al-Ømb kn\n-a-Ifn-eqsS Hcp bm{X

AKzn¿˛
Z
dmØv
Hm^v
tKmUv
P¿a\n/1973/If¿/94 an\p´v/
sh¿W¿ sl¿tkmKv

]

hnP-b-Ip-am¿ ªmØq¿

S-tbm´ßfpw ]em-b-\-ßfpw \nc-h[n kn\n-a-I-fpsS CXn-hr-Ø-am-bn´p-≠v. \n[n-tX-Snbpw ]pXnb temI-a-t\z-jn®pw \S-Ønb Zo¿Lhpw kw`h
_lp-e-ß-fp-amb bm{X-I-sf-°p-dn-®p≈ kn\n-a-Ifpw Gsd-bp-≠v.Ah-bvs°ms°-bpw kml-kn-I-X-bp-tSbpw hoc-\m-b-IXz-Øn-t‚bpw Iog-S-°-ep-I-fp-tSbpw
IY-I-fmWv ]d-bp-hm-\p-≈-Xv. AS-ßmØ Zpcbpw A[n-Im-c-{`m¥pw a\p-jys\
F{X-am{Xw {Iqc\pw Zbm-c-ln-X-\p-am-°p-sa∂v t_m≤y-s∏-Sp-Øp-I-bmWv
"AKzn¿, Z dmØv Hm^v tKmUv' F∂ kn\n-a-bn¬ \mw ImWp∂ Ahn-iz-k\o-b-amb bm{X.
am¿®v 2009

31

1 9 7 2 ¬ sh¿W¿ sl¿tkmKv
kwhn-[m\w sNbvXp ]pd-Øn-d-°nb
Cu P¿Ω≥ Nn{Xw hfsc ]gb Hcp
bm{X-tb-°p-dn-®m-Wv. Cu kn\n-a-bn¬
\mb-I≥ (A-ßs\ Hcmƒ thW-sa¶n¬) h\yhpw \nKq-V-hp-amb Batkm¨ ag-°m-Sm-Wv. CwI kwkvImchpw `c-Whpw bqtdm-]y≥ A[n-\n-thi-Øn¬ XI¿®-bnemb Imew. 1560¬
kvs]bn-\n¬ \n∂p≈ tk\mw-K-߃
B≥Uokv ]¿∆XØn- \ p- a - ∏ p- d sØtßm Ds≠∂v ]d- b - s ∏- S p∂
kph¿Æ-\K
- c- n-bmb F¬-˛s- Um-dm-tUmI-s≠-Øm-\p≈ bm{X-bn-emWv. Ip∂pIq-´nb s]m∂pw apØpw Iø-S°n B
{]tZiw IqSn kvs]bn-\ns‚ Iogn-em°p-hm-\p≈ bm{X!
Ncn-{X-tc-J-I-fn-ep≈ Cu bm{X˛
IqsS-bp-≠m-bn-cp∂ ]ptcm-lnX-\mb Kmkv]¿ sZ I¿hm-Pens‚ (ho- s ≠- S p- ° - s ∏- ´ )
Ubdn °pdn-∏p-Isf ASnÿm-\-am°n F∂ coXn-bnem-bWv Ah-X-cn-∏n-°p-∂Xv. ""C∂v {InkvXp-akv
Zn\w.
Rß- f psS
kwLw Ah-km-\sØ
aebpw Xm≠n Cd-ßpI-bmWv'' F∂ \tc-‰dpsS {]kv X m- h - \ tbmsSbmWv kn\na
Bcw-`n-°p-∂-Xv.
sImSpw- X - W p- ∏ n¬
Zp¿L-S-amb ae-s©-cn-hn-eqsS \qdp-IW-°n\v AwK-ß-fp-ff kwLw Xmtgm´n-d-ßp-I-bm-Wv. shSn-t°m-∏p-Ifpw ]oc¶n-Ifpw `£-W-Np-aSpw ]√-°p-I-fn¬

