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Language LeveIs in Sundanese

AulIov|s)· BoIevl Wessing
Souvce· Man, Nev Sevies, VoI. 9, No. 1 |Mav., 1974), pp. 5-22
FuIIisIed I¸· Royal Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland
SlaIIe UBL· .
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Univevsil¸ oJ IIIinois al UvIana-CIanpaign
TIe puvpose oJ lIis avlicIe is lo anaI¸se speecI IeveIs in Sundanese' and lIe
pvocess I¸ vIicI senlences using speecI IeveIs ave Jovned. AIlIougI lIeve Ias,
ovev lIe ¸eavs, Ieen a Jaiv anounl oJ discussion in lIe Iilevaluve concevning speecI
IeveIs in genevaI, and lIose oJ Java in pavlicuIav,2 nosl oJ lIis vovI Ias Ieen
descviplive valIev lIan anaI¸licaI. FuvlIevnove, nucI oJ lIe discussion on speecI
IeveIs in Indonesia Ias deaIl vilI Javanese, pavlI¸ Iecause il vas JeIl lIal lIe
pIenonenon is nove JuII¸ deveIoped in lIal Ianguage. In lIis discussion oJ
Sundanese speecI IeveIs, lIe anaI¸ses done on Javanese and olIev Ianguages viII Ie
IooIed al IolI Jov iIIuslvalions and Jov conlvasling lIis avlicIe vilI lIose oJ
pvevious sludies.
Il sIouId Ie poinled oul Ieve lIal lIe pvinav¸ inlevesl is in anaI¸sing lIe con-
pelence oJ Sundanese speaIevs lo use lIeiv Ianguage. As is veII Inovn, lIeve is
oJlen a vide divevgence Ielveen conpelence and pevJovnance, aIlIougI il is onI¸
lIvougI conpelence lIal pevJovnance can Ie undevslood al aII.
To lIose JaniIiav vilI Sundanese lIeve nigIl aIso appeav lo Ie a Jev 'nislaIes'
in lIe usage oJ cevlain IexicaI ilens. TIis is pvoIaII¸ due lo diaIecl diJJevences and
does nol, as Jav as I can judge, delvacl Jvon lIe nain poinl oJ lIis avlicIe. Il is
JuvlIev inlevesling lo nole lIal anong lIe Sundanese lIe vavious diaIecls ave
gvaded accovding lo Iov Ienes |veJined) lIe¸ ave. TIis Ienes is oJ a diJJevenl Iind
Jvon lIe Lenes |poIileness) used lo idenliJ¸ one oJ lIe speecI IeveIs in lIis avlicIe,
aIlIougI lIe concepls oJ veJined and poIileness ave cevlainI¸ veIaled. TIus il is JeIl
lIal lIe Sundanese spoIen in Tjianis is nove Ienes |veJined) lIan lIal spoIen in lIe
Fviangan, vIiIe AdalvecIl BundeI No. 8 poinls oul lIal lIe Ianguage oJ Bandung
is nove veJined lIan eIsevIeve. TIe Sundanese oJ lIe Fviangan JeeI lIal lIe Sun-
danese oJ Banlen is vev¸ Iasav |unveJined). AdalvecIl BundeI No. 8 |p. 52) slales,
and lIis vas aIso lIe opinion oJ sone IocaI inJovnanls, lIal lIe gvealev veJinenenl
oJ lIe Fviangan Sundanese diaIecl is due lo lIe inJIuence oJ lIe Javanese in lIis
avea. Hovevev lIis na¸ Ie, lIis gvading oJ diaIecls is a suIjeclive nallev and viII
nol Ie deaIl vilI JuvlIev Ieve. WIal is inpovlanl lo lIis avlicIe is lIe Jacl lIal aII
diaIecls Iave a cevlain Jealuve in connon, naneI¸ lIal oJ lIe exislence oJ vavious
IeveIs oJ poIileness. Il is lvue lIal nol aII lIe Sundanese ave equaII¸ JaniIiav vilI lIe
vavious IeveIs, vIicI na¸ accounl Jov sone oJ lIe 'unveJinedness' oJ sone oJ lIe
nove 'IacIvavd' aveas. In Jacl, nan¸ Sundanese speaIevs vIen asIed aIoul lIeiv
Ianguage nenlion onI¸ Kasav |coIIoquiaI), Sedeng |niddIe), and Lenes |poIile). TIe
IigIev IeveI vouId seIdon, iJ evev, Ie used I¸ lIe ovdinav¸ peopIe and vas
pvoIaII¸ deveIoped in lIe couvl cenlves. TIeve ave, Iovevev, Sundanese speaIevs
vIo ave JaniIiav vilI lIe usages oJ lIe vavious IeveIs, and il is on convevsalions
vilI lIese, JuvlIev cvoss-cIecIed in lIe JieId |lIe Fviangan avea), lIal lIis anaI¸sis
is Iased.
Man |N.S.) 9, 5-22.
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SpeecI IeveIs Iave Ieen cIavaclevised I¸ sone aulIovs as vocaIuIavies oJ
couvles¸ |Oonda I948), a descviplion vIicI is onI¸ pavlI¸ covvecl, aIlIougI lIe
nolion oJ couvles¸ is cevlainI¸ an inlegvaI pavl oJ lIe pIenonenon. A Iellev
cIavaclevisalion vouId Ie lIal il is a neans I¸ vIicI nolions oJ sociaI dislance
|Jvon IigI lo Iov as veII as Jvon Iov lo IigI) can Ie expvessed in lIe Ianguage.
TIus, lIe as¸nnelvicaI veIalionsIips Ielveen suIsels oJ a sociel¸ ave expvessed
in lIe Ianguage I¸ neans oJ Ianguage IeveIs.3 Jain |I969) nenlions sociaI dislance
Ielveen lIese suIsels as lIe govevning Jaclov in
delevnining lIe IeveI oJ speecI
lo Ie used.
TIis avlicIe viII nol deaI vilI lIe ovigin oJ speecI IeveIs. In a vev¸ inlevesling
papev Oonda |I948) Ias deaIl vilI lIis pvoIIen: and, aIlIougI nan¸ queslions ave
vaised lIeve vIicI couId pvovide sone vev¸ inlevesling discussion, lIe veadev is
veJevved lo lIe oviginaI Jov lIese poinls.
In conlvasl lo Javanese, Sundanese Ianguage IeveIs Iave veceived vev¸ IillIe
nenlion in lIe Iilevaluve. Oonda |I948· 357) nenlions lIen, Iul sa¸s lIal lIe¸ ave
pvoIaII¸ devived Jvon lIe Javanese. He Iases lIis on a Iavge nunIev oJJavanese
vovds and Jovns vIicI ave Jound in lIe Sundanese Ianguage and slales lIal in lIe
venole pavls oJ Wesl Java lIe nunIev oJ IigI IeveI vovds decveases signiJicanlI¸.
TIe Iesl descviplion lIus Jav is pvoIaII¸ given I¸ Kevn |I906), vIicI Ias Ieen an
invaIuaIIe souvce oJ ideas Jov lIis avlicIe.4
Accovding lo lIe Iilevaluve, lIeve ave Jouv Iasic IeveIs in Sundanese |cJ Lezev's
I93 I· xix)· Lenes Fisan |vev¸ poIile), Lenes |poIile), Kasav |ovdinav¸ ov coIIoquiaI),
and Kasav Fisan |vuIgav). Evinga |I949· 55) and Kevn |I906) nenlion Iesides lIese
Sedeng and FanengaI, aIlIougI Evinga poinls oul lIal FanengaI vas lending lo
nevge vilI Kasav. |See aIso SaljadiIvala I954· IO.) TIe Enc¸cIopaedie van Nedev-
IandscI Oosl-Indii |SliIIe I92I, voI.

22) nenlions onI¸ lIe use oJ IigI ov Ienes
vovds and niddIe ov sedeng vovds. TIis does nol concuv eilIev vilI lIe deJinilions
given I¸ Evinga ov vilI lIe naleviaI suppIied lo ne I¸ Mv Kavlasasnila. FoIIoving
Evinga |I949· 52 sqq.) ve can deJine lIe Ianguage IeveIs as JoIIovs·
Kasav Fisan· Coavse ov vuIgav vovds, used nainI¸ in cuvses and insuIls. Il sIouId
Ie noled Ieve lIal aIlIougI il is possiIIe lo addvess soneone in Kasav Fisan |olIev
lIan in angev), il vouId Ie vev¸ vude lo do so. FuvlIev, Kasav Fisan can Ie used
in cuvses on an¸ IeveI |e.g., a sevvanl lo Iis naslev) Iul lIis vouId indicale lIal lIe
usuaI veslvainl necIanisns I¸ vIicI connunicalion anong lIe Sundanese is
veguIaled, Iave IvoIen dovn. TIese lvo inslances nigIl Ie IaIeIIed as KF-i
|cuvses) and KF-2 |IveaIdovn).
Kasav· OenevaI convevsalionaI speecI, lIe inlinale IeveI, ov lIe IeveI used vIen
speaIing lo inJeviovs.
