~440 BC THE HISTORY OF HERODOTUS by Herodotus translated by George Rawlinson The First Book, Entitled CL !

THE"E are the resear#hes o$ Herodotus o$ Hali#arnassus, whi#h he %ublishes, in the ho%e o$ thereby %reser&ing $ro' de#ay the re'e'bran#e o$ what 'en ha&e done, and o$ %re&enting the great and wonder$ul a#tions o$ the Greeks and the Barbarians $ro' losing their due 'eed o$ glory( and withal to %ut on re#ord what were their grounds o$ $euds) *##ording to the +ersians best in$or'ed in history, the +hoeni#ians began to ,uarrel) This %eo%le, who had $or'erly dwelt on the shores o$ the Erythraean "ea, ha&ing 'igrated to the -editerranean and settled in the %arts whi#h they now inhabit, began at on#e, they say, to ad&enture on long &oyages, $reighting their &essels with the wares o$ Egy%t and *ssyria) They landed at 'any %la#es on the #oast, and a'ong the rest at *rgos, whi#h was then %ree'inent abo&e all the states in#luded now under the #o''on na'e o$ Hellas) Here they e.%osed their 'er#handise, and traded with the nati&es $or $i&e or si. days( at the end o$ whi#h ti'e, when al'ost e&erything was sold, there #a'e down to the bea#h a nu'ber o$ wo'en, and a'ong the' the daughter o$ the king, who was, they say, agreeing in this with the Greeks, o, the #hild o$ na#hus) The wo'en were standing by the stern o$ the shi% intent u%on their %ur#hases, when the +hoeni#ians, with a general shout, rushed u%on the') The greater %art 'ade their es#a%e, but so'e were sei/ed and #arried o$$) o hersel$ was a'ong the #a%ti&es) The +hoeni#ians %ut the wo'en on board their &essel, and set sail $or Egy%t) Thus did o %ass into Egy%t, a##ording to the +ersian story, whi#h di$$ers widely $ro' the +hoeni#ian0 and thus #o''en#ed, a##ording to their authors, the series o$ outrages) *t a later %eriod, #ertain Greeks, with whose na'e they are una#,uainted, but who would %robably be Cretans, 'ade a landing at Tyre, on the +hoeni#ian #oast, and bore o$$ the king1s daughter, Euro%e) n this they only retaliated( but a$terwards the Greeks, they say, were guilty o$ a se#ond &iolen#e) They 'anned a shi% o$ war, and sailed to *ea, a #ity o$ Col#his, on the ri&er +hasis( $ro' when#e, a$ter des%at#hing the rest o$ the business on whi#h they had #o'e, they #arried o$$ -edea, the daughter o$ the king o$ the land) The 'onar#h sent a herald into Gree#e to de'and re%aration o$ the wrong, and the restitution o$ his #hild( but the Greeks 'ade answer that, ha&ing re#ei&ed no re%aration o$ the wrong done the' in the sei/ure o$ o the *rgi&e, they should gi&e none in this instan#e) n the ne.t generation a$terwards, a##ording to the sa'e

authorities, *le.ander the son o$ +ria', bearing these e&ents in 'ind, resol&ed to %ro#ure hi'sel$ a wi$e out o$ Gree#e by &iolen#e, $ully %ersuaded, that as the Greeks had not gi&en satis$a#tion $or their outrages, so neither would he be $or#ed to 'ake any $or his) *##ordingly he 'ade %ri/e o$ Helen( u%on whi#h the Greeks de#ided that, be$ore resorting to other 'easures, they would send en&oys to re#lai' the %rin#ess and re,uire re%aration o$ the wrong) Their de'ands were 'et by a re$eren#e to the &iolen#e whi#h had been o$$ered to -edea, and they were asked with what $a#e they #ould now re,uire satis$a#tion, when they had $or'erly re2e#ted all de'ands $or either re%aration or restitution addressed to the') Hitherto the in2uries on either side had been 'ere a#ts o$ #o''on &iolen#e( but in what $ollowed the +ersians #onsider that the Greeks were greatly to bla'e, sin#e be$ore any atta#k had been 'ade on Euro%e, they led an ar'y into *sia) 3ow as $or the #arrying o$$ o$ wo'en, it is the deed, they say, o$ a rogue0 but to 'ake a stir about su#h as are #arried o$$, argues a 'an a $ool) -en o$ sense #are nothing $or su#h wo'en, sin#e it is %lain that without their own #onsent they would ne&er be $or#ed away) The *siati#s, when the Greeks ran o$$ with their wo'en, ne&er troubled the'sel&es about the 'atter( but the Greeks, $or the sake o$ a single La#edae'onian girl, #olle#ted a &ast ar'a'ent, in&aded *sia, and destroyed the kingdo' o$ +ria') Hen#e$orth they e&er looked u%on the Greeks as their o%en ene'ies) For *sia, with all the &arious tribes o$ barbarians that inhabit it, is regarded by the +ersians as their own( but Euro%e and the Greek ra#e they look on as distin#t and se%arate) "u#h is the a##ount whi#h the +ersians gi&e o$ these 'atters) They tra#e to the atta#k u%on Troy their an#ient en'ity towards the Greeks) The +hoeni#ians, howe&er, as regards o, &ary $ro' the +ersian state'ents) They deny that they used any &iolen#e to re'o&e her into Egy%t( she hersel$, they say, ha&ing $or'ed an inti'a#y with the #a%tain, while his &essel lay at *rgos, and %er#ei&ing hersel$ to be with #hild, o$ her own $ree will a##o'%anied the +hoeni#ians on their lea&ing the shore, to es#a%e the sha'e o$ dete#tion and the re%roa#hes o$ her %arents) 4hether this latter a##ount be true, or whether the 'atter ha%%ened otherwise, shall not dis#uss $urther) shall %ro#eed at on#e to %oint out the %erson who $irst within 'y own knowledge in$li#ted in2ury on the Greeks, a$ter whi#h shall go $orward with 'y history, des#ribing e,ually the greater and the lesser #ities) For the #ities whi#h were $or'erly great ha&e 'ost o$ the' be#o'e insigni$i#ant( and su#h as are at %resent %ower$ul, were weak in the olden ti'e) shall there$ore dis#ourse e,ually o$ both, #on&in#ed that hu'an ha%%iness ne&er #ontinues long in one stay) Croesus, son o$ *lyattes, by birth a Lydian, was lord o$ all the nations to the west o$ the ri&er Halys) This strea', whi#h se%arates "yria $ro' +a%hlagonia, runs with a #ourse $ro' south to north, and

