4.

4 Bode Plots
Decibels
Before launching into this section, we will consider the unit of decibels, which is
widely used in engineering. The amplitude of a frequency domain function ( ) A ω
can be
written in decibels by
( )
10
20log
db
A A ω ·
.
The phase of ( ) A ω
is expressed the same as before.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Examples
on!ert to decibels "db#$
i. ( ) 1 A ω ·
ii. ( ) 10 A ω ·
iii. ( ) 100 A ω ·
i!. ( ) 0.01 A ω ·
%olution
i. ( ) ( )
10 10
20log 20log 1 0
db
A A ω · · ·
ii. ( )
10
20log 10 20 1 20
db
A · · × ·
iii. ( )
2
10
20log 10 &0 1 &0
db
A · · × ·
i!. ( )
2
10
20log 10 &0 1 &0
db
A

· · − × · −
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Bode Plots
%uppose we ha!e a system with the transfer function
( )
'
'
10
10
H s
s
·
+
"&.&.1#
This is a one-pole, low pass filter. ( )now that for any frequency, we will be most
interested in the magnitude and phase. *owe!er, instead of +ust magnitude, it will pro!e
to be ad!antageous to loo) at the answer in decibels, which is
( ) ( )
10
20log
dB
H H ω ω ·
.
,hat will that gi!e us- ,hen
'
10 ω << ,
( )
' '
' '
10 10
1
10 10
H
j
ω
ω
· ≅ ·
+
&.& Bode .lots '/12/201& 1
and the logarithm of one 0ero. ,hat happens when omega is much greater than
'
10 -
( )
' '
'
10 10
10
H
j j
ω
ω ω
· ≅
+
.
and
( )
'
10 10 '
10
20log 20log
10
dB
j
H
j
ω
ω
ω
· · −
,
e.g., at
&
10 ω ·
( )
&
10 '
10
20log 20
10
dB
H ω · − · −
,
1
10 ω ·
( )
1
10 '
10
20log &0
10
dB
H ω · − · −
,
i.e., it drops at the rate of 20 dB per decade. ,hat about right at
'
10 ω · -
( )
'
10 ' '
10
10
20log
10 10
1
20log ' .
2
dB
H
j
dB
ω · −
+
· − · −
2ow consider the phase. ,e calculate this by
( )
( )
( )
'
'
'
10
10
10
H j
j
ω ω
ω

∠ · · −∠ +
∠ +
,hen
'
10 ω = , ( ) 0 H jω ∠ ≅
. ,hen
'
10 ω ? , ( ) ( ) 30
o
H j j ω ω ∠ · −∠ · −
. The other
times, we ha!e to calculate it. 4 Bode plot can be generated by the 54T64B
commands$
g 7 tf" 8 10009,81 1000 9#
bode"g#
This is shown in :ig. &.&.1a. The following 54T64B program offers better control of
the figures$
% My_bode.m
w = (10^1:2:10^5);
WW = log10(w);
% A one-pole LPR
num = [1e3];
den = [1 1e3];
g = tf (num,den)
H = freqs(num,den,w);
% Bode plots
subplot(2,1,1)
&.& Bode .lots '/12/201& 2
semilogx(w,20*log10(abs(H)),'k')
axis ( [ 10^2 10^5 -40 5 ])
set(gca,'fontsize',14)
ylabel('|H| db')
grid on
title('My-bode')
subplot(2,1,2)
semilogx(w,(180/pi)*angle(H),'k');
axis ( [ 10^1 10^5 -100 10 ])
set(gca,'YTick',[ -180 -90 -45 0 45 90 ])
set(gca,'fontsize',14)
xlabel('\omega (rad/sec)');
ylabel('/_ H (degrees)')
grid on
The results of this program are shown in :ig. &.&.1.b.
"a# Bode plot of ;q. "&.&.1# using the 54T64B command bode.
&.& Bode .lots '/12/201& '
"a# Bode plot of ;q. "&.&.1# using my_bode.m
:igure &.&.1. Bode plots of the one-pole low pass filter of ;q. "&.&.1#.
(f you are constructing a bode plot by hand, first draw the asymptotes, i.e, 0 between
'
0 10 ω < < , and minus 20 dB per decade for
'
10 ω > . 4t
'
10 ω · , it must be -' db.
Then connect the lines smoothly. To draw the phase, it is 0ero for
'
10 ω = and 30
degrees for
'
10 ω ? . 4t
'
10 ω · , it is &1 degrees. %o draw the cur!e that shows this.
2ow suppose the transfer function were
( )
( )
<
2
'
10
10
H s
s
·
+
. "&.&.2#
This is clearly a two pole low pass filter. ,e could go through the same procedure, and
find that abo!e
'
10 ω · , the magnitude decreased at &0 db per decade, and at
'
10 ω · it is
= <db. The phase ranges from 0 to -1>0 degrees, and right at
'
10 ω · it is -30 degrees.
This is shown in :ig. &.&.2.
&.& Bode .lots '/12/201& &
:igure &.&.2. Bode plot of the two pole low pass filter in ;q. "&.&.2#.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Example
This example demonstrates one of the primary reasons for the Bode plots. %uppose the
input to the two-pole low pass filter of ;q. "&.&.2# is
( )
'
2cos"2 10 '0 #
o
x t t · × +
. "&.&.'#
,hat comes out-
%olution
To determine this, we need only go to the Bode plot and find the corresponding
frequency of 2000 ω · rad/sec, as shown in :ig. &.&.'. The magnitude is at about -1&
dB. This corresponds to
( )
10
1& 20log H ω − ·
or
( )
?/10
10 0.13< H ω

