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Chapter 4 Personality Traits and Work Values After studying this chapter you should be able to:  Define personality

, describe how it is measured, and explain the factors that determine an individual’s personality.  Describe the Myers-Briggs Type ndicator personality framewor! and assess its strengths and wea!nesses.  dentify the !ey traits in the Big "ive personality model and demonstrate how the traits predict behavior at wor!.  dentify other personality traits that are relevant to #B.  Define values, demonstrate the importance of values, and contrast terminal and instrumental values.  dentify $ofstede’s five value dimensions of national culture. Personality  The sum total of ways in which an individual reacts to and interacts with others  Most often described in terms of measurable traits that a person exhibits, such as shy, aggressive, submissive, lazy, ambitious, loyal and timid  Personality is often defined by characteristics such as outgoing or charming. However, psychologists define personality as the growth and development of a person’s whole psychological system. Measuring Personality  elf!reports urveys

 Most common  Prone to error  "bserver!ratings urveys  #ndependent assessment  May be more accurate  There are two main ways to measure personality !! self!reports or observer!ratings. elf!reports are the most common and easiest to administer, but they are prone to error due to the fact that the individual is reporting all the data about themselves.  "bserver!ratings are when an independent person will observe and monitor behavior and record it in the survey. These reports tend to more accurate but difficult to administer and more costly.

e. while insightful.  There has been a long standing debate about whether genetics or environment are more important in determining personality. This has been reaffirmed by studies that have loo(ed at twins who were raised apart but still had similar personalities.  &ge does influence the level of ability that an individual has even though it is widely held that the basic personality stays constant throughout the life of the individual.udging or Perceiving ). Participants are classified within four scales to determine 0 of 01 possible personality types. #.*P+  /lassifications combined into 01 personality types )i. ensors are practical and orderly where intuits utilize unconscious processes. or % T. are not related to 3ob performance. However.udgers want order and structure whereas perceivers are more flexible and spontaneous. . They both play an important role. . there were differences observed leading to the idea the environmental factors can have some influence. Thin(ing focuses on using reason and logic where feeling utilizes values and emotions. The final dichotomy is 3udging and perceiving.+  Thin(ing or -eeling )T*-+  . Measuring Personality Traits: Myers-Briggs Type Indicator  Most widely used personality!assessment instrument in the world  #ndividuals are classified as$  %xtroverted or #ntroverted )%*#+  ensing or #ntuitive ) *. environmental factors and age. The third dichotomy is thin(ing and feeling.Personality Determinants      Heredity is the most dominant factor Twin studies$ genetics more influential than parents %nvironmental factors do have some influence &ging influences levels of ability 'asic personality is constant  There are many determinants of personality including heredity. These types are bro(en down into four dichotomies. The first is extroverts who tend to be sociable and assertive verses introverts who tend to be 4uiet and shy.T. The second dichotomy is sensing and intuitive.+  2nrelated to 3ob performance  The M'T# is the most widely used personality instrument world!wide. The heredity approach refers to factors determined at conception such as physical stature and gender.  These categories.

They tend to have a competitive drive and a need to win. re4uires excessive admiration.  Machiavellianism describes a person who tends to be emotionally distant and believes that the ends 3ustify the means.  /ore self!evaluation is the degree to which people li(e*disli(e themselves. Positive self!evaluation leads to higher 3ob performance.Measuring Personality Traits: The Big. They can be very persuasive in situations where they is direct interaction with minimal rules and people are distracted by emotions. . has a sense of self!entitlement and is arrogant.arcissism$ & person with a grandiose view of self.  . . The 'ig -ive factors are$ %xtroversion. /onscientiousness.arcissism is a trait that often hinders 3ob effectiveness. "ther Personality Traits  /ore elf!%valuation$ People with positive core self!evaluation li(e themselves and see themselves as capable and effective in the wor(place. &greeableness.i!e Model  -ive Traits$       %xtraversion &greeableness /onscientiousness %motional tability "penness to %xperience trongly supported relationship to 3ob performance )especially /onscientiousness+  The 'ig -ive model of personality sets forth that there are five basic dimensions that underlie all others and encompass most of the significant variations in human personalities. #t describes a person who re4uires excessive admiration and has a strong sense of entitlement.  There are additional personality traits relevant to organizational behavior. There is a lot of research that supports the 'ig -ive model and it has been shown to predict behavior at wor(.  Machiavellianism$ High machs tend to be pragmatic. %motional tability and "penness to %xperiences. emotionally distant and believe the ends 3ustify the means.