$inally $alls into the Eu.ine) "o $ar as our knowledge goes, he was the $irst o$ the barbarians who had dealings with the Greeks, $or#ing so'e o$ the' to be#o'e his tributaries, and entering into allian#e with others) He #on,uered the *eolians, onians, and 5orians o$ *sia, and 'ade a treaty with the La#edae'onians) 6% to that ti'e all Greeks had been $ree) For the Ci''erian atta#k u%on onia, whi#h was earlier than Croesus, was not a #on,uest o$ the #ities, but only an inroad $or %lundering) The so&ereignty o$ Lydia, whi#h had belonged to the Hera#lides, %assed into the $a'ily o$ Croesus, who were #alled the -er'nadae, in the 'anner whi#h will now relate) There was a #ertain king o$ "ardis, Candaules by na'e, who' the Greeks #alled -yrsilus) He was a des#endant o$ *l#aeus, son o$ Her#ules) The $irst king o$ this dynasty was *gron, son o$ 3inus, grandson o$ Belus, and great7grandson o$ *l#aeus( Candaules, son o$ -yrsus, was the last) The kings who reigned be$ore *gron s%rang $ro' Lydus, son o$ *tys, $ro' who' the %eo%le o$ the land, #alled %re&iously -eonians, re#ei&ed the na'e o$ Lydians) The Hera#lides, des#ended $ro' Her#ules and the sla&e7girl o$ 8ardanus, ha&ing been entrusted by these %rin#es with the 'anage'ent o$ a$$airs, obtained the kingdo' by an ora#le) Their rule endured $or two and twenty generations o$ 'en, a s%a#e o$ $i&e hundred and $i&e years( during the whole o$ whi#h %eriod, $ro' *gron to Candaules, the #rown des#ended in the dire#t line $ro' $ather to son) 3ow it ha%%ened that this Candaules was in lo&e with his own wi$e( and not only so, but thought her the $airest wo'an in the whole world) This $an#y had strange #onse,uen#es) There was in his bodyguard a 'an who' he s%e#ially $a&oured, Gyges, the son o$ 5as#ylus) *ll a$$airs o$ greatest 'o'ent were entrusted by Candaules to this %erson, and to hi' he was wont to e.tol the sur%assing beauty o$ his wi$e) "o 'atters went on $or a while) *t length, one day, Candaules, who was $ated to end ill, thus addressed his $ollower0 9 see thou dost not #redit what tell thee o$ 'y lady1s lo&eliness( but #o'e now, sin#e 'en1s ears are less #redulous than their eyes, #ontri&e so'e 'eans whereby thou 'ayst behold her naked)9 *t this the other loudly e.#lai'ed, saying, 94hat 'ost unwise s%ee#h is this, 'aster, whi#h thou hast uttered: 4ouldst thou ha&e 'e behold 'y 'istress when she is naked: Bethink thee that a wo'an, with her #lothes, %uts o$$ her bash$ulness) !ur $athers, in ti'e %ast, distinguished right and wrong %lainly enough, and it is our wisdo' to sub'it to be taught by the') There is an old saying, 1Let ea#h look on his own)1 hold thy wi$e $or the $airest o$ all wo'ankind) !nly, besee#h thee, ask 'e not to do wi#kedly)9 Gyges thus endea&oured to de#line the king1s %ro%osal, tre'bling lest so'e dread$ul e&il should be$all hi' through it) But the king re%lied to hi', 9Courage, $riend( sus%e#t 'e not o$ the design to %ro&e thee by this dis#ourse( nor dread thy 'istress, lest 'is#hie$

be) thee at her hands) Be sure will so 'anage that she shall not e&en know that thou hast looked u%on her) will %la#e thee behind the o%en door o$ the #ha'ber in whi#h we slee%) 4hen enter to go to rest she will $ollow 'e) There stands a #hair #lose to the entran#e, on whi#h she will lay her #lothes one by one as she takes the' o$$) Thou wilt be able thus at thy leisure to %eruse her %erson) Then, when she is 'o&ing $ro' the #hair toward the bed, and her ba#k is turned on thee, be it thy #are that she see thee not as thou %assest through the doorway)9 Gyges, unable to es#a%e, #ould but de#lare his readiness) Then Candaules, when bedti'e #a'e, led Gyges into his slee%ing7#ha'ber, and a 'o'ent a$ter the ,ueen $ollowed) "he entered, and laid her gar'ents on the #hair, and Gyges ga/ed on her) *$ter a while she 'o&ed toward the bed, and her ba#k being then turned, he glided stealthily $ro' the a%art'ent) *s he was %assing out, howe&er, she saw hi', and instantly di&ining what had ha%%ened, she neither s#rea'ed as her sha'e i'%elled her, nor e&en a%%eared to ha&e noti#ed aught, %ur%osing to take &engean#e u%on the husband who had so a$$ronted her) For a'ong the Lydians, and indeed a'ong the barbarians generally, it is re#koned a dee% disgra#e, e&en to a 'an, to be seen naked) 3o sound or sign o$ intelligen#e es#a%ed her at the ti'e) But in the 'orning, as soon as day broke, she hastened to #hoose $ro' a'ong her retinue su#h as she knew to be 'ost $aith$ul to her, and %re%aring the' $or what was to ensue, su''oned Gyges into her %resen#e) 3ow it had o$ten ha%%ened be$ore that the ,ueen had desired to #on$er with hi', and he was a##usto'ed to #o'e to her at her #all) He there$ore obeyed the su''ons, not sus%e#ting that she knew aught o$ what had o##urred) Then she addressed these words to hi'0 9Take thy #hoi#e, Gyges, o$ two #ourses whi#h are o%en to thee) "lay Candaules, and thereby be#o'e 'y lord, and obtain the Lydian throne, or die this 'o'ent in his roo') "o wilt thou not again, obeying all behests o$ thy 'aster, behold what is not law$ul $or thee) t 'ust needs be that either he %erish by whose #ounsel this thing was done, or thou, who sawest 'e naked, and so didst break our usages)9 *t these words Gyges stood awhile in 'ute astonish'ent( re#o&ering a$ter a ti'e, he earnestly besought the ,ueen that she would not #o'%el hi' to so hard a #hoi#e) But $inding he i'%lored in &ain, and that ne#essity was indeed laid on hi' to kill or to be killed, he 'ade #hoi#e o$ li$e $or hi'sel$, and re%lied by this in,uiry0 9 $ it 'ust be so, and thou #o'%ellest 'e against 'y will to %ut 'y lord to death, #o'e, let 'e hear how thou wilt ha&e 'e set on hi')9 9Let hi' be atta#ked,9 she answered, 9on the s%ot where was by hi' shown naked to you, and let the assault be 'ade when he is aslee%)9 *ll was then %re%ared $or the atta#k, and when night $ell, Gyges, seeing that he had no retreat or es#a%e, but 'ust absolutely either slay Candaules, or hi'sel$ be slain, $ollowed his 'istress into

