# 4.

4 Bode Plots
Decibels
Before launching into this section, we will consider the unit of decibels, which is
widely used in engineering. The amplitude of a frequency domain function ( ) A ω
can be
written in decibels by
( )
10
20log
db
A A ω ·
.
The phase of ( ) A ω
is expressed the same as before.
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Examples
on!ert to decibels "db#$i. ( ) 1 A ω · ii. ( ) 10 A ω · iii. ( ) 100 A ω · i!. ( ) 0.01 A ω · %olution i. ( ) ( ) 10 10 20log 20log 1 0 db A A ω · · · ii. ( ) 10 20log 10 20 1 20 db A · · × · iii. ( ) 2 10 20log 10 &0 1 &0 db A · · × · i!. ( ) 2 10 20log 10 &0 1 &0 db A · · − × · − ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Bode Plots %uppose we ha!e a system with the transfer function ( ) ' ' 10 10 H s s · + "&.&.1# This is a one-pole, low pass filter. ( )now that for any frequency, we will be most interested in the magnitude and phase. *owe!er, instead of +ust magnitude, it will pro!e to be ad!antageous to loo) at the answer in decibels, which is ( ) ( ) 10 20log dB H H ω ω · . ,hat will that gi!e us- ,hen ' 10 ω << , ( ) ' ' ' ' 10 10 1 10 10 H j ω ω · ≅ · + &.& Bode .lots '/12/201& 1 and the logarithm of one 0ero. ,hat happens when omega is much greater than ' 10 - ( ) ' ' ' 10 10 10 H j j ω ω ω · ≅ + . and ( ) ' 10 10 ' 10 20log 20log 10 dB j H j ω ω ω · · − , e.g., at & 10 ω · ( ) & 10 ' 10 20log 20 10 dB H ω · − · − , 1 10 ω · ( ) 1 10 ' 10 20log &0 10 dB H ω · − · − , i.e., it drops at the rate of 20 dB per decade. ,hat about right at ' 10 ω · - ( ) ' 10 ' ' 10 10 20log 10 10 1 20log ' . 2 dB H j dB ω · − + · − · − 2ow consider the phase. ,e calculate this by ( ) ( ) ( ) ' ' ' 10 10 10 H j j ω ω ω ∠ · · −∠ + ∠ + ,hen ' 10 ω = , ( ) 0 H jω ∠ ≅ . ,hen ' 10 ω ? , ( ) ( ) 30 o H j j ω ω ∠ · −∠ · − . The other times, we ha!e to calculate it. 4 Bode plot can be generated by the 54T64B commands$
g 7 tf" 8 10009,81 1000 9#
bode"g#
This is shown in :ig. &.&.1a. The following 54T64B program offers better control of
the figures$% My_bode.m w = (10^1:2:10^5); WW = log10(w); % A one-pole LPR num = [1e3]; den = [1 1e3]; g = tf (num,den) H = freqs(num,den,w); % Bode plots subplot(2,1,1) &.& Bode .lots '/12/201& 2 semilogx(w,20*log10(abs(H)),'k') axis ( [ 10^2 10^5 -40 5 ]) set(gca,'fontsize',14) ylabel('|H| db') grid on title('My-bode') subplot(2,1,2) semilogx(w,(180/pi)*angle(H),'k'); axis ( [ 10^1 10^5 -100 10 ]) set(gca,'YTick',[ -180 -90 -45 0 45 90 ]) set(gca,'fontsize',14) xlabel('\omega (rad/sec)'); ylabel('/_ H (degrees)') grid on The results of this program are shown in :ig. &.&.1.b. "a# Bode plot of ;q. "&.&.1# using the 54T64B command bode. &.& Bode .lots '/12/201& ' "a# Bode plot of ;q. "&.&.1# using my_bode.m :igure &.&.1. Bode plots of the one-pole low pass filter of ;q. "&.&.1#. (f you are constructing a bode plot by hand, first draw the asymptotes, i.e, 0 between ' 0 10 ω < < , and minus 20 dB per decade for ' 10 ω > . 4t ' 10 ω · , it must be -' db. Then connect the lines smoothly. To draw the phase, it is 0ero for ' 10 ω = and 30 degrees for ' 10 ω ? . 4t ' 10 ω · , it is &1 degrees. %o draw the cur!e that shows this. 2ow suppose the transfer function were ( ) ( ) < 2 ' 10 10 H s s · + . "&.&.2# This is clearly a two pole low pass filter. ,e could go through the same procedure, and find that abo!e ' 10 ω · , the magnitude decreased at &0 db per decade, and at ' 10 ω · it is = <db. The phase ranges from 0 to -1>0 degrees, and right at ' 10 ω · it is -30 degrees. This is shown in :ig. &.&.2. &.& Bode .lots '/12/201& & :igure &.&.2. Bode plot of the two pole low pass filter in ;q. "&.&.2#. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Example This example demonstrates one of the primary reasons for the Bode plots. %uppose the input to the two-pole low pass filter of ;q. "&.&.2# is ( ) ' 2cos"2 10 '0 # o x t t · × + . "&.&.'# ,hat comes out- %olution To determine this, we need only go to the Bode plot and find the corresponding frequency of 2000 ω · rad/sec, as shown in :ig. &.