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Airfield Joints, Jointing Arrangements and Steel

For Airfields Serving Aircraft Larger than 100,000 lb (45,360 kg)
n Introduction
Properly designed airfield pavement joints (Figure 1): 1. Control cracking due to aircraft loads and restrained curling and warping stresses. 2. Afford adequate load transfer across the joints. 3. Limit infiltration of foreign material into the joints. Joints also divide the pavement into suitable increments for construction and accommodate pavement movements at intersections with other pavements or structures. Joint design is an integral part of pavement design for concrete airfield features. To satisfy the basic pavement design assumptions, joints must provide adequate transfer of loads from one panel to the next. Load transfer is obtained by using mechanical load transfer (dowels) or by aggregate interlock. A cement-treated subbase (CTB) also will provide substantial joint support. Increasing the thickness of a pavement along certain joints is an alternative means of reducing slab bending stresses and edge deflections, allowing for adequate joint performance.

n Overview of Joint Types
Airfield pavement joints for facilities serving aircraft larger than 100,000 lb (45,360 kg) fall into three categories: construction, contraction and isolation.(1,2) Figure 2 on the next page provides typical pavement joint details and dimensions.The engineer and contractor must fully understand the purpose of these joints in order to properly specify them on the plans and build them in the field.

Isolation Joints – The purpose of an isolation joint is to separate intersecting pavements and to isolate embedded fixtures within the pavement (pavement penetrations), such as in-pavement drains. Figure 2, Type A shows standard isolation joint details.
Type A thickened edge isolation joints do not use dowel bars, but use increased thickness along the joint to reduce tensile stresses in the slab and bearing stresses on the subbase or subgrade. Type A undoweled isolation joints allow the pavement freedom of movement laterally and an embedded fixture freedom of movement vertically, with no mechanical interconnection. Separation with each is provided with a non-extruding compressible material.
©2008 American Concrete Pavement Association

Figure 1. A properly jointed concrete airfield pavement.

Non-Extruded Pre-Molded Compressible Insert 3/4 in. (19 mm) Note A T

Note B Note A: 1.25 T to nearest 1 in. (25 mm) but at least T + 2 in. (50 mm) Note B: To nearest joint; 10 ft (3 m) minimum Type A – Thickened Edge
1/2 – 1 in. (12 – 25 mm) max.

Contraction Joints – Contraction joints control the location of pavement cracking caused by drying shrinkage and/or thermal contraction. Contraction joints also are used to reduce the stress caused by slab curling and warping. Load transfer usually is accomplished by aggregate interlock. However, dowel bars may be used for load transfer at contraction joints under certain conditions. Figure 2, Types B, C and D show standard contraction joint details. Construction Joints – Construction joints separate abutting construction placed at different times, such as at the end of a day’s placement, or between paving lanes. Load transfer at construction joints is achieved through the use of dowel bars. Figure 2, Type E shows a standard construction joint detail.

Fixture or Structure

T Non-Extruded Pre-Molded Compressible Insert

n Isolation Joint Considerations
When joints are designed according to the recommendations of this guide, isolation joints are not required transversely or longitudinally in airfield pavements except at special locations. Introduction of “expansion” joints on a regular spacing tends to allow slabs to migrate because contraction joints in interior areas of a concrete pavement open unnecessarily. This unintended consequence degrades the effectiveness of aggregate interlock at the contraction joints and reduces the overall performance of the pavement. Thus, the traditional and misleading term “expansion” joint has been modified to “isolation” joint to be more accurate and descriptive and the FAA no longer recommends the use of “expansion” joints. The purpose of an isolation joint is to separate intersecting pavements or to isolate structures within or along the pavement. Isolation joints provide freedom for lateral panel movement without any mechanical interconnection that might damage the pavement, structure or fixture (see the section titled “Pavement Penetrations”). To be effective, the pre-molded compressible filler should meet the requirements of ASTM D1751, D1752, or D994, and must cover the entire depth of the concrete slab. If an isolation joint is placed within the pavement area and will carry active traffic loads (such as where the pavement abuts a structure like a building) or where horizontal and vertical differences in movement of the pavements are anticipated, a thickened edge isolation joint (Type A – Thickened Edge) is necessary to reduce edge stress in the pavement. If the isolation joint is used along a pavement penetration, building or other non-load area, then a simple butt joint (Type A – Undoweled) typically is required.

Type A – Undoweled Note: All isolation joints use joint reservoir detail 1 in Figure 12.

Deformed Tie Bar: 5/8 in. dia., 30 in. long (16 mm dia., 760 mm long) T/2 ± d/2 T

Use only on pavement ≤ 9 in. (225 mm) Type B – Tied or Hinged Smooth Dowel: Size Depends Upon Slab Thickness T/2 ± d/2 T

Type C – Doweled T Type D – Undoweled or Dummy Note: Use an initial sawcut depth of T/4 on unstabilized (granular) subbases and T/3 on stabilized subbases. Note: All contraction joints use joint reservoir detail 2a or 2b in Figure 12.

Smooth Dowel: Size Depends Upon Slab Thickness T/2 ± d/2 T

Type E – Doweled Butt Note: All construction joints use joint reservoir detail 3 in Figure 12.

Figure 2. Cross sections of different joint types. 2

the interface also might need to be an isolation joint (see the section titled “Jointing Arrangements”). For example. The spacing of longitudinal (and transverse) joints also depends upon shrinkage properties of the concrete.33Eh 3 12(1 . a uniform spacing is always recommended. the FAA’s current recommendations are based on a conservative ratio of joint spacing to radius of relative stiffness of 5 .5 or 18.7 m). taxiway or apron) are the primary factors determining the spacing of longitudinal joints.(4) Thus.All intersections of runway.15 The radius of relative stiffness has the dimension of length. 1) English where: Metric l = radius of relative stiffness.(1) Figure 3. or near. C.5 ft (11. Each longitudinal edge forms a longitudinal construction joint. psi/in. Table 1 lists the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) recommended maximum longitudinal joint spacings for concrete pavements built on unstabilized (granular) or stabilized subbases. taxiway. Unlike years ago when equipment choices were limited. including existing pavements for overlays. the dimensionless result is the L/l ratio. in. because the Modulus of Elasticity of the concrete is unknown and will vary significantly depending upon the concrete mixture. In some cases. reliable and recommended.8 or 5 . A longitudinal joint spacing that divides the pavement section evenly is most advantageous. Panels kept to dimensions shorter than the lengths listed in Table 1 (next page) will have curling and warping stresses within acceptable limits and minimal risk of uncontrolled cracking. in. then the longitudinal joint at. and slab thickness. If the new pavement is placed adjacent to and abutting an existing concrete pavement. and the actual k-value in the field is yet to be determined. or apron pavements require a thickened edge isolation joint (Type A – Thickened Edge) to separate the facilities. Longitudinal Joint Spacing – The pavement thickness and the overall width of the pavement feature (runway.5 m) wide construction lanes can be used with intermediate longitudinal contraction joints at 12. (mm) k = modulus of subgrade reaction. which expand and contract along different axes. (mm) E = modulus of elasticity of the concrete. (MPa/m) µ = Poisson’s ratio for concrete.75 ft (3. It is determined by the following formula: n Longitudinal Joint Considerations Longitudinal joints are those joints parallel to the lanes of construction and usually the direction of traffic. The thickened edges are tapered back to the nominal thickness over at least 10 ft (3 m) but it is preferable to taper the thickness over the length or width of a full panel. depending upon pavement thickness.m 2 )k l=4 83. The radius of relative stiffness is defined by Westergaard as the stiffness of the slab relative to the stiffness of the foundation. subbase materials. When the radius of relative stiffness is divided into the slab length (L). soil conditions. or D) that are sawed between the construction joints or construction joints (Type E) that are formed as the edges of construction lanes (Figure 3).m 2 )k (Eq. They are either contraction joints (Type B. it is advantageous to select a longitudinal joint spacing that will facilitate construction using the available paving equipment. The concrete panels on both sides of the joint are thickened by 25 percent. It is difficult to determine the radius of relative stiffness reasonably in the design stage. l=4 Eh 3 12(1 . While this permits the designer and contractor greater flexibility to satisfy specific situations. An L/l ratio of 7 has been shown by field performance to adequately control cracking and reduce the risk of uncontrolled cracking on pavements placed on stabilized foundations. 3 . Overhead view of the paving of alternate lanes on both apron and taxiway pavement. 37. under certain conditions. usually 0. climatic conditions. psi (MPa) h = slab thickness.2 m). modern slipform paving equipment permits construction widths up to 50 ft (15 .

