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An introduction to Ethernet services transported over a SDH network

Nera has implemented the latest technologies that leverage existing network investments of a Service Provider’s network that meets tomorrows converged network demands. The Nera Metro Ethernet solution is providing in an integrated way necessary features that meet today the Service Providers future requirements depending on what infrastructure that the provider has available or plan to design. Ethernet traffic can be checked against Class of Service (CoS) parameters according to customers SLA's. With the importance and strong focus there is on operational and maintenance aspects for a service provider and the robustness of the SDH networks. Nera is convinced that Next Generation SDH will continue to play a major role.SUMMARY As discussed in this paper. and with this packet technology together with next generation SDH technology optimal transport of Ethernet and TDM traffic has become viable in legacy SDH networks for many years to come. page 2 of 2 .

2 Mbps PABX lines to the PSTN network is straightforward. SDH technology has been deployed in the backbone and in metro rings by most of the network operators through the 90's. This has dramatically changed and data has surpassed voice.INTRODUCTION Seen from a network operator's point of view. an efficient integration of both technologies (TDM and Data). page 3 of 3 . Leased lines are costly. interoperable in a multi-vendor environment and strong on operation and maintenance features. With its ITU-T standardised interfaces. data networks and most MAN/WAN (Metropolitan/Wide Area Network) were based on locations interconnected by leased lines supplied by service provider using either ATM or Frame Relay transported by either PDH or SDH networks. But SDH as it was deployed in the 90's does not have any mechanism for sharing efficiently the packet oriented traffic in a dynamically way. an increasing demand for Ethernet/IP services has created a demand for more bandwidth or more efficient usage of existing bandwidth and the ability to build new revenue generating services and manage these services efficiently. has an efficient multiplexing scheme . The SDH as a transport mechanism is a well-proven technology that introduces small delays. and they are inflexible with the amount of bandwidth available.access network and backbone for transport over long distances is simple. and for instance. The customer may have to choose between leased lines with too little bandwidth or a much more costly and far more bandwidth than needed. As mentioned SDH was designed with focus on TDM (circuit switched) services. and most of the traffic in the network at that time was voice or circuit switched /TDM (Time Division Multiplexed). interconnection between metro. Designing a network today require. An important consideration for the network providers is the divergence between TDM (circuit switched services) and data services (packet oriented) and the future expected convergence between these technologies.fully standardised. protection mechanism. in most cases. and most of the data traffic is transported between end users with Ethernet as the user-network interface. In the past. with nothing inbetween.

Collectively these new standards provide tools for a network operator to design networks enabling more efficient bandwidth usage through mechanism for prioritising traffic.Ethernet Services over SDH networks page 4 of 4 . SDH Core Network STM-16 / DWDM IP Backbone MPLS PSTN Network SDH Access Network STM-1 / STM-4 PABX Telephone PABX Telephone SmartNode LAN LAN Servers Firewall LAN Data storage Firewall Servers PCs PCs PCs PCs PCs PCs Figure 1 . sharing bandwidth. All these features are integrated and embedded in hybrid Ethernet/SDH equipment solutions and application software packages that Nera can deliver today and with a clear migration path towards new services that will be offered as standards and harmonisations are achieved.ETHERNET OVER SDH (EOS) Ethernet over SDH (EoS) consists of a set of new industry standards that has been developed for more optimised mapping and control of Ethernet traffic over SDH. improved bandwidth granularity and last but not least easier service creation.

VC-3. • VC-4-Xv is the high-order virtual concatenation for X SDH VC4. GFP uses very simple encapsulation techniques that eliminates the need for termination of customer's Layer 2 frame and re-map it into PPP as required by POS (Packet over SONET/SDH. • VC-n-Xv is the low-order virtual concatenation of X SDH VCs for n=12 and 3.Next Generation SDH Following important standards have emerged recently as important contributions for Ethernet encapsulation and transport over SDH networks: • Generic Framing Procedure (GFP). the VC is defined at two levels. provides a generic mechanism to adapt packet data (GFP-F used by Ethernet MAC frames or IP/PPP) or block-code oriented constant bit-rate streams (GFP-T for use in Fibre channels or ESCON/SBCON) signals over transport network. VCAT allows multiple individual SDH channels to be combined into a larger channel of appropriate size for a given payload. (sink and source) need to know the existence. IETF RFC 2615).7042 that basically specify how link capacity adjustment schemes shall be implemented for increasing and decreasing the capacity of a container in the SDH network.SDH enhancements . high-order and low order Virtual Containers (VC) and with a virtual concatenation scheme as fohllows. GFP is using a deterministic amount of bandwidth relative to the client signal bandwidth. According to SDH. VC-4). • Virtual Concatenation (VCAT) is an extension to G.707 for concatenation of low and high order VC's (VC-12. Low-order virtual concatenation allows creation of sub-rate WAN channels with an incremental size between 2 Mbps (VC12) and 34/45 Mbps (VC-3). Nera NMS LCAS control LCAS Provisioning LCAS Provisioning SmartNode Source SDH NE SDH NE SmartNode Sink SDH transport plane Figure 2 . Only the end points.7041. • Link Capacity Adjustment scheme (LCAS) for virtual concatenated signals defined in ITU-T G. ITU-T G.LACS management plane page 5 of 5 . and high order allow a concatenation of 140Mbps channels for users belonging to a Virtual Concatenation Group (VCG).

