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Cognitive Radio and Dynamic Spectrum Access represent two complementary developments that will refashion the world

of wireless communication. In order to investigate the roles of knowledge representation and reasoning technologies in this domain, we have developed an experimental cognitive radio simulation environment. hat is, a conventional radio when operating in a particular communications mode always follows the same procedure and either succeeds or fails at a given task. A cognitive radio, !y contrast, can use knowledge of radio technology and policy, representations of goals, and other contextual parameters to reason a!out a failed attempt to satisfy a goal and attempt alternate courses of action depending upon the circumstances. "ased on software#defined radio $SDR% technology, cognitive radios are the product of a multidisciplinary effort involving experts in wireless networks, digital communications, systems engineering, artificial intelligence, and other fields. As a result of these activities, it is hoped that these systems can simultaneously respect the rights of the incum!ent license holders while providing greater flexi!ility and access to spectrum. &iven the demand for more !andwidth and the amount of underutili'ed spectrum, DSA $ Dynamic Spectrum Access% networks employing cognitive radios are a solution that can revolutioni'e the telecommunications industry, significantly changing the way we use spectrum resources, and design wireless systems and services. hat(s why we(ve tried to simulate the !asics of cognitive radio technology to create awareness among our fellow students regarding the scope and applications of this tremendous new technology. here are very few experimental simulation techni)ues present regarding cognitive radios, thus we intend to come out with a simpler and efficient simulating techni)ue. *ull Cognitive Radios do not exist at the moment and are not likely to emerge until +,-,, when fully flexi!le Software Defined Radio technologies and the intelligence re)uired to exploit them cognitively can !e practically implemented. he main o!stacle to reali'ing a *ull Cognitive Radio is the challenge of making a truly cognitive device, or a machine with the a!ility to intelligently make decisions !ased on its own situational awareness. Cognitive science is in its infancy. At this stage it is impossi!le to tell when machine cognition will !e reali'ed. it could !e /, years, /,, years or perhaps not at all. 0e expect !asic intelligent reconfigura!le CR prototypes to emerge within the next five years. Some devices availa!le already have some elements of CR. $e.g. 01A2s, military follower 3ammers%.

4ost of today(s radio systems are not aware of their radio spectrum environment and operate in a specific fre)uency !and using a specific spectrum access system. Investigations of spectrum utili'ation indicate that not all the spectrum is used in space $geographic location% or time. A radio, therefore, that can sense and understand its local radio spectrum environment, to identify temporarily vacant spectrum and use it, has the potential to provide higher !andwidth services, increase spectrum efficiency and minimi'e the need for centrali'ed spectrum management. his could !e achieved !y a radio that can make autonomous $and rapid% decisions a!out how it accesses spectrum. Cognitive radios have the potential to do this. Cognitive radios have the potential to 3ump in and out of un#used spectrum gaps to increase spectrum efficiency and provide wide!and services. In some locations and/or at some times of the day, 70 percent of the allocated spectrum may be sitting idle. he *CC has recently recommended that significantly greater spectral efficiency could !e reali'ed !y deploying wireless devices that can coexist with the licensed users.

Source. Cognitive Radio. A *lexi!le 0ireless 5latform for ransceiver 6ptimi'ation !y Alexander 4. 0yglinski

A new class of radios was defined !y the term cognitive radio. Several definitions $and variations% of Cognitive Radio exist. Mitola - 7Cognitive radio signifies a radio that employs model !ased reasoning to achieve a specified level of competence in radio related domains7. FCC - 7A cognitive radio $CR% is a radio that can change its transmitter parameters !ased on interaction with the environment in which it operates7.

0e investigated the idea of simulating a cognitive radio system to reuse locally unused spectrum to increase the total system capacity. During the pro3ect research phase, we tried to dig out all the simulation methods availa!le !ut unfortunately no one had mentioned the exact method or the procedure and most of the simulations were on some particular hardware platforms. hus all we could find were the outputs of various parameters of cognitive radio systems on various hardware platforms. he previous simulation methods availa!le simulated only some particular aspects of cognitive radio technology like inter system handover test!eds, spectral efficiency, spectrum scanning, 4I46 techni)ues and interference in CR systems etc. 0e have simulated the !asics of a simple cognitive radio system in 4A 1A" R+,,8!. here was no previous techni)ue availa!le, or we couldn(t find one, to simulate cognitive radio systems. "ut we(ve tried our !est to make our code and findings as simpler as possi!le, so that they(re easily understanda!le !y any one who has even a little know how of !asic communication systems.