FanengaI· An inlevnediale IeveI used vIen Kasav vouId Ie inpvopev Iul
Lenes vouId Ie loo poIile. Monon WivaIusunaI and BuIdan Bjajaviguna
|I957· 9) deJine FanengaI as lIe IeveI used Jov soneone vIo is a IillIe |IilevaII¸, one
pIace) Iovev lIan lIe speaIev. SaljadiIvala |i956· 43) gives essenliaII¸ lIe sane
deJinilion as Evinga |I949). As nenlioned aIove, FanengaI vas disappeaving in
I949, and lIe pvesenl invesligalion does nol Jind a lvace oJ lIis naned IeveI. TIis
viII Ie nenlioned again in a diJJevenl conlexl, Iovevev.
Lenes· FoIile vocaIuIav¸, used vIen speaIing lo pevsons vIo cannol Ie
addvessed in lIe JaniIiav |Kasav) oving lo vanI, age ov olIev slalus considevalions.
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Evinga divided Levnes inlo lvo gvoups· Lenes-i and Lenes-2, aIlIougI Ie sa¸s lIal
nalive usage does nol dislinguisI Ielveen lIese. |Noovdu¸n |I963) divides Lenes
inlo lIvee pavls vIicI ave IasicaII¸ lIe Lenes-i, Lenes-2, and Sedeng calegovies
nenlioned Ieve.) Lenes-i ave vovds used vIen discussing pavls oJ lIe Iod¸,
JaniI¸ veIalions, possessions |especiaII¸ cIolIing, elc.) and lIe pI¸sicaI and nenlaI
condilion oJ pevsons lo vIon Lenes is due |Evinga I949· 52). Lenes-2 is used in
addvessing sucI pevsons diveclI¸. Evinga JuvlIev slales lIal Lenes-2 is used vIelIev
lIe convevsalion is aIoul lIe pevson addvessed, lIe speaIev, a lIivd pevson ov
neulvaI concepls sucI as line, elc.
Sedeng· TIese ave vovds used vIen one is speaIing lo a pevson lo vIon vespecl
is due, nainI¸ vIen discussing aclions and condilions oJ lIe speaIev ov a lIivd
pevson, Iul nevev lIose oJ lIe pevson addvessed. Evinga considevs Sedeng as a
conpIenenl lo Lenes-i, vIiIe Monon WivaIusunaI and Bjajaviguna |I957· 9)
deJine il as 'Lenes vilI vIicI lo give vespecl'.
Lenes Fisan· A snaII nunIev oJ vovds vIicI can Ie cIassiJied as supev Lenes-i.
TIe¸ diJJev Jvon Lenes-i in lIal lIe¸ ave used onI¸ oJ pevsons vilI vev¸ IigI
vanI sucI as a vesidenl in coIoniaI lines, Sundanese vo¸aIl¸ ov loda¸ a govevnov.
In ovdev, Jvon IigI lo Iov, ve gel lIen·
i. Lenes Fisan |LF)
2. Lenes |L)-a. Lenes-i: I. Lenes-2
Sedeng |Evinga I949· 53) ov Lenes-3 |Monon WivaIusunaI & BuIdan
Bjajaviguna I957· 9)
FanengaI |Evinga I949· 53)
3. Kasav |K)
4. Kasav Fisan |KF)
In lIis descviplion I viII nol diJJevenliale Ielveen Lenes-i and Lenes-2, and viII
lveal Sedeng as a sepavale IeveI onI¸ in lIe discussion on lIe Jovnalion oJ IeveIs.
IIIuslvalions oJ lIe IeveIs and lIe diJJevence Ielveen lIen ave nosl easiI¸ pvo-
vided I¸ a Iisl oJ pevsonaI pvonouns |see laIIe i).
TIe use oJ lIese vavious pvonouns can Ie iIIuslvaled in lIe JoIIoving senlences.
|TIe nunIevs undev lIe Sundanese vovds veJev lo lIe IeveIs as indicaled in laIIe i.
I 2 3 4
Lenes Kasav
LeveI Fisan Lenes Kasav Fisan
|LF) |L) |K) |KF)
Fvonoun Iuving
isl pevs. sing. d]isin15 aIdi Iani, aing,
aIdi uvang, deveI6
2nd pevs. sing. lilIe
andjeun, naneI, sia
sadeveI siIaing
3vd pevs. sing. lilIe andjeunna naneIna naneIna
Isl pevs. pI. uvang uvang uvang uvang
2nd pevs. pI. pava÷ pava ÷ navaneI sia8
lilIe7 lilde7
3vd pevs. pI.
navaneIna navaneIna
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InasnucI as IolI Lenes Fisan and Kasav Fisan ave vev¸ veslvicled calegovies |see
p. 7), nan¸ vovds viII Ie seen lo vav¸ onI¸ Ielveen Lenes and Kasav. IJ lIe
speaIev visIes lo speaI in Lenes Fisan and no LF vovd is avaiIaIIe Ie na¸ use an
L vovd. TIis vouId nol Ie vegavded as svilcIing IeveIs |cJ pp. I I-I2). Indicalions
sucI as I÷2 ov 3 ÷ 4 nean lIal lIese ave Lenes |2) ov Kasav
vovds Ieing used in
lIis va¸.)
ex. I 'Bo ¸ou vanl lo go lo sIeep nov?'
¸ou vanl sIeep nov
LF Aon Iade IuIen
I I÷2 I÷2
L SadeveI Iade IuIen
2 I÷2 I÷2
K ManeI aveI save ajeuna?
3 3÷4 3
KF Sia aveI noIov ajeuna?
4 3÷4 4
'I Iave loId ¸ou lo Ie quiel' is expvessed as JoIIovs·
ex. 2
¸ou aIvead¸ Ieen loId nusl Ie quiel |I¸ ne)
L Andjeun pavanlos divavlosan IedaI ajen |Iu aIdi)
2 2 2 2 2 2
K ManeI geus diIedjaan Iudu ljiljing |Iu uvang)
3 3 3 3 3 3
Nole, Iovevev, lIal Jov KF·
I¸ ne ¸ou aIvead¸ Ieen loId nusl quiel
KF Iu aing sia geus
4 4 3÷4 3÷4 3÷4 3÷4
In exanpIe i nole lIal lIe najov diJJevence Iies Ielveen Lenes and Kasav. TIe
onI¸ diJJevence Ielveen Lenes and Lenes Fisan is in lIe use oJ lIe pvonoun, vIicI
is aIso lvue oJ Kasav and Kasav Fisan. BolI Lenes Fisan and Kasav Fisan ave vev¸
veslvicled calegovies vilI a vev¸ Iiniled vocaIuIav¸ |see p. 7).9
In exanpIe 2 JuvlIev nole lIal lIe Lenes Fisan IeveI is nissing. SucI a senlence
|an ovdev) vouId Ie quile anonaIous in Sundanese. TIe onI¸ pevson vIo vouId
give an ovdev in Lenes Fisan vouId Ie soneone nol oJ lIis slalus IinseIJ,Io and
lIeveJove nol in a posilion lo give lIe ovdev. FuvlIevnove, al lIe Kasav Fisan IeveI
ve Jind·
Ku aing sia geus
Iudu lJil]iig
Iave Ieen loId lo Ie
valIev lIan lIe vovd ovdev JoIIoved in lIe Kasav and Lenes exanpIes, vIicI pul
lIe 'I¸ ne' oplionaII¸ al lIe end oJ lIe senlence. As Kasav Fisan is genevaII¸ used
onI¸ Jov insuIls, elc., lIe use oJ 'I need no Iongev Ie suppvessed Jov veasons oJ
poIileness. TIus inslead oJ '¸ou Iave Ieen loId |I¸ ne)' ve gel 'I¸ ne ¸ou Iave
Ieen loId.'
TIe exanpIes aIove deaIl onI¸ vilI lIe aclions oJ one pevson |iJ ve ignove lIe
'I¸ ne' conponenl). Al lIe Kasav IeveI lIe 'Iu uvang' vIicI ilseIJ is Kasav couId
Ie vepIaced I¸ 'Iu aIdi' iJ lIe speaIev veve supeviov lo lIe addvessee. TIis vouId
onI¸ occuv in a case vIeve lIeve is a vev¸ cIeav-cul slalus diJJevence, Iovevev,
TIe nexl exanpIe viII deaI vilI lIe aclions oJ lvo peopIe vIo ave oJ equaI slalus.
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ex. 3
'You go inlo lIe IilcIen Jivsl, |and) lIen Iand ovev n¸ pIale.'
¸ou enlev Jivsl IilcIen lIen Iand ovev pIale n¸ oulside
L Andjeun IeIel IeuIa Iadapuv, engIe pasiIIeun piving aIdi IaIuav
2 2 2 2
K ManeI asup IeuIa Iadapuv, engIe sodovIeun piving uvang IaIuav
3 3 3 3
KF Sia asup IeuIa Iadapuv engIe sodovIeun piving aing IaIuav
4 3÷4 3÷4 4
Nole again lIal lIe Lenes Fisan IeveI is nissing. A pevson Iovev lIan Lenes Fisan
vouId nol leII a pevson oJ lIe Lenes Fisan IeveI lo Iand Iin Iis pIale, and lvo
peopIe oJ lIe Lenes Fisan IeveI nigIl speaI lo eacI olIev in eilIev Kasav ov Lenes,
depending on Iov veII lIe¸ Inev eacI olIev |pvoIaII¸ pveJevving Lenes).
