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ABSTRACT This project focuses on the application of Load-Flow Algorithm to assess the security level of power systems. In this project work, power-flow using ewton

!aphson model is presented. This process the voltage profile of the system. An effort is also made to improve on the "us voltages using reactive power compensation. #onventional methods in use include proper adjustment of reactive power varia"les like generator voltage magnitude $%gi&, reactive power that is associated with the transformer tap setting $tk& and reactance of thyristor controlled series capacitor $'tcsc&. (cheduling of reactive power in an optimum manner reduces circulating volt ampere reactive $%A!&, which leads to apprecia"le improved voltage profile. In this work, "oth the transformer setting and value of shunt capacitance are treated as discrete varia"les through modifications in the representation of the solution varia"les. An improved model for power system "us voltage improvement is presented and the effectiveness of this algorithm is validated through power network. igeria


CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION !.! I)*+,-.&*/,) There is continuous change in voltage due to the varying electrical power demands. Voltage control is highly at the delivery points required since customers require voltage quality to meet the agreed power system voltage criteria [1] Both over-voltage and under-voltage violations may be e perienced during daily operation o! power systems. "owever# this problem can be solved by using voltage$Var control technique [1]. This model controls the production# adsorption# and !low o! reactive power at all levels in the system. This also maintains the voltage pro!ile within acceptable limit and reduces the transmission losses within the networ%. &n the past decades# this problem has attracted the interest !rom both academia and industry and this has produced many special devices and algorithms. 'ome countries have adopted some o! these in their real power networ%s and achieved reasonably success!ul results in recent years [(]

Voltage improvement along a transmission line has always been the main ob)ective o! every power system engineer in order to ensure high quality o! power in terms o! required voltage level and !requency at the load buses. Voltage instability is a problem which emanates !rom power changes along


the transmission line especially when the line is heavily loaded. &t is there!ore necessary to improve the bus voltages in order to avoid partial or complete voltage collapse o! the system. This is the main !ocus o! this wor%. &n early power systems whereby generating stations were situated close to the loads# problem o! this magnitude rarely emanates but as developments and population growth became in-aversive# there was no better alternative than to situate generators !ar !rom the load centers. "ence# the need !or the development o! reactive power compensation devices arises since reactive power cannot be transmitted over long distances. &n an integrated power system +a grid networ%,# e!!icient management o! active and reactive power !lows is very important. The quality o! power supply is )udged !rom the !requency and voltage o! the power supply made available to the consumers. The !requency is the measure o! balance between power generated and the -. demand impinged on the system while the voltage is indicative o! reactive power !lows. /eactive power +V0/, is required to maintain the voltage to deliver active power +watts, through transmission lines# when there is not enough reactive power# the voltage sags down and it is not possible to push the power demanded by loads through the lines. 0 great number o! loads consume not only active but also reactive power. The electric networ% itsel! consumes and produces reactive power. The transmission o! electric power involves

reactive power losses due to the series inductance o! trans!ormers# overhead lines and other power system devices. The generation o! power also contains reactive components +i.e when it is over-e cited# it supplies reactive power and when under-e cited absorbs reactive power,. "ence# it is important to monitor and control reactive power resources and reactive power consuming elements to maintain proper voltages in the grid within sa!e and secure limits. !.( O012&*/32 ,4 *52 P+,12&* The ob)ective o! this pro)ect is to review available and relevant literatures and analy1e the various methods o! improving the bus voltages and how this improvement can lead to enhanced voltage stability. The main operational tool to be used in this pro)ect wor% is the load-!low program through -atlab# the result !rom which the !actors a!!ecting voltage stability are e amined. 0 simulation o! a given case +2igeria **3-%V Transmission 4ine, was carried out with and without compensating devices. The results# observation and conclusion are also presented. !. C,662+&/78 A998/&7*/,) ,4 *52 P+,12&* The advantages o! this pro)ect wor% are numerous. &t will help to improve the power industry by creating more awareness on the paramount need o! voltage improvement across a transmission line by using compensating


devices to enhance voltage stability in order to avoid voltage collapse among others. 6 .

Traditional 90 has some drawbac%s# such as slow convergence. These limits have been obtained by ta%ing into account the ma imum stator and rotor currents and the steady-state stability limit o! the generator. !or reactive power optimi1ation in wind !arm. The reactive power optimi1ation method with improved 90 is tested in a -0T40B based simulation model# in [5] a wind !arm model was developed and concluded that wind !arms made up o! double-!ed induction generators constitute an important tool !rom the voltage regulation point o! view. :urthermore# the designed proportional distribution algorithm ma%es all the generators wor% under similar conditions and quite !ar !rom saturation# which means !ar !rom the reactive power generation limits in [6] the power capability limits o! doubly !ed asynchronous generators. /e! [8] 8 . problem o! the voltages !all and the active losses in a power system including a wind power station by acting on the reactive productions o! inductances and capacitors branches connected to the consuming nodes in [(] an improved 9enetic algorithm +90.CHAPTER TWO LITERATURE RE#IEW The e!!ectiveness o! the proposed method is demonstrated on &777 58-bus system with wind# in [*] the use o! genetic algorithms !or the resolution o! the optimi1ation. The coding method# genetic operators# crossover and mutation probability# stopping criterion in iteration has been improved.

/e! [=] described the reactive power capabilities o! wind power generator and then discussed reactive power ancillary services issues related to the wind !arms in the electricity mar%et. 0 transmission line consists o! conductors# insulators and usually shields wires as shown in !igure 2..4 7 P.resently# the d [*] TRANSMISSION LINE MODEL (. . These stations are generally situated !ar !rom the load centers. The transmission networ% also interconnects neighboring utilities which permit not only economic dispatch o! power between regions during normal conditions but also trans!er o! power between regions during emergencies.1 below.describes the development o! a new algorithm !or the solution o! a multiob)ective problem in power systems with wind !arm using .article 'warm <ptimi1ation.! B7:/& S*+.+2 . This necessitates an e tensive power supply networ% between the generating stations and the consumer>s load.2+ S<:*26 7lectrical power is mostly generated in large hydro# thermal and in nuclear power stations. Basically# the purpose is to search an optimal operation point o! system which allows simultaneous power !actor remote control and loss minimi1ation.&*. Transmission lines are hung overhead = .