32 imkv{X-tI-cfw

kv{XoIfpw IpXn-c-Ifpw Nße- ° n´ sdUv - C ≥Uym- ° mcmb
ASn- a - I fpw
`S≥amcpw AS- ß nb
kwLw. CS- X q¿∂
sImSpw Im´n-eq-tS-bp≈
bm{X AXoh ZpjvI-cam-bn-cp-∂p. IpXn-s®m-gpIp∂
Ba- t kmWns‚ XocØv
Ah¿ hn{i-an-°m\mbn Xº- S n- ® p.
F√m-hcpw
Xf¿∂p Ign-™n-cp-∂p.
kwL-Ø-e-h-\mb tKm¨kmtem
]nkm-tcm-hpw, `S-\mb tUm¨tem]v
sZ AKzdpw bm{X-bpsS `mhn-sb-°pdn®v kwkm-cn-°p-I-bm-Wv. AKz-dns‚
ssiXyw Dd™ sh≈mcw IÆp-Iƒ
\n¿hn- I m- c - s a∂v tXm∂p- s a- ¶ nepw
t{]£-I-cn-te°v `b-Øns‚ XWp∏v
kw{I-an-∏n-°p-∂-h-bm-Wv. ]cn-°p-aq-eap≈ apS¥v Abm- f psS hy‡n- X zØns‚ Nn”- a mbpw
\ap°v

A\p-`-h-s∏-Spw.
CXp-h-scbp≈-Xnepw ITn-\-am-bncn°pw C\n-bp≈ bm{X F∂ A`n-{]m-

b-amWv AKzn-dn\v. Icp-Xnb `£Ww
Xo¿∂p XpS- ß n.

kulr-Z]q¿∆w kzoI-cn-°p∂ Xt±-iob
{Kmao-Wsc Ft∏m-gmWv Is≠-Øm-\mhpI F∂-dn-bn-√. Imem-h-ÿm-am‰w
kwLmw-K-ßsf h√msX Xf¿Øn-°gn-™p. F√m-hcpw IqSn k∂m-l-ßtfmsS bm{X XpS-cp-∂Xv Bfl-l-Xym]- c - a m- b n- c n- ° p- s a∂v a\-   n- e m- ° nb
]nkmtcm ]pXnb Xocp-am-\s- a-Sp-°p-∂p.
\m¬]Xv AwK- ß - f p≈ Hcp
kwLw Nßm-S-Øn¬ bm{X XpS-cpI. _m°n-bp-≈-h¿ Ah-cpsS
hnh-c-Øn-\mbn ImØn-cn-°p-I.
F¬sUm- d m- t Um- b n- t e- ° p≈
Fs¥-¶nepw kqN-\-Itfm a\pjy-hm-k-ap≈ {Kma-ßtfm Is≠Øn-bm¬ Ah¿ Xncn-®p-h∂v hnhc-a-dn-bn-°-Ww. HcmgvN hsc ,k-abw
\¬Ip-∂p. AXn-\n-S-bn¬ Xncn-s®Øn- b n- s √- ¶ n¬ F√m- h cpw acn®p
F∂ \nK-a-\-Øn¬ Xncn®p t]mIp-∂XmWv.
tUm¨ s]t{Zm D¿kp- h sb
]pXnb kwL-Øns‚ t\Xm-hmbpw
AKzn-dns\ D]-t\-Xm-hmbpw Npa-Xe
- s- ∏Sp-Øp-∂p. D¿kp-hb
- psS `mcybpw AKzn-