n For all narrow taxiway pavements [75 ft (23 m) or less] Keyways – Keyed construction joints should not be used in airfield pavements.5 ft (3.5 ft (5.1 m) Maximum Transverse Joint Spacing 12. For concretes made with hard aggregates and for pavement constructed on stabilized subbase.5 ft (3. dowel bars are preferred over tiebars because they strengthen the joint and provide better mechanical load transfer.1 m) Maximum Transverse Joint Spacing 12. undoweled joints (Type D) are acceptable for intermediate longitudinal contraction joints. For pavement carrying wide-bodied aircraft in channelized traffic areas.3 m) 20 ft (6.(3) Keyways perform particularly poorly if they are either too high or too low in the slab. mechanical load transfer becomes more important for long-term pavement performance. FAA Recommended Maximum Joint Spacing(1). creating a small sliver of loose concrete. which results in a high potential for foreign object damage (FOD).5 ft (3. For this exception a doweled joint (Type C) is recommended. (279-330 mm) 14-16 in. (203-254 mm) 11-13 in.6 m) 20 ft (6. when the intermediate longitudinal joint is the last joint before a free edge. n Transverse Joint Considerations Transverse contraction joints (Type C or D) create a weakened plane at planned locations perpendicular to the direction of paving in order to control where cracks form. Increasing the depth of cut to one-third the pavement thickness where hard aggregates or a stabilized subbase are used. tied joints (Type B) are acceptable for intermediate longitudinal contraction joints. unless the joint is one of the last three joints before a free edge or isolation joint.6 m) 17.1 m) Concrete Pavement on a Stabilized Subbase Slab Thickness 8-10 in. (230 mm). n For taxiway pavement greater than 9 in. (356-406 mm) > 16 in. which are typically wide pavement areas.8 m) 15 ft (4. becoming a maintenance problem.75 ft (5. doweled joints (Type C) are required in intermediate longitudinal contraction joints adjacent to a free edge. n For runways and aprons. However. provides increased control against the development of uncontrolled (random) cracking. failed keyways break into small fragments.8 m) 15 ft (4. (230 mm) Maximum Longitudinal Joint Spacing 12.6 m) 20 ft (6. Experience on airfield pavements with keyed longitudinal construction joints shows that the keyways provide limited strength and often break. as recommended by this guide.8 m) 15 ft (4.Table 1.6 m) 18. The female side of the key often cracks to the pavement surface. 4 . a saw kerf of one-third the thickness of the pavement is most effective. Sawing the pavement creates transverse contraction joints and the saw kerf depth for contraction joints is most effective if it is at least one-fourth of the slab thickness*. Over time.(1) Experience shows that saw cuts to one-fourth the pavement thickness are effective under moderate prevailing paving conditions.8 m) 15 ft (4.7 m) 20 ft (6. (175-230 mm) > 9 in. (230 mm). (150 mm) 7-9 in. and thinner than 9 in. Aprons and runways are not as critical as taxiways because these features are typically wide pavement features and joints within their interior are held tight by the mass of surrounding pavement. Concrete Pavement on an Unstabilized (Granular) Subbase Slab Thickness 6 in.1 m) Load Transfer at Longitudinal Joints – The following is a guide to determining longitudinal joint load transfer: n All longitudinal construction joints should be Type E doweled joints (unless they serve as an isolation joint). (406 mm) Maximum Longitudinal Joint Spacing 12.5 ft (3. The Federal Aviation Administration’s current recommendation is for a saw cut depth of one-fourth the pavement thickness. * on unstabilized (granular) subbases.

as is alluded to in Table 1. (460 mm) 18 in. unless experience with local conditions and concrete aggregates indicates otherwise. a doweled contraction joint (Type C) should be used for the last three transverse contraction joints at the end of a runway. Likewise. 5 . (480 mm) 20 in. that the climate and concrete aggregate common to some geographic regions may allow transverse joints to be further apart. (40 mm) 2 in. or slag aggregate. It should be noted. Aspect Ratio Limit – Performance has shown that it is desirable to have panels with approximately equal transverse and longitudinal joint spacing.The reason they are required in transverse contraction joints near the free edges of facility is because thermal movements result in permanent opening of transverse joints for a distance of about 100 ft (30. they tend to crack under traffic into smaller pieces of nearly equal dimensions. (510 mm) 24 in. (535-610 mm) Dowel Diameter 3/ 4 Dowel Length 18 in. chert. such as a runway or taxiway. a doweled butt joint (Type E) is recommended. or apron. Dowels are not required at transverse contraction joints unless the joint is near a free edge or an isolation joint. (430-510 mm) 21-24 in. Recommended sizes and spacing of dowel bars are provided in Table 2. (510 mm) 20 in.25 . This ratio may be difficult to maintain within intersections and can be disregarded in favor of common-sense jointing patterns (see the section titled “Odd-Shaped Panels”). reducing deflection (and stress) at the joint and preventing differential displacement of the abutting panels. (380 mm) 18 in. (305 mm) 12 in. When slabs are long and narrow.Table 2. (460 mm) 19 in. A construction joint occurring in the middle of the normal joint interval should not be used unless the pavement is cut back to normal joint spacing. which allows a longer spacing between pavement contraction joints without any greater chance of random cracking. taxiway. Butt Joints – Transverse construction joints are necessary at the end of paving each day or where paving operations are suspended for 30 minutes or more. (150-180 mm) 8-12 in. dowel size and spacing requirements also relate to pavement thickness. For example. Condition surveys of existing pavements and extensive tests on full-scale slabs have shown no clear cases of dowel failure where the pavement slab itself is adequate for the loads carried. Because the pavement thickness is in proportion to anticipated loads. (330-405 mm) 17-20 in. (460 mm) in. or require them to be closer together than listed in Table 1. (610 mm) Spacing Between Bars 12 in.5 m) back from a free edge.3 m) to either side of an isolation joint. Therefore. (305 mm) 15 in. Panels are not likely to develop an intermediate crack if the length-to-width ratio does not exceed 1. (50 mm) Note: The dowel sizes here are in the correct proportion to the load for which the pavement is designed. use the values in Table 1 as the maximum allowable transverse joint spacing for plain concrete airfield pavements. (20 mm) 1 in. If the construction joint occurs at or near the location of a transverse contraction joint. Dowel bars are smooth bars that must be placed near the neutral axis (mid-depth) of a slab and in careful alignment to allow adjacent slabs to move when expanding or contracting from thermal changes. However. (30 mm) 11/2 in. (210-305 mm) 13-16 in. Joint Spacing – Table 1 lists the FAA recommended maximum transverse joint spacings for concrete pavements built on unstabilized (granular) or stabilized subbases. concrete made from granite and limestone coarse aggregate is much less sensitive to temperature change than concrete made from siliceous gravel. The need to use dowels depends upon the joint type and its location in the airfield pavement facility. The transverse joints within these distances gradually open to a point where aggregate interlock is less effective. thermal movements result in permanent opening of transverse joints for a distance of about 60 ft (18. Dimensions and Spacing of Smooth Steel Dowel Bars. (25 mm) 11/4 in. The following joints require dowels: n All butt-type construction joints n Transverse contraction joints near the free edges of a facility. however. Slab Thickness 6-7 in. n Dowel Bars Dowel bars (or dowels) are used to transfer wheel loads across a joint to the adjacent panel. A less temperature-sensitive concrete does not expand or contract much with temperature change.

