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International Journal of Engineering and Science Invention (IJESI) is an international journal intended for professionals and researchers in all fields of computer science and electronics. IJESI publishes research articles and reviews within the whole field Engineering Science and Technology, new teaching methods, assessment, validation and the impact of new technologies and it will continue to provide information on the latest trends and developments in this ever-expanding subject. The publications of papers are selected through double peer reviewed to ensure originality, relevance, and readability. The articles published in our journal can be accessed online.

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Effect of Relative Surface Roughness of Condenser Material on Friction Factor in a Domestic Refrigerator.

1

1 2

Research Scholar, Department Of Mechanical Engineering, Bhagwant University, Ajmer, Rajasthan, India. Retired Professor, Department Of Mechanical Engineering, Shri Govindram Sakseria Institute of Technology and Science, Indore, Madhya Pradesh, India.

ABSTRACT: The performance of a domestic refrigerator is affected by the relative Surface roughness of

condenser, evaporator and associated piping. The pressure drop and heat transfer in a refrigerator largely depends on friction factor which is a primary function of relative surface roughness of the involved material of construction. Various equations had been developed in the past by different Researchers to calculate the pressure drop inside tubes for fluid flow. In the present study Cole Brook equation is being used to determine the friction factor in the condenser of a domestic refrigerator using R134a as refrigerant. For this an experimental setup has been developed containing different condensers having different relative roughness values. The theoretical friction factors computed by using the above stated equation under varying Reynolds number conditions would be used to determine the theoretical pressure drop which would then be compared with the experimental results.

KEYWORDS: Domestic Refrigerator, Condenser, Pressure Drop, Relative Surface Roughness, Refrigerant,

Reynolds Number.

I.

INTRODUCTION

A domestic refrigerator is an essential commodity of modern life. A lot of advancement has been made in this field and research is continuously going on. One important parameter that affects the performance of a refrigerator is the pressure drop in the associated piping mainly in the condenser and evaporator. This pressure drop depends upon the friction factor and researchers have proposed different correlations in the past to predict the friction factor for general fluid flow conditions. In the present paper an attempt has been made to compute the friction factor in a domestic refrigerator by applying Cole Brook equation by varying the Reynolds number of flow and Relative roughness values of condenser piping.

II.

This equation is applicable for relative roughness values up to 0.05 and is given as under. 1/f0.5= -2 log10 [{(e/D)/3.7} + {2.51/ (Re* f0.5)}] where, f = friction factor, Re = Reynolds number and e/D = Relative roughness value of condenser piping material. For the present study this value is taken in the range of 0.001 to 0.005.

III.

An experimental set up has been developed to determine the effect of relative roughness of condenser piping material on the friction factor and pressure drop in a domestic refrigerator. The set up is equipped with a number of condensers having different relative roughness values mounted in parallel with flow control valves to vary the flow conditions. The friction factor is determined using the Cole Brook equation which is then used to calculate the pressure drop. The actual pressure drop can be compared with the theoretically computed results obtained by using Cole Brook equation. The pressure drop per unit length of the pipe corresponding to the friction factor is determined by using the following correlation. p = 4 f l v2/2 g d Where p = pressure drop, f = friction factor, v = velocity of fluid, d = inside diameter of the tube, g = Acceleration due to gravity and l = length of condenser pipe.

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Refrigerant used: R134a Relative roughness of condenser tube: 0.001 to 0.005 Reynolds number range: 600 to 106 By selecting different values of Reynolds number, the friction factor is determined using the Cole Brook equation specified above. The friction factor is determined by assigning a specified value to relative roughness, e/D and Reynolds Number, Re. The solution is not a simple one as the variable, f (friction factor), appears on either side of the equation. So the solution is based on hit and trial method. The solutions obtained are tabulated as under. Table for Relative roughness (e/D) 0.001

Reynolds Number, Re 600 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 Friction Factor, f 0.07168 0.06319 0.050214 0.044411 0.04091 0.038495 0.036696 0.035287 Reynolds Number, Re 8000 9000 10000 15000 20000 30000 40000 50000 Friction Factor, f 0.034144 0.033191 0.032382 0.029611 0.027946 0.02597 0.024891 0.024021

Reynolds Number, Re 600 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 Friction Factor, f 0.076686 0.063789 0.050969 0.045289 0.041891 0.039566 0.037848 0.036512 Reynolds Number, Re 8000 9000 10000 15000 20000 30000 40000 50000 Friction Factor, f 0.035435 0.034545 0.033794 0.031266 0.029788 0.028094 0.027604 0.026506

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Figure 2 Table for Relative roughness (e/D) 0.003 Reynolds Number, Re 600 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 Friction Factor, f 0.077202 0.064385 0.051717 0.046152 0.04285 0.040608 0.038961 0.03769 Reynolds Number, Re 8000 9000 10000 15000 20000 30000 40000 50000 Friction Factor, f 0.036672 0.035835 0.035132 0.032801 0.031467 0.029973 0.029084 0.028618