Fig 2.8*7=2: The selection o! an economical voltage level !or the transmission line is based on the amount o! power and the distance o! transmission.1 Transmission line tower These days# underground system o! transmission networ% is being considered in 2igeria because it presents a solution to some o! the environmental and aesthetic problems involved with overhead transmission lines. &t is less prone to natural ha1ards such as rain# wind# corona# lightning and it does not inter!are with other amenities. (.( T+7):6/::/. 0lthough# an underground system during earth !ault might be very dangerous# it is more costly and more technically inclined compared to an overhead system ma%ing its use quite prohibitive. The voltage choice together with the selection o! conductor si1e is mainly a process o! ? .!rom a tower with its own right-o!-way.) #.

'tandard transmission voltages being used in 2igeria are the **3%v# 1*2%v# **%v and 11%v which can also be used as a distribution voltage !or most large$heavy duty industries. • 0luminum Bonductor 0lloy /ein!orced +0B0/. &n the @nited 'tates o! 0merica# the highest transmission voltage was raised to1*2%V in 1?16# 223%V in 1?22# 2=8%V in 1?28# *(5%V in 1?5*# 533%V in 1?6* and 865%V in 1?6?. 13 . &n @''/# Aapan and &taly# an e perimental 1333$1133-%v lines e ist and commercial line o! these classes o! voltages are being planned. 0n e perimental 1333-%V line has been built and a commercial 1#133-%v line is e pected to be installed in the near !uture. &n most developed countries# the transmission voltages have been increasing at a tremendous rate. • 0ll 0luminum 0lloy Bonductor +000B. The most commonly used conductor materials !or high voltage transmission lines are • 0luminum Bonductor 'teel /ein!orced +0B'/.weighing the &2/ losses# audible noise and radio inter!erence level against !i ed charges on the investment. :easibility studies o! 1#533-%v lines are also being carried out in both @'0 and BhinaC Bhina currently has the highest$largest power transmission line o! =33-%v with 2213-%m length o! line. • 0ll 0luminum Bonductor +00B.

7ach layer o! strand is spiraled in the opposite direction o! its ad)acent layer. 11 . This spiraling holds the strands in place ensuring high strength to weight ratioC this condition# conductor manu!acturers must always ta%e note o!. &t should be noted that the conductors are stranded to have !le ibility# the 0B'/ conductor consists o! a central core o! steel strands surrounded by layers o! aluminum.The ma)or reason !or pre!erence o! aluminum conductors over copper is their low relative cost and high strength-to-weight ratio# also aluminum is more abundant in supply compared to the limited quantity o! supply o! copper.

&n a power system# it is desirable that voltages at di!!erent buses remain at their nominal value# but so many phenomena tend to disrupt this actuali1ation.! INTRODUCTION The ability o! a physical system to return to its original equilibrium position a!ter being sub)ected to any !orm o! disturbance which is generally in the pro imity o! the initial equilibrium point is re!erred to as the system stability.CHAPTER THREE POWER SYSTEM STABILITY CONTROL . The term DDstabilityE# as applied to electric power system# denotes a condition in which the various synchronous machines in the system remain in synchronism or in step with each other. 7very power system has a number o! synchronous machines operating in parallel. 12 . 0ccording to the &777$B&9/7 )oint tas% !orce on stability and de!initions# Fpower system stability is the ability o! an electric power system# !or a given initial operating condition to regain a state o! operating equilibrium a!ter being sub)ected to a physical disturbance# with most system variables bounded so that practically the entire system remains intactE. 0n unacceptable voltage level means voltage instability and i! the voltage departs too much !rom the nominal value# it might lead to a phenomenon %nown as voltage collapse.

The ma)or !actor causing voltage instability in a power system is the inability o! the power system to meet the demands !or reactive power in the heavily stressed system to %eep desired voltages.e maintaining synchronous operation. . &nstability may also occur without loss o! synchronism# in which case the concern is the control and stability o! voltage.hen voltages in an area are signi!icantly low or blac% out occurs due to the cascading events accompanying voltage instability# the problem is considered to be a voltage collapse phenomenon. #OLTAGE COLLAPSE The consequences o! voltage instability may have a widespread impact i! not controlled. 1* . 0 power system becomes unstable when voltages uncontrollably decrease across the buses due to outage o! equipment# increment o! load or due to some other reasons. 0 power system is said to be voltage stable i! voltages a!ter a disturbance are close to voltages at normal operating conditions. . .&t has been %nown that stability problem is the rotor angle stability i.( #OLTAGE STABILITY Voltage stability re!ers to the ability o! a power system to maintain steady acceptable voltages at all buses in the system at normal operating conditions and a!ter being sub)ected to a disturbance.

"eavily stressed or wea% power system 6.4 CAUSES OF #OLTAGE INSTABILITY There are so many causes o! voltage instability# but the main !actors responsible are as !ollowsG 1. . Trans!er o! active and reactive power over a lightly inductive transmission networ% to an electrically long distance load resulting in voltage drop. Voltage collapse normally ta%es place when a power system is heavily loaded or has limited reactive power to support the load. 'ome generators and loads on the power system may be 1( . 4oss o! load in an area. The inability o! the power system to meet the demands !or reactive power in a heavily stressed system. . &t should be noted that i! a!ter any disturbance# the power system reaches a new equilibrium state with practically all generators and loads connected through a single continuous transmission system# the system is said to be stable.0 power system at a given operating state and sub)ect to a given disturbance undergoes voltage collapse i! post-disturbance equilibrium voltages are below acceptable limits. *. 2.rogressive rise or !all o! the voltage at some buses. 4oss o! synchronism o! some generators +rotor angle instability.. 5. <utage o! equipments such as generator# line# trans!ormer# bus-bar etc. (. 6.

2+ S<:*26 G2)2+7*/)=>A0:.g capacitors The power system supplies power to a vast number o! loads and it is being !ed !rom many generating units hence the problem o! maintaining voltages within required limits.+0/)= R27&*/32 P..4 7 P.g reactors# trans!ormers and those which store energy by virtue o! electric !ields are said to generate reactive power e. These !ields store energy which changes through 0B cycle# the devices which store energy by virtue o! a magnetic !ield produced by a !low o! current are said to absorb reactive power e.disconnected by the isolation o! !aulted elements or intentional tripping such as load shedding to preserve the continuity o! operation o! the bul% o! the system.!0 REACTI#E POWER AND ITS CONTROL The concept o! reactive power and voltage control is very important !or the e!!icient and reliable operation o! a power system. . 0s load varies# the reactive power requirements o! the transmission system varies and since the reactive power cannot be trans!erred over long distances as a result o! & 2H losses# voltage control has to be e!!ected by using special devices located throughout the system.!! E8262)*: . system arising !rom the production o! electric and magnetic !ields. . /eactive power is a concept used by engineers to describe the bac%ground energy movement in an alternating current +0B..2+ There are some elements o! the power system which generate or absorb reactive power# but not all the reactive power generated or absorbed can be 15 .