the slee%ing7roo') "he %la#ed a dagger in his hand and hid hi' #are$ully behind the sel$7sa'e door) Then Gyges, when the king was $allen aslee%, entered %ri&ily into the #ha'ber and stru#k hi' dead) Thus did the wi$e and kingdo' o$ Candaules %ass into the %ossession o$ Gyges, o$ who' *r#hilo#hus the +arian, who li&ed about the sa'e ti'e, 'ade 'ention in a %oe' written in ia'bi# tri'eter &erse) Gyges was a$terwards #on$ir'ed in the %ossession o$ the throne by an answer o$ the 5el%hi# ora#le) Enraged at the 'urder o$ their king, the %eo%le $lew to ar's, but a$ter a while the %artisans o$ Gyges #a'e to ter's with the', and it was agreed that i$ the 5el%hi# ora#le de#lared hi' king o$ the Lydians, he should reign( i$ otherwise, he should yield the throne to the Hera#lides) *s the ora#le was gi&en in his $a&our he be#a'e king) The +ythoness, howe&er, added that, in the $i$th generation $ro' Gyges, &engean#e should #o'e $or the Hera#lides( a %ro%he#y o$ whi#h neither the Lydians nor their %rin#es took any a##ount till it was $ul$illed) "u#h was the way in whi#h the -er'nadae de%osed the Hera#lides, and the'sel&es obtained the so&ereignty) 4hen Gyges was established on the throne, he sent no s'all %resents to 5el%hi, as his 'any sil&er o$$erings at the 5el%hi# shrine testi$y) Besides this sil&er he ga&e a &ast nu'ber o$ &essels o$ gold, a'ong whi#h the 'ost worthy o$ 'ention are the goblets, si. in nu'ber, and weighing altogether thirty talents, whi#h stand in the Corinthian treasury, dedi#ated by hi') #all it the Corinthian treasury, though in stri#tness o$ s%ee#h it is the treasury not o$ the whole Corinthian %eo%le, but o$ Cy%selus, son o$ Eetion) E.#e%ting -idas, son o$ Gordias, king o$ +hrygia, Gyges was the $irst o$ the barbarians who' we know to ha&e sent o$$erings to 5el%hi) -idas dedi#ated the royal throne whereon he was a##usto'ed to sit and ad'inister 2usti#e, an ob2e#t well worth looking at) t lies in the sa'e %la#e as the goblets %resented by Gyges) The 5el%hians #all the whole o$ the sil&er and the gold whi#h Gyges dedi#ated, a$ter the na'e o$ the donor, Gygian) *s soon as Gyges was king he 'ade an in7road on -iletus and "'yrna, and took the #ity o$ Colo%hon) *$terwards, howe&er, though he reigned eight and thirty years, he did not %er$or' a single noble e.%loit) shall there$ore 'ake no $urther 'ention o$ hi', but %ass on to his son and su##essor in the kingdo', *rdys) *rdys took +riene and 'ade war u%on -iletus) n his reign the Ci''erians, dri&en $ro' their ho'es by the no'ads o$ "#ythia, entered *sia and #a%tured "ardis, all but the #itadel) He reigned $orty7nine years, and was su##eeded by his son, "adyattes, who reigned twel&e years) *t his death his son *lyattes 'ounted the throne) This %rin#e waged war with the -edes under Cya.ares, the grandson o$ 5eio#es, dro&e the Ci''erians out o$ *sia, #on,uered "'yrna, the Colo%honian #olony, and in&aded Cla/o'enae) Fro' this last

#ontest he did not #o'e o$$ as he #ould ha&e wished, but 'et with a sore de$eat( still, howe&er, in the #ourse o$ his reign, he %er$or'ed other a#tions &ery worthy o$ note, o$ whi#h will now %ro#eed to gi&e an a##ount) nheriting $ro' his $ather a war with the -ilesians, he %ressed the siege against the #ity by atta#king it in the $ollowing 'anner) 4hen the har&est was ri%e on the ground he 'ar#hed his ar'y into -ilesia to the sound o$ %i%es and har%s, and $lutes 'as#uline and $e'inine) The buildings that were s#attered o&er the #ountry he neither %ulled down nor burnt, nor did he e&en tear away the doors, but le$t the' standing as they were) He #ut down, howe&er, and utterly destroyed all the trees and all the #orn throughout the land, and then returned to his own do'inions) t was idle $or his ar'y to sit down be$ore the %la#e, as the -ilesians were 'asters o$ the sea) The reason that he did not de'olish their buildings was that the inhabitants 'ight be te'%ted to use the' as ho'esteads $ro' whi#h to go $orth to sow and till their lands( and so ea#h ti'e that he in&aded the #ountry he 'ight $ind so'ething to %lunder) n this way he #arried on the war with the -ilesians $or ele&en years, in the #ourse o$ whi#h he in$li#ted on the' two terrible blows( one in their own #ountry in the distri#t o$ Li'eneiu', the other in the %lain o$ the -aeander) 5uring si. o$ these ele&en years, "adyattes, the son o$ *rdys who $irst lighted the $la'es o$ this war, was king o$ Lydia, and 'ade the in#ursions) !nly the $i&e $ollowing years belong to the reign o$ *lyattes, son o$ "adyattes, who ;as said be$ore< inheriting the war $ro' his $ather, a%%lied hi'sel$ to it unre'ittingly) The -ilesians throughout the #ontest re#ei&ed no hel% at all $ro' any o$ the onians, e.#e%ting those o$ Chios, who lent the' troo%s in re,uital o$ a like ser&i#e rendered the' in $or'er ti'es, the -ilesians ha&ing $ought on the side o$ the Chians during the whole o$ the war between the' and the %eo%le o$ Erythrae) t was in the twel$th year o$ the war that the $ollowing 'is#han#e o##urred $ro' the $iring o$ the har&est7$ields) "#ar#ely had the #orn been set alight by the soldiers when a &iolent wind #arried the $la'es against the te'%le o$ -iner&a *ssesia, whi#h #aught $ire and was burnt to the ground) *t the ti'e no one 'ade any a##ount o$ the #ir#u'stan#e( but a$terwards, on the return o$ the ar'y to "ardis, *lyattes $ell si#k) His illness #ontinued, whereu%on, either ad&ised thereto by so'e $riend, or %er#han#e hi'sel$ #on#ei&ing the idea, he sent 'essengers to 5el%hi to in,uire o$ the god #on#erning his 'alady) !n their arri&al the +ythoness de#lared that no answer should be gi&en the' until they had rebuilt the te'%le o$ -iner&a, burnt by the Lydians at *ssesus in -ilesia) Thus 'u#h know $ro' in$or'ation gi&en 'e by the 5el%hians( the re'ainder o$ the story the -ilesians add) The answer 'ade by the ora#le #a'e to the ears o$ +eriander, son

o$ Cy%selus, who was a &ery #lose $riend to Thrasybulus, tyrant o$ -iletus at that %eriod) He instantly des%at#hed a 'essenger to re%ort the ora#le to hi', in order that Thrasybulus, $orewarned o$ its tenor, 'ight the better ada%t his 'easures to the %osture o$ a$$airs) *lyattes, the 'o'ent that the words o$ the ora#le were re%orted to hi', sent a herald to -iletus in ho%es o$ #on#luding a tru#e with Thrasybulus and the -ilesians $or su#h a ti'e as was needed to rebuild the te'%le) The herald went u%on his way( but 'eanti'e Thrasybulus had been a%%rised o$ e&erything( and #on2e#turing what *lyattes would do, he #ontri&ed this arti$i#e) He had all the #orn that was in the #ity, whether belonging to hi'sel$ or to %ri&ate %ersons, brought into the 'arket7%la#e, and issued an order that the -ilesians should hold the'sel&es in readiness, and, when he ga&e the signal, should, one and all, $all to drinking and re&elry) The %ur%ose $or whi#h he ga&e these orders was the $ollowing) He ho%ed that the "ardian herald, seeing so great store o$ #orn u%on the ground, and all the #ity gi&en u% to $esti&ity, would in$or' *lyattes o$ it, whi#h $ell out as he anti#i%ated) The herald obser&ed the whole, and when he had deli&ered his 'essage, went ba#k to "ardis) This #ir#u'stan#e alone, as gather, brought about the %ea#e whi#h ensued) *lyattes, who had ho%ed that there was now a great s#ar#ity o$ #orn in -iletus, and that the %eo%le were worn down to the last %it#h o$ su$$ering, when he heard $ro' the herald on his return $ro' -iletus tidings so #ontrary to those he had e.%e#ted, 'ade a treaty with the ene'y by whi#h the two nations be#a'e #lose $riends and allies) He then built at *ssesus two te'%les to -iner&a instead o$ one, and shortly a$ter re#o&ered $ro' his 'alady) "u#h were the #hie$ #ir#u'stan#es o$ the war whi#h *lyattes waged with Thrasybulus and the -ilesians) This +eriander, who a%%rised Thrasybulus o$ the ora#le, was son o$ Cy%selus, and tyrant o$ Corinth) n his ti'e a &ery wonder$ul thing is said to ha&e ha%%ened) The Corinthians and the Lesbians agree in their a##ount o$ the 'atter) They relate that *rion o$ -ethy'na, who as a %layer on the har%, was se#ond to no 'an li&ing at that ti'e, and who was, so $ar as we know, the $irst to in&ent the dithyra'bi# 'easure, to gi&e it its na'e, and to re#ite in it at Corinth, was #arried to Taenaru' on the ba#k o$ a dol%hin) He had li&ed $or 'any years at the #ourt o$ +eriander, when a longing #a'e u%on hi' to sail a#ross to taly and "i#ily) Ha&ing 'ade ri#h %ro$its in those %arts, he wanted to re#ross the seas to Corinth) He there$ore hired a &essel, the #rew o$ whi#h were Corinthians, thinking that there was no %eo%le in who' he #ould 'ore sa$ely #on$ide( and, going on board, he set sail $ro' Tarentu') The sailors, howe&er, when they rea#hed the o%en sea, $or'ed a %lot to throw hi' o&erboard and sei/e u%on his ri#hes) 5is#o&ering their design, he $ell on his knees, besee#hing the' to s%are his li$e, and