al-Ømb kn\n-a-Ifn-eqsS Hcp bm{X
dns‚ aIfpw Ah-tcm-sSm∏w tN¿°s∏-Sp-∂p. {_Z¿ Im¿h-Pm¬ k`-bpsS
{]Xn- \ n- [ n- b mbpw
tUm¨
s^¿WmtUm kvs]bn≥ cmP-hw-iØns‚ {]Xn-\n-[n-bmbpw kwL-tØmsSm-∏-ap-≠v.
Ba- t km- W ns‚ IpsØm- g p- ° neqsS ASn-a-Iƒ Xpg-b-p∂ aq∂v XSn®-ßm-S-ß-fn-embv ac-W-Øn-tet°m
hnP- b - Ø n- t et°m F∂v \n›- b - a n√mØ bm{X Bcw-`n-°p-∂p. A]-cn-NnXhpw A]-ISw \nd-™-Xp-amb {]tZi-ßf- mWv ap∂n¬. \Zn-bpsS Cc-ºhpw
ImSns‚ `oXn-s]-øp∂ \ni-_vZ-Xbpw
am{Xw.
bm{X-°n-S-bn¬ Hcp Nßm-Shpw bm{X-°mcpw Npgn-bn¬s]´v \Zn-bpsS adpI-c-bnse Hcp hnS-hn¬ IpSp-ßn-t∏m-Ip∂p. \Zn-bpsS Ccºw aqew Ah-cp-ambn
Imcy-߃ hnfn®p ]d-bm\pw km[n-°p∂n-√. Ahsc c£n-°m-\p≈ hgn-bt- \zjn-°p-I-bmWv D¿kp-h. ]t£ IqtSbp≈ Hmtcm-cp-Øcpw Xs‚ e£y-Ønte-°p≈ D]-I-c-W-߃ am{X-ambn

]cn-K-Wn-°p∂ AKzn-dn\v B \n¿tZ-itØmSv FXn¿∏m-bn-cp-∂p. Ahsc acn-

sh¿W¿ sl¿tkmKv

°m≥ hn´v sIm≠v bm{X XpS-c-W-sa∂m-bn-cp∂p Abm-fpsS A`n-{]m-bw.
B⁄m-i-‡n-bm¬ ]Xps° AKzn¿
kwL-t\-XrXzw Gs‰-SpØp XpS-ßn-bncp-∂p.
Xt∂mSv hnt[-bX
- z-ap≈ A¿a-tUmhn-t\mSv Hcp c£m-kw-L-ap-≠m°n \ZnbpsS adp-I-c-bn-se-Øm\p≈ hgn Is≠Øm\pw IpSp-ßn-t∏mb
kwLmw-K-ßsf c£n°m- \ p- a mbn D¿kph
\n¿tZ-in-°p-∂p.
\Zn-bnse Nßm-SØn¬ IpSp- ß n- b - h ¿
acn-®p-In-S-°p-∂-XmWv
]nt‰∂v
ImeØv
ImWp- ∂ - X v . Nnesc
ImWm-\p-an-√. BZn-a-\nhm- k n- I - f mb sdUv
C ¥ y m ° m ¿
AsºbvXp sIm∂-XmW-h-sc.Ah-cpsS ih-