&.'. The magnitude is at about -1& dB. This corresponds to ( ) 10 1& 20log H ω − · or ( ) ?/10 10 0.13< H ω · · %imilarly, we read a phase shift of -121 degrees. %o we would say the output is ( ) ( ) ( ) ' ' .13< 2cos"2 10 '0 121 # 0.'32cos 2 10 31 o o o y t t t · × + − · × − "&.&.&# hec) &.& Bode .lots '/12/201& 1 ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) < 2 2 ' ' 2 10 1 2 1 2 10 10 1 0.2 12< 1 <' o o H j j ω · · + × + · · ∠− :igure &.&.'. @sing the Bode plot to determine attenuation and phase shift of ;q. "&.&.2# at ' 2 10 ω · × rad/sec. ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- %uppose ( had ( ) ' ' 10 10 s H s + · . "&.&.1# The 0ero at ' 10 ω · means it will start rising at a rate of 20 db/decade. 2ote that abo!e ' 10 ω · is loo)s li)e a differentiator. &.& Bode .lots '/12/201& < :igure &.&.&. Bode plot of ;q. "&.&.1#. 2ow let us loo) at the filter described by ( ) ( ) ( ) ' ' 10 10 10 s H s s s · + + . "&.&.<# ;quation "&.&.<# has a A0ero,B the s term in the numerator. ,hat does this transfer function loo) li)e when 10 ω =$
( )
( ) ( )
'
1
10 '
10
10
10 10
j
H j
ω
ω
ω ω

· ·
=
.
This loo)s li)e a AdifferentiatorB for low frequencies. Cemember that for both 6aplace
and :ourier transforms, ( ) sX s
or ( ) j X j ω ω
means Athe :ourier "6aplace# transform of
the deri!ati!e of x(t).” (t loo)s li)e a differentiator until it gets near the first pole at
10 ω · . To find out what happens, letDs see what it is at 100 ω · $( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ' ' 100 ' ' 100 100 10 10 1 100 10 100 10 100 10 j j H j j j ω ω · · ≅ · + + . (n other words, it has little frequency dependence, at least until it starts approaching 1000 ω · . 4bo!e 1000 ω · , what happens- ( ) ( ) ( ) ' ' 1000 ' 10 10 10 10 j H j j j ω ω ω ω ω ω · ≅ + + ? . 2ow ( would say it has started to loo) li)e an integrator. The Bode plot is gi!en in :ig. &.&.1. &.& Bode .lots '/12/201& ? :igure &.&.1. Bode plot of the band pass filter in ;q. "&.&.<#. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Example %uppose the following function, T 7 10 ms, is put through the filter described by ;q. "&.&.<#. *ow many terms do ( really need to describe the output- %olution ,e found earlier that the :ourier series is ( ) ( ) 0 0 1 1 2 cos ' jn t n n n n x t X e X n t ω ω ∞ ∞ ·−∞ · · · + ∑ ∑ ( ) sin / ' n n X n π π · &.& Bode .lots '/12/201& > :or 2 10 T s · 2 2 0 2 2 10 <.2> 10 T π ω π · · × · × ' 0 2 1.21 10 ω · × ' 0 ' 1.>> 10 ω · × ' 0 & 2.1 10 ω · × ' 0 1 '.?? 10 ω · × :igure &.&.<. Bode plot of ;q. "&.&.<# with the frequencies of the example mar)ed at the corresponding position. learly the dc term will pass undisturbed. 4t n 7 1, the filter attenuates about 2 db or 10 20log 2 H · − 10 log 0.1 H · − 1 0.?3 H · 4t n7 1, itDs about -11 db, 10 1 log 0.2> H · &.& Bode .lots '/12/201& 3 2ote also, that the magnitudes of the input terms are attenuated as the frequency increases. By n71, the ration of amplitudes between the n71 term and the n7 1 term is 1 1 1 1 1/ 1 0.2> 0.0? 1/1 0.?3 H X X H · · %o you will probably not be ma)ing a significant error by only using the first fi!e terms. E4ctually, ' 0 X · .F ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- - Example The following function goes through a filter with the following Bode plot. ,hat comes out- ( ) ( ) cos 2000 x t t · . :igure &.&.>. Bode plot of a :ilter. %olution 4t 2 )*0, the attenuation is about -1' db and -121 degrees. ( ) 1 <.1 10 1' log 10 0.22' 20 H ω − − − ¸ _ · · · ÷ ¸ , &.& Bode .lots '/12/201& 10 %o ( ) ( ) 0.22'cos 1000 121 o y t t · − ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- - Drawing Bode Plots (n drawing the magnitude, the following rules are used in first drawing the asymptotes$
1. ;ach pole, i.e., a term li)e
0
1
s ω +
, will result in a negati!e slope of -20 db/decade once
the frequency is abo!e
0
ω
. 4 term
1
s
means the plot starts with a -20 db/decade slope.
