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Exploring the 3G Potential HSPA+ features four key attributes: improved uplink and downlink data rates, increased

system capacity, enhanced user experience, and flat architecture. Improved uplink/downlink data rates HSPA+ adopts the ultiple!"nput ultiple!output # " $%, hi&h order modulation, and '( enhancement techni)ues to improve the uplink and downlink data rates. * " $: Adoptin& the multi!antenna techni)ue at both the transmit and receive end, " $ can suppress channel attenuation and improve channel capacity without increasin& the bandwidth and transmit power. +he " $ technolo&y can increase the HSPA+ downlink peak data rate to (,., bps. * Hi&h order modulation: -./A can be used to modulate - consecutive bits at a time, while 0-/A can be used to modulate . bits at a time. +herefore, the efficiency of -./A is 123 hi&her than that of 0-/A . 4hen adoptin& the -./A modulation, HSPA+ can provide the peak data rate of (0.- bps for each user. +o make the uplink data rate adaptive to the downlink data rate, HSPA+ introduces the 0-/A modulation to HS5PA, and the uplink peak data rate can be increased to 00.1 bps. * '( enhancement: " $ and -./A modulation can increase the downlink data rate. 6efore 78PP 9elease :, the P;5 at the 9'< layer has a fixed len&th, makin& it impossible to provide hi&her uplink peak data rate. +herefore, HSPA+ introduces the '( enhancement techni)ue that enables the 9'< layer to support a flexible P;5 len&th. "n this way, the len&th of P;5 is increased to match the hi&h speed data rate of HSPA+. "n addition to above technolo&ies, the dual!cell HSPA technolo&y adopts dual cells in the uplink=downlink to receive and transmit data simultaneously. 4ith dual!cell HSPA, uplink 0-/A , downlink -./A , and " $ techni)ues, the HSPA+ system can provide the maximum uplink and downlink data rates of (7 bps and ,- bps respectively. Increased system capacity * <ontinuous <onnectivity for Packet ;ata 5sers #<P<%: ost data services are characteri>ed by always online and occasional or periodical data packet transmission. +o reduce overhead of the control channel, the <P< function is thus desi&ned, which can support more always!online subscribers. * <ircuit Switched #<S% over HSPA: 5sin& the HSPA technolo&y to carry <S voice service #<S over HSPA% can effectively reduce ?(? call setup time. +he HSPA+ ;+@=;9@ technolo&y can effectively reduce the power consumption in mobile phones and thus double the battery life. <ompared with the ;<H channels used by 9el!AA for carryin& voice services, <S over HSPA can improve spectrum efficiency and boost the system capacity by 12!0223. Enhanced user experience +he 5 +S system has defined four connection states: <ell!;<H, <ell!BA<H, <ell!P<H, and 59A!P<H. 6ased on the traffic flow, the 5 +S system controls the handoff of 5ser ?)uipment #5?% amon& different channels. "f the channel handoff time is very lon&, the user can feel the service latency. 6y reducin& the channel handoff time, the enhanced BA<H function can improve user experience. +he enhanced downlink BA<H function uses HS!;S<H as the common channel, and allows the 5? in non! ;<H state to transmit data over the HS!;S<H channel. "n this way, the service delay resultin& from channel handoff can be reduced and the peak data rate of the 5? in non!;<H state is increased. Similarly, the enhanced uplink BA<H function can allow the 5? in non!;<H state to transmit data over the ?!;<H channel.