kw-kvImcw aXm-Nm-c-{]-Imcw \SØm- \ p≈ {ia- Ø n- e mWv D¿kphbpw ]ptcm-ln-X-\pw. ]t£ AKzndns‚ \n¿-tZisØ XpS¿∂v ]oc-¶nsIm≠v Nßm- S hpw ico- c - ß fpw
XI¿Øp If-™p.
Hcp cm{Xn s]bvX s]cp-a-g-bn¬
\Zn-bnse Pe-\n-c∏v ]Xn-\©v ASntbmfw Db¿∂p. Nßm-S-߃ HgpIn-t∏m-bn. bm{X aXn-bm°n Xncn-®pt]m-Im-\p≈ D¿kp-h-bpsS Xocp-am\sØ [n°-cn-®p-sIm≠v ]pXnb
NßmSw ]Wn-bp-I-bmWv AKzn¿.
F¬ sUmtdmtUm Is≠Øn,
A¥-an-√mØ kºØpw A[n-Imchpw t\Sp-Is- b-∂XmWv AKzn-dns‚
kz]v \ w. ]nkm- t dm- h n- t \bpw
kvs]bn-\nse cmPm-hn-t\bpw X߃ Poh≥ ]W-bwsh®v t\Sp∂
ku`m- K y- ß ƒ°v DS- a - b m- t °≠
Bh- i y- a n- s √- ∂ mWv AKzn- d ns‚
aXw. ]mf-b-Øn¬ Xs∂ ]S-\-bn°p- I - b mWv AKzn¿. Xs∂
FXn¿Ø-hsc Hmtcm-cp-Ø-tc-bmbn
hI-h-cp-Øp-I-bmWv ]n∂o-Sv. `ojWn-bpsS hmƒ ap\-bn¬ _m°n-bp≈-h-sc- IqsS \n¿Øp-∂p. ac-WØns‚ XWpØ Xtem-S¬ t]msebmWv AKzn-dns‚ \ni-_vZX a‰p-≈h¿°v A\p-`-h-s∏-Sp-∂-Xv.
\Zn-°-c-bnse \n_n-V-amb ac°q-´-ß-fn¬ \n∂v A{]-Xo-£n-Xambn h∂p hogp∂ Aºp-I-tf-‰pw ,
ae-º-\nbpw ]´n-Wnbpw sIm≠p
_m°n-bp-≈-hcpw Hmtcm-cp-Ø-cmbn
acn®p XpS- ß p- ∂ p. ]s£
CsXm∂pw AKzn-dns\ Xf¿Øp-∂n√. am\-tØm-f-ap-b¿∂p \n¬-°p∂
ac-Øn¬ Hcp ]mb-°-∏¬ Xßn\n¬°p- ∂ - X mbn Nßm- S - Ø nse
Nne¿ aXn-{`-aØ
- n¬ ImWp-Xmbn ]dam¿®v 2009

33

bp-∂p-≠v. h∂p-sIm≈p∂ Aºp-Iƒ
shdpw tXm∂-ep-I-fmbn kam-[m-\n®v
Hmtcm- c p- Ø - c mbn acn- ® p- h o- g p- ∂ p.
Atº‰p hogp∂ aIsf Xmßp-tºmƒ
t]mepw AKzn¿ H∂p hnXp-ºp-∂n-√.
Poh-\p≈ Hmtc-sbmcp hy‡n C\n
B Nßm-S-Øn¬ AKzn¿ am{X-ta-bp≈q. s]s´- ∂ mWv \qdp- I - W - ° n\v
Nne¥nIp-c-ß≥am¿ Nßm-S-Øn¬
\nd- b p- ∂ - X v . AKzn¿ Xt∂mSp
Xt∂bpw Nne-t∏mƒ Ipc-ß≥am-tcmSp-ambn ]d-bp-∂p-≠v. ˛ ""ac-ap-I-fnse
]mbv°∏-tedn Rm≥ A‰vem‚n-°nseØpw kvs]bn-\n¬ \n∂pw {Sn\n\mUv ]nSn- ® - S - ° pw, tIm¿´- k n¬
\n∂pw saIv k n- t °m- b pw.- ] pXnb
kv s ]bn≥ \n¿Ωn- ° pw.'' aIsf
hnhmlw sNbvXv Ie¿∏n-√mØ cmPhwiw Bcw-`n-°pw. GIm-In-sb-¶nepw
]X-dmsX \n¬°p∂ AKzn-dn\p Np‰pw
Iymad Id-ßn-s°m≠v \n¬°sh
kn\na Ah-km-\n-°p-∂p.

AKzn¿ Bbn Cu kn\n-a-bn¬
thj-an-´n-cn-°p-∂Xv ¢mkv In≥kvIn
F∂ AZzn-Xob \S-\m-Wv.... Hcp arKim-e-bn¬ sacp-°-s∏´ Hcp Im´p-arK-amWv Xms\∂pw Iq¿Ø \J-ap-\Iƒ°v ]Icw X\n°v A`n- \ - b -