'aking the' wel#o'e to his 'oney) But they re$used( and re,uired hi' either to kill hi'sel$ outright, i$ he wished $or a gra&e on the dry land, or without loss o$ ti'e to lea% o&erboard into the sea) n this strait *rion begged the', sin#e su#h was their %leasure, to allow hi' to 'ount u%on the ,uarter7de#k, dressed in his $ull #ostu'e, and there to %lay and sing, and %ro'ising that, as soon as his song was ended, he would destroy hi'sel$) 5elighted at the %ros%e#t o$ hearing the &ery best har%er in the world, they #onsented, and withdrew $ro' the stern to the 'iddle o$ the &essel0 while *rion dressed hi'sel$ in the $ull #ostu'e o$ his #alling, took his har%, and standing on the ,uarter7de#k, #hanted the !rthian) His strain ended, he $lung hi'sel$, $ully attired as he was, headlong into the sea) The Corinthians then sailed on to Corinth) *s $or *rion, a dol%hin, they say, took hi' u%on his ba#k and #arried hi' to Taenaru', where he went ashore, and then#e %ro#eeded to Corinth in his 'usi#ian1s dress, and told all that had ha%%ened to hi') +eriander, howe&er, disbelie&ed the story, and %ut *rion in ward, to %re&ent his lea&ing Corinth, while he wat#hed an.iously $or the return o$ the 'ariners) !n their arri&al he su''oned the' be$ore hi' and asked the' i$ they #ould gi&e hi' any tiding o$ *rion) They returned $or answer that he was ali&e and in good health in taly, and that they had le$t hi' at Tarentu', where he was doing well) Thereu%on *rion a%%eared be$ore the', 2ust as he was when he 2u'%ed $ro' the &essel0 the 'en, astonished and dete#ted in $alsehood, #ould no longer deny their guilt) "u#h is the a##ount whi#h the Corinthians and Lesbians gi&e( and there is to this day at Taenaru', an o$$ering o$ *rion1s at the shrine, whi#h is a s'all $igure in bron/e, re%resenting a 'an seated u%on a dol%hin) Ha&ing brought the war with the -ilesians to a #lose, and reigned o&er the land o$ Lydia $or $i$ty7se&en years, *lyattes died) He was the se#ond %rin#e o$ his house who 'ade o$$erings at 5el%hi) His gi$ts, whi#h he sent on re#o&ering $ro' his si#kness, were a great bowl o$ %ure sil&er, with a sal&er in steel #uriously inlaid, a work a'ong all the o$$erings at 5el%hi the best worth looking at) Glau#us, the Chian, 'ade it, the 'an who $irst in&ented the art o$ inlaying steel) !n the death o$ *lyattes, Croesus, his son, who was thirty7$i&e years old, su##eeded to the throne) !$ the Greek #ities, E%hesus was the $irst that he atta#ked) The E%hesians, when he laid siege to the %la#e, 'ade an o$$ering o$ their #ity to 5iana, by stret#hing a ro%e $ro' the town wall to the te'%le o$ the goddess, whi#h was distant $ro' the an#ient #ity, then besieged by Croesus, a s%a#e o$ se&en $urlongs) They were, as said, the $irst Greeks who' he atta#ked) *$terwards, on so'e %rete.t or other, he 'ade war in turn u%on e&ery onian and *eolian state, bringing $orward, where he #ould, a substantial ground o$ #o'%laint( where su#h $ailed hi', ad&an#ing so'e

%oor e.#use) n this way he 'ade hi'sel$ 'aster o$ all the Greek #ities in *sia, and $or#ed the' to be#o'e his tributaries( a$ter whi#h he began to think o$ building shi%s, and atta#king the islanders) E&erything had been got ready $or this %ur%ose, when Bias o$ +riene ;or, as so'e say, +itta#us the -ytilenean< %ut a sto% to the %ro2e#t) The king had 'ade in,uiry o$ this %erson, who was lately arri&ed at "ardis, i$ there were any news $ro' Gree#e( to whi#h he answered, 9=es, sire, the islanders are gathering ten thousand horse, designing an e.%edition against thee and against thy #a%ital)9 Croesus, thinking he s%ake seriously, broke out, 9*h, 'ight the gods %ut su#h a thought into their 'inds as to atta#k the sons o$ the Lydians with #a&alry>9 9 t see's, oh> king,9 re2oined the other, 9that thou desirest earnestly to #at#h the islanders on horseba#k u%on the 'ainland,7 thou knowest well what would #o'e o$ it) But what thinkest thou the islanders desire better, now that they hear thou art about to build shi%s and sail against the', than to #at#h the Lydians at sea, and there re&enge on the' the wrongs o$ their brothers u%on the 'ainland, who' thou holdest in sla&ery:9 Croesus was #har'ed with the turn o$ the s%ee#h( and thinking there was reason in what was said, ga&e u% his shi%7building and #on#luded a league o$ a'ity with the onians o$ the isles) Croesus a$terwards, in the #ourse o$ 'any years, brought under his sway al'ost all the nations to the west o$ the Halys) The Ly#ians and Cili#ians alone #ontinued $ree( all the other tribes he redu#ed and held in sub2e#tion) They were the $ollowing0 the Lydians, +hrygians, -ysians, -ariandynians, Chalybians, +a%hlagonians, Thynian and Bithynian Thra#ians, Carians, onians, 5orians, *eolians and +a'%hylians) 4hen all these #on,uests had been added to the Lydian e'%ire, and the %ros%erity o$ "ardis was now at its height, there #a'e thither, one a$ter another, all the sages o$ Gree#e li&ing at the ti'e, and a'ong the' "olon, the *thenian) He was on his tra&els, ha&ing le$t *thens to be absent ten years, under the %reten#e o$ wishing to see the world, but really to a&oid being $or#ed to re%eal any o$ the laws whi#h, at the re,uest o$ the *thenians, he had 'ade $or the') 4ithout his san#tion the *thenians #ould not re%eal the', as they had bound the'sel&es under a hea&y #urse to be go&erned $or ten years by the laws whi#h should be i'%osed on the' by "olon) !n this a##ount, as well as to see the world, "olon set out u%on his tra&els, in the #ourse o$ whi#h he went to Egy%t to the #ourt o$ *'asis, and also #a'e on a &isit to Croesus at "ardis) Croesus re#ei&ed hi' as his guest, and lodged hi' in the royal %ala#e) !n the third or $ourth day a$ter, he bade his ser&ants #ondu#t "olon) o&er his treasuries, and show hi' all their greatness and 'agni$i#en#e) 4hen he had seen the' all, and, so $ar as ti'e

