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AN-4838

15 TO 60 WATT AUDIO AMPLIFIERS USING COMPLEMENTARY DARLINGTON OUTPUT TRANSISTORS
Prepared by

Richard G. Ruehs
Applications Engineering

The use of monolithic power darlington transistors can simplify the design of highfidelity power amplifiers. Circuit and performance information are provided to facilitate the design of 15 watt to 60 watt amplifiers utilizing the power darlington devices.

MOTOROLA

Semiconductor

Products Inc.

the driver heat sinks and output biasing resistors are also eliminated. 7.2% 10kn form a voltage divider which provides dc bias to the base of QI.9. Resistors R3 and R2 also Parts List RMS Power Load VCC R2 R3 R6 4n 32 V 4.This is accomplished by dc feedback from this poin t to the base of Q 1.00CIW Note 2: All resistors are ±. no responsibility is assumed for Inaccuracies.3 k 4.7 k Idle Current (Adj. with Rvl Nominal Input Sensitivity for Full Rated Output Total Harmonic Distortion @ Rated Output. The Information in this Application Note has been carefully checked and Is believed to be entirely reliable. Loading of this divider by the base current of Ql could cause the center voltage to vary with changes in 50 pF/ 50V I 03 MJE1100 R1 10k 02 R8 21LF/50 V Input~ ~+ MPS. 0.15 TO 60 WATT AUDIO AMPLIFIERS USING COMPLEMENTARY DARLINGTON OUTPUT TRANSISTORS INTRODUCTION Recently developed silicon monolithic darlington power transistors permit significant simplification of audio power amplifier circuitry. and a 15 to 60 watt high performance amplifier with dc-coupled output.U01 0. medium performance amplifier. such Information does not convey to the purchaser of the semiconductor devices described any license under the patent rights of Motorola Inc. or others.33 Note 1: Minimum heat sinking for 03 and 04 @ 550C ambient and @ 10% high line voltage: 15 W .9 k 3. Three circuits will be discussed: a 15 to 20 watt. 50 Hz to 20 kHz Total Harmonic Distortion 1 W Output. A significant cost savings should be realized since. Note 3: All values given ere common to both 15 and 20 W versions.10% except where * indicates ±'5%. complete information sufficient for construction purposes Is not necessarily given.1 k 46 V 4. through R3.3 k 5. Vall~es not shown are In Table I.6k 120 k 100 k 130 k 3. 1 kHz I nput I mpedence @ 0. consequently. 15-20 WATT AMPLIFIER The circuit of the 15-20 watt amplifier is shown in Figure 1. . the printed circuit board for the amplifier could become very compact. the dc "center" voltage (the point between R8 and R9) must be one-half of V Ce. To ensure maximum signal swing. Furthermore. eliminating the two driver transistors used in previous methods. a 15 to 60 watt high performance amplifier with ac-coupled output. However.33* 2W Circuit diagrams external to Motorola products are Included as a means of illustrating typical semiconductor applications.50C/W 20 W .3 k 82 k 3. Also. The amplifiers described in this note use complementary power darlington output transistors.3 k 15 W an 40V 4n 20W an 36 V 5. in addition to the driver devices.

Resistors Rl. the center voltage must be one half YCC for maximum output swing. THE 15-60 WATT AC COUPLED CIRCUIT The 15 to 60 watt ac-coupled circuit is shown in Figure 2. as in the previous circuit.39 + .4 Y for biasing of the output. Ry is made variable so that the IC of Q2 can be adjusted and consequently the dc "idle current" in the output transistors can be set to minimize cross-over distortion.. To ensure maximum swing during peak negative signal excursions. Ry and Rl form a resistive divider which sets the collector to emitter voltage of Q2 at approximately 2.39 O. As in the previous circuit. ID1 I MZ2361 j 04 R8 120 . This drop is caused by the base-emitter diode voltage of Ql and the voltage drop across R6 due to the emitter current of Ql. This makes use of the dc charge on the output coupling capacitor to provide drive current to the base of Q4 thru R6 (bootstrapping). Values not marked. Resistors R4. if Q2 were mounted on the heat sink with the output transistors.F/ 100 V '+250~jJ. A constant current source. C4 I Note 1: All resistors are ±. Note 2: Values shown are common to all amplifiers.8 kD. This eliminates the effects of the bootstrap capacitor on frequency. is used to eliminate the need for bootstrapping the base of Q6.F R7 r I I L .10% tolerance except where' indicates ±'5%. The collector current of Q 1 and the current thru R6 is thus YBE(on) Q2 "'" ~ = 0. R3 divider is made at least ten times greater than the maximum base current of Ql. the dc idle current would remain within practical limits over the temperature range. Transistor Q2 is used to forward bias the output darlington devices. R6 Ay=R5 The input impedance is set by the parallel equivalent resistance of R2 and R3. Q4.F R3 150 k . The YCE voltage ofQ2 tracks the YBE(on) temperature characteristics of Q3 and Q4 adequately. R6 is connected to the speaker side of the output coupling capacitor. providing r R2' 82 k 0.hFE of Q1. the direct current in the R2. To prevent this change. performance in Table III. + VCC C3 100 jJ.33 mA R4 1. This will maintain the center voltage at 1/2 YCC since there is a constant 1. Twenty milliamps of idle current is sufficient to eliminate this distortion.5 volt drop from the base of Ql to the output center point. to forward bias the output devices to prevent cross-over distortion. including voltages for electrolytics are given in Table II. The dc voltage across R4 is set by the YBE(on) voltage of Q2. Therefore. A 50 pF capacitor is used in this stage to compensate the amplifier to prevent high frequency oscillations. 0. Parts values and typical performance characteristics for the 15 to 20 watt circuit are shown in Table I.1 jJ. Transistor Q2 has approximately 60 dB of voltage gain and determines the dominant pole in the amplifier. R2 and R3 form a voltage divider which sets the dc voltage on the base of Ql at approximately 1. Transistor Q3 is used.5 volts above 1/2 YCc.