· ·
%imilarly, we read a phase shift of -121 degrees. %o we would say the output is
( ) ( )
( )
'
'
.13< 2cos"2 10 '0 121 #
0.'32cos 2 10 31
o o
o
y t t
t
· × + −
· × −
"&.&.&#
hec)
&.& Bode .lots '/12/201& 1
( )
( )
( )
( )
<
2 2
' '
2
10 1
2 1
2 10 10
1
0.2 12<
1 <'
o
o
H
j
j
ω · ·
+
× +
· · ∠−

:igure &.&.'. @sing the Bode plot to determine attenuation and phase shift
of ;q. "&.&.2# at
'
2 10 ω · × rad/sec.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
%uppose ( had
( )
'
'
10
10
s
H s
+
· . "&.&.1#
The 0ero at
'
10 ω · means it will start rising at a rate of 20 db/decade. 2ote that abo!e
'
10 ω · is loo)s li)e a differentiator.
&.& Bode .lots '/12/201& <
:igure &.&.&. Bode plot of ;q. "&.&.1#.
2ow let us loo) at the filter described by
( )
( ) ( )
'
'
10
10 10
s
H s
s s
·
+ +
. "&.&.<#
;quation "&.&.<# has a A0ero,B the s term in the numerator. ,hat does this transfer
function loo) li)e when 10 ω = $
( )
( ) ( )
'
1
10 '
10
10
10 10
j
H j
ω
ω
ω ω

· ·
=
.
This loo)s li)e a AdifferentiatorB for low frequencies. Cemember that for both 6aplace
and :ourier transforms, ( ) sX s
or ( ) j X j ω ω
means Athe :ourier "6aplace# transform of
the deri!ati!e of x(t).” (t loo)s li)e a differentiator until it gets near the first pole at
10 ω · . To find out what happens, letDs see what it is at 100 ω · $
( )
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
' '
100 ' '
100 100
10 10 1
100 10 100 10 100 10
j j
H
j j j
ω
ω
·
· ≅ ·
+ +
.
(n other words, it has little frequency dependence, at least until it starts approaching
1000 ω · . 4bo!e 1000 ω · , what happens-
( )
( ) ( )
'
'
1000 '
10
10
10 10
j
H
j j j
ω
ω
ω
ω ω ω
· ≅
+ +
?
.
2ow ( would say it has started to loo) li)e an integrator. The Bode plot is gi!en in :ig.
&.&.1.
&.& Bode .lots '/12/201& ?
:igure &.&.1. Bode plot of the band pass filter in ;q. "&.&.<#.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Example
%uppose the following function, T 7 10 ms, is put through the filter described by
;q. "&.&.<#. *ow many terms do ( really need to describe the output-
%olution
,e found earlier that the :ourier series is
( ) ( )
0
0
1
1
2 cos
'
jn t
n n
n n
x t X e X n t
ω
ω
∞ ∞
·−∞ ·
· · +
∑ ∑
( ) sin / '
n
n
X
n
π
π
·
&.& Bode .lots '/12/201& >
:or
2
10 T s