Above enhancements and new features has made SDH more flexible. Nera as a metro-access-network solution vendor is adapting the MEF standards that have become widely accepted by service providers and other equipment vendors. MEF has as phase 1 defined 3 technical specifications. page 6 of 6 . connects two or more subscriber sites enabling transfer of Ethernet service frames between them and prevents data transfer between subscriber's sites that are not part of the same EVC.1 bridge (switch) and the User to Network Interface (UNI) using a standard IEEE 802. 100Mbps. but before this switching mechanism is further discussed it is necessary to look at the IP and Ethernet services that currently are available and/or being standardised. LCAS is used as a mechanism for adjusting the bandwidth of a VCAT channel by provisioning and control of the same termination elements. LCAS will adjust the capacity of the VCAT channel without interrupting the traffic. If a provisioning change is required. 1Gbps or 10Gbps. Thus.A link is created with a source and a sink for a VCG (Virtual Concatenated Group) by using the NMS system.3 Ethernet protocol (PHY and MAC layers) at 10Mbps. Ethernet Services Model (ESM) that defines service attributes. EVC has two functions. VCAT functionality is only required at the path termination network elements and can work with older legacy equipment (not supporting LCAS&VCAT) in the intermediate network. protocols and management for metro Ethernet transport networks. Prioritisation and load control must be solved before the traffic enters the SDH access network transportation mechanism. Ethernet Services Definitions (ESD) and Ethernet Traffic Management (ETM). One key service attribute is the Ethernet Virtual Connection (EVC) that can be a point-to-point or multipoint-to-multipoint connection. i. Customer Equipment (CE) that can be a router or IEEE802. Metro Ethernet Forum technical specification and Service definitions Metro Ethernet Forum (MEF) are defining Ethernet and carrier class Ethernet services by specifying architecture. An Ethernet service is defined by Service Type. Metro Ethernet forum has a basic model where they refers to definitions as Metro Ethernet Network (MEN) that can use different transport technologies. One important rule in the work of MEF is that service frames shall be delivered with the Ethernet MAC addresses and frame contents unchanged. LCAS in combination with VCAT provide the customer with a tool to adjust the bandwidth as the customer requirements changes. Service Attributes and Service Attribute Parameters.e. but SDH does not solve the need for packet data traffic handling.

CIR (Committed Information Rate). CoS The MEF has defined the Bandwidth Profile service attributes for ingress bandwidth per UNI. The bandwidth profile consists of four traffic parameters. A service frame is marked "green" if it is CIR/CBS-conformant.Two Ethernet Service types has been defined: • Ethernet Line (E-line) Service Type . yellow if it is not CIR conformant but EIR and EBS conformant and red if it is neither CIR nor EIR conformant. page 7 of 7 . per EVC and per CoS. CBS (Committed Burst Size). EIR (Excess Information Rate) and EBS (Excess Burst Size).Multipoint service Ethernet over SDH (EoS) UNI1 TDM TDM/ /SDH SDH SmartNode SmartNode UNI2 Figure 3 . The service provider will usually reserve capacity in the network according to CIR capacity.point-to-point service • Ethernet LAN (E-LAN) Service Type .E-LAN service using multipoint EVC An Ethernet service must in addition to Service type also specify important characteristics for the UNI and EVC defined as service Attributes.E-Line service using point-to-point EVC Ethernet over SDH (EoS) UNI1 UNI2 SmartNode UNI3 SmartNode TDM TDM/ /SDH SDH UNI4 SmartNode SmartNode Figure 4 . MEF has also defined service frame colours based on the traffic conformance to the bandwidth profile that can be two or three colours depending on the configuration of the traffic parameters.