 Proactive personality are people who are able to identify opportunities and ta(e action to capitalize on that opportunity. ta(es action and perseveres elf!monitoring is another personality trait that is lin(ed to 3ob performance.Ma#or Personality $ttri%utes In&luencing "B  elf!monitoring  &d3usts behavior to meet external. #t is the ability to ad3ust behavior to meet situational factors.  Values  5epresent basic. enduring convictions that 8a specific mode of conduct or end!state of existence is personally or socially preferable to an opposite or converse mode of conduct or end!state of existence. This 4uality affects how much time and information managers need to ma(e a decision. High monitors are more li(ely to become leaders in the wor(place. . urgent 7 driven  Proactive Personality  #dentifies opportunities. They also have the ability to persevere through difficulties to meet their goals.8  9alues represent basic convictions that ma(e 3udgments about what is the best mode of conduct or end!state of existence.  5is( ta(ing refers to the willingness of the individual to ta(e chances.  Type & personality refers to a person who tends to be aggressively involved in a chronic. situational factors  5is( Ta(ing  6illingness to accept ris(  Type & Personality  /ompetitive. incessant struggle to achieve more and more and in less time. shows initiative.

motivation and behavior. #t consists of two sets ists of two sets of values. values are important in the wor(place because they can influence an individual’s perception and cloud their ob3ectivity. #n addition. (okeach Value 'ur!ey  Terminal values  refers to desirable end!states of existence  . #nstrumental values are the preferred modes of behavior or means of achieving one’s terminal values. and behavior #nfluence perception and cloud ob3ectivity  9alue systems represent individual values and prioritizes them based on how important the particular value is to the individual and how intense their feelings are about that particularly value. Terminal values describe the desired values*goals a person would li(e to (eep*achieve through their lifetime. terminal values and instrumental values.oals that a person would li(e to achieve during his or her lifetime Instrumental !alues  refers to preferable modes of behavior or means of achieving the terminal values  The 5o(each 9alue urvey was created by Milton 5o(each. motivation. #t conshe 5o(each 9alue urvey was created by Milton 5o(each. The way individuals set up their values in order of importance is relatively stable over time and set the foundation for many wor( outcomes such as attitudes.  9alues vary between groups and can cause trouble when group members hold different values and negotiation is needed.Value 'ystems        5epresent a prioritizing of individual values by$ /ontent : importance to the individual #ntensity : relative importance with other values The hierarchy tends to be relatively stable 9alues are the foundation for attitudes. )*amples o& Terminal Values  & comfortable life )a prosperous life+ .

but it represents some of the more widely accepted values to which people adhere.olland-s . free choice+ Happiness )contentedness+  There are many terminal values and this list is not exhaustive. truthful+  This list represents some examples of instrumental values and again.e*agon  . 3oyful+ /lean )neat. is not exhaustive. aspiring+ 'road!minded )open!minded+ /apable )competent.        &n exciting life )stimulating. Personality-+o% it: . )*amples o& Instrumental Values          &mbitious )hard wor(ing. e4ual opportunity for all+ -amily security )ta(ing care of loved ones+ -reedom )independence. efficient+ /heerful )lighthearted. The person!3ob fit theory . active life+ & sense of accomplishment )lasting contribution+ & world of peace )free of war and conflict+ & world of beauty )beauty of nature and the arts+ %4uality )brotherhood. tidy+ /ourageous )standing up for your beliefs+ -orgiving )willing to pardon others+ Helpful )wor(ing for the welfare of others+ Honest )sincere. but should provide a loo( at some of the instrumental values people hold.ob satisfaction and turnover depend on congruency between personality and tas(  -ields ad3acent are similar  -ield opposite are dissimilar  9ocational Preference #nventory <uestionnaire  Personality and value studies are important to the field of organizational behavior because they have been lin(ed to wor(place outcomes.