Well-graded mixtures produce excellent results with dowel insertion. Contraction joint dowel assemblies are fastened to the subbase using steel staking pins for unstabilized (granular) subbases or nailing clips for stabilized subbases. The key to controlling the location and positioning of inserted dowel bars is the concrete mixture.) A permanent mark or colored nail indicating the location of the dowel baskets is necessary for reference when later sawing the contraction joints. A minimum embedment length of 6 in. The exposed ends of the dowel are oiled to allow movement in the abutting concrete. contractors employ gang-mounted hydraulic or pneumatic drill rigs to assure proper alignment (Figure 4). Factory-applied debonding agents include paraffin and epoxy-based materials. A 3% or 3⁄8 in. For drilling into the concrete. Materials exceeding the results of the control dowels provide adequate reduction in dowel/concrete friction. It is advisable to ensure that all dowel coatings are certified or tested according to AASHTO T253 and AASHTO M254. which reduce the frictional resistance of a dowel embedded in concrete without a coating of oil. The bars are inserted into the drilled holes after high strength cement grout or epoxy is placed into the back of the drilled hole. Grease is not used because it will allow for the formation of a large annular space around the dowel. Care in positioning the baskets is necessary so that the dowels align parallel to the longitudinal joints (longitudinal axis of the pavement. As an alternate to placement of contraction joint dowels in basket assemblies. dowel bars typically are installed by drilling into the edge of a panel or panels. and compared to the results of a control test of a similar bar coated only with form release oil. (150 mm) on either side of the joint is required to obtain effective load transfer.Satisfactory joint performance is directly dependent upon the alignment and position of dowels. each dowel requires a coating of form release oil or a factory-applied debonding agent. Dowel drilling rig for longitudinal joints. The installation requirement depends upon the joint type: 1. The purpose of the cement or epoxy is to assure that the annular space between the concrete and the dowel is filled so that loads applied to concrete are imparted directly to the dowel. These debonding materials are applied directly over corrosionresistant dowel coatings. while gapgraded mixtures tend to allow the dowels to migrate within the concrete mass during construction. such as paint or epoxy. automatic dowel insertion equipment may be used. Dowel baskets fastened in place ahead of slipform paver. To ensure that dowels do not bond to concrete panels and restrain the panels during thermal expansion or contraction. Figure 5. 6 . to hold the dowels in position and alignment (Figure 5). Figure 4. (When fixed-form pavement construction techniques are used. the contractor may elect to insert the dowel through holes in a bulkhead form or fixed side form)./ft (3 mm/100 mm) tolerance from true alignment is acceptable for horizontal and vertical alignment of dowels. which is firmly anchored to the subbase. dowels typically are mounted in a wire cage or basket. 2. In transverse contraction joints. In longitudinal construction joints (or transverse for some cases).

For more information on jointing intersections see ACPA’s IS006P. The engineer should consider the efficiency of construction when selecting the joint orientation for apron pavements. Joint location and type does not need to match across an undoweled isolation joint because there is no connection and little chance of sympathy cracking. The three contraction joints on either side of the isolation joint require dowels to provide load transfer in case the joints open.” Odd-Shaped Panels– The odd-shaped panels that result in the fillet areas where pavements intersect require the use of embedded steel. Tiebars are not load-transfer devices. This orientation generally ensures the most efficient construction by means of fixed-form or slipform methods. Regardless of the situation. Mechanical insertion equipment. align the last 3 ft (1 m) of all joints perpendicular to the perimeter edge of the pavement and along a radial line.000 lb (45. However.6 m) wide. (760 mm) The layout of joints at airfield pavement intersections also presents special jointing challenges.360 kg). length and spacing of tiebars for airfield pavement are: n Diameter: 5⁄8 in. Construction joints generally should be placed parallel to the longest length of a pavement feature. A steel quantity of 0. irregularly-shaped areas of pavement and introduce the need to intersect different types of joints. Intersections create large. It is virtually impossible to establish a standard joint pattern for intersections. avoid creating a slab less than 2 ft (0. The purpose of the tiebars is to hold the panels tightly together to maintain aggregate interlock. For more information on using embedded steel.05 percent of the cross-sectional area in both directions is adequate for slabs where the length-to-width ratio exceeds 1. n Avoid layout patterns that create acute angles less n Jointing Arrangements Figure 6 on the next page shows typical jointing arrangements for airfield pavements. They are rarely used in airfield pavements that serve aircraft larger than 100. Cracks may form in odd shaped panels and those cracks could become the source of debris that is particularly undesirable for airfield pavements. The layout for taxiways and runways is not difficult in this regard. creation of small acute angles will increase the risk of cracking in areas of fillets and curves. apron pavements represent unique challenges for maximizing construction in the direction of traffic and minimizing hand placement. and rigidly secured chair systems also provide adequate results.” 7 . (760 mm) n Spacing between tiebars: 30 in. The abutting edges of both pavements are thickened 25 percent at the joint. Aggregate interlock provides the load transfer function in contraction joints that include tiebars. n Provide an undoweled. embedded steel is recommended. (16 mm) n Length: 30 in. n In areas where a fillet begins and ends. To minimize the risk. than 60 degrees. Tiebars should not be used to “tie” together panels of pavement features built on stabilized subbases because doing so increases restraint to pavement movement from thermal changes. It is important that the engineer responsible for laying out the joints as a part of the pavement design become familiar with construction equipment and techniques used in airport pavement construction.25 or in slabs that are not rectangular in shape. The nominal diameter. the designer may select from wellestablished options and follow sound principles to simplify joint layout and avoid problematic designs.) It is sufficient for the contractor to place the tiebars reasonably perpendicular to the tied joint. ISOLATING INTERSECTIONS: n Provide an undoweled. However. thickened-edge isolation joint (Type A) between intersecting pavements. thickened-edge isolation joint Placement tolerances for tiebars are not as critical as for dowel bars because the purpose of the deformed tiebars is to prevent joint opening. see the section titled “Embedded Steel. (Some misalignment of the tiebars is actually beneficial mechanically. PRINCIPLES FOR JOINT LAYOUT: n In the fillet areas.n Tiebars Tiebars are deformed steel bars. Spalling along the cracks increases the risk of FOD. and the likelihood of cracking in the panels due to the restraint stresses. (Type A) between new pavement and an existing paved area (Figure 6 on the next page). “Intersection Joint Layout.