TIe nexl sel oJ senlences iIIuslvales lIe use oJ IeveIs vIen lIe addvessee is oJ
IigIev slalus lIan lIe speaIev.
ex. 4 'WIen I cane, ¸ou Iad jusl avvived aIso.'
vIen I cane ¸ou jusl avvived aIso
LF WaIlos adIi dongIap, FaI OuIevnuv nenIe vavuI oge.
2 2 I I
L WaIlos aIdi dongIap,
nenIe sunping oge.
2 2 2 2
TIe Kasav and Kasav Fisan equivaIenls oJ lIe senlence ave nissing in lIis exanpIe,
Iecause il vouId Ie inpossiIIe lo addvess an¸ pevson IigIev lIan
ov a
pevson oJ lIe sane sociaI slalus vilI vIon one is nol on inlinale levns, in lIese
IeveIs. Nole aIso lIal in IolI senlences lIe speaIev sa¸s oJ IinseIJ 'aIdi dongIap'.
A veslviclion on lIe usage oJ IeveIs vIicI is nol innedialeI¸ appavenl Jvon lIe
descviplion lIus Jav sIouId Ie expIained Ieve. Al lIe Lenes IeveI il nigIl Ie
expecled Jvon lIe laIIe oJ pvonouns lIal lIe speaIev vouId caII IinseIJ 'Iuving'.
TIe Sundanese JeeI Iovevev lIal 'Iuving' vouId Ie loo vougI a levn lo use vIen
speaIing lo one's supeviovs and lIus lIe nexl IigIev IeveI is used. TIus 'aIdi' and
'dongIap', aIlIougI lIe¸ ave Lenies vovds, Iave a IuiIl-in IuniIil¸ Jealuve.
|Conpave Monon WivaIisunaI and B. Bjajaviguna's deJinilion oJ Sedeng.)
Il nusl Ie noled lIal 'dongIap' is used onI¸ in lIe Jivsl pevson singuIav.
TIis Iasl slalenenl nigIl al Jivsl gIance seen conlvadiclov¸ lo lIe slalenenl on
page 8 vIeve il vas slaled lIal 'Iu aIdi' couId Ie used iJ a supeviov veve speaIing
lo an inJeviov. TIe pvoIIen is lIal lIe speaIev nusl use Lenes. Even iJ Ie is oJ a
vev¸ IigI posilion Ie cannol use Lenes Fisan lo veJev lo IinseIJ Hovevev, Lenes
vIen veJevving lo lIe speaIev Ias lIis pvoIIen oJ IuiIl-in IuniIil¸ Jealuves. TIe
onI¸ va¸ avound lIis pvoIIen is Jov lIe speaIev lo use 'Iu uvang' |ve) ov Iis lilIe,
neilIev oJ vIicI is consideved quile covvecl.
IJ lIe speaIev and lIe addvessee oJ exanpIe 4 veve oJ lIe sane IeveI, lIe Kasav
and Kasav Fisan equivaIenls couId Ie added, Iul lIe Lenes Fisan senlence vouId Ie
eIininaled |see exanpIe 3). TIus·
'WIen I cane ¸ou Iad jusl avvived aIso.'
vIen I cane ¸ou jusl avvived aIso
K WaIlos Iani dalang, naneI nenIe dalang oge.
3 3 3 3
KF WaIlos aing dalang, sia nenIe dalang oge
4 3÷4 4 3÷4
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IJ lIe speaIev vanls lo veJev lo a lIivd pevson, e.g., lIe govevnov, lIe JoIIoving
ex. 6
'I cane a vIiIe ago, ¸ou ave coning nov, lIe govevnov cane ¸eslevda¸.'
I cane vIiIe ago ¸ou cone nov lIe govevnov cane ¸eslevda¸
LF AIdi dongIap ladi,
sunnping ajeuna, FaI OuIevnuv vavuI Ianavi
2 2 2 2 I÷2 I
L AIdi dongIap ladi, andjeun sunping ajeuna,FaI OuIevnuv sunping Ianavi
2 2 2 2 I÷2 2
Again lIe Kasav and Kasav Fisan IeveIs ave nol appIicaIIe |see exanpIe 4). 'AIdi
dongIap' in IolI senlences puls lIe speaIev Iovev lIan lIe addvessee |exanpIe 4)
and IolI oJ lIen ave Iovev lIan lIe govevnov in IolI senlences. IJ lIe speaIev and
lIe addvessee in exanpIe 6 veve oJ lIe sane IeveI lIe pallevn Jvon exanpIe
vouId appI¸ Ieve loo, IolI Iaving lIe conponenl 'FaI OuIevnuv vavuI Ianavi'
added lo lIen. TIe Kasav and Kasav Fisan senlences oJ exanpIe
couId onI¸ Ie
used iJ lIe speaIev and lIe addvessee veve cIose Jviends, Iovevev. In aII olIev
cases vIeve lIe speaIev and lIe addvessee ave aIoul equaI, Iul nol cIose Jviends, lIe
Lenes IeveI vouId Ie used.
IJ lIe speaIev is nol incIuded in lIe senlence, Iul lIe senlence deaIs vilI lIe
aclions oJ lIe addvessee and a lIivd pavl¸, lIe JoIIoving conslvuclions ave possiIIe.
ex. 7 'AninaI Ias aIvead¸ ealen, ¸ou |sIouId) eal nov.'
AninaI aIvead¸ ealen ¸ou eal Jivsl nov
L AninaI pavanlos luang, andjeun naI luang IeuIa ajeuna.
2 2 2
K AninaI pavanlos daIav, naneI naI daIav IeuIa ajeuna.
3 3 3
KF AninaI
pavanlos nadang,
sia naI
4 4 4
TIe Lenes Fisan senlence is nissing Ieve Iecause ve cannol addvess ov veJev lo a
pevson oJ lIal slalus I¸ Jivsl nane. To addvess Iev in Lenes Fisan ve sIouId al Ieasl
use 'iIu' |lilIe) and Ieave oJJ Iev nane. In lIese senlences AninaI and lIe addvessee
ave oJ lIe sane slalus. IJ lIe¸ veve nol, lIe JoIIoving pallevn vouId appI¸: iJ
AninaI is Iovev lIan lIe addvessee·
'AninaI pavanlos daIav, andjeun naI luang IeuIa ajeuna' and convevseI¸·
'AninaI pavanlos luang, naneI naI daIav IeuIa ajeuna.' IJ ve vanled lo invoIve
lIe govevnov again, 'FaI OuIevnuv luang nangIe' |lIe govevnov viII eal Ialev)
vouId JoIIov eacI oJ lIe Iasl lvo senlences. Since lIe govevnov is nol Ieing
addvessed, Iul onI¸ veJevved lo, lIe Kasav vovds in lIese senlences do nol naIe
an¸ diJJevence.
TIus Jav lIe exanpIes Iave deaIl onI¸ vilI lIe pvonouns and vevIs. TIe nunIev
oJ nouns vIicI ave suIjecl lo lIe Ianguage IeveI vuIes is acluaII¸ quile snaII. As
nenlioned eavIiev Lenes-i vovds deaI vilI lIe possessions |anong olIev lIings)
oJ lIe pevsons lo vIon Lenes is due. TIus lIe Iavgev pavl oJ lIe sel oJ nouns in
Sundanese is exenpl Jvon lIe vuIes. TIeve ave, oJ couvse, sone exceplions sucI as
sea |L. sagava/K. Iaul), Iul lIese ave vev¸ Jev. TIe JoIIoving exanpIes sIov lIe
pallevn JoIIoved I¸ lIe nouns·
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ex. 8 'Can ¸ou cone lo n¸ Iouse lonovvov?'
can ¸ou cone lo Iouse n¸ lonovvov
L Tiasa andjeun sunping Ia vovonpoI aIdi endjing
2 2 2 2 2 2
K Bisa naneI dalang Ia inaI uvang isuI
3 3 3 3 3 3
KF Bisa sia dalang Ia inaI aing isuI
3÷4 4 3÷4 3÷4 4 3÷4
TIese senlences vouId Ie spoIen Ielveen equaIs. IJ ve veve lo luvn lIe Lenes
senlence avound ve vouId gel·
ex. 9 'I viII cone lo ¸ouv Iouse lonovvov.'
L AIdi endjing sunping Ia Iuni andjeun.
2 2 2 2 2
In lIis exanpIe, as in exanpIe 8, lIe IeveI is consislenl lIvougI lIe vIoIe senlence.
TIe inlevesling diJJevence is lIe Iouse lIal 'aIdi' Iives in and lIe Iouse lIal 'andjeun'
Iives in. Heve, jusl as in lIe case oJ 'dongIap' |cone), 'vovonpoI' Ias a IuiIl-in
IuniIil¸ Jealuve.