.This can be made to generate or absorb reactive power depending on the !orm o! e citation applied +e citation being a !orm o! generator control. &V.Iepending on the load current# the overhead lines either absorb or supply reactive power. Trans!ormerG .These cables are always loaded below their natural loads# hence they generate reactive power under all operating conditions &&&. The basic elements which generates or absorbs reactive power in the power system includes &. <verhead 4inesG . 0t loads below the natural load# the lines produce net reactive power but at loads above natural load# the lines absorb reactive power.used economically to control voltage. The heavier the current loading the higher the absorption o! reactive power.'ome loads such as !luorescent lighting and all capacitive loads generally i.this produces magnetic !ields and there!ore absorbs reactive power. 'ynchronous 9eneratorG . . @nderground BableG .hen the generator is 16 . Bonsumer 4oadG . &&. V.e loads with leading power !actors generate reactive power but most inductive loads such as inductor motors# cho%es which produce magnetic !ield at low lagging power !actors absorb reactive power causing e cessive voltage drops in the transmission networ%.

Bapacitive and &nductive BompensatorsG . The synchronous compensators are smaller generators# once they run up to speed and synchroni1ed to the systemC they can be declutched !rom the turbine and provide reactive power without producing real power. V&.over-e cited# it supplies reactive power and when under-e cited# it absorbs reactive power.!( COMPENSATION OF TRANSMISSION LINES The most e!!ective means o! improving voltage stability along a transmission line is through the reactive power compensation. 'ynchronous BompensatorsG . .This type o! compensation supplies reactive power to the system. V&&. <ther dynamic compensating devices such as static Var compensation# 'tatcom and other :0BT' devices produce or absorb reactive power !rom the power system. Bompensation devices are available as either capacitive or inductive alone or as a hybrid to produce both generation and absorption o! reactive power.These are the devices that can be connected to the system to ad)ust voltage levels. 0 capacitive compensator produces an electric !ield thereby generating reactive power while an inductive compensator produces a magnetic !ield to absorb reactive power. This compensation improves both the power trans!er capability and voltage 18 .

!(.!(. controls the !ield e citation to maintain scheduled voltage level at the terminals o! the generatorsC but to control the voltage throughout the entire power system# we have to use additional devices to compensate the reactive powerC these devices can be divided into a. . 'hunt Bapacitors ii.assive Bompensation Ievices b.! P7::/32 C.) 1= . 'hunt reactors .stability.692):7*/.) This type o! compensation ma%es use o! passive devices which are usually connected permanently to the transmission system. The generating units provide the basic means o! voltage control# because the automatic voltage regulator +0V/. . 'eries Bapacitors iii. To have a good voltage pro!ile at all buses# the production# absorption and !low o! reactive power has to be controlled. They contribute to voltage control by modi!ying the networ% characteristics. 0ctive Bompensation Ievices This classi!ication depends on the type o! compensation provided !or the power system.( A&*/32 C. These passive compensation devices include i.692):7*/.

'hunt capacitors supply reactive power and boost local voltages thereby enhancing the system capacity and reducing the losses. :acts devices such as 'VB# 'T0TB<-# etc &t should be noted that the voltages at various buses in the power system are determined by the active and reactive power !lows through various elements o! the power system including the passive compensating devices. 'ynchronous Bondensers ii. 'hunt capacitors are always connected to the bus rather than to the line or sometimes they are connected directly to the tertiary winding o! the main trans!ormer. 1? . . The active devices include i.+: There has been a strategic increase in the use o! shunt capacitors as a means o! provision o! reactive power within a power system. The active compensation devices wor% together with the generating units to establish voltages at speci!ic points in the power system.)* C797&/*.! S5.&n this type o! compensation# the reactive power absorbed or supplied by the active devices is automatically ad)usted so as to maintain voltages o! the buses to which they are connected.

The main purpose o! transmission system shunt compensation usually near load areas is !or voltage control and load stabili1ation noting the !act that reactive power cannot be transmitted through long distances because o! & 2H 23 .Bapacitor ban%s are sets o! capacitors which are connected to the power system through mechanical switches or circuit brea%ers to ensure automatic switching. .2G Bapacitor Ban% equipped with discharge reactors which increase the switching speed with current limiting reactors to minimi1e switching transients that will discharge the capacitors in about 123milliseconds +ms. 'witching o! capacitor ban%s provides a convenient means o! controlling transmission system voltages thereby reducing the real power losses to barest minimum. thus enabling them to be reconnected to provide voltage support to the power system. *.hen capacitors are switched out# they must be discharged be!ore reconnection and this may ta%e a discharge time varying !rom 2-15 minutes# but with modern technology# the capacitors are usually :ig.

. The !ollowing summari1ed advantages ma%es shunt capacitors one o! the most widely means o! reactive power compensationG 1. &t increases the power !actor o! the source generator i. "ence# we can say that shunt capacitors are used to compensate !or &2H losses in a transmission system and to ensure satis!actory voltage pro!ile during heavy load conditions. 6. 'hunt capacitor has the advantage o! much lower cost than other compensating devices 2.hen using series capacitors !or compensation# it should be noted that the reactive power is proportional to the square o! the load current thus generating reactive power when it is most needed.e almost close to unity power !actor. &t reduces &2/ power losses in the system because o! the reduction in current 5. it improves voltage regulation i! the capacitor units are properly switched as discussed above (.!4 S2+/2: C797&/*. &t decreases the %V0 loading on the source generators and circuits to relieve an overhead condition or to release capacity !or additional load growth. &t increases the voltages at the load bus *. 'eries compensation 21 .+: .losses.

0 series-connected capacitor can add a voltage in opposition to the transmission line voltage drop thereby reducing the series line impedance. *. 2. 22 . Iespite the above setbac%# the listed advantages o! series capacitor below are o! notable consideration# they include 1. 'eries compensation increases the stability margin meaning that the angular separation o! the bus voltages across the compensated line will be less. There are certain un!avourable aspects o! series capacitors which# among others# include the cost o! installationC this is !ar much greater than the installation o! shunt capacitors because the protective equipment !or series capacitors is o!ten more complicated. 'eries capacitor compensation helps to increase transmission capabilityC this helps the transmission line to be loaded close to its thermal limit. &t reduces the line voltage drop# though the line voltage drop is reduced during high load periods# the voltage drop is reduced during high load periods# the voltage at the receiving end will increase during light load periods.aims to directly control the overall series line impedance o! the transmission line.