Typical jointing arrangements for concrete airfield pavements. Doweled (Type C) or Undoweled (Type D) Contraction Joints. TAXIWAY RUNWAY Dowel bar details vary (see Table 2) 12 in. Fillet details are shown in Figure 7. 8 .Thickened Edge) Doweled Contraction Joint (Type C) Undoweled Contraction Joint (Type D) Doweled Construction Joint* (Type E) * Intermediate longitudinal joints alternatively may be Tied (Type B). see section titled “Load Transfer at Longitudinal Joints.” Figure 6.CONNECTOR Alternate location for Isolation Joint is shown below. (305 mm) minimum Transverse Joint (Type C or E) 6 in. (150 mm) minimum Longitudinal Joint (Type C or E) NEW PAVEMENT EXISTING PAVEMENT Key Isolation Joint (Type A .

or diamond-shaped.Thickened Edge) 2 ft (6 m) min. Options for fillet areas at airfield pavement intersections. round. This option requires building full-sized panels in the fillet area (Figure 7). Option 2 . To Isolation Joint (Type A .Alternative to Fillets – Instead of building fillets into the pavement. The most common is the “boxout” (Figure 8). A paint stripe defines the fillet and the unused portion of the slab is painted to represent a non-traffic area. Common square boxouts sometimes cause cracks to form at the boxout’s corners.Undoweled) typically is acceptable for the boxout perimeter. typical Joints made perpendicular to pavement edge by aligning towards center of curve Painted Area Painted Stripe Option 1 . which can be square-. 9 .Full Panels with Painted Fillet Stripe (shown with typical isolation joint location) Square Manhole Boxout Reinforcing bars recommended to hold cracks tight Diagonal Manhole Boxout Circular Manhole Boxout Square Inlet (no boxout) Isolation joint Isolation joint Isolation joint Manhole (No Boxout) Optional joint Isolation joint Telescoping Manhole Optional joint Round Inlet Boxout Square Boxout with Fillets Isolation joint Isolation joint/bond breaker around perimeter No boxout or isolation joint necessary Isolation joint Figure 8. Pavement Penetrations – Pavement penetrations typically require a perimeter isolation joint to allow free movement of the fixture or panel.Constructed Fillets (shown with optional isolation joint location) Figure 7. There are a variety of joint layout options for creating the necessary separation between the two elements that will allow them to move freely with temperature cycles and seasonal heaving or settling. An isolation joint (Type A . Details for pavement penetrations (boxouts). In airfields. pavement penetrations are common for fixtures such as drainage inlets and in-pavement lighting. an option is to paint the fillets.

More detailed information about light cans is available in the section titled “In-Pavement Lighting Considerations.(5) Figure 10 provides details of a buried slab design to minimize the roughness at such a transition.5 in. (32 mm) min. T1 Asphalt Surface Asphalt Base(s) T2 SEE NOT E T T Concrete Dowel Bar Buried Slab Base/Subbase Compacted Subgrade T = Design Thickness of concrete pavement T1 = (T+1. but they must be laid out carefully to ensure they are in the proper location. but cut out the compacted asphalt to the solid line to form the buried slab. may not require a boxout with perimeter isolation and can be cast directly within the concrete (Figure 9). such as: n All junctures in a transverse direction in runways n All junctures between runways and taxiways n All junctures in channelized traffic areas Figure 9.4. 10 ft (3. a simple butt-faced joint with a thickened concrete pavement edge is acceptable for these areas. Figure 10. The height of these fixtures must be below the pavement surface elevation to allow the paving machine to pass over them during construction.” Placements Adjacent to Asphalt Pavement – Experience shows that under aircraft traffic. A buried slab detail is not considered necessary between non-channelized traffic areas (non-primary taxiways. non-extruding isolation joint filler. service and maintenance aprons. objectionable roughness may develop in the asphalt near the juncture of concrete and asphalt pavements. except under unusual circumstances. 1. Design details for juncture between concrete and asphalt pavement for specialty situations. Light cans in place prior to paving. This detail is used for critical traffic areas and where even slight deviations from the design grade are objectionable. (115 mm) but not less than 6 in.) and pavement areas such as parking.avoid crack-inducing corners. Compact asphalt pavement to dotted line. The fixtures may be wrapped with flexible.5 in.25 m) min. (150 mm) NOTE: Extend asphalt base course at least 3 ft (1 m) as depicted by dotted line. workers expose the fixtures just after paving. etc. such as light cans. It is advantageous to place welded-wire fabric or small-diameter reinforcing bars in the concrete pavement around any interior corners at square boxouts to hold cracks tightly should they develop. Some fixtures. Note the reinforcing bars around the light cans to reinforce the area and to serve as a precaution to hold any cracks together. the designer can consider using rounded boxouts or placing fillets on the corners of square boxouts. Diagonal boxouts can eliminate the interior corners that might induce cracks. Use the face of the compacted asphalt as the form to place buried concrete slab. [75 mm])/2 T2 = T . Where: 10 .5 in.

Key Isolation Joint (type as required) Doweled Contraction Joint (Type C or E) ABUTTING FACILITY Figure 11.000 lb (45. however. Conceptual illustration of apron jointing for facilities serving 100.000 lb (45.If a new concrete pavement will adjoin an existing asphalt pavement in a channelized area.360 kg) aircraft on stabilized subbases.25 m) from the planned junction location. At that time. apron designs included unstabilized (granular) subbase materials underneath the concrete pavement. which typically are wide expanses of pavement carrying mostly non-channelized. taxiways. Apron Consideration – Aprons. The asphalt beyond the 10 ft (3. the existing asphalt pavement must be modified to accommodate this transition joint. in lieu of traditional tension ring used for aprons supported by low-friction unstabilized (granular) subbase materials.360 kg) typically require stabilized subbases and these subbase materials provide higher frictional resistance to slab migration. The dowel bars are used as a precaution to maintain joint performance in case some opening of the perimeter joints might occur. The material is removed to accommodate the buried slab. and airfield maintenance pavements to prevent cracking. Unstabilized (granular) subbase materials provide low coefficient of friction to resist slab sliding. APRON PAVEMENT OPTION . slowly moving traffic. Aprons should be isolated from buildings. Today. designs for facilities serving aircraft greater than 100. heaving and other problems associated with undesirable mechanical interconnection. The existing asphalt pavement is cut back cleanly with a saw 10 ft (3. a few consistent principles apply to these features. The traditional tension ring using deformed tiebars is no longer necessary to prevent slab migration and hold interior joints tight.Open end along undeveloped location. are usually very unique in geometry to the airfield. Interior longitudinal and transverse contraction joints are undoweled because the large mass of pavement holds these joints tight. a tension ring design was recommended by the industry and many specifying agencies prior to the 1950’s. allowing aggregate interlock to provide effective load transfer. Joint design considerations will be unique to the airfield. 11 . Now. an effective design for apron pavements supported by stabilized subbase materials includes doweled longitudinal construction or contraction joints surrounding the perimeter of the facility (Figure 11).25 m) perimeter is left undisturbed. To prevent separation of joints and migration of the panels along the perimeter of apron pavements. The tension ring was created by using deformed tiebars in the last longitudinal construction or contraction joint surrounding the perimeter of the facility.