WIen lIeve is a diJJevence in slalus Ielveen lIe speaIev and lIe addvessee, lIe
Lenes IeveI senlence venains as sIovn in exanpIe 9 |see exanpIe 6). TIe Kasav and
Kasav Fisan senlences again do nol appI¸, and lIe Lenes Fisan senlence vouId Ie as
ex. IO 'I viII cone lo ¸ouv Iouse lonovvov.'
I lonovvov cone lo Iouse ¸ouv |lilIe)
LF AIdi endjing ngadeuIeus Ia daIen Iupali |ov Ia IaIupalen)
2 2 2 I
ov aIlevnaleI¸,
LF AIdi endjing Iade,2 Ia daIen Iupali.
We see lIen lIal nouns JoIIov exaclI¸ lIe sane vuIes as vevIs in Sundanese.
TIus Jav onI¸ cases in vIicI lIe slalus oJ lIe addvessee vas eilIev neavI¸ equaI lo,
ov IigIev lIan, lIe slalus oJ lIe speaIev Iave Ieen exanined. TIe JoIIoving
exanpIe viII iIIuslvale vIal Iappens vIen lIe addvessee is oJ decidedI¸ Iovev slalus
lIan lIe speaIev·
ex. II 'You eal Jivsl |nov), Ialev I |viII) eal.'
You eal Jivsl nov Ialev I eal aJlevvavds
K ManeI daIav IeuIa ajeuna, engIe uvang luang saanguesna.
3 3 2 2
Nole Ieve lIal lIe conslvainl on 'I' nenlioned eavIiev is no Iongev appIicaIIe.
Inslead oJ 'aIdi' lIe speaIev uses 'uvang' Jov IinseIJ 'Uvang' in lIis case Ias lIe
neaning oJ lIe ediloviaI 've', Iecause lIeve is no pvopev Lenes vovd Jov 'I'
vIicI does nol Iave lIe IuiIl-in IuniIil¸ Jealuve |see p. 9).
Il Ias Ieen assuned up lo nov lIal lIe slalus diJJevence Ielveen lIe speaIev
and lIe addvessee vas cIeav lo lIe speaIev. TIus in eacI conponenl oJ lIe senlence
ve sav a consislenc¸ in IeveI. TIeve ave lines, Iovevev,
in Jacl quile oJlen, lIal lIe
slalus diJJevence is nol cIeav. TIe speaIev nusl lIen allenpl lo guess lIe nininaI
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slalus oJ lIe addvessee and nodiJ¸ Iis senlence accovding lo lIe veaclions oJ lIe
addvessee. TIis nigIl give us a senlence IiIe·
ex. I2 'I aIvead¸ ale, ¸ou sIouId eal nov.'
*Kuving pavanlos daIav, naneI naI luang IeuIa ajeuna.
3 3 3
vIicI is nol slviclI¸ covvecl Iecause oJ lIe sIiJl in IeveIs. Once lIe speaIev Ias
nade lIis svilcI upvavd, Ie cannol svilcI dovn again, even iJ Ie veaIises Ie Ias
nade a nislaIe and gone loo IigI. TIe onI¸ lIing Ie can do is end lIe senlence as
quicII¸ as possiIIe and Iegin lIe nexl senlence al a Iovev IeveI.
Fvon lIe exanpIes given lIus Jav lIe JoIIoving pallevns oJ pvonoun and vevI
usage I¸ a Sundanese speaIev Iecone appavenl |see Jig. i). TIe IovizonlaI Iines
Fvonouns VevIs |lo cone)
I ¸ou I ¸ou
7- TilIe dongIap - vavuI
L AIdi
K Kuving ManeI dalang
KF Aing 3z? SiIaing dalang? dalang
connecling lIe pvonouns indicale lIe ones used iJ lIe speaIev and lIe addvessee
ave oJ lIe sane slalus: lIe Iines Ielveen lIe IeveIs indicale lIe ones used iJ lIe
speaIev is Iovev lIan lIe addvessee. TIeve is no Iine Ielveen 'Iuving' and 'andjeunI'
Iecause oJ lIe conslvainl on lIe use oJ lIe Kasav 'I' nenlioned eavIiev. Il is evidenl
Jvon lIis diagvan lIal il vouId Ie inpossiIIe lo sIip a IeveI and, e.g., go Jvon
'Iuving' lo 'paI guIevnuv'. TIis conslvainl and lIe necessil¸ sliII lo Ie poIile accounls
Jov lIe vovds vilI 'IuiIl-in IuniIil¸ Jealuves' |Sedeng) associaled vilI lIe Jivsl
pevson singuIav in Lenes. In lIe case vIeve lIe speaIev is oJ IigIev slalus lIan lIe
addvessee Jig. 2 na¸ Ie dvavn·
L AIdi sunping ),Andjeun sunping
K Kuving dalang - ManeI dalang
In lIis case lIe speaIev na¸ cvoss-ovev Ielveen Lenes and Kasav and does nol
need lo use lIe IuiIl-in IuniIil¸ Jealuves. TIus in lIe paiv 'AIdi sunping· Andjeun
sunping' lIe speaIev naIes a slalenenl aIoul Iis supeviov slalus I¸ nol using
IuniIil¸ Jealuves, even lIougI lIe lvo pavls oJ lIe senlence ave on lIe sane IeveI
|see lIe discussion on ngaIasaIeun Ialev in lIis avlicIe).
Al lIis poinl an anaI¸sis oJ lIe usage oJ IeveIs oJ Sundanese and an allenpl lo
delevnine Iov a speaIev oJ Sundanese Inovs vIal IeveIs lo use can Ie inilialed.
TIe JoIIoving sleps ave posiled
as a pvoIaIIe pvoceduve.
TIe Jivsl lIing lIe speaIev nusl do is assess lIe Jealuves oJ lIe sociaI envivonnenl
in vIicI lIe speecI evenl is
laIing pIace. TIis assessnenl oJ Jealuves vouId
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a. lIe sociaI slalus oJ lIe addvessee ov veJevenl
I. lIe sociaI slalus oJ lIe speaIev
c. lIe diJJevence |iJ an¸) Ielveen |a) and |I)
d. degvee oJ JviendsIip |inlinac¸) Ielveen lIe speaIev and lIe addvessee.
Fealuve |a) delevnines lIe IeveI oJ poIileness lIal lIe addvessee vales in vivlue oJ Iis
sociaI slalus. Il vas poinled oul in lIe Ieginning oJ lIe avlicIe |and see aIso BuvIing
1970· 82 sqq.) lIal lIe nain dislinclion nade is Ielveen Lenes and Kasav. In viev
oJ lIe Iiniled nunIev oJ IexicaI ilens vIicI ave cIassed as Lenes Fisan and Kasav
Fisan vespecliveI¸, lIe¸ nigIl veII Ie vegavded as speciaI cases oJ Lenes and Kasav
lo Ie used vIen appIicaIIe. TIus, e.g., in exanpIes i and 2 ve noled lIal sone
oJ lIe vovds in LF senlences veve L vovds. TIe LF senlence can Ie seen lIen as a
senlence JaIIing in lIe genevaI cIass oJ Lenes senlences, Iul vilI speciaI IonoviJics
added lo naIe il vev¸ poIile |Lenes Fisan). Fealuve |a) lIen pvinaviI¸ delevnines
vIelIev lIe addvessee vales lIe genevaI cIass Lenes ov lIe genevaI cIass Kasav, and
secondaviI¸ vIelIev speciaI IonoviJics ave needed in lIe case oJ Lenes. TIus, iJ lIe
addvessee is lIe govevnov, Ie vouId I¸ vivlue oJ Iis slalus vale lIe genevaI cIass
Lenes vilI added IonoviJics, giving Iin Lenes Fisan. Fealuves |I) and |c) can
nodiJ¸ lIis pvinav¸ assessnenl, Iovevev. IJ lIe speaIev IinseIJ is a govevnov loo,
and lIus lIe diJJevence Ielveen |a) and |I) |sociaI dislance) is zevo, lIe addvessee is
given Lenes valIev lIan Lenes Fisan. In olIev vovds, lIe speciaI IonoviJics ave
dvopped. TIis Iasl assessnenl na¸ Ie JuvlIev nodiJied I¸ Jealuve |d).I4 IJ lIe
govevnovs ave cIose Jviends, lIe IeveI na¸ go Jvon Lenes lo Kasav. TIis slalenenl
on decisions can Ie JovnaIised as a sel oJ vuIes.
Il sIouId Ie slvessed again lIal lIis sel oJ vuIes iIIuslvales lIe conpelence oJ lIe
Sundanese speaIev lo deaI vilI cevlain cuIluvaI Jealuves vIicI inJIuence lIe va¸ Ie
ougIl lo speaI. As viII Ie seen, lIe pvinav¸ assessnenl oJ lIe sociaI silualion, lIal
is lIe pvesence ov aIsence oJ a sociaI dislance, is acconpIisIed in vuIe i I¸ con-
lvasling lIe slalus Jealuves oJ lIe speaIev vilI lIose oJ lIe addvessee ov veJevenl.