) 2* . . 'hunt reactors are installed to o!!set the capacitive e!!ect o! transmission lines and there!ore improve the voltage pro!ile o! the lines. &t has e!!ect on the load !low in parallel lines thus as the impedance o! the series compensated line is reduced# the loading o! parallel lines is also reduced.!? S5.)* 7).!?. &n this way# the voltage di!!erence between the ends o! the line is reduced both in amplitude and in phase angle.)* R27&*.+: 'hunt reactors are the most compact and cost e!!icient way to compensate !or reactive power generation in long high voltage power transmission lines.S2+/2: C.22) S5. 'hunt reactors are o!ten installed in the power system at the end o! a transmission line. They can be permanently used in service to stabili1e power transmission or switched under light load condition !or voltage control.692):7*/. 'hunt reactors contain the same components as power trans!ormers li%e windings# core# tan%# bushings and insulating oilCthe main di!!erence is the reactor core limbs which have non-magnetic gaps inserted between pac%ets o! core steel. 'hunt reactors can also be connected to the power system at the )uncture where several lines meet or can be connected to the tertiary winding o! the trans!ormer. .! D/442+2)&2: 02*.(. To stabili1e the line voltage# the line capacitance can be compensated by means o! shunt reactors.

er!ormance is dependent on terminal The per!ormance does not depend on voltage# hence not e!!ective in the system voltage variations but on 2( . inductive reactance o! the !eeder. .2 below shows the ma)or di!!erences between the shunt and series compensation. Table 2. constant as the supply terminal voltage and its reactance are constant 2 The voltage across the shunt capacitor is The voltage across the series substantially constant as it is equal to the capacitor changes instantaneously as system voltage.1 S>N 1 SHUNT COMPENSATION SERIES COMPENSATION The shunt unit is connected in parallel The series unit is connected in series across !ull line voltage# hence the current in the circuit and there!ore conducts through the shunt capacitor is nearly !ull current. * it depends on the load current through it. The shunt capacitor supplies lagging The series capacitor reduces the line reactive power to the system# hence reactance as it introduces leading directly compensating the lagging JV0r reactance in series o! the line hence load and improving the load power compensating !or the drop through ( !actor substantially. The si1e and capacity o! shunt capacitor The si1e and capacity o! a series are generally higher !or the same voltage capacitor are relatively lesser !or the 5 regulation. same voltage regulation.Table *.

). 'ynchronous condenser is started and connected to the electrical networ% as required to support a system>s voltage or to maintain the system power !actor at speci!ied level. &t is the property o! such motor that it ta%es lagging %V0 when the !ield current is below a certain value and a leading %V0 when the !ield current is above this value. 25 . &t is noted that the condenser>s installation and operation are identical to large electric motors.)-2):2+ 0 synchronous condenser is a synchronous motor operating at no load.!6 S<)&5+. &t has all o! the response# speed and controllability advantages o! generators without the need to construct the rest o! the power special protection scheme. 'ynchronous condensers are usually connected in transmission system at the receiving end o! a long transmission line.. .!luctuating voltage condition system load current hence gives !ull output under low voltage and heavily 6 loaded condition The shunt capacitor does not need to be The series capacitor should always be on the source side but closer to the load on the source o! the load 8 point The shunt compensation does not require The voltage across series capacitor special protection scheme as the terminal abnormally rises due to !low o! !ault voltage o! the capacitor ban% !alls under current through it# hence requires !ault condition.: C.

plant# e. They contribute to the power system short L circuit capability 2. They also consume real power equal to about *K o! the machine>s reactive power rating. 'ynchronous condenser is not a!!ected by the power system electrical harmonicsC some harmonics can even be absorbed by condensers. 26 . The initial and operating cost o! the synchronous condenser are usually high henceC it>s not competitive with other compensating devices. Iuring power swings# there is an e change o! %inetic energy between the synchronous condenser and the power system. "owever# synchronous condensers have a couple o! advantages over other compensating devices# they include 1.g. The reactive power production is not a!!ected by the system voltage *. 5. !uel handling equipment and boilers. Iuring such swings# a synchronous condenser can supply a huge amount o! reactive power. But because they are rotating machines with moving parts and au iliary systems# they require signi!icantly more maintenance than static compensators. @nli%e other !orms o! compensation# synchronous condenser has an internal voltage source and is better able to cope with low system voltage condition. (.

) . 'ynchronous condensers do not produce e cessive voltage levels and are not susceptible to harmonics.ower-!low analysis which is commonly re!erred to as load-!low study is a study in power system which is o! paramount importance.&*/. The study reveals the electrical per!ormance and power !lows +real and reactive.6.-. !or 28 . CHAPTER FOUR POWER FLOW ANALYSIS 4.! I)*+.

The load-!low study also provides in!ormation about the line and trans!ormer loads as well as losses throughout the system and it gives the voltages at di!!erent points in the system !or evaluation and regulation. . Voltage magnitude 2.( C87::/4/&7*/.4 S<:*26 B. :our quantities are associated with each bus# these are 1.speci!ied conditions when the system is operating under steady state. /eactive power 4. 2= MVM +N. /eal power (.) . &t can there!ore be summari1ed that the power-!low study is necessary !or planning# operation# economic scheduling# e change o! power between utilities# transient stability and contingency studies hence this study is re!erred to as the bac%bone o! power system analysis and design. +O. &t is also noted that in solving power-!low problem# the system is assumed to be operating under balanced conditions. &t also gives complete in!ormation !or !uture e pansion to meet new load demands. . 0 bus is a node at which one or many lines# one or many loads and generators are connected. +..hase angle *.ower-!low problem consists o! determining the magnitudes and phase angle o! voltages at each bus and the active and reactive power !lows in each line. . &t is not necessary that all o! them are been connected at every bus.:2:.

:G This bus is ta%en as the re!erence bus where the magnitude and phase angle o! the voltage are speci!ied. and the voltage magnitude +V. 2.B./)= B.:2:: These buses are also %nown as . *.The buses are generally classi!ied into three as !ollowsG 1. S87&@>S.)*+.-O bus because on this bus the active power +. '41 '4* '91 '92 9 9 9 1 '9* * 2? '42 . and the reactive power +O.8*7=2 C. 4oad !low calculations can be made by using bus admittance matri or bus impedance matri C however it is simpler to use the bus admittance matri in this study since it can be generated by inspection. L.1# '9i denotes the *-phase comple !lowing into the i th bus and ' 9(generator 9( '4i denotes the *-phase comple load power !lowing out o! the ith bus. Bonsidering a simple bus system shown below in !igure '4( (.. BUS ADMITTANCE MATRIA. This bus ma%es up the di!!erence between the scheduled loads and the generated power that arises as a result o! losses in the networ%. #. 0 power system consists o! a large number o! buses interconnected through transmission lines.:2:: These buses are also called the . are speci!ied while the voltage magnitude and phase angle are un%nown.V bus# 9enerator bus or /egulated bus. are speci!ied while the phase angle o! the voltage and the reactive power are to be determined. 4.0.882. <n this bus# the real power +.7..