(6 mm) recess typ. (6 mm) recess typ. (May be deeper than initial sawcut in case of early-entry sawing). W Preformed neoprene compression seal See See Notes Note D A and B 11/4 “ (32 mm) minimum Backer rod Joint or crack Detail 2b – Contraction Joint with Preformed Sealant Detail 3 – Construction Joint Typical D/W ratios for poured sealants: 1 for hot-poured sealant.Initial cut to a depth of T/4 or T/3 as required for conventional sawing. “Joint and Crack Sealing and Repair for Concrete Pavements. (6 mm) chamfer or radius Sealant material 1 in. See See Notes Note C A and B Backer rod Backer rod Non-extruding pre-molded compressible material Joint or crack Detail 1 – Isolation Joint 1 /4 in. * Basic information on the technology of joint sealing and sealants can be found in other ACPA publication.As required by the manufacturer. (6 mm) recess typ.n Sealing Joints Joint sealants are used in airfield pavement joints to keep out incompressible material and to minimize infiltration of water. (25 mm) maximum 1/4 in. (6 mm) recess typ. D . (32 mm) minimum for early-entry sawing. the lower the strain on the sealant under a given joint movement. The required shape factor will depend on the properties of the sealant and the amount of joint movement. 0. (25 mm) maximum Sealant material W D 1/4 in. To perform well.As required to accommodate sealant and backer rod. Preformed compression seal: Manufacturer’s recommended W is sized for slab size and climate. Detail 2a – Contraction Joint with Field Poured Sealant Sealant material W D 1/4 in.5 for silicone sealant and two-component cold poured material.25 in. 12 . B .” 1/4 in.Initial cut to a depth of 1. sealant materials must be capable of withstanding repeated extension and compression as the pavement slabs expand and contract with temperature and moisture changes. Figure 12 shows common sealant configurations for airfield pavements. Figure 12. 1 in. Joint sealant reservoir design options for airfield pavements. In refueling locations and any airfield pavement area subject to fuel spillage. The lower the depth-to-width ratio or shape factor. such as TB012P. Joint movement is related to the joint spacing and to the maximum seasonal temperature change in the slab. C . Notes: A . The size and shape of the sealant cross-section affects the sealant material performance*. jet fuel resistant sealants are necessary.

Furthermore. The nominal maximum amount of steel (0.05%) is usually acceptable for oddshaped panels.3%) was found to be effective for jointed reinforced pavements in the 1970’s. The force is greatest at the middle of a panel. based on the subgrade drag theory.7% steel to alter the crack pattern developed in concrete pavement. psi (MPa). expressed in in. The situation is more complex than pure sliding friction because shearing forces in the subgrade or subbase and warped slabs may be involved in the resistance. By holding structural cracks tight. The thickness required for pavement locations including embedded steel is the same as required for plain pavement. coefficients of resistance range from 1 to 2.n Embedded Steel Under most circumstances. As = LCfwh / 24 • fs (English) As = LCfwh / 204.e. The purpose of the steel is to keep any cracks that may develop in concrete panels from separating and becoming a source of debris. The required strength is equal to the force necessary to overcome the resistance between the pavement and subbase or subgrade that is developed over a distance from the crack to the nearest joint.05 to 0. lb/ft3 (kg/m3) [use 150 lb/ft3 (2400 kg/m3) for normal-weight concrete] h = slab thickness. containing steel only at pavement penetration areas and in odd-shaped panels. does not extended across transverse or longitudinal joints). more steel may be considered necessary. embedded steel also improves load transfer through aggregate interlock. usually taken as 2⁄3 of the yield strength The resistance coefficient. depending on (Eq. Steel in the form of smooth dowel bars also is used in some joints. The cracks then may become filled with incompressible materials and lose aggregate interlock and load transfer. The seriousness of this load transfer degradation depends upon the degree of support provided by the subbase and subgrade.05 and 0.3 percent steel by cross-sectional area is not enough steel to significantly alter the tensile capacity of the concrete*.1 • fs (Metric) where: As = area of steel required per ft (m) slab width.(2) Pavements with less steel than the minimum will not perform well because eventually the steel may corrode. After a crack becomes filled with incompressible material. This force increases with the distance over which resistance is developed. and the tensile strength of the steel. Because the purpose of embedded steel is to keep cracks tightly closed. Because the steel is typically placed near a plane extending through the middle of the pavement section (along the neutral axis). * Continuously reinforced concrete (CRC) pavements require as much as 0. The computation includes the influence of the weight of the concrete panel.2 (mm2) L = distance to nearest free (untied) joint or pavement edge for transverse steel (or distance between transverse joints for longitudinal steel). in. Experience shows an effective quantity of steel for airfield pavement is between 0. it is not in a zone of high tensile stress during slab bending. Embedded steel does not increase the pavement’s flexural (bending) strength. computes the steel percentage required for a given concrete pavement design with embedded steel. The nominal minimum amount of steel (0. (mm) fs = allowable tensile stress in the steel.3 percent of the crosssectional area of pavement. Embedded steel is not necessary where the pavement is jointed to form panel lengths and shapes that will control intermediate cracking and limit transverse contraction joint opening. 0. is sometimes referred to as the coefficient of friction between the slab and subgrade or subbase. airfield concrete pavements are designed as plain pavements. 2) Embedded Steel Design – Embedded steel in jointed concrete pavements can be welded-wire fabric or bar mats. Equation 2. Most CRC design procedures do not recommend decreasing the design thickness of concrete pavement to account for any improved bending strength provided by the high percentage of reinforcement. Cf. Do not decrease the design thickness of slabs containing steel to offset the cost of adding the embedded steel. the same steel quantity is used throughout a panel. The steel is discontinuous (i. it may spall and become a source of FOD that may damage jet engines. crack or edge of panel. For subgrades and unstabilized (granular) subbases. as discussed previously.. rupture and no longer hold together the fractured faces of mid-panel cracks. In special circumstances. but for design practicality. the coefficient of subgrade or subbase resistance. the steel is even less influential on slab bending strength. The type and amount of aircraft traffic is also a factor. it must have sufficient strength to hold two concrete panels together during contraction. ft (m) Cf = coefficient of subgrade or subbase resistance to panel movement w = weight of concrete. 13 . Embedded steel is not intended to add to the structural capacity of a pavement. Because jointed reinforced pavement uses a much lower percentage of steel.