.. Hum and noise from the power supply are filtered out by Rl and Cl./' 0. versus Frequency for Amplifier of Figure 2 .. 0. t-. heat sink for outputs @ 55°C ambient temperature and 10% high line voltage 4 32 V 620 33 k MPS A05 MPS A55 MPS A13 MPS A05 MJE 1100 MJE 1090 35V 20V 40V 15 8 38 V 510 39 k MPS A05 MPS A55 MPS A13 MPS A05 MJE 1100 MJE 1090 40V 25 V 45V 4 36 V 560 39 k MPS A05 MPS A55 MPS A13 MPS A05 MJE 1100 MJE 1090 40V 25 V 45 V 20 8 46 V 470 47 k MPS A05 MPS A55 MPS A13 MPS A05 MJE 1100 MJE 1090 50V 30 V 55 V 4 38V 560 39 k MPS A05 MPS A55 MPS A13 MPS A05 MJE 1102 MJE 1092 40V 25 V 45 V 25 8 48V 390 47 k MPS A05 MPS A55 MPS A13 MPS A05 MJE 1100 MJE 1090 50 V 30 V 55 V 4 44V 470 47 k MPS A05 MPS A55 MPS A13 MPS A05 MJ 3000 MJ 2500 45 V 25 V 50 V 35 8 56 V 330 56 k MPS A06 MPS A56 MPS A13 MPS A06 MJ 1001 MJ 901 60 V 35 V 65 V 4 50V 390 47 k MPS A05 MPS A55 MPS A13 MPS A05 MJ 3000 MJ 2500 50 V 30 V 60 V 50 8 65 V 270 68 k MPS A06 MPS A56 MPS A13 MPS A06 MJ 3001 MJ 2501 65 V 35 V 75 V 4 56 V 330 56 k MPS A06 MPS A56 MPS A13 MPS A06 MJ 3001 MJ 2501 60V 35 V 65 V 60 8 72V 220 68 k MPS A06 MPS A56 MPS A13 MPS A06 MJ 3001 MJ 2501 75 V 40V 80 V 9..30 0...25 0.00C/W 5. ci J: I?f1.. it is necessary to make the current source.. Table II lists the parts used for the 15 to 60 watt circuits.. I I I Power 0..00C/W Idle Current (Adjusted I nput Impedance Nominal with RV) 20 mA 50 kn I nput Sensitivity for Rated Power Output 1.Power Watts (RMSI Load Impedance VCC R5 (ohms) R7 (ohms) Ql Q2 Q3 Q4 Q5 Q6 Voltage rating on Cl Voltage rating on C2.ated Output ~ower r-. the voltage across R8 are relatively constant with respect to current changes in Dl. 0... C3 Voltage rating on C4 Min.0 Vrms 0.50C/W 4. . consequently..50C/W 7..2% 20 Hz and 50 kHz 50 kHz 30 kHz Total Harmonic Distortion at 1.10 r-- 100 mW Output LI J III I - . Q4.D.H. I"-- t- Ful! R.15 ~ f'. Therefore...2% 0..... The collector-emitter voltage of Q3 is a function of its collector current...0 kHz and any Power up to Full Rated Output (See Figure 3) Intermodulation Distortion 60 Hzwith 2 kHz and 7 kHz Mixed 4: 1 at 1/2 Maximum Rated Output Power Frequency Response (-1 dB Points) Maximum Safe Operating Frequency at Full Rated Power ...00C/W 5.20 Watt Amplifier: 60 Watt Amplifier: lower distortion at low frequencies.. Diode Dl is used for this purpose since its forward voltage and.00C/W 6..00C/W 3. Table III and Figure 3 show typical performance of the amplifier.05 Frequency (Hz) FIGURE 3 .20 ~ . independent of supply voltage variations. to eliminate cross-over distortion when a poorly regulated supply is used for Vcc.Typical T.....