2. ;ach 0ero, i.e., a term li)e
0
s ω +
, will result in a positi!e slope of 20 db/decade once
the frequency is abo!e
0
ω
. 4 term
s
means the plot starts with a 20 db/decade slope.
(n drawing the phase plot, the following rules apply$'. ;ach pole 0 1 s ω + will result in a negati!e 30 degree phase shift one decade beyond 0 ω . (t has no effect a decade before 0 ω , and right at 0 ω it results in a -&1 degree phase shift. &. ;ach 0ero 0 s ω + will result in a positi!e 30 degree phase shift one decade beyond 0 ω . (t has no effect a decade before 0 ω , and right at 0 ω it results in a &1 degree phase shift. ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Example Graw a Bode plot for the following transfer function ( ) ( ) ( ) & & 2 10 10 10 s s H s s + · + %olution ( see that there are 0eros at s 7 0 and & 10 s · and a pole at 2 10 s · . The 0ero at s 7 0 means it is originally going up at 20 db/decade. Then at 2 10 s · is flattens, and at & 10 s · it starts up at 20 db/decade again. To get a reference point, ( e!aluate at ' 10 s · ( ) ( ) ' & ' & 10 10 10 10 1 s s H s · ≅ · &.& Bode .lots '/12/201& 11 :urthermore, ( see the angle ( ) ( ) ' & ' & 10 10 10 10 arctan 0 o s s j H s j ω ω · ¸ _ ∠ ≅ · · ÷ ¸ , :rom there ( can draw the asymptotes. :igure &.&.3. 4symptotic approximation of the bode plot for ( ) ( ) & & 2 " 10 # 10 10 s s H s s + · + . The 54T64B commands g=tf[1e-3* [ 1 1e4 0]],[1 1e2] ] bode(g) produce the following$
&.& Bode .lots '/12/201& 12
:igure &.&.10. Bode plot of
( )
( )
&
&
2
" 10 #
10
10
s s
H s
s

+
·
+
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Example
Graw the Bode plot of the transfer function of the following circuit assuming the
following !alues$6 7 10 m*, 7 1 F µ , and C 7 21 Ω. :igure &.&.11. 4n C6 circuit. %olution &.& Bode .lots '/12/201& 1' ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) 2 > 2 ' > 1/ 1/ 1/ / 1/ 10 2.1 10 10 out in s s! H s s s" # s! "! s s # " "! s s · · + + · + + · + × + ( see that the denominator is second order, so ( will loo) for the position of the two poles ( ) ( ) ( ) 2 ' ' > 2 ' ' 2.1 10 2.1 10 & 10 2 2.1 2.1 &00 10 1.21 3.32 10 2$
− × t × − ×
·
− t −
· × · − t ×
:orm this ( see that the corresponding corner frequency is
3.32 %H& ω ·
. ,hat is H(s) at
this !alue- ":or simplicity, ( will use s'j()))F
( )
( ) ( )
( )
>
2
& & >
<
> & >
10
10 21 10 10
10 &
& 30
10 21 10 10
o
H s
j j
j j
·
+ +
· · · ∠−
− + +
( )
10
20log & 12 db ·
(nstead of the -< bd attenuation that we expect at the corner frequency of a two
pole low pass filter, this has a gain. This gain is )nown as o*ers+oot. 4t the resonant
frequency of the circuit, this !alue of # is not enough to completely dampen the
resonance. The Bode plot is gi!en below.
