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Lecture about Solid Mechanics

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**What you’ll learn:
**

What is stress? Why stress is important? What are normal and shear stresses? What is strain? Hooke’s law (relationship between stress and strain) Stress –strain diagram Stress concentration

Motivation

High heel shoes:

Have you ever tried high heel shoes? If no, it worth to try it at least once, to understand one of the major concepts in engineering. Do you know what would happen if you walk on a soft ground wearing high heels? Can you explain the differences between 2 above shows? Pet Collar

1|Solid Mechanics

What happened? Do you dare to do it? Why? 2|Solid Mechanics . first of all have a knife on your hand and put the book on top of the knife. Now. Have you ever thought that.Do you have a pet? Do you use collar? Have you ever thought which kind of collar is better? What would happen if it is so thin? Will you use a thin rope instead of a collar? Knife Have you ever cut your hand by a paper? Have you ever tried to cut something by a knife but it wasn’t sharp enough? What are the similarities between the knife and a piece of paper? Weight lifting You may watch Olympic weight lifting competition. they are in static equilibrium so why they seem under a lot of pressure? Book lifting Try to hold a heavy book by one hand. could you hold it? Congratulations.

The stress here is defined as shear stress. The normal stress σ (is denoted by the Greek letter sigma) acts perpendicular to the selected plane. There are 2 different types of stress.Definition Stress is defined as force divided by cross sectional area. σ= 𝑃 𝐴 Equation 1 Figure 1 shows the forces on a rod. An axial force F is applied to each end of this rod. The cross section of this rod is A. This rod is in a static equilibrium. However it can be computed by equation 1. The force P acts perpendicular to the cross-sectional area. shear stress and normal stress. F F Figure 2 Shear stress 3|Solid Mechanics . F F Figure 1 Normal stress Figure 2 shows the same rode which the forces applied parallel to the rod’s cross sectional Area. Normal stress in this rod is defined by equation 1.

the force P is usually express in pounds (lb) or kilopounds (kip).S. This unit is called Pascal (Pa)..1 is valid for any cross-sectional area of a member of any shape (i. the bar is compressed. Conversely.Stress Units In SI metric units. We have: 1 kPa=103 Pa 1 MPa=106 Pa 1 GPa=109 Pa When U. The cross section of the bar in Figure 1 is circular. the kilopascal (kPa). F F F tension compression F F Figure 3 External forces for tension and compression 4|Solid Mechanics . The stress σ will then be expressed in ponds per square inch (psi) or kilopounds per square inch (ksi). However. customary units are used. The normal stress associated with this force configuration is referred to as tensile stress because the forces place the body in tension.e. The normal stress associated with this force configuration is referred to as compressive stress because the forces place the body in compression. one finds that the pascal is an exceedingly small quantity and that. triangular. but the the equation 1. the stress σ will be expressed in N/m2. These two force configurations are illustrated in Figure 3. and the cross sectional area A is square inches (in2). multiples of this unit must be used. with P expressed in Newtons (N) and A in square meters (m2). circular. the megapascal (MPa) and the gigapascal (GPa). the bar is stretched. in practice. rectangular. etc. Tensile and Compressive Stress When the force vectors are directed away from each other (Figure 1). if the force vectors are directed toward each other.). namely.

25 * 10 -6 m2 σ = F A = 6 103 N Example: A rod with the diameter of 25 cm is subjected to 500N.625 ∗ 10−4 m2 = 1. can withstand just one type of stress (tensile or compressive).2 ∗ 104 Pa The shear stress τ (is denoted by the Greek letter tau) acts parallel to the selected plane. So.14) * 25 ∗ 10 4 = 490. Solution: A= π d2 4 2 −4 = (3. Example: A column of square cross section is subjected to a compressive load of 6 kN. What’s the angle between force and area? Is this zero. Like columns in bridges and buildings. The mathematical presentation of shear stress is the same as normal stress. find the stress on the column.A positive sign for stress will be used to indicate a tensile stress (member in tension) and a negative sign to indicate a compressive stress (member in compression). Since some of the material. Solution: A= 25 (cm) * 25 (cm) = 625 cm2 = 625 * 10 -4 m2 = 6. the type of normal stress is of prime importance. There it is mostly used in applications where the stresses are compressive. τ= 𝑃 𝐴 Equation 2 How to recognize shear stress than normal stress? The answer is: find your force direction and identify your structure’s area. For example concrete is stronger in compression than in tension.25 ∗ 10−6 m2 = 960 MPa σ = F A = 500 N 490. Find the stress on the rod. we can use equation 2 here too. 90 or something in between? (Figure 4) 5|Solid Mechanics .625 m2 6. If the width of the column is 25 cm.