·
2 2
0
2
2 10 <.2> 10
T
π
ω π · · × · ×
'
0
2 1.21 10 ω · ×
'
0
' 1.>> 10 ω · ×
'
0
& 2.1 10 ω · ×
'
0
1 '.?? 10 ω · ×
:igure &.&.<. Bode plot of ;q. "&.&.<# with the frequencies of the example
mar)ed at the corresponding position.
learly the dc term will pass undisturbed. 4t n 7 1, the filter attenuates about 2 db or
10
20log 2 H · −
10
log 0.1 H · −
1
0.?3 H ·
4t n7 1, itDs about -11 db,
10 1
log 0.2> H ·
&.& Bode .lots '/12/201& 3
2ote also, that the magnitudes of the input terms are attenuated as the frequency
increases. By n71, the ration of amplitudes between the n71 term and the n7 1 term is
1 1
1 1
1/ 1 0.2>
0.0?
1/1 0.?3
H X
X H
· ·
%o you will probably not be ma)ing a significant error by only using the first fi!e terms.
E4ctually,
'
0 X ·
.F
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-
Example
The following function goes through a filter with the following Bode plot. ,hat comes
out-
( ) ( ) cos 2000 x t t ·
.
:igure &.&.>. Bode plot of a :ilter.
%olution
4t 2 )*0, the attenuation is about -1' db and -121 degrees.
( )
1 <.1
10
1'
log 10 0.22'
20
H ω
− −
− ¸ _
· · ·
÷
¸ ,
&.& Bode .lots '/12/201& 10
%o
( ) ( )
0.22'cos 1000 121
o
y t t · −
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-
Drawing Bode Plots
(n drawing the magnitude, the following rules are used in first drawing the asymptotes$
1. ;ach pole, i.e., a term li)e
0
1
s ω +
, will result in a negati!e slope of -20 db/decade once
the frequency is abo!e
0
ω
. 4 term
1
s
means the plot starts with a -20 db/decade slope.
2. ;ach 0ero, i.e., a term li)e
0
s ω +
, will result in a positi!e slope of 20 db/decade once
the frequency is abo!e
0
ω
. 4 term
s
means the plot starts with a 20 db/decade slope.
(n drawing the phase plot, the following rules apply$
'. ;ach pole
0
1
s ω +
will result in a negati!e 30 degree phase shift one decade beyond
0
ω
.
(t has no effect a decade before
0
ω
, and right at
0
ω
it results in a -&1 degree phase shift.
&. ;ach 0ero
0
s ω +
will result in a positi!e 30 degree phase shift one decade beyond
0
ω
.
(t has no effect a decade before
0
ω
, and right at
0
ω
it results in a &1 degree phase shift.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Example
Graw a Bode plot for the following transfer function
( )
( )
( )
&
&
2
10
10
10
s s
H s
s

+
·
+
%olution
( see that there are 0eros at s 7 0 and
&
10 s · and a pole at
2
10 s · . The 0ero at s
7 0 means it is originally going up at 20 db/decade. Then at
2
10 s · is flattens, and at
&
10 s · it starts up at 20 db/decade again. To get a reference point, ( e!aluate at
'
10 s ·
( )
( )
'
&
' &
10
10
10 10 1
s
s
H
s

·
≅ ·
&.& Bode .lots '/12/201& 11
:urthermore, ( see the angle
( )
( )
'
&
' &
10
10
10 10 arctan 0
o
s
s
j
H
s j
ω
ω

·
¸ _
∠ ≅ · ·
÷
¸ ,
:rom there ( can draw the asymptotes.
:igure &.&.3. 4symptotic approximation of the bode plot for
( )
( )
&
&
2
" 10 #
10
10
s s
H s
s

+
·
+
.
The 54T64B commands
g=tf[1e-3* [ 1 1e4 0]],[1 1e2] ]
bode(g)
produce the following$
&.& Bode .lots '/12/201& 12
:igure &.&.10. Bode plot of
( )
( )
&
&
2
" 10 #
10
10
s s
H s
s

+
·
+
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Example
Graw the Bode plot of the transfer function of the following circuit assuming the
following !alues$ 6 7 10 m*, 7 1
F µ
, and C 7 21 Ω.
:igure &.&.11. 4n C6 circuit.
%olution
&.& Bode .lots '/12/201& 1'
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
2
>
2 ' >
1/
1/
1/
/ 1/
10
2.1 10 10
out
in
s s!
H s
s s" # s!
"!
s s # " "!
s s
· ·
+ +
·
+ +
·
+ × +
( see that the denominator is second order, so ( will loo) for the position of the
two poles
( )
( )
( )
2
' ' >
2
' '
2.1 10 2.1 10 & 10
2
2.1 2.1 &00
10 1.21 3.32 10
2
$
− × t × − ×
·
− t −
· × · − t ×
:orm this ( see that the corresponding corner frequency is
3.32 %H& ω ·
. ,hat is H(s) at
this !alue- ":or simplicity, ( will use s'j()))F
( )
( ) ( )
( )
>
2
& & >
<
> & >
10
10 21 10 10
10 &
& 30
10 21 10 10
o
H s
j j
j j
·
+ +
· · · ∠−
− + +
( )
10
20log & 12 db ·
(nstead of the -< bd attenuation that we expect at the corner frequency of a two
pole low pass filter, this has a gain. This gain is )nown as o*ers+oot. 4t the resonant
frequency of the circuit, this !alue of # is not enough to completely dampen the
resonance. The Bode plot is gi!en below.
&.& Bode .lots '/12/201& 1&
:igure &.&.12. Bode plot of
( )
>
2 >
10
2100 10
H s
s s
·
+ +
.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-
,hat !alue of C would be enough to get the )ind of damping we would expect
from a two-pole 6.:-
( )
( )
> >
2 2 & >
&
10 10
2 10 10
10
H s
s
s
· ·
+ × +
+
%o if C were 200 Ω, then
2
/ 200/10 20000 # "