CR techni)ues which allow spectrum sharing with other spectrum users are ideal for non#time critical applications. *our applications were considered to !e the most promising. 4o!ile multimedia downloads $for example, download of music9video files to porta!le players% which re)uire moderate data rates and near# u!i)uitous coverage: ;mergency communications services that re)uire a moderate data rate and locali'ed coverage $for example, video transmission from firemen(s( helmets%: "road!and wireless networking $for example, using nomadic laptops%, which needs high data rates, !ut where users may !e satisfied with locali'ed <hot spot7 services: 4ultimedia wireless networking services $e.g. audio9video distri!ution within homes% re)uiring high data rates.

he main specific !enefit of full CR is that it would allow systems to use their spectrum sensing capa!ilities to optimi'e their access to and use of the spectrum. *rom a regulator(s perspective, dynamic spectrum access techni)ues using CR could minimi'e the !urden of spectrum management whilst maximi'ing spectrum efficiency.

0e(ve designed our system to have / different fre)uency channels and each =ser is assigned a particular fre)uency !and. 6nce we run our program it(ll ask to add a =ser and assign it a particular !and in ascending order.

Data assigned >ere we haven(t entered =ser +, - ? /, thus their respective !ands are still un# allocated. 0e can see them !elow in the power spectral density graph of our carrier signal.

llocated / !sed "pectrum #and !n-allocated #ands / "pectrum $oles

2ow we(re adding another =ser, the system will search the first availa!le gap in the spectrum and automatically assign it to the new user. As the first availa!le gap was after =ser @ as =ser + was not sending any data so the !and reserved for =ser + at start is now assigned to this new =ser.

>ere we can see that the first spectral gap has !een filled !y assigning it the new incoming =ser(s data. he first spectral gap !elonged was that of =ser +.

%eft o&er "pectral 'aps "pectral 'ap Filled by modulating the ne( incoming user)s data o&er it

0ith the addition of another =ser,

As =ser -(s data was not present the Spectral gap of =ser - has !een filled !y the next incoming =ser.

'ap Filled %ast "pectral $ole %eft

2ow we have 3ust one empty slot left which will get filled !y addition of another 5rimary =ser.

he power spectral density 5SD chart of the signal shows us that all of the fre)uency !ands are efficiently in use after the addition of the last incoming user.

ll of the bands are in use.

6nce all the slots are !eing assigned our system will entertain no other =ser and will !e a!le to free up the slots one !y one as shown !elow.

If we ask it to empty a slot, it will remove the data in the first slot and make it ready for the next assignment.

Similarly we can add noise and attenuation parameter to analy'e the channel characteristics.

>ere we(ve added noise to our signal. spectral graph is given !elow

he resulting noisy carrier(s power

*oisy Channel)s +o(er "pectral Density 'raph 2ow we(re attenuating our carrier and the system will ask for the percentage of attenuation re)uired.

he attenuated signal is shown !elow. It(s not !een la!eled properly as we(re still working on this section and we(re expecting many more parameters to !e added and o!served after consulting !oth our instructors: 4iss 4aryam and ;ngr =sman.

*oisy , attenuated Carrier)s +o(er "pectral Density 'raph

6nce all the parameter have !een applied to the carrier, the system will ask for re#assignments of !ands !y starting the whole process again infinitely so that all the incoming users at any instant of time are accommodated in the spectral holes left in the channel maximi'ing the over all throughput of the channel

REFERENCES [1] Joseph Mitola III, Cognitive Radio: An Integrated Agent Architecture for Software
e!ned Radio, "h dissertation, Ro#al Institute of $echnolog# %&$'( Stoc)hol*, Sweden, + Ma#, ,---

[,] Spectral .cienc# of Cognitive Radio S#ste*/ Ma0ed 'addad, Aawatif Menouni 'a#ar and M
1erouane e22ah3 Mo2ile Co**unications 4roup Institut .ur1eco*, 5rance March 16, ,--6

[7] .8peri*ents in Cognitive Radio and #na*ic Spectru* Access using An 9ntolog#:Rule '#2rid
Architecture/ Allen 4ins2erg, Jeffre# Mc<ean, =A 3 "oston, and ;illia* 3 'orne $he MI$R. Corporation

[4] Cognitive Radio Technology A Study for Ofcom



[>] Cognitive Radio: A 5le8i2le ;ireless "latfor* for $ransceiver 9pti*i?ation Ale8ander M3 ;#glins)i $he @niversit# of &ansas [A] http:BBwww3google3co*