:ig (.4i.1 Bonsidering the simple power system shown below# the impedances are converted to admittances since the nodal solution is based upon Jircho!!>s current law.i Q )Oi (.9i Q )O9i '4i P .9i L.line diagram for a typical * "us system. '9i P .1G )ne. R2( * y*( ( y2 3 y2 * &2 y1 &1 2 9 2 *3 y1 9 1 . Q )+O9i L O4i. P .4i Q )O4i The net *-phase comple power !lowing into the ith bus is thus 'i P '9i Q '4i P +.2 (.

V2 L y2*V* ˗ y2(V( 3 P L y*1V1L y*2V2Q+y*1Qy*2Qy*(.V( (. Q y1*+V1 ˗ V*. V* L y*(V( 3 P L y(2V2 L y(*V* Q +y(2Qy(*. Q y2(+V2 ˗ V(.(a 2ote that# R11 P y13 Q y12 Q y1* R22 P y23 Q y21 Q y2*Q y2( R** P y*1 Q y*2 Q y*( R(( P y(2 Q y(* R12 P R21 P -y12 *1 . &2 P y23V2 Q y21+V2 L V1. Q y2*+V2-V*. V1 L y12V2 L y1*V* &2 P L y21V1Q +y23Qy21Qy2*Qy2( . 3 P y*1+V* L V1. 3 P y(*+V( L V*. /e-arranging &1 P +y13 Q y12Qy1*. Q y(2+V( ˗ V2. Q y*2+V* ˗ V2.0pplying JB4 to the independent nodes# we haveC &1 P y13V1 Q y12+V1 L V2. Q y*(+V* ˗ V(.

. . &n R11 R21 R*1 . . . .R1* P R*1 P -y1* R2* P R*2 P -y2* R2( P R(2 P -y2( R*( P R(* P -y*( There!ore# the nodal equation reduces toG &1 P R11 V1 Q R12V2 Q R1*V* &2 P R21V1 Q R22V2 Q R2*V* Q R2(V( &* P 3 P R*1V1 Q R*2V2 Q R**V* Q R*(V( &( P 3 P R(2V2 Q R(*V* Q R((V( 7 tending the above equations to an n-bus system# the nodal equation in matri !orm givesG &1 &2 &* P . Rn2 R1* .. . Rnn V1 V2 V* . . . Vn (. . . . . . . R*n . . R1n R2* . Rii P i) !or ) S i *2 . ..(b There!ore# &bus P RbusVbus (. . . .. . . . Rn1 R12 R22 R*2 . . .. . R2n R** ..5 The Rbus is %nown as the bus admittance matri # the diagonal element o! each node is the sum o! admittances connected to the bus# this is %nown as sel!-admittance or driving point admittance. Rn* .

i Q )Oi &n equation (.5# when the bus currents are %nown# the n-bus voltages can be gotten !romC Vbus P R-1bus &bus 4.i Q )Oi ** .8 (.8 becomesG ' iT P ViT & i :rom equation (.? :rom equation (.4 L.8# !or easy computation# & iT is removed !rom its comple con)ugate !orm and le!t as &i. Ri) P R)i P -yi) :rom equation (..13 But 'i P .): &t is noted that at any bus i o! an n-bus power system# the comple power is usually given as 'i P Vi &iT But !rom equation (.6 (. There!ore equation (. EB.The o!! diagonal element is equal to the negative o! the admittance between the nodes# this is %nown as mutual or trans!er admittance.2# we have 'i P .F8.5# we have &i P i) (.= V) (.=# we have (.7*/.7.

1* 'ubstituting (.1* into (.16 *( .12# we have P P !or i S ) (.(aG !or ) S i (. ViT P MViM U-Ni V) P MV)M UN) (.13# gives G.15 To get a generalised equation in polar !orm# we can write Vi P MViMUNi G .i .12 7quation (.? can be replaced with lower case admittances as seen in equation (.1( P (.. G 'iT P .11 into (.11 (.)Oi 'ubstituting equation (. (.

S*.1= P . 9auss L 'eidel method 2. :or the solution o! these equations# iterative techniques are necessary. (.16 into (. (.MViM M MV)M 'in +N) L Ni Q Vi).1? 4.4 L.)-R795:. (. 2ewton L /aphson -ethod *.Ri) P MRi)M UVi) 'ubstituting equation (.*.18 'eparating the real and imaginary parts o! equation (.-: .18# we have P MViM M MV)M Bos +N) L Ni Q Vi). The three common iterative techniques# which !orm the methods o! load-!low study# are as given as 1.?( N2. :ast Iecoupled method 4.-< :rom the !oregoing study o! power !low# it is seen that sets o! non-linear equations are to be solved# these simultaneous non-linear equations cannot be solved by the usual methods.7--F8..15G P MViM M MV)M U +N) L Ni Q Vi).- *5 .) M2*5.? M2*5.

The computer memory requirement is large. The solution technique is very di!!icult ii. The number o! iterations required be!ore convergence is less compared to other methods iii. The disadvantages below are encountered in this methodG i. The number o! iterations is almost independent o! the si1e o! the system iv. The calculations in each o! the iteration are more involved and thus computer time per iteration is large. iii. .olar coordinates *6 . This method can be applied to load-!low problems in a number o! waysG i. &t is very insensitive to !actors li%e slac% bus selection# regulating trans!ormers# etc. &t is more accurate and has the sureness o! convergence ii. Iespite the disadvantages# the 2ewton /aphson method is still very much pre!erred. /ectangular Boordinates ii.This method is very suitable !or load-!low studies in large systemsC the listed advantages below ma%e the 2ewton /aphson method more practically !easible than any other method. i.