BuIes 2 lIvougI 5
devive lIe speciJic IeveI lo Ie used Iased on lIis pvinav¸ assess-
nenl. Il Iecones inpovlanl al lIis juncluve lo speciJ¸ lIe veIalion oJ lIis anaI¸sis
lo lIe nove speciJicaII¸ Iinguislic anaI¸sis oJ Ianguage. In Iinguislics lIeve is a
lIeov¸ lIal evev¸ acluaI senlence is undevI¸ingI¸ enIedded in a |possiII¸ pIono-
IogicaII¸ nuI) IigIev senlence, in lIe sense oJ Boss |I970),
15 conlaining as suIjecl a
NF uniqueI¸ inlevpvelaIIe as lIe speaIev oJ lIe acluaI ullevance, a speciaI Iind oJ
vevI caIIed a pevJovnalive vevI |sucI as decIave, queslion, elc.), a NF in lIe
pvedicale vIose unique inlevpvelalion is as lIe addvessee oJ lIe acluaI ullevance
and oplionaII¸ one ov nove addilionaI NFs vIicI, iJ lIe¸ do nol veJev lo one oJ lIe
pveceding lvo, pvovide Jov lIe acluaI ullevance lIe inlevpvelalion oJ lIe lIivd
pevson, and lIen lIe senlence ilseIJ |see Jig. 3).
IJ lIe Jovegoing lIeov¸ oJ 'IigIev pevJovnalive senlences' is assuned il can Ie
I¸polIesised lIal evev¸ senlence aIso conlains a sociaI dislance navIev vIicI nusl
Ie speciJied I¸ a vuIe as ÷ ov -
depending on lIe slalus Jealuves oJ lIe speaIev
and lIe addvessee ov veJevenl|s). AIlIougI I an avave oJ sone oJ lIe conlvovevs¸
vegavding lIis lIeov¸, ils use Ieve aIIovs us lo sIov Iov in eJJecl lIe slalus navIevs
ave allacIed lo lIe acluaI ullevance on lIe conpelence valIev lIan on lIe pev-
Jovnance IeveI. TIus lIe lvee diagvan given in Jig. 3 na¸ Ie vevvillen as sIovn in
Jig. 4.16
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I I K\ 7 \ 7 \
speaIev decIave lo addvessee aIoul veJevenl NF VF
speaIev lo addvessee decIave
L seloJ]
slalus slalus
Jealuvesj LJealuvesj
WIicI pvovides lIe naleviaIs needed Jov vuIe I.
InasnucI as lIe cIoice oJ IeveIs is a slalenenl oJ lIe veIalionsIip Ielveen
individuaIs, lIe cIoices ave nosl IogicaII¸ nade, and lIe vuIes nosl slviclI¸ JoIIoved,
vIen cIoosing lIe pvopev pevsonaI pvonoun. Il sIouId Ie cIeav Jvon lIe exanpIes
discussed aIove lIal sucI nouns as govevnov, elc., ave used as pvonouns. FuvlIev
appavenl exceplions sucI as lIe senlence
TIeve is an oIjecl slanding on lIe sidevaII
can Ie deaIl vilI as Iaving lIe undevI¸ing senlence
|I sa¸ lo ¸ou) lIeve is an oIjecl slanding on lIe sidevaII
|cJ Boss I970).
TIe vuIes lIen viII Ie Jov lIe cIoice oJ pevsonaI pvonouns. Since lIe IeveI sIouId
Ie consislenl lIvougIoul lIe senlence, lIe vesl oJ lIe senlence JoIIovs lIe cIoice
nade Jov lIe pevsonaI pvonoun. Il sIouId Ie cIaviJied al lIis poinl lIal lIe vovd
'senlence' need nol, oJ couvse, veJev lo lIe vIoIe senlence nade I¸ lIe speaIev.
Fov inslance·
aIdi neda sangu, andjeun luang uvaI
consisls oJ lvo senlences· 'aIdi neda sangu' and
luang uvaI'. TIus lIe
consislenc¸ in IeveI nenlioned aIove is necessav¸ onI¸ Jov eacI suI-senlence.
Using lIe Jealuves speciJied, lIe vuIe sIovn in Jig. 5 na¸ Ie vvillen |p. i S).
BuIe i is nol pvinaviI¸ a Iinguislic vuIe, inasnucI as il does nol deaI vilI lIe
genevalion oJ Iinguislic IeIaviouv pev se. WIal il does is speciJ¸ lIe sociaI conlexl
in vIicI sone IeIaviouv is going lo laIe pIace. Since nosl inlevpevsonaI IeIaviouv
in WeslJava nusl laIe slalus diJJevences inlo accounl, BuIe i can Ie vegavded as a
genevaI cuIluvaI vuIe appIicaIIe in aII sociaI silualions. Il sa¸s lIal as sociaI dislance
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BuIe i
silualion silualion
÷ Iunan ÷ Iunan
speaIev I ¸addvessee
a IigI

/socia 1 [¯Iov slalus -a IigI slalus
-Ji Iov slalus
dislance silualion
/ ÷ Iunan ÷ Iunan
v -sociaI /
¸ addvessee
Los dislance
IigI slalus -¸
islanceB/3Iov slalus c IigI slalus
L _Iov
BuIe 2
v 1e ¸ addvessee

calegov¸ / ÷ sociaI dislance
|÷ L) j L- inlinale
¸ addvessee
genevaI 1 -¸ veJevenl
/ ÷ sociaI dislance
Kasav |÷ K2)j - inlinale
cIanges lo eilIev÷ sociaI dislance ov
sociaI dislance undev lIe condilions speci-
Jied in lIe vespeclive envivonnenls.
BuIe 2 |see Jig. 6) delevnines lIe genevaI calegovies Lenes and Kasav Jvon vIicI
lIe pvonouns ave going lo Ie cIosen. As vas poinled oul, Kasav na¸ Ie used vIen
speaIing lo inlinales as veII as lo inJeviovs. LexicaII¸ lIeve is no diJJevence Ielveen
lIese lvo, aIlIougI concepluaII¸, oJ couvse, lIeve is. TIis concepluaI diJJevence is
nade cIeav vIen ve see Iov lIe use oJ Kasav is avvived al in eacI case. To Ieep lIe
lvo dislincl lIe Kasav oJ inlinac¸ viII Ie IaIeIIed K1 and lIe Kasav oJ inJeviovil¸
K2. TIus, lIe genevaI calegov¸ Kasav |K2) is avvived al I¸ using BuIe 2 and deaIs
vilI lIe Ianguage used lo inJeviovs, as can Ie seen Jvon lIe Jealuves speciJied in lIe
envivonnenl· - inlinale and ÷ inJeviov.
ExanpIes oJ vIal is Iappening in BuIe 3 |Jig. 7) ave as JoIIovs |veJevving lo lIe
laIIe on page 7)·
[÷ L]-`[÷ K2]: lIe pvonoun used Ieve viII Ie 'naneI'
[÷ L]-*[÷ LF]: lIe pvonoun used Ieve viII Ie a lilIe
[÷ L]-`[÷
lIe pvonoun used Ieve viII Ie aIdi,
Iecause lIe speaIev is veJevving lo IinseIJ |÷ speaIev/÷ veJevenl) and needs lo
use lIe 'IuiIl-in IuniIil¸ Jealuves'.
BuIe 4 |Jig. 8) gives lIe nolivalion Jov using KF: il is used onI¸ in angev.
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BuIe 3
L ¸ addvessee
/Kj/ /
slalus diJJevence
¸ addvessee 1
÷ slalus
÷ IigI
[ ÷ speaIev
L÷S7 / ÷ veJevenl
/÷ L
BuIe 4
/An¸7 /

/÷ angev/
BuIe 5
senlence senlence pvonoun
/S7 - /ac Iinguislic IeveI7 / /a Iinguislic IeveI/
WIen lIe pvonoun laIes a pavlicuIav IeveI, lIe vesl oJ lIe senlence nusl laIe lIis
IeveI aIso |see Jig. 9). TIus, using exanpIe i·
IJ lIe pvonoun laIes K1 ov K2 |naneI) lIe senlence nusl vead·
ManeI aveI save ajeuna.
IJ lIe pvonoun laIes L |sadeveI) lIe senlence nusl vead·
SadeveI Iade IuIen ajeuna?
IJ lIe pvonoun laIes LF |lilIe) lIe senlence nusl vead·
Aon Iade IuIen ajeuna?
IJ lIe pvonoun laIes S |seIJ-veJevence) lIe senlence nusl vead·
AIdi Iade IuIen ajeuna.