developed by . Person-"rgani. The big five personality types are often helpful in matching the individuals with organizational culture. on the other hand.ohn Holland has been critical to thin(ing about how people fit with a specific 3ob. in fact it has been used worldwide. differ to a great degree across cultures.  The .  6hen the personality is matched with the type of occupation then there are stronger positive wor( outcomes. .  Through the study of personality it has become clear that there are intrinsic differences in personality between people. individualism vs. /lo%al Implications  The 'ig -ive Model appears across a wide variety of cultures  Primary differences based on factor emphasis and type of country     9alues differ across cultures Two framewor(s for assessing culture$ Hofstede . short!term orientation. He brea(s up his framewor( of understanding into five value dimensions$ power distance. collectivism. However.o&stede-s rame0ork &or $ssessing Cultures .eert Hofstede developed a framewor( for assessing culture. The employee’s personality needs to fit with the organizational culture. femininity.="'%.ation it  #t is more important that employees’ personalities fit with the organizational culture than with the characteristics of any specific 3ob. is also helpful in framing differences between cultures. 9alues. . -ramewor(s such as the big five is transferable across cultures. 6hen employees find organizations that match their values they are more li(ely to be selected and correspondingly be more satisfied with their wor(.  This idea can be further lin(ed to the wor(place by loo(ing at person!organization fit. the applicability is higher in some cultures than others.  .="'%  There are global implications to personality and values in the wor(place. organizational commitment and turnover.  The fit predicts 3ob satisfaction.iven that there are a number of different 3obs it is logical that people in 3obs congruent with their personalities would be more satisfied in their wor(. uncertainty avoidance and long!term vs. Holland classified people into six personality types utilizing a vocational preference inventory. as discussed earlier. masculinity vs.

 Hofstede offers a third component in his model that distinguishes between masculinity and femininity.  The final component is time orientation. Higher distance is when there is a lot of une4ual power distribution between groups. This is the extent to which a society is willing to live with uncertainty and ambiguity. /ollectivism  Masculinity vs. thrift and persistence. hort!term orientation societies will emphasize the here and now. #ndividualism is the degree to which people prefer to act on their own rather than in a group.-ive factors$  Power >istance  #ndividualism vs.  The second component in Hofstede’s framewor( is individualism vs.="'% framewor( ta(es a loo( at nine dimensions of national culture. power and control vs characteristics that are more feminine in nature. collectivism. -emininity  2ncertainty &voidance  =ong!term vs.ender differentiation 2ncertainty avoidance Power distance #ndividualism* collectivism #n!group collectivism Performance orientation Humane orientation  The . /1"B)2 rame0ork &or $ssessing Cultures  "ngoing study with nine factors$          &ssertiveness -uture orientation . =ong!term orientation societies will emphasize the future and what it ta(es to get to the future they desire. The humane orientation loo(s at how much society rewards people for being altruistic and (ind where the performance orientation loo(s at how much society encourages .  The fourth component is uncertainty avoidance. hort!term "rientation  Power distance is the extent to which a society accepts that power in institutions and organizations is distributed une4ually. #t is similar to Hofstede’s model but adds the humane and performance orientations. =ow!distance is when there is relatively e4ual power between those with status*wealth and those without. Masculinity is the extent to which the culture prefers achievement. /ollectivism is the idea that people operate within a social framewor( where they help others out and they expect help when they need it. High uncertainty avoidance cultures will try to avoid ambiguous situations as much as possible. =ower uncertainty avoidance cultures do not mind ambiguity.

There are some good framewor(s and models that can aid us in applying these theories and assist managers in being better predictors of wor(place behavior. and interacts with others  %asily measured  'ig -ive Personality Traits  5elated to many "' criteria  May be very useful in predicting behavior  9alues  9ary between and within cultures  ?eep in mind as a manager that personality impacts the way an individual interacts with others. behaviors.  9alues are important to understand as they influence how wor(ers will behave as . Implications &or Managers  Personality$  %valuate the 3ob.  The 'ig five personality traits are somewhat universal and are very useful in predicting behavior.and rewards good wor(. group. 3eep in Mind4  Personality  The sum total of ways in which individual reacts to. and it is fairly easy to measure to gain insight into the wor(er. and perceptions  Match the individual values to organizational culture  Personality and values are very important to the wor(place and play a solid role in predicting behavior. and organization to determine the best fit  'ig -ive is best to use for selection  M'T# for development and training  9alues$  trongly influence attitudes.

They. . however. vary significantly across cultures so it is important to understand the culture in which you are in.well.