Reynolds Number, Re 600 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 Friction Factor, f 0.077718 0.064979 0.052458 0.047003 0.04379 0.041622 0.040041 0.038827 Reynolds Number, Re 8000 9000 10000 15000 20000 30000 40000 50000 Friction Factor, f 0.03786 0.037069 0.036408 0.034239 0.033019 0.031676 0.031053 0.030484

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Reynolds Number, Re 600 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 Friction Factor, f 0.078243 0.065572 0.053192 0.047841 0.044711 0.042613 0.041091 0.039928 Reynolds Number, Re 8000 9000 10000 15000 20000 30000 40000 50000 Friction Factor, f 0.039006 0.038255 0.03763 0.035597 0.03447 0.033245 0.032886 0.032175

Figure 5

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Table for Comparative Results.

ReynoldNo. Re 600 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 8000 9000 10000 15000 20000 30000 50000 e/D=0.001 0.0716 0.0631 0.05021 0.04441 0.0409 0.03849 0.03669 0.03528 0.03414 0.03319 0.03238 0.02961 0.02794 0.0259 0.02402 Friction Factor f at different e/D ratios e/D=0.002 0.07668 0.06378 0.05096 0.04528 0.04189 0.03956 0.03784 0.03651 0.03543 0.03454 0.03379 0.03126 0.02978 0.02809 0.02650 e/D=0.003 0.07720 0.06438 0.05171 0.04615 0.0428 0.04060 0.03896 0.0376 0.03667 0.03583 0.03513 0.03280 0.03146 0.02997 0.02861 e/D=0.004 0.07771 0.06497 0.05245 0.04700 0.0437 0.04162 0.04004 0.03882 0.0378 0.03706 0.03640 0.03423 0.03301 0.03167 0.03048 e/D=0.005 0.07824 0.06557 0.05319 0.04784 0.04471 0.04261 0.04109 0.03992 0.03900 0.03825 0.0376 0.03559 0.0344 0.03324 0.03217

Figure 6

V.

From the above tables and graphs it is observed that as the Reynolds number increases the friction factor decreases very rapidly initially but with increase in Reynolds number beyond 50000,there is no significant change in the value of friction factor. Also with increase in relative roughness the friction factor and hence the pressure drop also increases. From all the above graphs, it can be observed that as the value of Reynolds number increases, the value of friction factor decreases. Also as the relative roughness increases, the friction factor also increases for a selected value of Reynolds number.

FUTURE SCOPE

For the present study Cole Brook equation has been used to compute the friction factor values. The above stated results can also be calculated by other equations and the results of various equations can be compared with the experimental values. The same experiments can also be performed on multiple evaporators mounted in parallel in place of multiple condensers as used in the present study.

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[1] [2]

CONCLUSION

The inside surface roughness of condenser and evaporator of a domestic Refrigerator plays a vital role on its performance. From the above results, it is concluded that:

With increase in Reynolds number, the friction factor decreases. The friction factor decreases steeply initially with increase in Reynolds number (nearly up to 50000) beyond which the friction factor is almost constant. With increase in Relative Roughness, the friction factor as well as Pressure drop increases.

[3]

REFERENCES

[1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [8]

Darcy, H., 1858, Recherches Experimentale Relatives auMouvement de leaudans les tuyax, Memoires alAcademied. Sciences de lInstitute imperial de France, Bd. 15, p.141.Harms, T. M., Kazmierczak, M. J., Gerner F. M., 1998, Shah, R. K., and London, A.L., 1978, Laminar Forced Convection in Ducts, Advances in Heat Transfer, Academic Press, New York, NY. Wu, P., Little, W.A, 1983, Measurement of Friction Factors for the Flow of Gases in Very Fine Channels used for Micro miniature Joule Thomson refrigerators, Cryogenics,Vol. 23, pp. 273-277 Pfahler, J., Harley, J., Bau, H., Zemel J. N., 1991, Gasand Liquid Flow in Small Channels, Micromechanicalsensors, Actuators, and Systems, ASME, Vol. 32, pp. 49-61. Peng, X. F., Peterson, G. P., Wang, B. X., 1994,Frictional Flow Characteristics of Water Flowing Through Rectangular Microchannels, Experimental Heat Transfer,Vol.7,pp.249-264 Satish G Kandlikar, Shailesh Joshi and ShurongTian.Heat Transfer Engineering3 rd Edition pp4-16, 2003 Farshad, F.F. and Rieke, H.H. 2006. Surface-Roughness Design Values for Modern Pipes SPE Drill &Compl21 (3): pp. 212215. Lap Mou Tam, HouKuan Tam and Asif J. Ghajar, Simultaneous heat transfer and pressure drop measurements for a horizontal micro tube .Proceedings of AJTEC2011

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