.1?.1= and (.e have two +2. 7 panding equations (.1? are usually used in this method. &n a shorter !orm the equations can be written as *8 . equation !or each voltage-controlled buses given by equation (.But since in power !low problems# real power and voltage magnitude are speci!ied !or the voltage-controlled buses# the power !low equation is usually !ormulated in the polar !orm.1= and (.1=.1?# and one +1. 7quations (.1? in Taylor>s series# results in the !ollowing set o! non linear equationsG P &n the above equation# bus one is assumed to be the slac% bus. These equations constitute a set o! non-linear algebraic equations in terms o! the voltage magnitude# phase angle and the independent variables. equations !or each load bus given by equations (. The elements o! the Aacobian matri are gotten !rom the partial derivatives o! equations (.1= and (.1= and (.

2* &t should be noted that the terms W. P .isch and Oisch are speci!ied# voltage magnitudes and phase angles are set equal to 1U3 i. 2.i+r. i. and W. and Oi+r.M P MVi+r.e the slac% bus angle. Then# the new estimates !or bus voltages are Ni+rQ1.i+r. are the di!!erences between the scheduled and calculated values# %nown as the power residualsC it is given by W.P (. are calculated !rom equations (. are calculated !rom equation (. (. :or load buses# where . P Ni+r. :or all load buses# .i+r. P Oisch L Oi+r.1?# and W.isch and MViM are speci!ied# the phase angles are set to 1ere+3.2(. MVi+rQ1.1= and (.i+r.M The procedure !or the power-!low solution by the 2ewton /aphson method is summari1ed as !ollowsG 1. WOi+r.e the slac% bus values# !or the voltage regulated buses where .2? respectively *. Q WNi+r.i+r. :or all voltage-controlled buses# . are calculated !rom equations (.isch L .1= and (.2( *= .i+r.25 (. Q WMVi+r. and WOi+r.i+r. and WOi+r.

(.25 6. are calculated and the linear 5..M X Y Y 4. are less than the speci!ied accuracy i.4 N/=2+/7D: S>N 0-@# :.i+r.: N762 B.M X MWOi+r.0-:*7*/. and WOi+r.87*/.): 7+2 7: 4.C T52 8/:* . 4. The new voltage magnitude and phase angles are computed !rom equation (.) .:: S>N B.i+r.4 *52 G/32) C7:2 The e!!ect o! voltage control using shunt compensation is analy1ed with a given case o! 2igeria>s **3-%V grid networ%.: N762 *? . The elements o! the Aacobian matri simultaneous equations are solved. 0!ter running the program# buses !ound to be having low voltage pro!ile are compensated and the e!!ect can be seen when the program is reran. The process is continued until the residuals W. -atlab program is used !or the mathematical iterative process o! this technique.88.e MW.6 S/6. The 2ewton /aphson method is used to carry out this analysis because o! its accuracy and surety o! convergence.

9 S5.6 S/6." M7*870 S&+/9* 7gbin Ielta 0)ah 0%angba &%e)a . 4./+262)* (3 .( A)78<:/: . 'hunt capacitor compensation has been analysed in chapter *.87*/.+ R2B.) The result o! the simulation is shown in 0ppendi B 4.1 2 * ( 5 6 8 = ? 13 11 12 1* 1( 4.)* C797&/*.4 *52 R2:.= and 1pu# hence compensation using shunt capacitors is carried out to ensure that the voltage pro!ile is improved.! R2:.8* :rom the result in 0ppendi B# it is seen that the voltages at buses 1= and 2= !all !ar below the required voltage pro!ile o! between 3.8* 4+.".".est 0)ao%uta 0lad)a Benin 0iyede <sogbo 0!am 0lao)i 2ew "aven <nitsha 15 16 18 1= 1? 23 21 22 2* 2( 25 26 28 2= <motosho Birnin-Jebbi 9eregun 9ombe Aebba Aos Jaduna Jain)i Jano 'hiroro 'apele Jatampe <%pai Rola The -atlab script !or the simulation is as shown in 0ppendi 0 1-6 4.

Bapacitor speci!ications are identi!ied by industrial standards.+ B.*= where WV PVoltage Bhange V P/ated Voltage H P /eactance o! the line O P %V0/ 'i1e o! the required 'hunt Bapacitor But since all parameters on the matlab script +0ppendi 0. are on -V0 scale# O will there!ore be on -var There!ore# !rom the result in 0ppendi B we have F. The !ollowing limits should not be e ceeded during continuous operationG • 113K pea% voltage • 123K rms voltage • 1*5K nameplate %V0r • 1=3K o! nominal rms current based on rated %V0r and rated voltage The calculation !or the required %V0/ capacity o! the shunt capacitor is as shownG (.They include the tolerances and operating ranges.: !": V P 1pu (1 .

8?22 WV P 3.8?12 WV P 3.V1 P 3.33?2 O P @n%nown G . :rom equation (.5?-var F.8?12pu G .*=# we have OP (.*?# we have (2 .*? OP O P 22.: (": V P 1pu V1 P 3. WV P V L V1 WV P 1 L 3.238=pu H P 3. :rom equation (.33?2 O P @n%nown G .8?22pu G . WV P V L V1 WV P 1 L 3.23==pu H P 3.+ B.

83-var at bus 2= but there is no capacitor ratings o! such values# the closest is 25-var# hence 25-var is added to the O9 o! each o! buses 1= and 2= as seen in the matlab script shown in 0ppendi 0.83-var :rom the calculations# it is seen that the capacity o! the shunt capacitor required is 22.+ The e!!ect o! the shunt capacitor can be seen in appendi B.5?-var at bus 1= and it is 22.OP OP O P 22. &t is observed that the buses with low voltage pro!ile +Buses 1= and 2=. (* . have been adequately compensated and the voltages pro!ile improved.!0 E442&* .4 S5. 4.! CONCLUSION The study o! reactive power control along a transmission line has been success!ully carried out# and it is observed that this control leads to e!!icient and e!!ective voltage stability. CHAPTER FI#E RECOMMENDATION AND CONCLUSION ?.)* C797&/*.