One possiIIe cvilicisn lIal nigIl Ie vaised againsl lIis anaI¸sis is lIal lIe vuIes
pvoposed Ieve do nol aIIov lIe Sundanese speaIev an¸ voon Jov vavialion: lIal is,
lo nix IeveIs lo avvive al lIe one Ie JeeIs pvopev lo lIe silualion. SucI nixing
cevlainI¸ occuvs. TIis is Iovevev a queslion oJ lIe dislinclion Ielveen conpelence
and pevJovnance veJevved lo eavIiev. FevJovnance depends on acluaI cIoices nade
I¸ lIe speaIev vilIin lIe Iinilalions sel I¸ lIe undevI¸ing vuIes. WIen IooIed al
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in lIis IigIl, lIe acluaI ullevances ave indicalions oJ lIe slalus gane lIe speaIev
nigIl Ie pIa¸ing vis-2-vis lIe addvessee. TIus lIe slalenenl·
ex. I3 *Iuni aIdi |n¸ Iouse)
is nol a gvannnalicaI slalenenl I¸ lIe vuIes ve devived. TIe pvopev slalenenl
vouId Ie·
vovonpoI aIdi |n¸ Iouse)
Iecause oJ lIe conslvainl on lIe speaIev lo use IuniIil¸ Jealuves in veJevving lo
IinseIJ Yel, Iuni aIdi and slalenenls siniIav lo lIis can Ie and ave used in Sundan-
ese convevsalion. TIis case, vIeve lIe speaIev uses a IigIev IeveI vovd Jov IinseIJ
lIan Ie acluaII¸ vales is caIIed ngaIasaIeun. LilevaII¸ lIis neans 'giving Iin lIe
Ianguage': ov, in pvopev EngIisI, 'pulling Iin in Iis pIace'. WIal lIe speaIev is
doing Ieve is naIing suve lIal lIe addvessee is avave oJ lIe slalus diJJevence lIal
exisls Ielveen lIe speaIev and lIe addvessee, jusl in case lIal diJJevence vas nol
cIeavI¸ deJined IeJove. To undevsland lIis IeIaviouv anolIev sel oJ vuIes I¸ vIicI
sucI IeIaviouv Iecones gvannalicaI nusl Ie consideved.
A najov Jealuve oJ Sundanese sociaI slvucluve is lIe IievavcIicaI ovganisalion oJ
sociel¸. IdeaII¸ no lvo peopIe ave oJ lIe exacl sane slalus, aIlIougI in acluaI
pvaclice oJ couvse peopIe oJ neavI¸ lIe sane slalus lend lo gel Iunped logelIev.
IJ lIis veve nol lIe case, BuIe i, vIicI sels lIe envivonnenl Jov lIe speecI
IeIaviouv, vouId nol need lIe 'no slalus diJJevence' conponenl, and K1, lIe
Ianguage oJ inlinac¸, vouId Ie inpossiIIe. AIlIougI lIe Sundanese IeIieve lIal a
pevson's pIace in IiJe, and Iis posilion in sociel¸, ave delevnined I¸ Ood, lIe¸ aIso
JeeI lIal lIeve is aIsoIuleI¸ no guavanlee lIal an¸ one pevson al an¸ one peviod oJ
line is exaclI¸ in lIe pIace Ie sIouId Ie. TIus, since one ideaII¸ sIouId Ie in one's
pvedelevnined pIace, a najov vaIue IeId I¸ lIe Sundanese is lo lv¸ lo inpvove one's
sociaI posilion. SociaI posilion Iovevev is nol inpvoved in a vacuun, Iul valIev
veIalive lo olIev peopIe. TIeve ave nan¸ va¸s lo inpvove one's sociaI posilion,
Iul in pvincipIe lIe¸ can Ie veduced lo lvo l¸pes·
i. Eavning lIe vespecl oJ olIev peopIe lIvougI vavious va¸s oJ 'giving' |e.g.,
IeIping olIevs, dispensing InovIedge, Ieing a cuvev, elc.).
2. B¸ nanoeuvving olIevs inlo adnilling lIal one Ias IigI slalus.
AIlIougI lIe Jivsl nelIod conJovns nosl lo lIe sociaI idea, il laIes quile a Iong
line lo cIinI lIe slalus Iaddev lIis va¸. TIe second, aIlIougI nol ideaI, is vecog-
nised as an accepled va¸ lo pIa¸ slalus ganes. OIviousI¸, ngaIasaIeun IeIongs in
lIis calegov¸ oJ ganes. Lel us nov considev lIe case oJ lvo unveIaled nen oJ
appvoxinaleI¸ lIe sane age, ovning appvoxinaleI¸ lIe sane anounl oJ veaIlI
and oJ appvoxinaleI¸ lIe sane slalus in lIeiv connunil¸. TIe¸ ave nol especiaII¸
inlinale, Iul on lIe olIev Iand lIe¸ Inov eacI olIev JaivI¸ veII. LaslI¸, Iel lIe
nan oJ sIigIlI¸ IigIev slalus Ie eIecled viIIage cIieJ. WIen lIese lvo nen neel
on lIe voad, lIe one vIo vas nol eIecled viIIage cIieJ nusl nov evaIuale vIal
slance Ie is going lo laIe vis-a-vis lIe viIIage cIieJ In olIev vovds, Ie Ias lo
speciJ¸ lIe sociaI envivonnenl in vIicI lIe connunicalion is going lo laIe pIace.
TIe silualion as speciJied, sinpIiJ¸ing lvenendousI¸, IooIs as sIovn in Jig. io.
As is evidenl Ieve lIe speaIev Ias a cIoice oJ lvo Jealuve sels lo cIoose Jvon. TIis
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speaIev addvessee
÷ viIIagev
÷ viIIagev
F c slalus Jc slalus
v÷ viIIage
-IigI slalus ÷ IigI slalus
cIoice gvovs oul oJ lIe Jacl lIal lo Ie vecvuiled lo lIe posilion oJ viIIage cIieJ
one Ias lo Ie a viIIagev Jivsl. TIus, aIlIougI a nan nigIl gain lIe ÷ IigI slalus
Iecause oJ Iis eIeclion, lIe as slalus Jealuve Ie Iad IeJove does nol veaII¸ disappeav.
TIis Iasl slalenenl is especiaII¸ lvue vIen Ie is deaIing vilI peopIe vIo veve oJ
aIoul lIe saiine slalus as Ie vas IeJove eIeclion, since lIe viIIage cIieJ needed lIeiv
co-opevalion lo Ie eIecled in lIe Jivsl pIace, and secondI¸ Iecause Ie conlinues lo
need lIeiv co-opevalion iJ Ie is lo Ie eJJeclive as viIIage cIieJ. TIus lIe speaIev Ias
a cIoice.
WIicIevev cIoice Ie naIes, Iovevev, lIe 'negIecled' sel oJ Jealuves does nol
go ava¸. Il onI¸ Ioses pvoninence. TIus, iJ lIe speaIev nnaIes Iis cIoice on lIe
Iasis oJ lIe addvessee's posilion as viIIage cIieJ, vIicI Ie, ideaII¸, sIouId do, lIe
ansvev is cIeav |see Jig. ii). Figuve ii is oIviousI¸ lIe envivonnenl in vIicI lIe
sociaI silualion goes Jvon [a slalus diJJevence] lo [÷ slalus diJJevence]. TIe vesl
E-viIIage cIieJ 1 v ÷ viIIage cIieJ
-IigI slalus J [÷IigI slalus]
can Ie devived Jvon lIe ideaI vuIes descviIed aIove. TIe nolivalion Jov naIing
lIis cIoice couId Ie poIilicaI, in lIe sense oJ gaining poIilicaI Javouv ov il couId Ie
sociaI in lIe sense lIal JoIIoving lIe ideaI vuIes Ivings sociaI slalus in ilseIJ. TIe
speaIev couId, Iovevev, opl Jov nanipuIaling lIe suIsels oJ slalus Jealuves. He
couId nininise lIe addvessee's posilion as viIIage cIieJ and capilaIise on lIeiv
pvevious neav equaIil¸. In doing lIis, iJ Ie is sIiIJuI enougI, Ie couId even cIange
one oJ lIe Jealuves in lIe nalvices: [-inlinale] Ieconing [?÷inlinale]. IJ lIe
speaIev nanages lo do lIis, lIe envivonnenl vouId IooI as sIovn in Jig. I2.
÷ viIIagev ÷ viIIagev 1
ac slalus a, slalus
÷ inlinale ÷ inlinale
In lIis envivonnenl lIe sociaI silualion cIanges Jvon [zevo] lo [- slalus diJJev-
ence]. TIe Jacl lIal a speaIev vouId do lIis does nol nean lIal Ie is ignoving lIe
addvessee's posilion as viIIage cIieJ In Jacl, Ie na¸ veII Ie capilaIising on il. To
undevsland lIe gane JuII¸ il nusl Ie veaIised lIal vuIes na¸ Ie nanipuIaled.