· · , we would the Bode plot below$
&.& Bode .lots '/12/201& 11
:igure &.&.1'. The Bode plot of ( )
>
2 & >
10
2 10 10
H s
s
·
+ × +
.
Deter,ining t+e Trans-er Function -ro, a Bode Plot.
The Bode plot can be thought of as a detailed, quantitati!e description of a
function, usually a transfer function. 4s we ha!e seen, if we ha!e the Bode plot
describing the transfer function we )now how a signal at any frequency will be effected.
(n this section, we will describe how to construct the transfer function from a Bode plot.
This is often useful in determining the qualitati!e features of a transfer function. :or
instance, in :ig. &.&.1&, we can see that this is the transfer function of a band pass filter.
4mong other things, dc components will not pass through, and high frequency
components will be attenuated. *owe!er, if the problem at hand is to determine how a
signal is effected by a transfer function and the Bode plot is a!ailable, there is no reason
to fist construct the transfer function from the Bode plot.
&.& Bode .lots '/12/201& 1<
:igure &.&.1&. (n the abo!e Bode plot, at the far left side, we see that there is a 20
db/decade rise. 4mong other things, this says that no dc term will pass. ,e also
see that on the far right side, there is a minus 20 db/decade slope, so frequency
components at
1
10 rad/sec and abo!e will be attenuated.
:irst, write down the poles and 0eros by obser!ing the slopes on the magnitude
plot. Then from a flat point on the slope, e!aluate the magnitude. This will gi!e the
multiplying constant.
%ometimes, plots created from a transfer function with multiple poles and 0eros
can be e!aluated with the help of the phase plot. :or instance, if the plot ends at -30
degrees, it means there were two more poles than 0eros. (f it starts at 30 degrees, it
means that there is a term
2
1/ s .
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Example.
:ind the transfer function corresponding to the Bode plot in :igure &.&.11.
%olution
(t this case more can be learned by loo)ing at the angle. :or the !ery low
frequencies, the angle is -30 degrees, so there must by a factor 1/s. Then at
2
10 ω · it
passes through &1 degrees on its way up, so there is a 0ero at
2
10 ω · , gi!ing a factor
&.& Bode .lots '/12/201& 1?
2
10 s + in the numerator. Then it passes through -&1 degrees on its way bac) down to
30 − degrees at
&
10 ω · . %o far, ( suspect my transfer function loo)s something li)e
( )
( )
2
&
10
10
s
H s .
s s
+
·
+
,
where . is an un)nown constant. To get . ( ha!e to loo) at the magnitude. 4t
'
10 ω · it
appears to be -&0 db, so
( )
'
2
10
&
10
10
&0 20log
10
j
db .
j j
ω
ω
ω ω
·
1
+
− · 1
+
1
¸ ]
( )
'
&
10 10
' &
10
10
2 log log 10
10 10
log &
j
. .
j
.

1
1 − ≅ · 1
¸ ]
1
¸ ]
· −
2
10 . ·
( )
( )
2
2
&
10
10
10
s
H s
s s
+
·
+
:igure &.&.11. Bode plot of a transfer function.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Exercises
&.& Bode .lots '/12/201& 1>
&.&.1. Graw by hand the bode plot of
( )
( )
( )
< 2
2 < 10
10 10
1.01 10 10
s
H s
s
+
·
+ × +
.
&.&.2. Cepeat problem &.&.1 using a 54T64B program.
&.&.' The pattern illustrated below repeats at 0.1 msec inter!als. (t is run through a filter
whose transfer function is described by the Bode plot. ,hat comes out "to within 10H
accuracy#-
&.& Bode .lots '/12/201& 13