but so %assed $ro' the earth) The *rgi&es. besought the goddess to bestow on Cleobis and Bito.%e#ting that at any rate.9 "olon answered( 9they were o$ *rgi&e ra#e( their $ortune was enough $or their wants. #aused statues o$ the' to be 'ade. he would be gi&en the se#ond %la#e) 9Cleobis and Bito. Croesus de'anded shar%ly. his end was sur%assingly glorious) n a battle between the *thenians and their neighbours near Eleusis. too. looking on the' as a'ong the best o$ 'en. a$ter a li$e s%ent in what our %eo%le look u%on as #o'$ort.uired a se#ond ti'e. ins%e#ted the'. a$ter whi#h the two youths $ell aslee% in the te'%le) They ne&er woke 'ore. and he hi'sel$ had sons both beauti$ul and good. to whi#h their 'other 'ust needs be taken in a #ar) 3ow the o.tolled the 'other who was blessed with su#h a %air o$ sons( and the 'other hersel$. and died u%on the $ield 'ost gallantly) The *thenians ga&e hi' a %ubli# $uneral on the s%ot where he $ell. 9*nd where$ore dost thou dee' Tellus ha%%iest:9 To whi#h the other re%lied. $ear$ul o$ being too late. %ut the yoke on their own ne#ks. and they were besides endowed with so 'u#h bodily strength that they had both gained %ri/es at the Ga'es) *lso this tale is told o$ the'07 There was a great $esti&al in honour o$ the goddess 8uno at *rgos. e. $ro' lo&e o$ knowledge and a wish to see the world) a' #urious there$ore to in. the sons who had so 'ightily honoured her. thou dee'est the 'ost ha%%y:9 This he asked be#ause he thought hi'sel$ the ha%%iest o$ 'ortals0 but "olon answered hi' without $lattery. and %aid hi' the highest honours)9 Thus did "olon ad'onish Croesus by the e.en did not #o'e ho'e $ro' the $ield in ti'e0 so the youths. they o$$ered sa#ri$i#e and %artook o$ the holy ban.a'%le o$ Tellus. and these #hildren all grew u%( and $urther be#ause. enu'erating the 'ani$old %arti#ulars o$ his ha%%iness) 4hen he had ended. the highest blessing to whi#h 'ortals #an attain) Her %rayer ended. o&er2oyed at the deed and at the %raises it had won. 9First. and the'sel&es drew the #ar in whi#h their 'other rode) Fi&e and $orty $urlongs did they draw her.allowed. who'. o$ all the 'en that thou hast seen.uestion to hi') 9"tranger o$ *thens. sire)9 Full o$ astonish'ent at what he heard. he #a'e to the assistan#e o$ his #ountry'en. how 'u#h better a thing $or 'an death is than li$e) For the *rgi&e 'en.uire o$ thee.tolled the &ast strength o$ the youths( and the *rgi&e wo'en e. standing straight be$ore the i'age. Croesus in. 9Tellus o$ *thens. e. who stood around the #ar. a##ording to his true senti'ents. Croesus addressed this . and sto%%ed be$ore the te'%le) This deed o$ theirs was witnessed by the whole asse'bly o$ worshi%%ers. we ha&e heard 'u#h o$ thy wisdo' and o$ thy tra&els through 'any lands. whi#h they ga&e to the shrine at 5el%hi)9 .uet. be#ause his #ountry was $lourishing in his days. and he li&ed to see #hildren born to ea#h o$ the'. who a$ter Tellus see'ed to hi' the ha%%iest. routed the $oe. God showed $orth 'ost e&idently. and then their li$e #losed in the best %ossible way) Herein.

and there will be. twenty7$i&e thousand and two hundred days) *dd an inter#alary 'onth to e&ery other year. ha%%y in his #hildren. Croesus broke in angrily. he is o$ a truth the 'an o$ who' thou art in sear#h.9 re%lied the other. whereo$ not one but will %rodu#e e&ents unlike the rest) Hen#e 'an is wholly a##ident) For thysel$. until he die. $ree $ro' 'is$ortune.%erien#e 'u#h onesel$. until hear that thou hast #losed thy li$e ha%%ily) For assuredly he who %ossesses great store o$ ri#hes is no nearer ha%%iness than he who has what su$$i#es $or his daily needs. and then %lunges the' . entitled to bear the na'e o$ 1ha%%y)1 But in e&ery 'atter it beho&es us to 'ark well the end0 $or o$tenti'es God gi&es 'en a glea' o$ ha%%iness. in 'y 2udg'ent. and e. and the best #ountry is that whi#h #ontains the 'ost( so no single hu'an being is #o'%lete in e&ery res%e#t7 so'ething is always la#king) He who unites the greatest nu'ber o$ ad&antages. he end his li$e well. and retaining the' to the day o$ his death.#el those o$ the latter but in two res%e#ts( these last e.uestion #on#erning the #ondition o$ 'an. that 'an alone. that one would not #hoose) "e&enty years regard as the li'it o$ the li$e o$ 'an) n these se&enty years are #ontained. thirty7$i&e su#h 'onths. that the seasons 'ay #o'e round at the right ti'e. 9thou askedst a . in addition to all this. indeed.4hen "olon had thus assigned these youths the se#ond %la#e. that thou dost not e&en %ut 'e on a le&el with %ri&ate 'en:9 9!h> Croesus. while it %ossesses so'e things. #an any 'an unite all these ad&antages0 as there is no #ountry whi#h #ontains within it all that it needs.uestionest 'e.#ellent lu#k) -en o$ the $or'er #lass e. and 'any whose 'eans were 'oderate ha&e had e. then. and to bear u% against a sudden bu$$et o$ #ala'ity) The other has less ability to withstand these e&ils . unless it so ha% that lu#k attend u%on hi'. and $ond o$ troubling our lot) * long li$e gi&es one to witness 'u#h. but he en2oys all these $ollowing blessings0 he is whole o$ li'b. 94hat. see that thou art wonder$ully ri#h. and art the lord o$ 'any nations( but with res%e#t to that whereon thou . not ha%%y but $ortunate) "#ar#ely. and #o'ely to look u%on) $. ha&e no answer to gi&e. his good lu#k kee%s hi' #lear<. is. oh> Croesus. thousand two hundred and $i$ty. stranger o$ *thens. howe&er. and so he #ontinue in the en2oy'ent o$ all his good things to the end o$ li$e) For 'any o$ the wealthiest 'en ha&e been un$a&oured o$ $ortune. without re#koning inter#alary 'onths. so utterly set at nought by thee. then dies %ea#eably.#el the $or'er in 'any) The wealthy 'an is better able to #ontent his desires.$ro' whi#h. 'aking an addition o$ one thousand and $i$ty days) The whole nu'ber o$ the days #ontained in the se&enty years will thus be twenty7si. a stranger to disease. the 'an who 'ay rightly be ter'ed ha%%y) Call hi'. is 'y ha%%iness. howe&er. sire. o$ one who knows that the %ower abo&e us is $ull o$ 2ealousy. besides the se&enty years. la#ks others. but ea#h.