more steel and a different wire size and spacing is required. Coefficients for stabilized subbases are much greater (asphalts range from 5 to 15.29) 0.502 (2.000 (230) 40. † Welded-wire fabric requires extra design considerations to ensure the design is economical. 14 .000 (280) 50. Grade 60 Deformed Billet Steel. Yield Strengths of Various Grades of Steel ASTM Designation A615 A616 A616 A615 A185 A497 Type and Grade of Steel Deformed Billet Steel. depends upon the type of steel. While the subgrade drag theory requires more steel as the frictional resistance at the slab and subgrade or subbase interface increases.000 (280) 40. Dimensions and Unit Weights of Deformed Steel Reinforcing Bars* Bar Size No. The minimum sizes for airfield concrete pavement are W5 or D5 for longitudinal wire and W4 or D4 for transverse wire.26) 2. Also.000 (190) 33. The allowable working stress in the steel.60 (3.000 (330) Table 4.07) type of material and moisture conditions. Grade 50 Deformed Rail Steel. Even though Equation 2 accounts for friction.05.963 (500) 2. Thus. If the fabric is made from steel with a lower yield strength.750 (19. Selection of Steel Size and Spacing – Table 4 lists the dimensions and unit weights of standard reinforcing bars. Grade 40 Deformed Rail Steel.5) 0.000 (420) 65.500 (12.000 (420) 60. Special orders can be made for non-standard welded-wire fabric.2 (mm2) 0.31 (2.84) 0.375 (9.749 (700) Unit Weight lb/ft (kg/m) 0. Grade 60 Cold Drawn Welded Steel Wire Fabric Cold Drawn Welded Steel Deformed Steel Wire Yield Strength psi (MPa) 40.178 (300) 1. Table 3 provides yield strengths and corresponding allowable tensile stresses based on typical current steel manufacturing specifications.2) Area in. less transverse steel is required than computed by Equation 2.000 (490) Allowable Tensile Stress psi (MPa) 27. This minimum percentage is based on steel having a 65. The transverse steel only serves to hold any longitudinal steel in position during construction.57) 1. 3 (10M) 4 (13M) 5 (16M) 6 (19M) 7 (22M) * Nominal Dimensions Diameter in. welded-wire fabric sheets in excess of standard widths likely will cost more for fabrication and shipping.875 (22. Manufacturers of welded-wire fabric provide tables on their products denoting styles for different applications.044 (3. further research currently is being conducted to better define this relationship. Where the spacing between free longitudinal joints is sufficiently close to control intermediate cracking. The fabric size chosen for a project must meet the minimum steel percentage of 0. for each style. Research indicates that the coefficient also varies with respect to panel length and thickness. To produce the most economical design it is better to select a standard size of welded-wire fabric.000 psi (460 MPa) yield strength. the availability of desirable sizes.000 (300) 47. it is important to consider that in the field panels are less likely to separate on subbases that provide higher friction resistance.1) 0.56) 0.356 (600) 2.7) 0.000 (460) 70. and cost. Metric (SI) sizes also are available. The choice of smooth weldedwire fabric or deformed welded-wire fabric depends upon the difference in allowable design stresses.668 (1.00) 0. (mm) 0. and per 1 yd2. fs.00) 1.000 (280) 43.043 (1.Table 3. The tables give diameter and spacing of wire in US customary units for both longitudinal and transverse directions as well as weight per 100 ft2.86) Perimeter in.9) 0. but the cost is higher.20 (1. Consult the manufacturer’s product literature or Internet web site for styles of welded-wire fabric suitable for airfield concrete pavement†.625 (15.000 (350) 60. while lean concrete subbases (LCB) range from 8 to 15).571 (400) 1.376 (0.11 (0.71) 0.5 has not been justified by pavement performance. (mm) 1. use of a Cf higher than 1.44 (2.

See Figure 12 for sealant details 2. (150 mm) max. Longitudinal Joint (Type E) typical (Type H may be substituted for special locations. (150 mm) and no less than 20 times the diameter of the longitudinal wire or bar. it is prone to corrosion and is relatively ineffective at holding cracks tight and preventing the intrusion of incompressible material during curling and warping cycles. (50 mm) min. (100 to 300 mm) and a distance between transverse members of 4 to 24 in. 6 in. Figure 13 shows details of jointing concrete airfield pavement panels with embedded steel. experience seems to indicate that embedded steel remains most effective at keeping cracks tight. Side laps should be a minimum of 6 in. if it resides at a depth between 0. (50 mm) min. (100 to 600 mm) also is recommended. A distance between longitudinal members of 4 to 12 in. TRANSVERSE CROSS-SECTION Doweled Transverse Joint (Type C) typical Transverse Joint Spacing: 30-75 ft (9-23 m) typical Distributed Steel 2 in. Installation of Embedded Steel – Because embedded steel is not intended to act in flexure. However. The area of steel required. pavement performance is generally not effected unless the steel is within the bottom third of the slab. except that it should be adequately protected from corrosion with a minimum concrete cover of 2 in. Some overlap of welded-wire fabric sheets or bar mats may be necessary if the reinforcement panels are smaller than the concrete panels. Plans or shop drawings typically specify placement of embedded steel reinforcing bars near mid-depth of the slab. End laps should be a minimum of 12 in. When steel is too low in a slab. See Figure 2 for joint details 3. 15 .To determine the size and spacing of steel to use in bar mats. As. (50 to 150 mm) ensures that the joint can function properly. is divided by the area of the standard bar to obtain the number of bars required per length (or width).. designers and contractors should not place embedded steel across any transverse joint in a jointed pavement design. Plans also require embedded steel to be discontinued at transverse and longitudinal joints. Extend embedded steel across joint only when the thickness is less than 10 in. Clearance between the embedded steel and the edges of a slab also is important to ensure the steel is adequately protected from corrosion.8 m) T DETAIL A Figure 13.5T from the pavement surface. (50 mm).5 ft (3. (25 mm) Notes: 1. End and side clearances should be a minimum of 2 in. its position within the slab is not crucial to performance. (150 mm) max. The engineer is cautioned to select a spacing between bars that is less than about 12 in. (300 mm) and no less than 30 times the diameter of the longitudinal wire or bar. If the steel is slightly below mid-depth. a gap of 2 to 6 in. (50 mm) and a maximum of 6 in. as determined from Equation 2 or by multiplying the required percentage of embedded steel (such as the minimum 0. Jointing of concrete airfield pavement panels with embedded steel. see Detail A) Longitudinal Joint Width Depends on Thickness and Geometry Distributed Steel 2 in.05 percent) by the area of concrete per unit length (or width).3T and 0. To avoid joint formation and performance problems. select a standard deformed steel bar meeting an ASTM standard dimension that will produce a practical spacing. 6 in. (150 mm) to provide nearly complete distribution without sacrificing concrete cover surrounding the steel. (300 mm) in order to ensure good steel distribution and limit crack widths. LONGITUDINAL CROSS-SECTION See Notes 1 and 2 See Note 3 T/4 + 1 in. (250 mm) and paved width exceeds 12..

preventing pumping. A stabilized subbase provides extra support for heavy aircraft gear loads and ensures good load transfer across the joints. n Panel sizes and aspect ratios. The risk of early distress increases as more triggers and/or variants exceed their threshold and affect a project. The maximum k-value allowed in AC 150/5320-6E is 500 psi/in.360 kg) or more. a uniform. Examples of misapplications include(6): n Increasing stabilized subbase thickness to reduce concrete layer thickness. In concrete pavements. materials. 16 . while developing the jointing arrangement or layout plan. high-strength subbases typically are not necessary.000 lb (45. while variants are key design. the risk of early-age cracking is elevated. The FAA’s AC 150/6320-6E requires a stabilized subbase layer for all new concrete pavements designed for aircraft weighing 100. To better ensure successful construction of concrete pavement on stabilized subbases. One common design variant that is known to contribute to underperforming pavement is concrete panel sizes that are too large relative to the subbase stiffness and/or slab thickness. Of primary concern are forces that induce movements in young concrete and factors that aggravate the impact of these movements on stress development in the pavement. a well-designed and constructed stabilized subbase layer provides some benefit to airfield pavements for heavy aircraft. and construction properties of the stabilized subbase and concrete. Note that the existence of just one trigger and one variant may be enough to cause distress.). In fact. The most common variants that affect performance include: n Subbase strength/stiffness.(6) The subbase stiffness can have a profound effect on the required panel size and can be a direct contributor to good performance or to performance deficiencies.e. therefore. Early-Age Considerations – Research indicates that a well designed and constructed stabilized subbase coupled with an adequate jointing arrangement helps concrete pavements for heavy aircraft achieve their long-term performance goals. tiebars. n Presence of shrinkage cracking in the subbase.n Jointing with Stabilized Subbases The main functions of the subbase layer in a concrete pavement structure include providing a stable construction platform. These stabilized subbases can consist of CTB.. nonerodible subbase material is often preferable to a highstrength subbase material in concrete pavement structures for most vehicles. durable. n Internal slab restraint (i. providing uniform support. and reducing frost effects. and fosters longterm pavement performance. econocrete/LCB.(6) However. n Concrete/subbase interface friction. Exceptions to the stabilized subbase requirement may be made on the basis of superior materials being available. such as 100 percent crushed. and quantifies the risk of underperforming pavement as a combination of factors. n Panel sizes and aspect ratios. For purposes of the discussion herein. Triggers are associated primarily with ambient conditions during placement of concrete and are mostly out of the control of the engineer or contractor. closely graded stone. driving forces are call “triggers” and the aggravating factors are called “variants”. which reduces the potential for load-related cracking and faulting. hard. dowel bars. deficiencies such as early aged cracking can result. engineers and contractors must address the factors that contribute to good performance of joints and slabs. n Shrinkage susceptibility of concrete mixtures. n Selecting panel sizes based on past joint spacing practices without considering the impact of the stiffness of the stabilized subbase. When a variant exceeds its threshold level. n Joint sawing/timing. (136 MPa/m) because this value is the highest k-value that can be accurately measured in the field. n Presence of absence of bond-breaker. or asphalttreated subbase (ATB). the concrete distributes applied loads over a large area. For stabilized subbases. These materials should exhibit a remolded soaked CBR minimum of 100. etc. n Subbase thickness. n Cementitious factor of the concrete mixture. the modulus of subgrade reaction (k-value) is increased by a factor proportional to the subbase thickness. Risk Assessment – Figure 14 summarizes the various triggers and their threshold values. n Curing procedures. The concept of controlling variants must be considered by the engineer during the design phase. However. when the primary function of the stabilized layer is misconstrued by the engineer or contractor. n Increasing stabilized subbase strength to achieve construction expedience.