1 k 10 k 50llF 6V -= R4 R7 #20 Enameled Wire Close Wound on 10 rl/2 W Resistor \ - MZ92-10 (10 V) I MZ2361 I I I L .2 k 1. The signal input base of the dif-amp (Q I) is referenced to 0 Power Watts (RMS) Load Impedance VCC R4 (ohms) R5 (ohms) R7 (ohms) 01.0oC/W 5.SoC/W 7.2 k 1.5 k 1. The output center voltage must be maintained at zero volts dc not only to ensure maximum signal swing but also to prevent dc from appearing at the speaker.6 k 4 ±'28 V 3.1IlF 75 V 50 pF R6 R5 + Rl 10 k Dl R3 5.2 k 820 18 k MD 8001 MPS ASS MPS A13 MPS AOS MJE 1100 MJE 1090 25 8 ±'23 V 3. I I ~ 120 WO.0 k 4 ±.0oC/W 5.9 k 8 ±'36 V 6. 16 V 1.0 k 4 ±'25 V 3.9 k 60 8 ±'33 V S.lIlF -VCC J THE 15 TO 60 WATT DC-COUPLED CIRCUIT The IS to 60 watt dc-coupled circuit is shown in Figure 4.0 k 18 k MD 8001 MPS A5S MPS A13 MPS A05 MJE 1100 MJE 1090 7S0 22 k MD 8001 MPS AS5 MPS A13 MPS AOS MJE 1100 MJE 1090 820 22 k MD 8001 MPS A55 MPS A13 MPS AOS MJ 3000 MJ 2500 560 27 k MD 8001 MPS AS6 MPS A13 MPS A06 MJ 1001 MJ 901 680 22 k MD 8001 MPS ASS MPS A13 MPS A05 MJ 3000 MJ 2S00 620 27 k MD 8001 MPS AS6 MPS A13 MPS A06 MJ 3001 MJ 2501 430 33 k MD 8002 MPS A56 MPS A13 MPS A06 MJ 3001 MJ 2S01 9.22 V 3.SoC/W 4.19V 2.2 k 04 2.0 k 18 k MD 8001 MPS A55 MPS A13 MPS AOS MJE 1102 MJE 1092 4 ±.0oC/W 3.R2 680 10 03 r 2. heat sink for outputs @ 55°C ambient temperature and 10% 15 4 ±.6 k 470 33 k MD 8002 MPS A56 MPS A13 MPS A06 MJ 3001 MJ '2S01 4 ±. I I 05 All Resistors are ±'1 0% Tolerance Except Where • Indicates ±5%. The zero center voltage is obtained by using a split power supply and a differential amplifier on the input of the circuit.3 k 35 8 ±'24 V 3.2 k O.0oC/W high line voltage .19 V 2.2 k lS k MD 8001 MPS A55 MPS A13 MPS AOS MJE 1100 MJE 1090 20 8 ±.18 V 2.0oC/W 6.3 k 680 22 k MD 8001 MPS A5S MPS A13 MPS AOS MJE 1100 MJE 1090 50 8 ±'28 V 3.02 Dual Transistors 03 04 05 06 07 Min.