Since [asociaI dislance]-`[
- SociaI dislance]/[equaI] * [equaI] lIe appeavance oJ
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[- sociaI dislance] inpIies lIe conlvasl [equaI] ·
IJ ve appI¸ lIis inpIicalion
lo lIe silualion ve sel up, ve see lIe silualion sIovn in Jig. I3.
addvessee speaIev
L viIIagev 1F iIgvI Isca
÷ viIIage
L÷ IiIIIslalus] dislance/
IJ lIe speaIev nanages lo pIa¸ lIis gane lo conpIelion Ie Ias used lIe IigI
slalus oJ lIe viIIage cIieJ lo inpvove Iis ovn sociaI posilion, nol so nucI vis-a-vis
lIe viIIage cIieJ, as veIalive lo olIev viIIagevs vIo cannol Ie on inJovnaI levns vilI
lIe viIIage cIieJ Il is oJ couvse nol possiIIe lo speciJ¸ aIead oJ line vIal gane lIe
speaIev is going lo pIa¸, eilIev in lIe case oJ ngaIasaIeun ov in lIe case discussed
Ieve. AII lIal Ias Ieen allenpled Ieve is lo sIov lIal, aIlIougI pevJovnance can
deviale Jvon conpelence, il nusl do so in levns oJ lIe conpelence. In lIe case oJ
lIe viIIage cIieJ lIe assessnenl vas on lIe Jealuves vIicI naIe up lIe sociaI
envivonnenl. Once lIis envivonnnenl is speciJied, lIe conpelence vuIes appI¸ as
oulIined aIove. TIe nixing oJ IeveIs, as in ngaIasaIeun, ov in sone cases vIeve
IonoviJics ave used on a seeningI¸ inappvopviale IeveI, can Ie seen as covveclive
IeIaviouv appIied vIen lIe IeveI lIal is Ieing used seens inappvopviale lo eilIev
oJ lIe pavlicipanls in lIe convevsalion. TIus, lIe viIIage cIieJ nigIl nol go aIong
vilI lIe gane lIe speaIev is pIa¸ing and use an inslance oJ ngaIasaIeun lo covvecl
lIe silualion. OJ couvse an¸ nunIev oJ sucI senlences couId Ie coIIecled and
gvouped accovding lo vIelIev lIe¸ Iave a gvealev ov Iessev nunIev oJ sucI
'ungvannalicaI' conponenls, Iul lIis exevcise vouId nol cIaviJ¸ lIe nallev.
Convenienl 'ungvannalicaI' vavialions occuv conlinuaII¸ in an¸ Ianguage, Iul
lIe Jacl oJ lIeiv convenience ov occuvvence does nol naIe lIen an¸ Iess un-
TIus il is possiIIe Jov lIe speaIev, I¸ using lIvougIoul lIe convevsalion con-
Iinalions oJ pvonouns, vevIs and nouns oJ vavious IeveIs, lo avvive al a IeveI vIicI
is conJovlaIIe lo IolI Iin and lIe addvessee. B¸ using lIese conIinalions in
pevJovnance, an aInosl unIiniled sel oJ suI-IeveIs can Ie cvealed.17
TIe vuIes vIicI Iave jusl Ieen devived naIe il cIeav lIal lIe IexicaI ilens vIicI
ave insevled in a senlence nusl cavv¸, Iesides lIeiv veguIav IexicaI and senanlic
Jealuves, a IaIeI vIicI navIs lIen Jov lIeiv pvopev IeveI.i8 Il is nol necessav¸ lIal
aII lIe Jealuves discussed Ie napped onlo lIe IexicaI ilens, as lIe IaIeIs |LF, L, K),
ave aIvead¸ Inovn lo covvespond lo a IundIe oJ cevlain oJ lIese Jealuves.
Il Iecones cIeav lIen vI¸ lIe speaIev does nol JeeI conJovlaIIe vIen Ie is
speaIing eilIev loo IigI ov loo Iov: lIe Jealuves on lIe IexicaI ilen do nol nalcI
lIe Jealuves oJ lIe sociaI envivonnenl. TIeve can, Iovevev, Ie lines vIen il is
diJJicuIl lo nalcI lIe lvo sels oJ Jealuves, as Jov inslance vIen lIe slalus veIalion-
sIip Ielveen lIe pavlies is nol cIeav. In lIis case lIe vaciIIaling IeIaviouv des-
cviIed in exanpIe I2 occuvs. Il nigIl veII Ie lIal il is nol so inpovlanl lIal lIe
Jealuves on eacI IexicaI ilen nalcI lIe sociaI Jealuves i· i
|aIlIougI lIis vouId oJ
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couvse Ie oplinaI), Iul valIev lIal lIe sun oJ lIe Jealuves oJ lIe lolaI ullevance al
Ieasl appvoxinale sucI a i· i nalcI vilI lIe Jealuves oJ lIe sociaI conlexl. TIus in
a sel oJ senlences none oJ lIe individuaI senlences needs exaclI¸ indicale lIe pvopev
slalus oJ lIe addvessee, Iul lIe sun oJ lIese senlences vouId in eJJecl indicale lIe
speaIev's deveIoping ov enevging viev oJ lIe slalus veIalionsIIip Ielveen IinseIJ
and lIe addvessee.
B¸ concenlvaling on lIe Jealuves oJ lIe sociaI envivonnenl and incovpovaling
lIese Jealuves in a JovnaI anaI¸sis, sone aspecls oJ vIal lIe Sundanese nusl Inov
aIoul Iis Ianguage Iave Ieen cIaviJied. TIose aspecls oJ lIe sociaI silualion vIicI
Iave a Ieaving on lIe Iinguislic decisions nade I¸ lIe speaIev veve isoIaled and
JuvlIev lIe pvecise diJJevences Ielveen inlinnale speecI and inJovnaI speecI as
used lo navI a slalus diJJevence Iecane appavenl. TIe vuIes devived Ieve ave
pvoIaII¸ appIicaIIe lo olIev Ianguages vilI sone Jovn oJ Ianguage IeveIs as veII.
In a Ivoadev scope, lIe nodeI nigIl veII Ie useJuI vilI olIev sociaI pIenonena
in vIicI Jealuves oJ lIe sociaI conlexl ave inpovlanl. Il is Ioped lIal lIe nodeI
pvesenled Ieve viII pvovide a slinuIus lovavds ve-anaI¸sis oJ sone pvoIIens vIicI
up lo nov Iave seened unanaI¸saIIe.
I sIouId IiIe lo expvess n¸ gvalilude lo Mv Bana Kavlasasnila vIo cones Jvon lIe TasiI-
naIaja avea Jov Iis enlIusiaslic IeIp vilI lIis avlicIe. AII lIe iIIuslvalive naleviaI vas suppIied
I¸ Iin, as veII as sone cvilicaI judgnenl on eavIiev dvaJls. FuvlIev lIanIs ave due lo FvoJessov
F. K. LeInan and lo Miss EveI¸n Banson Jov lIeiv assislance vilI lIe JovnuIalion oJ lIe
vuIes, and lo Bv AIan M. Slevens Jov sone cvilicaI venavIs on an eavIiev dvaJl. TIe JinaI ves-
ponsiIiIil¸ Jov an¸ evvovs in lIis avlicIe vesl vilI lIe aulIov, Iovevev. TIe JieId cIecI vas
done vIiIe I vas in Wesl Java Jvon June 1970 lo NovenIev 197I doing JieId veseavcI Jov n¸
doclovaI dissevlalion. Suppovl Jov lIis veseavcI vas pvovided I¸ lIe Midvesl Univevsilies
Consovliun Jov InlevnalionaI Aclivilies |MUCIA) gvanl No. E-I-I26.
Sundanese is lIe indigenous Ianguage oJ Wesl-Java.
2 Fov a nove conpIele IiIIiogvapI¸ lIan viII Ie given in lIis papev, lIe veadev is veJevved
lo Slevens |I965) and UIIenIecI |I964).
See aIso Bvovn & OiInan |I968) and CanpIeII |I969).
A senanlic anaI¸sis oJ lIe vovd Iisl pvovided I¸ Kevn |I906) Ias Ieen allenpled, Iul lIe
vesuIls lIus Jav ave inconcIusive.
5LilevaII¸ 'n¸ Iod¸'.
6 Kevn |1940) Iisls 'aing' as a Kasav levn Jov 'I', Iul connenls lIal ils use Ias Ieen decIining
in lIe Iasl cenluv¸.
'Fava' is a coIIeclive levn nol in ilseIJLen es ov Lenes Fisan: lIus ve gel Ieve 'pava guIevnuv',
'pava IapaI', elc. TIe diJJevence is in lIe lilIe.
8 'Sia' is consideved a gvoss insuIl. TIe Sundanese can use lIe nexl IigIev levn Ieve |'nav-
aneI') and negale il vilI a slving oJ Kasav Fisan vovds.
Kevn |I906) disagvees vilI lIis. He JeeIs Lenes is a snaIIev calegov¸ lIan Lennes Fisan.
Kevn |I906) indicales lIal a pevson oJ lIis slalus vouId use LF Jov IinseIJ, Iovevev.
Nole again lIe siniIavil¸ Ielveen lIese IuiIl-in IuniIil¸ Jealuves and lIe deJinilion oJ
Sedeng oJJeved I¸ Evinga |1949)
and Monon WivaIusunaI and I BuIdan Bjajaviguna
12 'Bade' does nol acluaII¸ lvansIale as 'cone', Iul valIev as 'naIe a lenlalive nove lo-
vavd'. TIe Junclion oJ 'Iade' is as an auxiIiav¸ 'viII'.
TIese sane Jealuves ave noled I¸ CooIe |I968).