and spacing for a configuration of lights intended to send a certain visual message to a pilot. and must be determined within allowable tolerances. light bases typically are offset from the longitudinal pavement joint by 2 ft (0. That distance is measured from the longitudinal construction or contraction joint to the outside edge of the light base. Therefore the engineer must evaluate the position of in-pavement lighting (including individual lights) with respect to pavement joints during the design phase of a project. Risk assessment of early-age cracking in concrete airfield pavement built over stabilized subbase (after ref. inpavement lights that are within 2 ft (0. 17 . Many times the concrete pavement thickness design and jointing plan (and jointing details) can be devised to reduce the number of variants. 6). and joint details such as dowel bars verses tiebars. Information on configurations and purposes for runway and taxiway lights is provided in FAA AC 150/5340-30D and it should be noted that. Typically. as explained further below (a summary of allowable lighting location tolerances is found in reference 8): n Distance from Pavement Joints: Pavement centerline Figure 14. However. (2) specified offsets from pavement joints or specified lines of geometric alignment. it is necessary that both light fixtures and concrete pavement be constructed within specified tolerances. Using Figure 14.6 m). (The 2 ft (0. end. to achieve a proper installation of in-pavement lights.6-m) joint offset restriction at any transverse or longitudinal joint.1 m]) Thick stabilized subbase (> 6 in. 1 Trigger + 1 Variant 1 Trigger + 3 Variants 1 Trigger + 5 Variants 2 Triggers + 3 Variants Adjusting Light Locations – There are situations when light and joint locations could conflict. Depending upon the joint spacing selected by the engineer and the required light base spacing.) It is desirable to minimize the use of boxouts for lighting fixtures so adjustment to either the lighting or the joint locations may be necessary. high mortar volume and total water.000 psi [6. the risk of early distress can be assessed and minimized. etc.6 m) recommendation is called the “joint offset”. it is possible to adjust the beginning and end light locations and avoid a compromise of the 2-ft (0. Regardless. the effects of stabilized subbase materials should be considered when developing the concrete panel size. thus minimizing the risk for early-age distresses.6 m) of a pavement joint necessitate the use of a boxout.25) Excessive restraint (large tie bars) MATERIALS VARIANTS High strength stabilized subbase (> 1. it is incumbent upon the engineer to be aware of the required in-pavement light spacing when planning the longitudinal and transverse joint spacing.) High cementitious factor (> 500 lb/yd3 [300 kg/m3 ]) CONSTRUCTION VARIANTS Inadequate concrete curing Late or shallow initial saw cuts RISK OF EARLY-AGE CRACKING The risk of early-age cracking increases as the number of triggers and/or variants increases. + DESIGN. Each individual light location is dependent upon: (1) the beginning. fine sands. MATERIAL & CONSTRUCTION VARIANTS DESIGN VARIANTS Excessive concrete panel size (> 20 ft [6.9 MPa] 7-day strength) High concrete slab/subbase friction (lack of adequate bond breaker) Shrinkage susceptible concrete mixture (gap-graded.TRIGGERS Large Temperature Swings Hot Ambient Conditions High Surface Evaporation n In-Pavement Lighting Considerations In-pavement lighting is an important safety component of airfield pavement that must be considered when designing an airfield pavement jointing plan. and (3) allowable deviation based upon tolerance from a specified geometric configuration. joint arrangements and joint layout plans. [150 mm]) High concrete panel aspect ratio (>1.

Changes in the slab configuration in a continuous lane of paving require an adjustment to the concrete paving machine or the use of hand placement. modified installations should be avoided near contraction joints because the light assembly and/or supporting cage may interfere with the paving operation. In most instances it is not practical to adjust the beginning and end points of the light configuration. this is neither a typical airfield pavement panel size nor a size compatible with the FAA and industryrecommended maximum joint spacing found in Table 1. Therefore.n Touchdown Zone (TDZ) Lighting: A TDZ light barrette includes 3 lights spaced 5 ft (1. If the tolerance is not sufficient to resolve a conflict.8 m) and still maintain all tolerances. Under such conditions. the contractor must make provisions that it will not interfere with paving or cause a problem with joint formation or load transfer. however. For this and any configuration. and usually follow an arc path that intersects pavement joints at different angles. but this is not generally recommended because of the complication they introduce for pavement construction. However. When a light base is installed closer than 2 ft (0. Unique jointing patterns might be developed to accommodate these special lights.8 m). as well as how to effectively isolate the light bar from the panel. assembly or steel cage should pass through any joint line. Using a boxout in a new runway pavement for centerline and/or touchdown zone lights should be rare because the tolerance for the starting locations of these configurations is forgiving. The paving machine must be able to travel over the top of. 18 . Experience shows that the omission of dowels for this purpose is not detrimental to the performance of the joint. n Lead-off Taxiway Centerline Lights on Arcs: Lead-off Mitigating an Unavoidable Conflict between Lights and Joints – Situations will arise where a light base must be closer than the 2-ft (0. a 3-light barrette configuration can be effectively constructed across two panels of 15 (5 m) or 12. as well as the allowable tolerances for positioning and offset from surrounding joints. the optimal panel size would be 19 ft (5 . In those instances where the joint offset cannot be maintained. the light must be installed using a modification to the typical installation detail.5 m) on-center. It is expected that there will be a conflict at pavement intersections because of the close light spacing.5 ft (3. curved alignment and changes in jointing patterns.6-m) desired joint offset. and past the light without catching any part of the assembly. No part of the light base. When a light base is positioned closer than 12 in. However. The use of hand placed concrete in areas of traffic also must be avoided when possible because the pavement will not be the same quality as when machine placed. Design engineers should closely coordinate their efforts and resolve conflicts within FAA tolerances. a modification of the FAA standard should be considered before using a boxout. the engineer must also consider how the light barrette or individual lights might impact joint load transfer. or it could unintentionally reinforce the joint and cause uncontrolled cracking. Changing the paving machine set-up to accommodate an irregular panel size is not cost effective. (150 mm) to the joint. For instance. the design must be examined to determine if the light base can be closer to the joint without compromising performance of the joint or the lighting fixtures. The use of a boxout to resolve a joint and light location conflict should be avoided if at all possible. The result will benefit the owner because there is a higher probability that there will be better construction and reduction in long term maintenance and repair needs with an embedded light fixture than one placed within a boxout. thereby avoiding pavement joints by the desired 2-ft (0. (300 mm) to a construction joint. the engineer must select and position the light bar to work within the constraints introduced by the pavement design. taxiway centerline lights are closely spaced. any dowel bars within 12 in.6-m) joint offset.6-m) offset. To maintain the typical 2-ft (0.6 m) to a construction joint. or may be cut or damaged by a concrete saw during the joint sawing operation. It is usually possible to find an effective means of accommodating taxiway centerline lights. the omission of one or two dowel bars near the light will ensure there is no unintended mechanical interconnection or interference. (300 mm) of the light base must also be omitted. It is recommended that the embedded steel cage surrounding the light base be no closer than 6 in.