θ=0 θ = 45 Figure 4. Hanging a subject from ceiling or wall 6|Solid Mechanics . Example: We need to hang something from ceiling. Here weight is the force and we know its direction is always toward ground. Now you realize that the force (weight) is perpendicular to the ceiling. consequently we will have normal stress. wall Area= 5 m2 Solution: First we need to identify the force and its direction. In the first part of the question we will hang on our subject from ceiling (Figure 5 a). for θ = 90 we just have normal stress and for θ = 45 we have both shear and normal stresses. W=50 N. find stress applied to ceiling? Which kind of stress is that? Do the same problem when you need to hang on your subject from wall. Force angle with the plane θ = 90 When θ = 0 there is only shear stress. Ceiling Area= 4 m2. (b) Hanging from ceiling (a) Hanging from wall Figure 5.

now our area is changed and as you can see in Figure (5 b) the force is parallel to the area. hanging something from a wall creates a shear stress on the wall. since the force doesn’t change we have the same force as the part one. you see that. It means now we have shear stress. For the second part (Hanging from wall). 7|Solid Mechanics .σN = F A = 50 (N) 4 m2 = 12. But.5 Pa This stress is a normal stress and it is tensile. as opposed to hanging something from the ceiling which creates a normal stress on the ceiling. which we can find it with the same equation: τ = 𝐴 = 𝐹 50 (𝑁 ) 5 (𝑚 2 ) = 10 pa In conclusion. since the weight of the object is acting parallel to the wall. since the weight is acting perpendicular to the ceiling.

Since the change in length is caused by normal st ress the quantity δ is called the normal deformation or axial deformation. but the deformations are usually too small to detect visually.Strain Motivation What’s the consequence of wearing high heels instead of flat shoes and walking in soft floor? What would happen if you try to cut a metal using your butter knife? Did you ever stretch a rubber band and notice that its length changes? Definition No material is perfectly rigid. normal strain and shear strain. All materials—steel. 8|Solid Mechanics . There are two types of strain. Deformation usually denoted by the Greek letter delta (δ).L1 Figure 6. Figure 6 shows the deformation of a rod. concrete. The applied tensile force causes the bar to increase its length to L2. The difference between two lengths (prior and after applying load) is deformation (δ). In order to normalize the change in size or shape of body with respect to the body’s original geometry. engineers use a quantity called strain. L2 F F L1 δ = L2 . wood. Deformation in a bar Prior to applying force the bar has a length L1. and other structural materials—deform to some extent under applied forces. When they subjected to external force they change their size and shape. This change in the shape or size of the body is defined as deformation.

however. as mentioned before. It observed to deform into a parallelogram. it is sometimes expressed as a percentage. strain is usually expressed in units of in/in. In the English unit system. It is customary. to express strain as a ratio of two length units. In the SI unit system.2 m height before applying force and 1. but the definition given by Equation (3) also applies to bodies in compression. Solution: δ = deformation = L2 – L1 = 1.199 – 1. This plane is subjected to the shear stress τ. The normal strain illustrated in Figure 3 is for a body in tension. Figure 7 shows the shear stress and its deformation on a plane.Normal strain ε (Greek letter epsilon) is defined as the normal deformation divided by the original length L: ε = 𝐿 𝛿 Equation 3 Strain units Because strain is a ratio of two lengths. strain is usually expressed in units of μm/m because.001 m 𝜀 = 𝛿 𝐿 = −0.2 = -0.2 = −8. Sine strain is a dimensionless quantity. τ γ Figure 7. it is a dimensionless quantity. deformations are typically small.3 ∗ 10−4 Strain has the negative sign since the stress is compressive and the height of the column reduced.001 1.199 m after applying force. The deformation on this plane is γ (Greek letter Gamma). Example: In example 1 find the strain when the column has the 1. Strain caused by shear stress: Shear stress can cause deformation. Shear strain 9|Solid Mechanics .