662)-7*/. at the generating status# additional devices either passive or active must be used introduced to be located very close to the receiving end o! the transmission line.( R2&.&t is noted that most generating stations are usually situated at a distance !ar away !rom the load centres# hence the need !or an e!!icient transmission system but since reactive power cannot be trans!erred over long distances as a result o! &2H loses# voltage control was e!!ected using special devices located on transmission lines with low voltage pro!ile.) /eactive power control has always been the ma)or concern o! every power engineerC hence !ollowing recommendations are in orderG 1. This study concentrated more on the use o! shunt capacitors !or transmission line compensation and !rom the analysis carried in this wor%# con!irmed that addition o! shunt capacitors to lines with low voltage pro!ile will lead to the stabili1ation o! the voltage and hence prevent voltage collapse. ?. &t is there!ore concluded that to ensure the desired voltage pro!ile at the receiving end o! a transmission line# apart !rom using the automatic voltage regulator +0V/. The compensating device used in this study was shunt capacitors which is classi!ied as a passive compensating device# it is there!ore recommend that !urther studies be carried out on the use o! active (( .

compensating devices such as :le ible 0B transmission system +:0BT'.c should be done with a so!tware such as . Jundur# F.. (5 .t. 2. devices which have gained a great interest among research engineers !or voltage regulation# power !low control and trans!er capability enhancement. "adi 'aadat# F. &t is also recommended that in addition to the use o! -atlab programming# the physical assembly o! grid components such as the buses# transmission lines# generating units# loads e.ower 'ystem 'tability and BontrolE# -c9raw-"ill# 2ew Ror%# 1??(. . 2. REFERENCES 1.owerworld to enable comparison to be made between results !rom both angles so as to come up with a !irm conclusion.ower 'ystem 0nalysisE# -c9raw-"ill &nc# &nternational 7ditions# 1???.

4imited .ower and Voltage /egulation in .B.ublications# 2ew Ielhi# 233=.4.*. A.ower 'ystemsE# Jluwer 0cademic . .ower 'ystem <peration Borporation 4td# 2312. 8. B. 12. Bansilal# FVoltage 'tability &mprovement Base 'tudy o! &ndian . @dupa# 0. 'hvartsberg# F:undamentals o! /eactive .J.ublishers# 1??=. 11. Jhincha# 2. Van Butsem# B.ower 'ystemsE# '. 9upta# F.ower Transmission and IistributionE 07B<.ower 2etwor%E# 7lectric . B. (. Bhand and Bompany 4td# /am 2agar# 2ew Ielhi# 1??=.J. 24IB# F/eactive . 07B<-# F7lectric . Thera)a# F0 Te tboo% o! 7lectrical TechnologyE# '.ower -anagement L 0 /esource "andboo%E# . Thera)a# 0.. Jatarya and 'ons .ower 'ystem 7ngineeringE# Tata -c9raw "ill publications# 2ew Ielhi# 233=.ower /esearch# 1??=. .ower 'ystem 0nalysis and IesignE# '. B.arthasarathy# ". I.. 13.. Thu%aram# J.ublishers# 2338. A. 5.4td# 2338 6. 9upta# F0 Bourse in . Jothari# F. T.ower 'ystemsE# Bontinuing 7ducation and Ievelopment &nc# 2311. B. =. Vournas# FVoltage 'tability o! 7lectric . Bhand and Bompany 4td# 1??6.. ?. 2agarath# I./.4.adhwa# F"igh Voltage 7ngineeringE# 2ew 0ge &nternational +p. (6 .

Bi%dash# &.I. 18. Ii on# 4.*. Jateeb# 0.ower Iistribution 'ystem 7ngineeringE# -c 9raw L "ill# 1?=6. T.ower -anagement and Voltage Bontrol o! 4arge Transmission 'ystem @sing 'VBE# &777 Transaction on .-. Zhang# O.ower 'ystem# . %el%ar# F/eactive . Bhopade# -.roclaw# . . 16. Iing# FThe Ievelopment o! :acts and its BontrolE# 0dvances in .. Iom%e# F/eactive .:. 9onen# F7lectric . Bla)s1c1a%# -.ower 'ystems# 2311. "assan# Fapplication o! Voltage Bontrol 0rea to Ietermine /eactive . 'aucer# F/eactive .aper &777 Transaction on power electronics 12. Tara Jalyani# 9. V.ower Techniques# 'tate-o!-the-0rt /eviewE &nvited . 1(.. .ower 'ystem# 2335. Tomer# F-odelling# 'imulation# 0nalysis and <ptimi1ation o! a power 'ystem 2etwor% L Base 'tudyE# &nternational Aournal o! 'cienti!ic and 7ngineering /esearch# Vol *# &ssue 6# Aune 2312.ower /equirementsE# -odern 7lectric .ower 'ystemsE# 0pplied mathematics :or . /. .. 1?. '.ower :low Bontrol with @. 23.1*. 15. 4is# 9. A. 1=. /aveendran# '.oland# 2313.ower and Voltage Bontrol &ssues in 7lectric .-oran# A-/odrigue1# /. 1??8.ower 'ystem Bontrol# <peration and -anagementE# :ourth &nternational Bon!erence# Vol 1# 2ov. Tulasiram Ias# F'imulation o! /eal and /eactive .:B Bonnected to a Transmission 4ineE# Aournal o! Theoretical and 0pplied &n!ormation Technology# 233=.. (8 . B..

72I&H 0 B7:</7 B<-. M -var -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------.--2ewton /aphson 4oad!low 0nalysis -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------.0.--M Bus M V M 0ngle M &n)ection M 9eneration M M 4oad -.72'0T&<2 -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------.--- (= . M -Var M -. M M -Var M M 2o M pu M Iegree M -..

223 3.(21 -283.?33 -2(.5*( -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------.?(3 -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------.333 -3.553 -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------.--1( 1.3333 -5.313 2(.285 258.165 1?=.--13 1.3333 61=.(*3 3.333 -3.??33 -3.(*5 65.--2 1.--15 1.=6=? -151.--* 3.2(3 -(3.333 3.333 -3.--= 1.333 61.333 -*8.--16 1.((3 16.333 (8.*(3 *5.333 5=.666( -??.113 -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------.3333 3.233 -22.--12 1.123 -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------.(?68 ?5.123 -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------.283 -5(.333 -61.333 62.1== 26.283 5(.--1* 1.??33 -1.333 3.3=3 -12*.=83 1*.??3 -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------.31(1 -12.--8 1.333 13(.883 -156.223 ?=.66=1 -(8.*221 *=.333 -3.2*3 ?1.3*6 131.523 -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------.*83 13*.35(* -13.812 -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------.565 22(.2*3 -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------.--6 3.(563 -(?.3*33 -6.31(5 -2.68?= -13(.--5 1.8=3 3.3**5 -6.--18 3.31=6 -*.--? 1.333 3.??33 -2.*=3 -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------.3*=3 -(.333 -3.333 3.333 ?3.??61 -3.388 1=.283 -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------.223 -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------.286* -=3.233 22.533 -*6.(*3 -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------.8?1 -166.*=3 3.333 8(.283 3.38?? -21.1== -26.315 12=.1=3 -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------.(551 -85.((3 *1?.123 -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------.333 3.266 1(3.123 -3.555 (2.--1= 0.--( 3.333 3.85(3 28.C9(( -5*.?*?? -65.=6=3 5=.33?3 -6.*(5= -61.3(=6 -5.333 (?.1=3 3.333 85.?(3 -3.513 *8.313 -2(.(*3 ?*8.513 -*8.=?3 -1*3.((3 -16.823 -1*(.333 -3.(23 -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------.?23 =6.2(3 (3.333 151.333 65.265= -22.333 ?8.(23 3.553( -62.=83 -1*.--11 3.??66 -(.333 =3.113 6?.?2* (3.8=3 (? .1 1.333 -65.123 -3.2?3 2?.*(3 -*5.?33 2(.333 ??.5=6= -8(.886 62.333 -?8.523 3.?8** -?3.2?3 -2?.5*( -3.36( ?3.