As the location of the light base moves away from the joint. 19 . The perimeter of a boxout should be designed as an isolation joint (Type A – Undoweled). The 2 ft (0. Step 2.6 m) minimum Light base Boxout See Note 3 Planned contraction joint See Note 4 Concrete anchor 4 ft (1. Because an aircraft nose gear load is about 5% of an aircraft gross load. Figure 15. When boxout is used on a planned contraction joint. cracks may form from these corners so slabs containing square or diamond boxouts require some embedded reinforcement to hold cracks tightly together should they form. could be cost prohibitive.6 m) from the edge of the light base to the planned joint.6 m) offset dimension may be infringed if the light base is adjacent to a construction joint and can be positioned no closer than 2 ft (0.6 m) to a contraction joint. an even larger spacing from the joint may be desirable and should be considered within the tolerances allowable for the light location. with 10 in.6 m) spacing from the contraction joint is an absolute. If an acceptable position cannot be found to meet both lighting location tolerances and joint offsets. (250 mm) minimum spacing from the nearest joint and from the edge of the boxout.6 m) (see Note 2) Light base Boxout 2 ft (0. Irregular geometry increases the probability that uncontrolled cracking will occur. sufficiently tall and rigid for airfield construction. 4. Allow for minimum of 2 dowel bars.6 m) spacing from the light base to a construction joint may be less that 2 ft (0. The interior boxouts for in-pavement lighting along a pavement centerline are usually located under the path for aircraft nose gear. b. Thickened edge designs and/or dowels are not recommended between the boxout and the surrounding pavement. Square and diamond boxouts introduce interior corners into the pavement slab.In-pavement Lighting Boxouts – All of the various boxout types shown in Figure 8 can be used to box out an in-pavement light. Adjust one or both of the plans until the lighting layout tolerances are within the allowable and the light base at each location is not closer than 2 ft (0. Typical diamond and square boxout details for in-pavement lighting. the most common boxouts for this purpose are a diamond or a square.6m) provided that the steel cage does not interfere with the paving operation (at least 6 in. Leave a minimum space of 35 in. The 2 ft (0. A circle is the optimum shape but finding forming material in a circular shape.2 m) minimum diameter Notes: 1. However. Use welded-wire fabric steel reinforcement in all panels adjacent to in-pavement light boxouts (refer to section titled “Embedded Steel”). Construction of a boxout with a thickened edge is not practical and usually not warranted. the load applied in this region of the pavement is far less than the design load for the pavement structure and additional thickness by means of a thickened edge is simply unnecessary. this option is preferred but it requires approval of a modification to standards. A boxout formed using irregular geometry should not be used. The 2 ft (0. the size of the boxout will increase. (150 mm) from construction joint to the outside of the rebar cage). (900 mm) between the edge of the boxout and the nearest transverse joint. When the contraction joint is also a longitudinal joint. Steps to Resolve Pavement Joint and Light Base Conflicts: Step 1. Overlay the lighting plan onto the pavement joint plan. 2. Planned construction joint (see Note 1) Anchor diameter not less than diagonal of boxout Planned longitudinal joint 2 ft (0. (300 mm) to the rebar cage. the joint will be changed to a construction joint. two examples of which are shown in Figure 15 . The load transfer device spacing must be adjusted along the joint and no device should be closer than 12 in. then consider the following: a. 3.

. 2008. and the respective sub-contractors. “ Volume II. Vicksburg.pavement. “Stabilized and Drainable Base for Rigid Pavement .” Report IPRF 01-G-002-03-1. March. This practice is based upon the assumption that the contractor. 4. Portland Cement Association. Washington. D.W.6 m) to a pavement joint.” Chapter 12. and Air Force Civil Engineer Support Agency. 3. More details on these and other best-practices for constructing in-pavement lighting for airfield pavements are available in reference 7. Washington. When a light base is located closer than 2 ft (0. Load transfer devices may also be considered if the boxout is located where it would be subject to frequent loading by the main gear of departing aircraft. 8.C. It is the responsibility of the engineer to coordinate the pavement jointing and lighting layout plans. Sonsteby. Portland Cement Concrete Pavement.8 m) to the pavement panel corner.. When a light base is located closer than 2 ft (0.C. Washington. October.. Airport Pavement Design and Evaluation.A. 2008. Design and Installation Details for Airport Visual Aids. J. MS. IL 60077-1059 (847) 966-ACPA www..A Design and Construction Guide. “Constructing In-Pavement Lighting. Joint Departments of the Army Corps of Engineers.6 m) to a pavement joint. EB001. Innovative Pavement Research Foundation. 2008. Design of Concrete Airport Pavement. n References 1.6 m). FAA Advisory Circular AC 150/5320-6E.” Report IPRF-01-G-002-021(G). 6. 14th Edition. The minimum dimension of encroachment into any panel is 2 ft (0. Federal Aviation Administration. 1971. American Concrete Pavement Association 5420 Old Orchard Rd. June. use a square boxout.. 2005 . Naval Facilities Engineering Command. D. 2002. the longest side of the boxout is not to exceed 1. and the edge of the light base is closer than 6 ft (1. Coordinating light locations with paving plans during design reduces the probability that significant field changes will be required during construction and saves project time and expense.25 times the length of the shortest side. IL. The engineer must resolve conflicts before the construction documents are made available to the contractor. IL. UFC 3260-02. D. Pavement Design for Airfields.S. and others. Federal Aviation Administration. 2. FAA Advisory Circular AC 150/5340-30D. Unified Facilities Criteria. Suite A100 TB017P . Design and Control of Concrete Mixtures. Coordination in Design Plans – It is currently common practice for construction documents to be supplied to the contractor without the pavement jointing plan and lighting plan being coordinated by the engineer. use a diamond boxout. Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station. U. Skokie. “Plain Concrete Pavements. Technical Report S71-17.D.14..8 m) from a pavement panel corner. can resolve conflicts between pavement joints and light base locations in the field. and others. Step 4.C. Skokie. 5 . EB050P.. Welded-wire fabric reinforcement should be placed in the upper one-third of the two panels that incorporate the boxout. and the edge of the light base is at least 6 ft (1. Welded-wire fabric reinforcement should be placed in the upper onethird of each of the panels surrounding the boxout. American Concrete Pavement Association. “Multiple-Wheel Heavy Gear Load Pavement Tests. 2001. 1986. Burns. Innovative Pavement Research Foundation. 7. C. Hall.Step 3. O. To be consistent with the aspect ratio limit.