&.& Bode .lots '/12/201& 1&
:igure &.&.12. Bode plot of
( )
>
2 >
10
2100 10
H s
s s
·
+ +
.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-
,hat !alue of C would be enough to get the )ind of damping we would expect
from a two-pole 6.:-
( )
( )
> >
2 2 & >
&
10 10
2 10 10
10
H s
s
s
· ·
+ × +
+
%o if C were 200 Ω, then
2
/ 200/10 20000 # "

· · , we would the Bode plot below\$
&.& Bode .lots '/12/201& 11
:igure &.&.1'. The Bode plot of ( )
>
2 & >
10
2 10 10
H s
s
·
+ × +
.
Deter,ining t+e Trans-er Function -ro, a Bode Plot.
The Bode plot can be thought of as a detailed, quantitati!e description of a
function, usually a transfer function. 4s we ha!e seen, if we ha!e the Bode plot
describing the transfer function we )now how a signal at any frequency will be effected.
(n this section, we will describe how to construct the transfer function from a Bode plot.
This is often useful in determining the qualitati!e features of a transfer function. :or
instance, in :ig. &.&.1&, we can see that this is the transfer function of a band pass filter.
4mong other things, dc components will not pass through, and high frequency
components will be attenuated. *owe!er, if the problem at hand is to determine how a
signal is effected by a transfer function and the Bode plot is a!ailable, there is no reason
to fist construct the transfer function from the Bode plot.
&.& Bode .lots '/12/201& 1<
:igure &.&.1&. (n the abo!e Bode plot, at the far left side, we see that there is a 20
db/decade rise. 4mong other things, this says that no dc term will pass. ,e also
see that on the far right side, there is a minus 20 db/decade slope, so frequency
components at
1
10 rad/sec and abo!e will be attenuated.
:irst, write down the poles and 0eros by obser!ing the slopes on the magnitude
plot. Then from a flat point on the slope, e!aluate the magnitude. This will gi!e the
multiplying constant.
%ometimes, plots created from a transfer function with multiple poles and 0eros
can be e!aluated with the help of the phase plot. :or instance, if the plot ends at -30
degrees, it means there were two more poles than 0eros. (f it starts at 30 degrees, it
means that there is a term
2
1/ s .
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Example.
:ind the transfer function corresponding to the Bode plot in :igure &.&.11.
%olution
(t this case more can be learned by loo)ing at the angle. :or the !ery low
frequencies, the angle is -30 degrees, so there must by a factor 1/s. Then at
2
10 ω · it
passes through &1 degrees on its way up, so there is a 0ero at
2
10 ω · , gi!ing a factor
&.& Bode .lots '/12/201& 1?
2
10 s + in the numerator. Then it passes through -&1 degrees on its way bac) down to
30 − degrees at
&
10 ω · . %o far, ( suspect my transfer function loo)s something li)e
( )
( )
2
&
10
10
s
H s .
s s
+
·
+
,
where . is an un)nown constant. To get . ( ha!e to loo) at the magnitude. 4t
'
10 ω · it
appears to be -&0 db, so
( )
'
2
10
&
10
10
&0 20log
10
j
db .
j j
ω
ω
ω ω
·
1
+
− · 1
+
1
¸ ]
( )
'
&
10 10
' &
10
10
2 log log 10
10 10
log &
j
. .
j
.

1
1 − ≅ · 1
¸ ]
1
¸ ]
· −
2
10 . ·
( )
( )
2
2
&
10
10
10
s
H s
s s
+
·
+
:igure &.&.11. Bode plot of a transfer function.
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Exercises
&.& Bode .lots '/12/201& 1>
&.&.1. Graw by hand the bode plot of
( )
( )
( )
< 2
2 < 10
10 10
1.01 10 10
s
H s
s
+
·
+ × +
.
&.&.2. Cepeat problem &.&.1 using a 54T64B program.
&.&.' The pattern illustrated below repeats at 0.1 msec inter!als. (t is run through a filter
whose transfer function is described by the Bode plot. ,hat comes out "to within 10H
accuracy#-
&.& Bode .lots '/12/201& 13