sent o$ God. a$ter whi#h he asked the su%%liant o$ his birth and #ountry. and $ro' what %art o$ +hrygia $leddest thou to take re$uge at 'y hearth: *nd who'. to %unish hi'. 9 a' the son o$ Gordias. hast thou slain:9 9!h> king. so will it go best with thee)9 Then#e$orth *drastus li&ed in the %ala#e o$ the king) t #han#ed that at this &ery sa'e ti'e there was in the -ysian !ly'%us a huge 'onster o$ a boar. stranger. being dea$ and du'b( the other. and whereas in $or'er years the youth had been wont to #o''and the Lydian $or#es in the $ield. greatly alar'ed at the drea'.9 re%lied the +hrygian. he %rayed to be ad'itted to %uri$i#ation a##ording to the #usto's o$ the #ountry) 3ow the Lydian 'ethod o$ %uri$ying is &ery nearly the sa'e as the Greek) Croesus granted the re. who had u%on hi' the stain o$ blood) He was by ra#e a +hrygian. son o$ -idas) a' na'ed *drastus) The 'an unintentionally slew was 'y own brother) For this 'y $ather dro&e 'e $ro' the land. and wasted the #orn7$ields o$ the -ysians) -any a ti'e had the -ysians #olle#ted to hunt the beast. he now would not su$$er hi' to a##o'%any the') *ll the s%ears and 2a&elins. sin#e he thought that a 'an 'ust be an arrant $ool who 'ade no a##ount o$ %resent good. but bade 'en always wait and 'ark the end) *$ter "olon had gone away a dread$ul &engean#e. one blasted by a natural de$e#t.into ruin)9 "u#h was the s%ee#h whi#h "olon addressed to Croesus. $or dee'ing hi'sel$ the ha%%iest o$ 'en) First he had a drea' in the night. and laid the' in hea%s in the #ha'bers o$ the wo'en. he re'o&ed out o$ the 'ale a%art'ents. and thou art #o'e to $riends) Thou shalt want $or nothing so long as thou abidest in 'y do'inions) Bear thy 'is$ortune as easily as thou 'ayest. addressing hi' as $ollows07 94ho art thou. 'oreo&er.9 Croesus re2oined. a s%ee#h whi#h brought hi' neither largess nor honour) The king saw hi' de%art with 'u#h indi$$eren#e. and belonged to the $a'ily o$ the king) +resenting hi'sel$ at the %ala#e o$ Croesus. whi#h $oreshowed hi' truly the e&ils that were about to be$all hi' in the %erson o$ his son) For Croesus had two sons. and wea%ons used in the wars. but instead o$ doing . #a'e u%on Croesus. and. whi#h went $orth o$ten $ro' this 'ountain #ountry. there #a'e to "ardis a 'an under a 'is$ortune. and lost all) Then $led here to thee)9 9Thou art the o$$s%ring. it is likely. what 'an or what wo'an. $earing lest %erha%s one o$ the wea%ons that hung against the wall 'ight $all and strike hi') 3ow it #han#ed that while he was 'aking arrange'ents $or the wedding.uest. and went through all the #usto'ary rites. 9o$ a house $riendly to 'ine. instantly 'ade his son take a wi$e. distinguished $ar abo&e all his #o7'ates in e&ery %ursuit) The na'e o$ the last was *tys) t was this son #on#erning who' he drea't a drea' that he would die by the blow o$ an iron wea%on) 4hen he woke. he #onsidered earnestly with hi'sel$.

there$ore. thou saidst thysel$. and is busy enough with that) will grant you a %i#ked band o$ Lydians. #a'e suddenly in.uent the wars and hunting7%arties. that we 'ay rid our #ountry o$ the ani'al)9 "u#h was the tenor o$ their %rayer) But Croesus bethought hi' o$ his drea'. and destroys the labour o$ our hands) 4e do our best to take hi'. i$ thou dost not a%%rehend the drea' aright. there$ore. and all 'y hunts'en and hounds( and will #harge those who' send to use all /eal in aiding you to rid your #ountry o$ the brute)9 4ith this re%ly the -ysians were #ontent( but the king1s son. %ier#ed by an iron wea%on) t was this whi#h $irst led 'e to hasten on thy wedding. but in &ain) 3ow there$ore we besee#h thee to let thy son a##o'%any us ba#k. and win 'ysel$ glory in the'( but now thou kee%est 'e away $ro' both. and now it hinders 'e $ro' sending thee u%on this enter%rise) Fain would kee% wat#h o&er thee. a 'ighty 'onster o$ a boar has a%%eared in our %arts. what 'ust 'y young bride think o$ 'e: 4hat sort o$ 'an will she su%%ose her husband to be: Either. warned 'e that thou wert doo'ed to die young. 9"ay no 'ore o$ 'y son going with you( that 'ay not be in any wise) He is but 2ust 2oined in wedlo#k. or gi&e 'e a reason why it is best $or 'e to do a##ording to thy wishes)9 Then Croesus answered. then thou hadst done well to kee% 'e away( but it said a wea%on) 3ow here we do not #o'bat 'en. and on the re$usal o$ Croesus to let hi' go with the'. with so'e #hosen youths and hounds. it was dee'ed the noblest and 'ost suitable thing $or 'e to $re. hearing what the %rayer o$ the -ysians was. 9-y son. although thou hast ne&er beheld in 'e either #owardi#e or la#k o$ s%irit) 4hat $a#e 'eanwhile 'ust wear as walk to the $oru' or return $ro' it: 4hat 'ust the #iti/ens. whose hearing is destroyed. $oretold that should die stri#ken by an iron wea%on) But what hands has a boar to strike with: 4hat iron wea%on does he wield: =et this is what thou $earest $or 'e) Had the drea' said that should die %ier#ed by a tusk. let 'e go with the')9 .9 returned the youth. thus addressed his $ather0 9For'erly. regard as i$ he were not)9 9*h> $ather. but a wild ani'al) %ray thee. 'y $ather.hi' any hurt. it is not be#ause ha&e seen in thee either #owardi#e or aught else whi#h has dis%leased 'e that kee% thee ba#k( but be#ause a &ision whi#h #a'e be$ore 'e in a drea' as sle%t. i$ by any 'eans 'ay #heat $ate o$ thee during 'y own li$eti'e) For thou art the one and only son that %ossess( the other. they #a'e o$$ always with so'e loss to the'sel&es) *t length they sent a'bassadors to Croesus. let 'e go to the #hase o$ this boar. 9 bla'e thee not $or kee%ing wat#h o&er 'e a$ter a drea' so terrible( but i$ thou 'istakest. and answered. who deli&ered their 'essage to hi' in these words0 9!h> king. 1tis no bla'e $or 'e to show thee wherein thou errest) 3ow the drea'.