61* 16=.623 3.565 (3*.333 -(?.8?8 2=3(.C9!( -5(.333 -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------.333 (5.72'0T&<2 -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------.223 -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------.333 =8.--26 1.333 56.253 -16.333 -26.--25 1.-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------.*51 262(.138 ??(.13=? -*2.(=( 5*.213 8=.2(3 1(.--2ewton /aphson 4oad!low 0nalysis -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------.=286 -(8.?63 -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------.*53 3.563 3.?(3 -2118.=1*6 -(*.==35 5?.3233 -18.333 (5.--1? 1.--22 1.556* 2=3.333 -3.5?22 2(8.--2* 3.253 16.325 122.3(?2 -56.8?6 6*.--2= 0.333 (*.323 23.883 -*1.8=58 -(*.566 6*. M -var -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------.--1 1.861 -2?2.((6 -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------.333 3.118 *1?.1*3 -2=.72I&H B 0:T7/ B<-.2(3 -1(.--21 3.333 3.(*3 -1(5.--23 3.??3 53 .??3 -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------.3233 -6.5(3 -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------.333 -3.=531 -(5. M M -Var M M 2o M pu M Iegree M -.(=85 -3.883 *1.--28 1.2*3 -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------.62* 13=.32=* -(2.333 (2.333 -3.*51 1*5=.--2( 1..3333 68(.--Total 18?.(*3 6?.55= 18?.3*33 -1?.55= (26.22?3 -(5.--- 0.?=3 12.?63 -3.563 -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------.323 -23.813 -1*8.2?1 -85?.333 -86.1=*? -2=.333 -118.26( =1.*53 -3.623 -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------.1*1 -1==.323 -2=1.3533 -26.*83 13*.2?3 =8.--M Bus M V M 0ngle M &n)ection M 9eneration M M 4oad -.3333 3.333 -*3.*53 -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------.333 -26?.=1=( -*=.1*3 2=.213 -13(.3533 -2. M -Var M -.*53 -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------.

(*3 -3.=83 1*.632 1(3.?816 -(?.--* 3.333 (8.??33 -2.1186 -22.=?3 -1*1.--6 3.523 -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------.123 -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------.333 -?8.2(3 (3.333 8(.--15 1.1=3 -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------.36*2 -12.333 52.--- 51 .-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------.333 -3.233 22.333 -3.33=8 -8."9C -6(.1== -26.--12 1.513 -*8.388 11.?(3 -3.26*8 -(8.*1?* -65.1363 -61.((2 (2.6=31 28.313 -2(.283 3.333 65.565 22(.(23 -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------.--13 1.333 3.5=6= -8(.113 6?.223 -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------.68= 65.??33 -*.35(1 *=.*226 -62.*82 131.123 -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------.5*( -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------.823 -=(.?23 =6.1== 26.*(3 *5.333 ?3.812 -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------.?33 2(.?2* (3.333 -62.??33 -1.523 3.8=3 -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------.--11 3.333 -68.333 (?.--1* 1.--16 1.333 151.333 =3.123 -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------.333 3.?=?? -13(.333 ?8.*=3 3.--? 1.((3 16.333 3.333 -3.*25 ?3.--1= 0.--5 1.283 5(.2(3 -(3.--18 3.6638 5=.2?3 -2?.283 -5(.??61 -3.3(?1 -6.333 62.(23 -3.*=3 -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------.1?*6 -85.113 -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------.332 -3.3*86 -8.2*3 ?1.333 13(.333 -*8.32*( -1(.3=3 -12*.123 3.3333 -6.--1( 1.123 3.333 85.3*=6 -5.(*3 -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------.88* 1?=.38?? -2(.((3 -16.333 ??.?(3 -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------.3213 -*.315 12=.2=33 -151.553 -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------.--= 1.--( 3.333 61.223 3.333 25.3(?8 -=3.=83 -1*.?32 -2(.2*3 -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------.3*8 62.233 -22.513 *8.223 ?=.?8** -??.--2 1.283 -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------.8=3 3.1=3 -3.31(? -*.533 1*.2?3 2?.333 3.883 -15=.--8 1.3(33 -8.333 -3.==* 258.(22? ?5.333 3.313 2(.333 3.*(3 -13.???1 -(.5*( 3.?3?* -?3.

?63 -3.333 -*38.333 -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------.333 3.323 -*1?.3*33 -22.563 -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------.2=5 6*.*53 -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------.883 *1.813 -?5.--21 3.--25 1.515 6*.2(3 13.3233 -8.13=? -*=.3533 -*2.=12( -(=.323 23.2?3 =8.1?(( -3.=83* -58.6??5 -2=.28= -238?.=36* -5*.333 56.6*8= 2=3.3**6 -56.333 -*6.5(3 -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------.563 3.*51 1*5=.3233 -21.*136 -(5.5?6( -(2.333 =8.*(33 2(8.253 -16.*2? 122.323 -23.333 (2.((6 -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------.??3 -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------.62? -821.333 3.26( =1.--Total 2*6.623 3.1*3 2=.((( 262(.223 -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------.1(* (26.*53 -3.333 (*.--- 52 .333 -5(.2*3 -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------.--2= 0.333 -8.333 3.*53 -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------.253 16.=6? (3*.333 -86.?=3 12.--22 1."994 -6(.--26 1.883 -*1.(=( 5*.(628 -(*.*?63 5?.213 8=.333 (5.333 3.?63 -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------.333 25.623 -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------.(*3 6?.(*3 -1(5.--23 3.1(* 18?.--2* 3.--2( 1.1? 1.5136 -(5.=53 16=.1*3 -2=.333 -12*.333 (5.2(3 1(.653 3.=?3 2=63.3533 -*.=63 13=.--28 1.213 -1*2.