mounted i. VIII) If the components are not flush mounted. PCB DESIGNING AND FABRICATION Introduction to Printed Circuit Boards. etc. VII) It is preferable that.
brass. Aluminum and copper. it provides a conduction path leading to the removal of most of the heat generated in the circuit. The thickness of conducting material depends upon the current carrying capacity of the circuit. is paced on laminate and . The Printed Circuit Board usually serves three functions:It provides mechanical support for the components mounted on it. The performance of an electronic circuit depends upon the layout and design of the PCB.e. It acts as a heat sink i. Conductor materials available are silver. depending on that it is called either single sided or double sided PCB. Copper is widely used and hence is a preferable choice. Printed circuit consists of conductive circuit applied to one or both the sides of an insulating base. Cu Clad:The base of laminate is either paper or glass fiber cloth. It provides necessary electrical interconnections.The PCB is a work of art. They are used to route the electrical current and signals through copper tracks which are finally bounded to an insulating base. which is produced by the method of electroplating. Cu foil.
it has Phenolic resins with proper filter. Steps of PCB Fabrication:PCB fabrication has the following steps.both are kept under hydraulic pressure for proper adhesive pressure. Epoxy glass is the base material has high mechanical strength and good electrical properties usually green in color & semi transparent. Types of Laminates:National Electrical Manufactures Association (NEMA) has various grades of laminates that are obtained by different resins and filters. This is brown in color & opaque. There are a variety of laminates available. Disadvantage is poor moisture resistance. These Cu clads are very easily available in the market. . Epoxy Laminates:Epoxy paper is also paper based but impregnated with epoxy. yellowish white and translucent. Phenol:Phenol and Formaldehyde produce phenolic paper base laminates.
Layout:The layout of a PCB has to incorporate all the information on the board before one can go onto all the work preparation. Layout of the Circuit Artwork Designing Printing Etching Drilling Mounting of components & soldering Finishing & Testing. Procedure:- . The layout is best prepared on the same scale as the artwork to prevent the entire problem. the design concept and the philosophy behind the equipment are very important are very important for the layout. which might be caused by redrawing of the layout to the artwork scale. Detailed circuit diagram. Layout Scale:Depending on the accuracy required artwork should be produced at 1:1 or 2:1 or even 4:1 scale.
Components Holes:In a given PCB. Layout Sketch:The end product of the layout designing is the pencil sketched component and conductor drawing which is called ‘layout sketch’. This rule must be strictly followed to avoid confusion. . It contains all information for the preparation of the network.The first rule is to replace each and every PCB layout as viewed from the component side. the larger icons are placed first and the space in between is filled with smaller ones. Components requiring input/output connecting cone near the connector. Holes of a different are shown with a code in the actual layout sketch. most of the holes required are one particular diameter. Among the components. Another important rule is not to start the designing of a layout unless an absolutely clear circuit diagram is available. All components are placed in such a manner that desoldering of components is not necessary if they have to be replaced. which otherwise be caused.
PCB can be made better than the quality of artwork used. Minimum spacing should also be provided. A) Holes Standard holes 1. The importance of a perfect artwork should not be underestimated. broken annular rings or too critical spacing are often due to bad artwork.5mm 3.Conductor Holes:A code can be used for conductor with special width. And even with the most sophisticated PCB production facilities. Problems like inaccurate registration.2mm B) Conductor Widths Standard Width 1.1mm 1.1mm 2mm 4mm Artwork: The generation of PCB artwork should be considered as the first step of PCB manufacturing process. Basic Approaches:- .
Screen Printing:The process of screen printing is well known to he printing industry because of its inherent capabilities of printing a wide range of link on almost any kind of surface including glass. printing of It is successfully employed in Etch resists Plate resists Solder stop lacquers Notation printing. wooer etc. metal. found their way in to an extremely broad field of applications.For ink drawing on white cardboard paper.3-0. Screen printing offers the advantages of wide control on the ink deposition. Drawing practice. plastic fabrics. drawing procedure is very at least by 0.1-0. thickness though the selection of suitable mass density and composition in the production of PCB’s.5mm.2. and solders pad locations. And conductors can easily be displaced by 0. . good quality Indian ink and ink-pen set are minimum requirements.
. In the actual printing step. the screen is prepared. in a magnified cross section. With the direct method. shows the shape of a trapezoid. and each method has its own advantages and disadvantages. The indirect method is more suitable for smaller series and where the finest details to be reproduced. by coating a photographic emulsion directly on to the screen fabric and exposing it in the pattern area. which are not covered by film pattern. The direct method provides very durable screen stencils with a higher dimensional accuracy but the finest details are not produced. the backing sheet is peeled off. A screen fabric with uniform meshes and opening is stretched and fixed on a solid frame of metal or wood. opening all those meshes. The indirect method makes use of separate screen process film. ink is forced by move squeeze through the open meshes on to the surface of the material to be printed. Pattern Transfer on to Screen:There are two different methods in use.In its basic form. the screen printing process is very simple. Finally. The film on the backing sheet that is there after pressed on to the screen fabric and sticks there. The ink deposition. supported on a baking sheet.