¢mkv In≥kvIn
Øns‚ {]Xn- ` - b m- W p- ≈ - s X∂pw
kzbw hne- b n- c p- Ø nb \S- \ mWv
At±-lw. B¿°pw sacp-°m≥ hnj-

a-amb ˛ {`m¥-amb s]cp-am-‰-io-e-ßfp≈ In≥kvIn˛ AKzn-dmbn A`n-\-bn®-t∏mƒ ˛ temI-kn-\n-a-bn¬Øs∂
Imºp≈ Hcp IYm-]m-{X-ambn amdn.
sl¿tkm-Kns‚ \nc-h[n kn\n-aI-fn¬ In≥kvIn A`n-\-bn-®n-´p-≠v.
kn\na \nc- £ - c s‚ Ie- b msW∂pw henb ]Tn-∏p-Im-cpsS Bhiy-an-s√∂pw hnfn®p ]d™ kwhn-[mb-I-\mWv sl¿tkm-Kv. 1942¬ ayqWn®n¬ ]nd∂ Ct±lw _th-dn-b-bnse
Hcp hnZqc ]¿∆- X - { Km- a - Ø n- e mWv
hf¿∂-Xv. kvIqƒ ]T-\-Im-eØv Hcp
Ão¬ ^mIvS-dn-bnse sh¬U-dpsS
klm-bn-bmbn tPmen sNbvXv Xs‚
BZy kn\n-a-°p≈ ]Ww D≠m-°m≥
{ian-®p. ayqWn®v ^nenw kvIqfn¬ ]Tn°p-tºmƒ AhnsS \n∂pw tamjvSn®
35 Fw Fw Iymad D]-tbm-Kn®v kn\na-I-fp-≠m-°n. AtX Iymad D]-tbmKn-®m-Wt{X "AKzn¿' At±lw jq´v
sNbvX-Xv.

]n≥I-h¿

tlmgvkv slUv s\_qe
_¿Wm-Uv-˛33 F∂ t]cnepw Adn-bs∏-Sp∂ tlmgvkvslUv s\_qe (Horse
head nebula) Hmdn- b ¨ \£- { X- k - a q- l -

34 imkv{X-tI-cfw

Ønse Hcp Ccp≠ s\_q-e-bm-Wv.
]n∂n- e p≈ \£- { X- ß - f n¬
\n∂p≈ {]Imiw ad-bv°-Ø°
hn[-Øn¬ ÿnXn-sN-øp∂ {Zhy-]S-e-amWv Ccp≠ s\_qeIƒ (Dark
Nebula) tlmgvkvslUv s\_qe
`qan-bn¬ \n∂pw 1500 {]Im-i-h¿j߃°-∏p-damWv ÿnXn-sN-øp-∂Xv. cq]-k-hn-ti-jX sIm≠p-Xs∂
{]tXyIw {i≤n- ° - s ∏- S p∂ Hcp
s\_q-eb
- m-Wn-Xv. s]mSn-]S- e
- ß
- fpw
hmX-I-ß-fp-a-S-ßnb Cu Ccp≠
taL-]-Sew Hcp IpXn-c-bpsS Xet]m-se-bmWv Zriy-am-IpI. AXpsIm- ≠ m- W nXv tlmgv k v slUv
s\_qe F∂-dn-bs- ∏-Sp-∂X
- v. 1888¬

lmhmUv tImtfPv H_vk¿th-‰-dnbn¬ \n∂pw hneym-an\ ^vsfanwKv
BWv tlmgvkv slUv s\_q-ebpsS hnNn-{X-amb Cu BIm-i-khn-ti-jX Is≠-Øn-b-Xv. BIr-XnbpsS khn-ti-jX sIm≠p-Xs∂
Hcp ]t£ G‰-hp-a-[nIw Ombm-{KlWw sNø-s∏-´n-´p≈ BIm-i-hkv X p- ° - f n¬ H∂mWv CXv .
tlmgv k v s lUv s\_q- e - b psS
]n∂n-ep≈ {]Im-i-Øns‚ {][m\
Dd-hnSw IC434 F∂ s\_q-e-bm-Wv.
i‡n-tb-dnb Hcp Zqc-Z¿in-\n-bpsS
klm- b - t ØmsS
am{Xta
tlmgvkvslUv s\_qe \ap°v
Zriy-am-hp-I-bp-≈q.