04 𝑖𝑛 4 𝑖𝑛 = 0. Shear strain Solution: 0. F 4 in. under the action of the force. B γ A C Because of the shear stress point B moved to point C. knowing that the upper plate moves through 0. we write: 𝛾 ≈ tan 𝛾 = 0.01 𝑟𝑎𝑑 10 | S o l i d M e c h a n i c s . Figure 8.04 in.04 in. According to the definition the shearing strain is γ. determine the shearing strain in material. while the upper plate is subjected to a horizontal force F. 8 in 2 in.Example: Consider a rectangular block as shown in Figure 8. Noting that this is very small angle and recalling that it should be expressed in radians. The lower plate is fixed. which is equal to the angle formed by vertical line (AB) and line (AC).

He discovered that the extension of a string is directly proportional to the load applied to the spring. E would be the slope of the best straight line fitted through the points. in this equation is called the modulus of elasticity or Young’s modulus. and k is a constant of proportionality called the spring constant. Since strain is a dimensionless quantity the modulus of elasticity or Young’s modulus has the same units as stress. Here there is the same limitation which says. states that the stress σ in a material is proportional to the strain ε. You already know that what are σ and ε in equation 4. The equation 4 can be express in terms of force and deformation. There is another form of Hooke’s law for engineering materials which has the same mathematical form of equation 4 but is expressed in terms of stress and strain (Equation 5). This law is expressed mathematically as: F = kx Equation 4 Where F is force. Equation 4 is valid only if the spring can return to its original length after the force is removed. x is displacement. As we will see later in this lesson when you do a set of experiment on a linear elastic material and you measure the strain for specific applied stress you can plot stress strain data points on a linear scale. this law is true only for the material which returns to its original size after the removal of the force. You should have end up to this equation: 𝛥𝐿 = 𝐹 𝐿 𝐴 𝐸 11 | S o l i d M e c h a n i c s . after the English mathematician Thomas Young (1773—1829). Equation (5). These materials that obey Hook’s law are known as linear-elastic or "Hookean" materials. The constant of proportionality E. σ = Eε Equation 5 This form of the Hook’s law.Hooke’s Law In 1678 the English mathematician Robert Hooke (1635—1703) stated a law which is known as Hooke’s law of elasticity. Take a piece of paper and try to find that. In this diagram based on Hook’s Law we expect to get a straight line.

2 ∗ 106 𝑃𝑎 = 156. The cable is 0.2 𝑀𝑃𝑎 200 𝐺𝑃𝑎 = 0. Figure 9. the cable is steel with a modulus of elasticity of E = 200 GPa.546 ∗ 10−3 𝑚 = 0.56 ∗ 10−6 𝑚2 σ = 𝐹 𝐴 = 1962 𝑁 σ=Eε ε = σ 𝐸 = 156. Engine block hanging from cable [1] Solution: F = engine weight = m * g = 200 (kg) * 9.962 kN 𝐴 = 𝜋𝑟 2 = 3.14 ∗ (2 mm)2 = 12.546 𝑚𝑚 12.56 𝑚𝑚2 = 12.781 ∗ 10−3 12 | S o l i d M e c h a n i c s .81 (𝑚 𝑠 2 ) = 1962 N = 1.7 m long and have a diameter of 4 mm. Find the normal stress and the axial deformation in cable.781 ∗ 10−3 ∗ 0.7 𝑚 = 0.Example A 200 kg engine block hangs from a cable (Figure 9).2 𝑀𝑃𝑎 𝜀 = 𝛿 𝐿 𝛿 = 𝜀 ∗ 𝐿 = 0.56 ∗ 10−6 𝑚2 = 156.

i.Stress-Strain Diagram Figure 10 a typical stress-strain diagram [1] Earlier we mentioned about the stress-strain diagram. This graph is derived from measuring the load applied on the sample. derived from measuring the deformation of the sample. This is a graph of stress as a function of strain. Point C is called the yield stress or yield strength. compression. For many materials. This test is called tensile test. The nature of the curve varies from material to material and even on the same material depends on the temperature of the specimen and the speed of the loading may yield different results. At any stress between point A and the elastic limit. stress is not proportional to strain. The very useful fact about this curve is that. or distortion. and strain. Any stress above the yield stress 13 | S o l i d M e c h a n i c s . it does not depend upon the dimension of the particular specimen used. Figure 10 shows a typical stress strain diagram. “ The upper stress limit of the linear relationship described by Hooke’s law is called the proportional limit. labeled point A.e. elongation. the proportional and elastic limits are very close together. However it is possible to find some common characteristics among the Stress-Strain Diagram of various groups of materials. but the material will still return to its original size after the force is removed. labeled point B.