I4 TIe inpovlance oJ Jealuve |d) Iecones appavenl Jvon lIe ansvev oJ an inJovnanl lo lIe
queslion vIon Ie vouId go lo Jov advice in a diJJicuIl silualion. TIe inJovnanl indicaled Ie
vouId pveJev lo go lo soneone lovavds vIon Ie vouId usuaII¸ use Kasav. Il nusl Ie noled
lIal, aIlIougI leacIevs and advisevs ave usuaII¸ addvessed in Lennes, Ie couId nol use Lenes
lovavds Iis Jviend. TIe oIdev lies oJ JviendsIip ovevvide lIe Jealuves oJ lIe nev |lenpovav¸)
silualion. IJ lIe speaIev veve lo use Lenes Iis Jviend vouId nol Inov Iov lo deaI vilI lIe
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I5 TIe papev I¸ Boss nenlioned Ieve veJevs lo lIe vovI oJ J. L. Auslin |i962). Auslin oIsevved
lIal senlences sucI as
|i) I Iel ¸ou Jive doIIavs
diJJev Jvon senlences sucI as
|2) TIe cal is on lIe nal
in lIal one cannol pIace a Iel vilIoul, in one va¸ ov anolIev, sa¸ing so vIiIe slaling lIal lIe
cal is on lIe nal is an oIsevvalion vIicI is eilIev lvue ov JaIse Iul in ilseIJ does nol pevJovn an¸
aclion. Auslin caIIed senlences oJ l¸pe |i) pevJovnalives and noled lIal lIe¸ ave eilIev JeIicilous
ov inJeIicilous, lIal is, depending on vIelIev cevlain condilions Iave ov Iave nol Ieen nel,
lIe aclion is eilIev pevJovned in lIe naIing oJ lIe slalenenl ov il is nol. Senlences oJ l¸pe |2)
Ie caIIed conslalives: lIe¸ ave eilIev lvue ov JaIse, Iul cannol Ie said lo Ie eilIev JeIicilous ov
inJeIicilous. ConvevseI¸, senlences oJ l¸pe |i) cannol Ie said lo Ie eilIev lvue ov JaIse. Auslin
JuvlIev oIsevved, Iovevev, lIal lIis dislinclion na¸ nol Ie as ligIl as il appeavs al Jivsl. To
naIe a slalenenl is aJlev aII doing sonelIing· lo vil, lo slale lIal ...
TIis pvoIIen is deveIoped JuvlIev I¸ Boss |1970). Fov gvealev delaiI lIe veadev is veJevved lo
Auslin |i962), Boss |1970), Andevson |1970), Fvasev |1970) and ScIveiIev |1972), anong nan¸
I6Ke¸· =cIanges lo
÷ = lIeve exisls
-= lIeve does nol exisl
/ = in lIe envivonnenl oJ: A--B/Z neans lIal A viII onI¸ cIange lo B vIen
lIe condilion Z is salisJied
a, , ¸= eilIev ÷ ov -. TIus iJ a is-, lIen - a is ÷ . WIen sevevaI Jealuves in one
sel can vav¸ independenlI¸ lIe¸ nigIl Ie navIed a 7 and · Y. IJ lIe¸ vav¸
invevseI¸ ve vouId navI lIen a 7 and -a Y: iJ lIe¸ co-vav¸ ve vouId
navI lIen a 7 and a Y.
= a BooIean condilion on lIe conlexl. TIis indicales lIal IolI Jealuve sels
nusl Ie pvesenl in lIe envivonnenl and lIal an opevalion Ielveen lIen, in
lIis case a conlvaslive opevalion, nusl Ie pevJovned lo salisJ¸ lIe condilions
oJ lIe envivonnenl.
Il is quile possiIIe lIal lIe sane pvocess gave vise lo lIe nuIlipIicil¸ oJ Ianguage IeveIs
in Javanese |cJ. Usnan i964· 52JJ: and Foedjosoedavno i968· 59-6I). In anaI¸sing lIe Jealuves
vIicI Foedjosoedavno allviIules lo eacI oJ lIe Javanese IeveIs, a pvogvessive sIiJl Jvon
'Ivono' |IigI) vocaIuIav¸ and aJJixes lo
ngoIo' |Iov) vocaIuIav¸ and aJJixes Iecones appavenl.
TIis seens lo Ie a vev¸ siniIav pIenonenon lo lIe one descviIed Jov Sundanese. TIe onI¸
diJJevence is lIal lIe Javanese Iave naned suI-IeveIs. Indeed, lIe IeveIs naned I¸ Evinga |I949)
|Lenes-i and -2, Sedeng and FanengaI) na¸ veII Ie nanes Jov sucI suI-IeveIs vIicI Iave JaIIen
inlo disuse. As Oonda |1948· 375) poinls oul, lIe pIenonenon oJ Ianguage IeveIs vas nevev
quile as veII deveIoped in Wesl-Java as eIsevIeve on lIe isIand. Moveovev, even lIougI lIe
suI-IeveIs ave naned, Foedjosoedavno cannol deJine lIen exaclI¸ Iul Ias lo vesovl lo veIalive
slalenenls aIoul lIe sociaI veIalionsIip Ielveen lIe speaIev and lIe addvessee. TIe sane
pIenonenon is Jound in Maduvese· 'Sone Iasav ov Iiasa vovds in sone conlexls, Iovevev, ave
consideved loo vougI, and aIus ov aIus lingIi vovds viII Ie suIsliluled Jov lIen even in lIe
Iasav sl¸Ie senlences' |Slevens i965· 298).
I8 Oeevlz
|ig60· 248) nenlions lIis loo· 'A nunIev oJ vovds |and sone aJJixes) in Javanese
ave nade lo cavv¸ in addilion lo lIeiv novnaI Iinguislic neaning vIal nigIl Ie caIIed a 'slalus
.. ..'
AdalvecIl BundeI n.d. No. 8. Wesl Java.
Andevson, SlepIen B. 1970. On lIe Iinguislic slalus oJ lIe pevJovnalive/conslalive dislinclion.
In Bepovl no. NSF-26. CanIvidge, Mass.· Havvavd ConpulalionaI LaIovalov¸.
Auslin, J. L. I962. Hov lo do lIings vilI vovds |ed.) J. 0. Uvnson. Nev YovI· OxJovd Univ.
Bvovn, Bogev & AIIevl OiIInan i968. TIe pvonouns oJ povev and soIidavil¸. In Beadings
in lIe socioIog¸ oJ Ianguage |ed.) J. S. FisInan. TIe Hague· Moulon.
BuvIing, BoIIins 1970. Man's nan¸ voices. Nev YovI· HoIl, BineIavl & Winslon.
CanpIeII, BusseII N. I969. Noun suIslilules in nodevn TIai |Janua Linguavun 65). TIe
Hague· Moulon.
CooIe, JosepI B. I968. FvononinaI veJevence in TIai, Buvnese and Vielnanese |Univ. CaIiJ.
FuII. Ling. 52). BevIeIe¸· Univ. oJ CaIiJovnia Fvess.
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CooIsnna, S. I913. SoeudaneescI-HoIIandscI voovdenIoeI |3vd edn.). Leiden· N.V.A.W. SijlIoJJ's
Evinga, F. S. I949. Loeloeng Iasavoeng, een n¸lIoIogiscI vevIaaI uil Wesl-Java. VevI. I. Insl.
TaaI-, Land- VoIIenI. 8.
Fvasev, Bvuce I970. A vepI¸ lo 'On decIavalive senlences'. In Bepovl No. NSF-24. CanIvidge,
Mass.· Havvavd ConpulalionaI LaIovalov¸.
Oeevlz, C. I960. TIe veIigion oJJava. Nev YovI· Fvee Fvess oJ OIencoe.
Oonda, J.
TIe Javanese vocaIuIav¸ oJ couvles¸. Lingua I, 3 33-76.
Jain, B. K. I969. VevIaIizalion oJ vespecl in Hindi. AnlIvop. Ling. 11· 3, 79-97.
Kevn, B. A. I906. 'l Lenes in'l SoendaascI.
TaaI-, Land- VoIIenI. 59, 385-56I.
I940. Fun, Fuva. Bijdv. TaaI-, Land- VoIIenI. 99, I25-7.
Lezev's I93I. Lezev's SoendascI voovdenIoeI. Bandoeng· BoeIenvevzendIuis. L. A. Lezev.
Monon WivaIusunaI, B. & I BuIdan Bjajaviguna I957. Kandaga lalaIasa. BjaIavla· Oanaco.
Noovdu¸n, J. I963. Calegovies oJ couvles¸ in Sundanese. BiIIe Tvans. I4, i86-9I.
Foedjosoedavno, S. I968. Javanese speecI IeveIs. Inidonesia 6, 54-8I.
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|eds) B. A. JacoIs & F. S. BosenIaun. WaIlIan, Mass.· Oinn.
SaljadiIvala, B. I954. Kanus Iasa Sunda. BjaIavla· FevpuslaIaan Fevguvuan Kenenlevian
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I956. UndaI-usuI Iasa Sunda. BjaIavla· FenevIilan BaIai FuslaIa.
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