Etching of PCB’s as required in modern electronic equipment production. are known as enchants. etching is one of the most important steps. . more sensitive to mechanical damages and interruption in printing. Etching:In all subtractive PCB process.The indirect method is faster but dimensionally less accurate and the screen stencils are less durable. which is not protected by an etching unit. Ferric chloride Cupric chloride Hromic Acid Alkaline Ammonia Of these Ferric Chloride is widely used because it has short etching time and it can be stored for a long time. is usually done in spray type etching machines. The final copper pattern is formed by selective removal of the unwanted copper. Solutions. which are used in etching process.
they must be . gang condenser and FET are mounted & soldered. Then IC bases are soldered. All the flat radial components such as resistors. Component Mounting:Careful mounting of components on PCB increases the reliability of assembly:Leads must be cleaned before they are inserted in the PCB holes. Soldering:The next process after the component mounting is soldering. insulated. While mounting transistors each lead must have insulating sleeve. For mounting of PCB’s. diodes and inductors are mounted and soldered. The ENT lead must fit in to holes properly so that they can be soldered. Asymmetric lead bending must be avoided. The vertical components such as transistors.Tank or Bubble Etching. The vertical lead must have an insulating sleeve. has almost disappeared. DIP packages special jigs must be used of easy insertion. solder pint is achieved by heating the solder and base metal about the melting point of the solders is used. When the space is to be saved then vertical mounting is preferred. Where jumper wire crosses over the conductors. in which the boards kept in a tank were lowered and fully immersed in to the agitated.
The necessary heat depends upon: The nature and type of joints Melting temperature of solder Flux Soldering techniques are of so many types but we are using iron soldering Iron Soldering:Soldering iron consists of an insulating handle connected through a metal shaft. The surface must be lined or wetted. Functions of the Bit:It stores heat and convey it from the heat source to the work. and thermal conductivity. It may be required to stored surplus solder form the joint. Tin-lead solder affects . It may be required to store molten solder and flux to the work. The electrical heating element is located in the hollow shank or handles to heat the bit. His encourages flow of solder in to the joint. Solder bit made up of copper. a continuous film of liquid metal between the bit and the work provides a path of high thermal conductivity through which heat can flow in to the work piece. heat capability. When the surface of the work becomes wetted by the solder. this metal has good wetting properly. of a bit accurately makes contact with the component parts of the joint and solder and heats them up.
take the trouble to read the article. rectifiers etc) If there is a significant time elapse between circuit. etc. Solder irons are specified in terms of wattage. value and voltage rating of capacitor. The life of the bit is increased by a factor of 10 to 15. Production of copper bit can be made with thick iron coating followed by Ni/Tin plating. finishing is done. At the end. The hard solder iron and solder wire is applied to the work. TESTING AND TROUBLESHOOTING Before soldering in components: Check that component agree with the parts list (value and power of resistors. The melted solder becomes bright and fluid. Depending on heat input intended for working and types of work (Continuous or individual) the choice of the solder iron can be made. Try to get most important point out of the description of the . Procedure of Soldering:The points to be joined must be cleaned first and fluxed. The iron must be removed after sufficient time and joint is allowed to cool.copper during soldering operation. capacitor.) if in any doubt double check the polarized components (diodes. the information is often given in a very condensed from.
Only use good quality IC sockets. Make a wiring diagram if the layout involves lots of wires spread out in all directions. Check the continuity of the tracks on the PCB (and through plated holes with double sided boards) with a resistance meter or continuity tester. even if you don’t understand exactly what is supposed to happen. Check the wiring (watch for off cuts of components leads) at the same time ensure that there are no short-circuits between potentiometer. After mounting the component: Inspect all soldered joints by eye or using a magnifying glass and check them with a continuity tester. Ensure that the positions of all the component agree with the mounting diagram Check that any links needed are present and that they are in the right positions to give the desired configuration.) Check all the polarized components (diodes. If there is any doubt that some component may not be exact equivalent. Make sure there are no dry joints and no tracks are short circuited by poor soldering. Check all ICs in their sockets (see that there are no pins bent under any ICs. no near ICs are interchanged etc. operation of the circuit. capacitor etc) are fitted correctly. . check that they are compatible. Do not reuse wire unless it is of good quality. If possible keep any heat sinks well isolated from other components. Check that the connectors used are compatible and that they are mounted the right way round. filling and other ‘heavy’ work is done before mounting any components. Make sure that all drilling. Cut off the ends and strip it a new.
nuts and bolts etc.switches. . And don’t forget to switch the power on and check the fuses. Check currents (generally they are stated on the circuit diagram or in the text). Don’t be too quick to suspect the ICs of overheating. currents. frequencies or testing the circuits with an oscilloscope work systematically and take notes. And if it breaks down: Recheck everything suggested so far. Make sure the circuit is working correctly before spending any time putting it into a case. While checking voltages. Check the supply voltage or voltages carefully and make sure that they reach the appropriate components especially pins of the ICs (test the pins of ICs and not the soldered joints). Ensure that the supply transformer is located as closely as possible to the circuits (this could have a significant improvement in the case of critical signal level). Do the same with mounting hardware such as spacers. etc. Re-read the article carefully and carefully anything about which you are doubtful. If possible check the operation of the circuit in the separate stages as a general rule follow the course of the signal. and there immediate surrounding (other components or the case). Check that the connections to the earth are there and that they are of good contact.