the Ethernet switch in the hybrid node also processes the Ethernet frames in the ring. Bundling and service multiplexing The bundling mechanism enables two or more CE-VLAN ID's to be mapped to a single EVC at a UNI and Service Multiplexing is used to support multiple EVCs at one UNI. They are valid for delivery based on per CoS ID.e. jitter and loss. The tag information is according to IEEE 802. The service provider has now got the necessary tools for obtaining a "shared packet over SDH" ring structure where he can match the ring transport capacity up to the sum of CIR conformant SLAs and allow a over-provisioning based on EIR. the traffic will be prioritised above EIR conformant traffic in the network. page 8 of 8 . are all parameters in the CoS Service attribute. i. This will isolate the customers Tag information. This is particularly important when building fibre-rings where the service provider's interest is to share the bandwidth between many users.1Q.1p user priority per EVC or per UNI (port) with 1 CoS for all EVCs at the UNI. Performance parameters. Traffic that is not CIR or EIR conformant will be transported based on "best effort". For instance if the traffic is conformant to CIR. When the EoS node is part of a ring structure. and if the Ethernet traffic entering (ingress) the node creates congestion the switch will drop traffic in the ring with lower priority than the ingress traffic of the node. Frame Jitter and Frame Loss parameters. that is 802. CE-VLAN ID and Class of Service Identifiers Important MEF Ethernet service attribute that will be supported is CE-VLAN Tag. EIR conformant and according to the SLA.Service Performance Service performance parameters specify availability and frame delay. Ethernet traffic priority mapping in Nera's solution If the edge of a Access network is equipped with a hybrid Ethernet over SDH (EoS) SmartNode. Frame delay. the CE Ethernet traffic will first enter a policing module checking whether the traffic is CIR. Service Frames at the UNI interface may have a tag that identifies the Customer Edge VLAN ID (CE-VLAN ID) and CE-VLAN CoS. Based on the CoS and whether there is congestion in the network Ethernet frames will be transported successfully or discarded. A service provider may also add an additional TAG to the VLAN.

SERVICE PROVIDERS REQUIREMENTS FOR METRO ETHERNET SOLUTIONS In the past Service Providers data networks used point-to-point leased line connections in WAN solutions.1ad and Q-in-Q). This feature can also be used as a load balancing mechanism. which is an improvement of SPT and a critical feature for large switched Ethernet network infrastructures. This feature will also improve significantly the scalability of Service Providers switched Ethernet infrastructure. and the edge will switch the traffic into multiple point-to-point connections. and leased lines were either based on Frame Relay or ATM. When a Customer Tagged Ethernet frame enters the network operator's edge device. For this multipoint services the operator need an Ethernet device at the edge of the network that supports necessary Layer 1 and 2 features for providing desired Ethernet services optionally together with legacy TDM services. and will as an effect reduce overhead communication and bandwidth. where a number of VLANs are mapped to a specific Spanning Tree instance. giving a multipoint network solution. CE does no longer strictly need costly Layer 3 functionality. • Subscriber Spanning Tree tunnelling (EE802. The CE is connected with only one logical connection to the Edge of Service Providers Access network. This is commonly known as Q-in-Q tag stacking which has been available for some time as proprietary solution. This will reduce the number of SPT instances.1s. In this case the Customer Equipment (CE) required Layer 3 routing functionality for handling multiple connections. • VLAN Tag Support (IEEE802. IEEE802. thus.1w.1ad Provider Bridge) provides Customers Spanning Tree Protocol transport through the network giving Ethernet restoration isolation from the operator's protection mechanism. • Multiple Spanning Tree (MSPT). IEEE802. With new metro Ethernet services this can be slightly different. • Policing functionality. or CoS. Features that has been implemented in Nera's platform and which are important for integrated EoS nodes in a Service provider metro Ethernet network can be summarised as follows. and provide necessary provisioning based on this information. • Rapid Spanning Tree (RSTP). Checks customer traffic priority. an additional Tag is added to the Ethernet frame. page 9 of 9 . Nera's SmartNode solutions positioned for Metro Networks are designed with a high degree of flexibility by standard and license enabled SW features together with pluggable HW modules. As a result the network will maintain the integrity of the traffic and keep one customer's traffic separated from another's traffic.

allows the switch and the end station to communicate directly. With SDH as a transport mechanism the TDM traffic will meet all ITU-T requirements.• Link Aggregation Control Protocol (LACP) is used by the Service Provider (SP) for aggregation of multiple ports into one logical port. Shared Packet Rings The basic idea with a shared packet ring in a Service Providers Metro Access Network is that several users with both data and circuit switched traffic shall share the same capacity available in the ring. • GARP VLAN Registration Protocol (GVRP) dynamically register VLAN membership information at the end points in the network and distribute this information by the use of GARP • If the Layer 2 switches support IGMP snooping it monitors the traffic between the CE and the Layer 3 device and dynamically sets up filters accordingly • GARP Multicast Registration Protocol (GMRP). • Multicast Storm protection and Broadcast Storm protection feature prevents LAN ports to be flooded by this type of traffic on the physical interface. • Generic Attribute Registration Protocol (GARP) is used by participants in the GARP group to exchange and register or deregister attribute values within the group. and with Nera's EoS technology carrier class Ethernet requirements can be obtained in shared packet rings. 100 Mbps and 1 Gbps. ensuring that the traffic reaches only the stations requiring this traffic. and the network provider will benefit from a more optimal bandwidth usage and the ability to build more enhanced services. The Service Provider will be able. This is giving the customer most of the time an experienced data rate higher than the committed Service Level Agreement rate. This will enable the SP to offer higher bandwidth between switches in the network adding ports available on that switch with combinations of 10. page 10 of 10 . • Rate Limitations per traffic flow or per port is possible. by QoS and policing mechanism in Nera's solution. Normally the data traffic is larger than the circuit switched. and the data traffic is bursty by nature. This mechanism checks over an interval if this type of traffic storm exceeds a certain percentage of the total traffic per traffic type. to handle an over provisioning of data traffic and at the same time guarantee committed data traffic rate. which is a new standard.