The yield stress of aluminum 6061-T6 is 240 MPa. the material experiences a large increase in strain for a small increase in stress. So.will result in plastic deformation of the material (i. Solution: The cross section is square. Using the yield stress as the failure stress..e. As the stress increases beyond the yield stress. but will deform permanently). the material will not return to its original size.) At about point D.” [1] Example A rod of aluminum 6061-T6 has a square cress section measuring 6mm by 6mm. 1mm2 =10-6 m2) σ = 𝐹 𝐴 → F=σ*A If the maximum tensile load applied to the rod it will reach the yield point. to find the maximum tensile load: F = σ * A = 240 (MPa) * 36 (mm2) = 240 (106𝑁 𝑚2 ) * 36 (10-6 m2) = 8640 N = 8. Area = 6 (mm) * 6 (mm) = 36 mm2 = 36* 10-6 m2 (1 mm = 10-3 m. called the ultimate stress or ultimate strength.64 kN 14 | S o l i d M e c h a n i c s . the cross-sectional area the material begins to decrease rapidly until the material experiences fracture at point E. find the maximum tensile load that the rod can sustain.

However. The nonlinear stress distribution across the 15 | S o l i d M e c h a n i c s . pulleys. This indicates a linear stress distribution across this portion of the bar. A shaft may have holes for the attachment of other parts. The same effect is seen near the left-hand end around the two notches. the fringe lines indicate a disruption and concentration of stress at this sudden change in geometry. at the right end of the part where the cross section is uniform.Stress concentration Airplane window (de Havilland Comet) http://en. at the fillet where the width of the part is reduced from D to d. the fringe lines are straight. of uniform width. shafts often are stepped to different diagrams to accommodate bearing. most real machine parts will have varying cross sections.org/wiki/De_Havilland_Comet#Comet_disasters_of_1954 Figure 11 stress concentration in a bar [2] “Up to now we assumed that the members’ cross sections were uniform throughout. Note that. and equispaced. etc. The stress effects were measured and the stress distribution is shown in the part when loaded. gears. For example.wikipedia. Any of these changes in cross-sectional geometry will cause localized stress concentration. But. Figure 11 shows that stress concentration introduced by notches and fillets in a flat bar subjected to a bending moment.

Bar with a hole [2] Solution: The cross section with the hole has the less area and because of geometry change there is stress concentration in this section.5 = 173. Find the maximum stress in the bar (Kt = 2. h = 4 cm. A = w * h – d * h = (w-d)*h = (20 .5 MPa 16 | S o l i d M e c h a n i c s . d = 2 cm. “ [2] Example A flat bar with a transverse hole is subjected to a 500 kN force in axial direction.section at the notches is plotted on the lower figure. since such geometric details are needed to connect mating parts and provide functional part shapes. Note that the nominal stresses are calculated using the net cross section which is reduced by the notch geometry. Unfortunately. The amount of stress concentration in any particular geometry is denoted by a geometric stress-concentration factor Kt for normal stress. it is not practical to eliminate all such stress-raisers.5) Figure 12.4 MPa ∗ 2.4 MPa σmax = σ ∗ K t = 69. as shown in figure 12.2) * 4 = 72 cm2 σ = F A = 500 ∗ 103 N 72 ∗ 10−4 m2 = 69. This is experimental evidence of the existence of stress concentration at any change in geometry. In this figure w = 20 cm. assuming a stress distribution across the section that would obtain for a uniform geometry. Such geometry changes in a part are often called “stress-raisers” and should be avoided or at least minimized as much as possible in design. The maximum stress at local stress-raisers is then defined as: σmax = Kt σnom Where σnom is the nominal stress calculated for the particular applied loading and net cross section.

Prentice Hall 2. 3rd edition. 4th edition.References 1. Jr. Robert L. “Machine Design”. Dewolf. John T. “Introduction to Engineering Analysis”. Hagen. 2nd Edition. Kirk D. E. Norton. Russell Johnston. “Mechanics of Material”. Prentice Hall 17 | S o l i d M e c h a n i c s . The McGraw Hill Companies 3.

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