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Rectangular beam design : singly and doubly reinforced beam by WSD

What is a Beam?  A Beam is any structural member which resists load mainly by bending.e. Beam may be singly reinforced or doubly reinforced. Therefore it is also called flexural member. When steel is provided only in tensile zone (i. but when steel is provided in tension zone as well as compression zone is called doubly reinforced beam. . below neutral axis) is called singly reinforced beam.

Necessity of reinforcement in beam: Concrete is good in compression and bad in tension. Tensile strength of concrete is about 1/10 of f’c. longitudinal reinforcement is placed closed to the bottom side of the beam .

Behaviour of a beam under loads .

RCC design methods: RCC design method USD method WSD method .


Assumptions: 1) Section remains plane 2) Stress proportioned to Strain 3) Concrete not take tension 4) No concrete-steel slip . assuming a straight line stress distribution along the depth of the concrete.Working stress design method (WSD)  This design concept is based on elastic theory. So. in practically. Concrete response elastically upto compressive strength not exceeding about ½ of its strength. while steel remains elastic practically upto yield strength.0005 and the steel is elastic near to it’s yield point or strain of 0.45× f’c . allowable stresses are set at about ½ the concrete compressive strength and ½ the yield stress of steel.  The concrete remain elastic at ½×f’c which range to strain of about 0.002.  According to ACI code the value is equal to 0.

Both of the material’s stress is proportional to strain Fig: Concrete stress-strain curve Fig: Steel stress-strain curve .

Design Conditions: 1) Stress elastic and sections uncracked: Tensile strength of concrete fct <Modulus of rupture fr Compressive stress of concrete fc << ½ f’c Tensile stress in steel fs < fy yield strength of steel 2) Stress elastic and section cracked: Tensile strength of concrete fct > Modulus of rupture fr Compressive stress of concrete fc < ½ f’c Tensile stress in steel fs < fy yield strength of steel .

Singly reinforced beam : .


Strain compatibility: .


.Doubly reinforced beam : If concrete section cannot develop the required compressive force to resist the maximum bending moment then additional reinforcement is added in the compression.

Resisting Moment: .

Strain compatibility : ACI recommended that f’s be equal to twice this value .

. • Experienced engineers are used to this method. • This method is included in AISC-05 specifications as an alternate method. • In past it was the only method for design purposes.Advantages of Using WSD method Following are some advantages of Allowable stress design method • Elastic analysis for loads become compatible for design. • Old famous books are according to this method.

• Results cannot be compared with experimental tests up to collapse. the material stresses increase but do not go to collapse.Disadvantages of Using WSD method • Latest research and literature is very limited. • With some overloading. • Failure mode is not directly predicted. • The warning before failure cannot be studied precisely. • The failure mode can not be observed. . • Same factor of safety is used for different loads.