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Electric Circuits

Lesson 2.4

Key Concepts
What is Ohms law?
What are the basic features of an electric circuit?

How many paths can current take in series circuits?


How many paths can current take in parallel circuits?

Ohms Law
The relationship among resistance, voltage, and
current is summed up in Ohms law.

Ohms law says that the resistance is equal to the


voltage divided by the current.

V
I R

Ohms Law
The relationship can be represented by the following
equation: where R is used to represent resistance I to represent current and V to represent voltage.

Voltage Resistance = Current

Ohms Triangle
You can use the formula to see how changes in
resistance, voltage, and current are related.

Key Concepts
What is Ohms law?
What are the basic features of an electric circuit?

How many paths can current take in series circuits?


How many paths can current take in parallel circuits?

Basic Features
All electric circuits have the same basic features.
1. Have devices that are run by electric energy. 2. Has a source of electrical energy. 3. Connected by conducting wires.

1st Devices
First, circuits have devices that are run by electrical
energy.

These devices include radios, refrigerators, and light


bulbs.

2nd Source
Second, a circuit has a source of electrical energy.
Batteries, generators, and electric plants all supply
energy to circuits.

3rd Connected
Third, electric circuits are connected by conducting
wires.

The conducting wires complete the path of the current.

Extras A Switch
A switch is often included in a circuit to control the flow
of charge through the circuit.

Key Concepts
What is Ohms law?
What are the basic features of an electric circuit?

How many paths can current take in series circuits?


How many paths can current take in parallel circuits?

Series Circuit
If all parts of an electric circuit are connected one after
another along one path, the circuit is called a series circuit.

In a series circuit, there is only one path for the


current to take.

Disadvantage
A series circuit is very simple to design and build, but a
series circuit has disadvantages.

If one light goes out in a series circuit, the other lights


will go out as well because there is only one path for the current to take.

Disadvantage
Another disadvantage is that adding lights to a series
circuit will make other lights in the circuit dimmer.

An ammeter is a device used to measure current.

Key Concepts
What is Ohms law?
What are the basic features of an electric circuit?

How many paths can current take in series circuits?


How many paths can current take in parallel circuits?

Parallel Circuit
In a parallel circuit, the different parts of the circuit are
on separate branches.

In a parallel circuit, there are several paths for


current to take.

Advantage
If one light goes out in a parallel circuit, the other lights
in the circuit will remain lit because there is still current in the other branches.

Advantage
When branches are added to a parallel circuit, the
overall resistance actually decreases because the current has more paths to follow.

Voltmeter
A voltmeter is a device used to measure voltage.
The circuits in homes are parallel circuits. The voltage in most household circuits is 120 volts
(North America) and 220 volts (Kuwait).

Key Concepts
What is Ohms law?
What are the basic features of an electric circuit?

How many paths can current take in series circuits?


How many paths can current take in parallel circuits?

Skill Check 2.4


1. Ohms law states that
a) charge cannot be created or destroyed. b) the resistance is equal to the voltage divided by the
current.

c) R is used to represent resistance, I represents


current, and V represents voltage.

Skill Check 2.4


2. Which of the following is NOT a basic feature of an
electric circuit?

a) Has a source of electrical energy.

b) Are connected by conducting wires.


c) Contains an ammeter to measure current.

Skill Check 2.4


3. Which of the following is an advantage that parallel
circuits have over series circuits?

a) If one light goes out, the other lights will remain lit.

b) It is easier to use an ammeter to measure current.


c) They require less wire to connect all of their
circuits.

Skill Check 2.4


1. Ohms law states that
a) charge cannot be created or destroyed. b) the resistance is equal to the voltage divided by the
current.

c) R is used to represent resistance, I represents


current, and V represents voltage.

Skill Check 2.4


2. Which of the following is NOT a basic feature of an
electric circuit?

a) Has a source of electrical energy.

b) Are connected by conducting wires.


c) Contains an ammeter to measure current.

Skill Check 2.4


3. Which of the follow is an advantage that parallel
circuits have over series circuits?

a) If one light goes out, the other lights will remain lit.

b) It is easier to use an ammeter to measure current.


c) They require less wire to connect all of their
circuits.