RPR has better functionalities compared to IP routers and Ethernet switches for solving carrier class protection switching (<50 ms) and handling of jitter and latency sensitive traffic. and will not comply with the requirements of carrier class.Resilient Packet Ring 6 69801-0201 If a fibre is cut in the ring.17 Working Group is currently defining an industry standard for RPR Media Access Control (MAC). RPR deployed on dark fibre will be a cost efficient solution when all traffic is packet based. The inner ring control data for the inner ring data is transported on the outer ring in opposite direction. The IEEE 802. but native TDM traffic is not trivial to be transported and not so cost efficient as using legacy or next generation SDH technology. Nera products support STP (Spanning Tree Protocol) and RSTP (Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol) features that provide a protection mechanism for Ethernet/IP traffic in the network. RPR can be used to replace SDH networks in page 11 of 11 . while RPR is using both fibres in the ring for transport in both directions with an inner and outer topology. Outer ring control Inner ring data Inner ring data Outer ring data Figure 5 . SDH is in principle using a second fibre in the ring for protection switching (i.e. With RSTP the restoration algorithm is different and a restoration time down to some hundred milliseconds can be obtained. When available as a standardised solution. This is giving a much better utilisation of the fibre capacity in the ring. RPR versus SDH Resilient packet Ring (RPR) based networks are optimised to transport data traffic while SDH is optimised for transport of TDM traffic. This can be obtained by designing the network carefully using SHD protection mechanisms such as SNCP and MSP in the Nera EoS products. and vice versa for the outer ring control data and inner ring data.Ethernet carrier class and ring protection Ethernet carrier class services need careful considerations when designing the network. SNCP) within 50 ms. SPT has a restoration time of typically 60 seconds when a failure occurs in the network. the traffic is automatically redirected within 50 ms. For an Ethernet carrier class service this is not sufficient (shall be < 50 ms).

it also provides the basis for integration with 3rd party systems. This allows carriers to use their current infrastructure to deliver legacy services and RPR for new data-optimized services. across multiple services. Service provisioning need to be automated to the extent it is possible and new service levels must be guaranteed through Service Level Agreements. multiple technologies and multiple networks. Nera's NMS platform is built on the New Generation OSS (NGOSS) initiative from TMForum and besides that it provides a comprehensive and full management solution for all Nera's leading edge network solutions. This is a prerequisite for short Time to Market for new functionality or integration. But there is a clear trend that proprietary RPR over SDH solutions available today is gaining widespread support among large carriers worldwide. page 12 of 12 . and ensures that the Nera management products keep up with the network technology development pace. Network Management As the service and technology development of today's converging networks increase in pace. thus. The Nera NMS is designed with a multi-tiered and components based architecture. RPR rings can use SDH for transparently transport of Ethernet/RPR frames. providing the necessary parameters for a Service Management platform. RPR over SDH will be available as an integrated technology in Nera's future solutions. the operational challenges of these networks grows. providing a tremendous flexibility in functionality and integration.the metro network.

“Leased line Ethernet.ACRONYMS ADM ATM DSLAM DXCE-LAN E-LINEESCON FE FICON GFP GE IAD IP LAN LCAS MPLSMSPP NGAN PDH POP RPR SDH SLA SONET TDM VPN WAN Add-drop Multiplexer Asynchronous Transfer Mode Digital Subscriber Line Access Multiplexer Digital Cross connect Point-to-multipoint Ethernet connection.” Point-to-point Ethernet connection Enterprise Systems Connection Fast Ethernet (100 Mb/s) Fibre Connection (storage interface) Generic Framing Procedure Gigabit Ethernet Integrated Access Device (Customer Premises) Internet Protocol Local Area Network Linear Capacity Adjustment Scheme Multi Protocol Label Switching Multi-Service Provisioning Platform Next Generation Access Network Plesiochronous Digital Hierarchy Point of Presence Resilient Packet rings Synchronous Digital Hierarchy Service Level Agreement Synchronous Optical Network Time Division Multiplexing Virtual Private Network Wide Area Network page 13 of 13 .