!h> king. it beho&es thee to re. and stru#k *tys) Thus was the son o$ Croesus slain by the %oint o$ an iron wea%on. 'y son. he also hurled his s%ear at the boar. it yet 'ore strongly a$$e#ted hi' to think that the &ery 'an who' he hi'sel$ on#e %uri$ied had done the deed) n the &iolen#e o$ his grie$ he #alled aloud on 8u%iter Catharsius to be a witness o$ what he had su$$ered at the stranger1s hands) *$terwards he in&oked the sa'e god as 8u%iter E%histius and Hetaereus7 using the one ter' be#ause he had unwittingly harboured in his house the 'an who had now slain his son( and the other. there$ore. who had been sent as his #hild1s guardian. 9E. but 'issed his ai'. as thou urgest it.uest o$ the ani'al( he was soon $ound.9There thou hast 'e. be sure thou shalt re#ei&e hi' ba#k sa$e and sound. the 'an who had been %uri$ied o$ blood. bearing the body o$ the youth. they s#attered in .uite thy good o$$i#es<. and.9 said Croesus. 9thy inter%retation is better than 'ine) yield to it. when thou wert s'itten with the rod o$ a$$li#tion7 no re%roa#h. had turned out his 'ost #ruel ene'y) +resently the Lydians arri&ed. hurled their wea%ons at hi') Then the stranger. it were right $or thee to go where thou 'ayest 'ake thysel$ $a'ous by noble deeds) They are the heritage o$ thy $a'ily. and behind the' $ollowed the ho'i#ide) He took his stand in $ront o$ the #orse. and said to hi'. and #hange 'y 'ind.#e%t $or thy re. and ha&e been at e&ery #harge) 3ow.uite the good o$$i#es whi#h thou hast re#ei&ed at 'y hands by #onsenting to go with 'y son on this hunting %arty. and ha&e taken thee to li&e with 'e in 'y %ala#e. and a' bound to %leasure thee .$or truly it does beho&e 'e to re. ha&e no heart to it) !n 'any grounds had stayed behind( but. and the hunters. and #onsent to let thee go)9 Then the king sent $or *drastus. whose na'e was *drastus. stret#hing $orth his hands to Croesus. 9*drastus. i$ %er#han#e you should be atta#ked u%on the road by so'e band o$ daring robbers) E&en a%art $ro' this. 'y $riend7 %uri$ied thee. and the warning o$ the &ision was $ul$illed) Then one ran to "ardis to bear the tidings to the king. who' thou gi&est into 'y #harge. a##o'%anied by a band o$ %i#ked youths. and well %ro&ided with dogs o$ #hase) 4hen they rea#hed !ly'%us. drawing round hi' in a #ir#le. Croesus let the' de%art. and he #a'e and in$or'ed hi' o$ the #o'bat and o$ the $ate that had be$allen his son) $ it was a hea&y blow to the $ather to learn that his #hild was dead. so $ar as de%ends u%on a guardian1s #are$ulness)9 Thus assured. a' #ontent to do as thou wishest) For thy son. deli&ered . and thou too art so stalwart and strong)9 *drastus answered. would rather ha&e ke%t away $ro' this hunt( $or 'ethinks it ill besee's a 'an under a 'is$ortune su#h as 'ine to #onsort with his ha%%ier #o'%eers( and besides. be#ause the stranger.uest. and to wat#h o&er hi'. the +hrygian.

was 'o&ed with %ity towards *drastus. notwithstanding the bitterness o$ his own #ala'ity( and so he answered. son o$ Gordias. and so'e to 5odona( others to the ora#le o$ *'%hiaraus( others to that o$ Tro%honius( others. slew hi'sel$ u%on the to'b) Croesus. and be$ore they %ut their . the +ythoness thus answered the' in he. again. 9Enough. the destroyer o$ his brother in ti'e %ast. the son o$ Ca'byses. with su#h honours as be$itted the o##asion) *drastus. to #onsult the ora#le o$ *''on) These 'essengers were sent to test the knowledge o$ the ora#les. and o$ the one in Libya) "o he sent his 'essengers in di$$erent dire#tions. when he heard these words. so'e to 5el%hi. had destroyed the e'%ire o$ *styages. and #an 'easure the o#ean( ha&e ears $or the silent. the 'o'ent that the Lydians entered the san#tuary. and brought ba#k to hi') 3one o$ the re%lies re'ain on re#ord e. so soon as all was . bere$t o$ his son. the son o$ Cya.#e%t so $ar as thou hast unwittingly dealt the blow) "o'e god is the author o$ 'y 'is$ortune.a'eter &erse07 #an #ount the sands.uire o$ the' what Croesus the son o$ *lyattes. re#koning $ro' that date.ares( and that the +ersians were be#o'ing daily 'ore %ower$ul) This led hi' to #onsider with hi'sel$ whether it were %ossible to #he#k the growing %ower o$ that %eo%le be$ore it #a'e to a head) 4ith this design he resol&ed to 'ake instant trial o$ the se&eral ora#les in Gree#e. so'e to *bae in +ho#is. and was $orewarned o$ it a long ti'e ago)9 Croesus a$ter this buried the body o$ his son. he 'ight send a se#ond ti'e. sin#e thou gi&est senten#e o$ death against thysel$) But in sooth it is not thou who hast in2ured 'e.#e%t that o$ the ora#le at 5el%hi) There. king o$ Lydia. and in. he #ould not bear to li&e)9 Then Croesus.uire i$ he ought to atta#k the +ersians) The 'essengers who were des%at#hed to 'ake trial o$ the ora#les were gi&en the $ollowing instru#tions0 they were to kee% #ount o$ the days $ro' the ti'e o$ their lea&ing "ardis. and to in. son o$ -idas. and. to Bran#hidae in -ilesia) These were the Greek ora#les whi#h he #onsulted) To Libya he sent another e'bassy. on the hundredth day they were to #onsult the ora#les.uire.uiet about the %la#e. ga&e hi'sel$ u% to 'ourning $or two $ull years) *t the end o$ this ti'e the grie$ o$ Croesus was interru%ted by intelligen#e $ro' abroad) He learnt that Cyrus. the destroyer now o$ his %uri$ier. that. and had brought ruin on the 'an who %uri$ied hi'. was doing at that 'o'ent) The answers gi&en the' were to be taken down in writing. regarding hi'sel$ as the 'ost un$ortunate wret#h who' he had e&er known.uestions. e. i$ they were $ound really to return true answers.hi'sel$ into his %ower with earnest entreaties that he would sa#ri$i#e hi' u%on the body o$ his son7 9his $or'er 'is$ortune was burthen enough( now that he had added to it a se#ond. and know what the du'b 'an 'eaneth( . 'y $riend( ha&e all the re&enge that re.

he a#ted as he had deter'ined) He took a tortoise and a la'b.Lo> on 'y sense there striketh the s'ell o$ a shell7#o&ered tortoise. $our being o$ re$ined gold. in a #auldron7 Brass is the &essel below. in weight two talents and a hal$( the others o$ %ale gold. and in weight two talents) He also #aused a statue o$ a lion to be 'ade in re$ined gold.uantity o$ gold. talents and a hal$. 'aking the' si. boiled the' both together in a bra/en #auldron. and brass the #o&er abo&e it) These words the Lydians wrote down at the 'outh o$ the +ythoness as she %ro%hesied. ha&ing lost three talents and a hal$ by the $ire) !n the #o'%letion o$ these works Croesus sent the' away to 5el%hi. and then. one o$ gold. that o$ the 5el%hi# ora#le) This he had no sooner heard than he instantly 'ade an a#t o$ adoration. and then set o$$ on their return to "ardis) 4hen all the 'essengers had #o'e ba#k with the answers whi#h they had re#ei&ed. Croesus undid the rolls. the king 'elted down a &ast . and weighs only si. and read what was written in ea#h) !nly one a%%ro&ed itsel$ to hi'. $or there is no re#ord o$ it) *ll that is known is that Croesus belie&ed hi'sel$ to ha&e $ound there also an ora#le whi#h s%oke the truth) *$ter this Croesus. three %al's broad. and #utting the' in %ie#es with his own hands. the other o$ . #o&ered o&er with a lid whi#h was also o$ brass) "u#h then was the answer returned to Croesus $ro' 5el%hi) 4hat the answer was whi#h the Lydians who went to the shrine o$ *'%hiarans and %er$or'ed the #usto'ary rites obtained o$ the ora#le there. and a##e%ted it as true. ha&ing resol&ed to %ro%itiate the 5el%hi# god with a 'agni$i#ent sa#ri$i#e. Boiling now on a $ire. and robes and &ests o$ %ur%le( all whi#h he burnt in the ho%e o$ thereby 'aking hi'sel$ 'ore se#ure o$ the $a&our o$ the god) Further he issued his orders to all the %eo%le o$ the land to o$$er a sa#ri$i#e a##ording to their 'eans) 4hen the sa#ri$i#e was ended. waiting till the day agreed on #a'e. and ran it into ingots. the weight o$ whi#h was ten talents) *t the ti'e when the te'%le o$ 5el%hi was burnt to the ground. and %la#ed u%on it #ou#hes #oated with sil&er and with gold. ha&e it not in 'y %ower to 'ention. with the $lesh o$ a la'b. this lion $ell $ro' the ingots on whi#h it was %la#ed( it now stands in the Corinthian treasury. and golden goblets. de#laring that the 5el%hi# was the only really ora#ular shrine. and besides 'ade a huge %ile. o$$ered u% three thousand o$ e&ery kind o$ sa#ri$i#ial beast. and one %al' in thi#kness) The nu'ber o$ ingots was a hundred and se&enteen. the only one that had dis#o&ered in what way he was in $a#t e'%loyed) For on the de%arture o$ his 'essengers he had set hi'sel$ to think what was 'ost i'%ossible $or any one to #on#ei&e o$ his doing. %al's long. and with the' two bowls o$ an enor'ous si/e.