consequently. Resistors Rl and R2 form a voltage divider which senses the peak current flowing through the output transistor and RE.1% 10 Hz and 50 kHz . "OVR=Ft ov ·10'0' j volts dc thru Rl. R2 should not be selected much higher than this or the minimum hFE requirement for the bias transistor will be higher. is shown in Figure 7.4 and R2 = 2.4 V.2 k ohms using the previously mentioned equation.15. Since the amplifier is dc coupled throughout.15 volts which is set equal to YR.•. The choke used on the output is to prevent highfrequency oscillations that might occur with capacitive loading. Between 20 Hz and 20 kHz and at any Power from 100 mW to Full Rated Output (SeeFigure 5) Intermodu lation Distortion 60 Hz with 2 kH z and 7 kHz Mixed 4: 1 at 1/2 Maximum Rated Output Power Frequency Response (-1 dB Points) Square Wave Response Maximum Safe Operating Frequency at Full Rated Power . Transistor Ql and its associated circuitry function for the positive half of the waveform. Rl is usually divided and potentiometer is added. In this example a potentiometer of 1 k ohm and a resistor of 2. When Ql and Q2 conduct.Idle Current (Adjusted with RV) Input Impedance Nominal Input Sensitivity for Rated Power Output Total Harmonic Distortion at any Frequency 20 mA 10 k. A 10 V zener diode in conjunction with R3 is used to set this current. To allow for variation in VBE and hFE in the bias and output transistor. The value of R4 is chosen for 4 mA. which is approximately 20 mA.2k ohms is used to provide this adjustment. This divider is set to turn Q 1 and Q2 "ON" when the output current goes above the maximum normal operating level. The zener diode also provides filtering to prevent hum and noise on the -VCC line from getting into the input stage. If this condition is satisfied the baseemitter drop of Q3 or Q4 can be considered a reference voltage and the values of Rl and R2 can be calculated from VI VR - = Rl 1+R2 (See Figure 6) .\1 1. It is essential that Ql and Q2 be matched very closely since any difference in base current and VBE(on) will be reflected as an error voltage on the output.. VR = 1. should be chosen so that the current through them is less than one-tenth of the collector current.15% 0. any offset voltage that appears at the output will be corrected by the differential action of Ql and Q2. 0. for the negative half of the waveform. 4mA ac gain of the amplifier is determined The closed-loop by: R6 AV=-' R5 OVERLOAD PROTECTION The remainder of the circuit operation is identical to the previously described ac coupled approach of Figure 2. Table V and Figure 5 show the typical performance of these amplifiers. By using the known conditions.. VI is the total turnon voltage for the output transistors and is typically 2. If R2 is selected as 2.20 Watt Amplifier: 60 Watt Amplifier: so •. During shorted output.2 k. This circuit holds the darlington output devices within their dc safe-operating area in the event the output is accidentally shorted. OUTPUT STAGE BIASING A circuit for overload protection applying to all the darlington amplifiers discussed in this note.. The total resistance. 2 mA of current for the zener diode and the diff amp's 2 mA: (R4 \ = VCC -10 V) .•. Transistors Ql and Q2 are biased at 1 mA of collector current each.• 10k. V 1 = 2. One-hundred per cent dc feedback is accomplished thru R6 to the base of Q2. the average power dissipation in the output devices increases about four times over the normal operating dissipation. Table IV lists the parts used for the dc-coupled amplifiers. limit the amount of output current. Rl is calculated to be 2. ·10'0' . Rl + R2. Q3 or Q4 should have an hFE greater than 100 so that the current through Rl and R2 can be made less one-tenth of the collector current.2 k this condition will definitely be satisfied.. The length of time a shorted The output stage biasing for the circuits in Figures 2 and 4 is controlled by Q3 in Figure 2 and Q4 in Figure 4.0 Vrms For Example: An MPS-AI3 Darlington transistor IS suggested for Q3 or Q4. Diode Dl prevents the collector-base junction of Ql and Q2 from being forward biased during normal signal conditions and creating distortion in the output waveform. 50 kHz 30 kHz '''VR=Ft 0 . Q2 and its associated circuitry. they limit the amount of drive to the base of the output and. The typical base-emitter voltage is 1.

When the minimum heat sinks specified in Tables I./ 160 Im~ 16utput ~ow~r 0.: 'j1.10 -..20 0. R2 470 Rl I MSS 1000 Dl . "Load line" protection circuits can also be used with the darlington amplifiers for long term overload protection. CONCLUSION This note has described IS watt to 60 watt audio power amplifiers using silicon monolithic darlington power outpu t transistors.0k 620 The circuits illustrate the simplification resulting from the use of these darlington devices. The achievable performance of these amplifiers is equal to that previously obtained using the best silicon discrete devices.15 ci . in the event of an overload..05 1 k Frequencv (Hz) condition can be tolerated is strictly a function of the size and capability of the output heat sinks. :x: 0. provide adequate safe operating area protection on the output devices for all of the amplifiers described in this note. and the circuit is operated in a 250C ambient. II and IV are used.. Full Rated Output Pow?r r- - -.. Table VI gives the values of RI in Figure 7 which..0. Power Watts (RMS) Load Impedance (ohms) Value of R1 (ohms) 15 20 25 35 50 60 4 8 4 8 4 8 4 8 4 8 4 8 330 150 470 180 510 220 750 390 910 560 1. the output devices can drive a shorted load for a few minutes without any damage.

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