and a re#o''endation to hi' to look and see who were the 'ost %ower$ul o$ the Greeks. belie&ing that these are the only real ora#les in all the world. is . has sent you su#h %resents as your dis#o&eries deser&ed. he sent on#e 'ore to +ytho. as one entered the te'%le) They too were 'o&ed at the ti'e o$ the $ire( and now the golden one is in the Cla/o'enian treasury. through whose hand the water runs. and a s%ear. they %ro#eeded to #onsult the ora#les in the $ollowing ter's07 9Croesus. and weighs eight talents and $orty7two 'inae( the sil&er one stands in the #orner o$ the ante7#ha%el. o$ Lydia and other #ountries. Croesus sent to 5el%hi 'any others o$ less a##ount. the $or'er u%on the le$t.isting in 'y day at Thebes. also o$ solid gold.sil&er. but wrongly. whi#h are in the Corinthian treasury. the nu'ber o$ who' he had as#ertained. but $orbear to 'ention it) The boy. #on$ess< a La#edae'onian gi$t. and think that they say true. he sent a shield entirely o$ gold. and they #lai' it as a gi$t o$ theirs. and two lustral &ases. whi#h is said by the 5el%hians to be the statue o$ his baking7wo'an( and $urther. he would destroy a 'ighty e'%ire. three #ubits high. whi#h used to stand. and now in. sin#e it was really gi&en by Croesus) The ins#ri%tion u%on it was #ut by a 5el%hian. laid u% in the te'%le o$ s'enian *%ollo) The 'essengers who had the #harge o$ #on&eying these treasures to the shrines. whi#h was in ea#h #ase a %ro%he#y that i$ Croesus atta#ked the +ersians. and to 'ake allian#e with the') *t the re#ei%t o$ these ora#ular re%lies Croesus was o&er2oyed. but they did not gi&e either o$ the lustral &ases) Besides these &arious o$$erings.uainted. $or assuredly it is the work o$ no #o''on artist) Croesus sent also $our sil&er #asks. when they had rea#hed their destinations and %resented the gi$ts.uires o$ you whether he shall go to war with the +ersians. both head and sha$t) They were still e. a'ong the rest a nu'ber o$ round sil&er basins) *lso he dedi#ated a $e'ale $igure in gold. re#ei&ed instru#tions to ask the ora#les whether Croesus should go to war with the +ersians and i$ so. whether he shall strengthen hi'sel$ by the $or#es o$ a #on$ederate)9 Both the ora#les agreed in the tenor o$ their re%ly. a golden and a sil&er one) !n the $or'er is ins#ribed the na'e o$ the La#edae'onians. the latter u%on the right. who wished to %leasure the La#edae'onians) His na'e is known to 'e. whether he should strengthen hi'sel$ by the $or#es o$ an ally) *##ordingly. hundred a'%horae) This is known be#ause the 5el%hians $ill it at the ti'e o$ the Theo%hania) t is said by the 5el%hians to be a work o$ Theodore the "a'ian. and i$ so. with whose &alour and 'is$ortune he was a#. he %resented the ne#kla#e and the girdles o$ his wi$e) These were the o$$erings sent by Croesus to 5el%hi) To the shrine o$ *'%hiaraus. and $eeling sure now that he would destroy the e'%ire o$ the +ersians. and holds si. and %resented to the 5el%hians. two gold staters a%ie#e) n return $or .

the *thenians. and so he #on#luded that the so&ereignty would ne&er de%art $ro' hi'sel$ or his seed a$ter hi') *$terwards he turned his thoughts to the allian#e whi#h he had been re#o''ended to #ontra#t.uestion whereto he now desired an answer was7 94hether his kingdo' would be o$ long duration:9 The $ollowing was the re%ly o$ the +ythoness07 4ait till the ti'e shall #o'e when a 'ule is 'onar#h o$ -edia( Then. Croesus a third ti'e #onsulted the ora#le. and the one ha&ing ne&er . +hthiotis was the #ountry in whi#h the Hellenes dwelt. we are to $or' a #on2e#ture $ro' any o$ these. while the other had been e. under the na'e o$ -a#edni. the 'ost honourable seat at the $esti&als. who had %re&iously dwelt $or so'e ti'e with the *thenians7 or those. and were neighbours o$ the %eo%le now #alled the 5orians7 or those again who $ounded +la#ia and "#yla#e u%on the Helles%ont. early ti'es the 'ost distinguished %la#e in Gree#e. but under 5orus. away to the %ebbles o$ Her'us( Haste.#essi&ely 'igratory( $or during the reign o$ 5eu#alion. oh> haste thee away. the $or'er o$ 5ori#. they be#a'e known as 5orians) 4hat the language o$ the +elasgi was #annot say with any #ertainty) $. say. whi#h is #alled Histiaeotis( $or#ed to retire $ro' that region by the Cad'eians. the being a +elasgi#. nor blush to beha&e like a #oward) !$ all the answers that had rea#hed hi'. $or instan#e. and sought to as#ertain by in. who were . the latter o$ oni# blood) *nd indeed these two nations had held $ro' &ery.uitted its original seats. the son o$ Hellen. we 'ust %ronoun#e that the +elasgi s%oke a barbarous language) $ this were really so. this %leased hi' $ar the best. he wished to 'ake #onstant use o$ it) The . thou deli#ate Lydian. we 'ay $or' a #on2e#ture $ro' the tongue s%oken by the +elasgi o$ the %resent day7 those. they settled. howe&er.uiry whi#h was the 'ost %ower$ul o$ the Gre#ian states) His in. o$ any other o$ the #ities whi#h ha&e dro%%ed the na'e but are in $a#t +elasgian( i$.uiries %ointed out to hi' two states as %re7e'inent abo&e the rest) These were the La#edae'onians and the *thenians. in short. the other a Helleni# %eo%le. in the #hain o$ +indus) Hen#e they on#e 'ore re'o&ed and #a'e to 5ryo%is( and $ro' 5ryo%is ha&ing entered the +elo%onnese in this way. they 'o&ed to the tra#t at the base o$ !ssa and !ly'%us. e.e'%tion $ro' all #harges. and the entire +elasgi# ra#e s%oke the sa'e tongue. $or it see'ed in#redible that a 'ule should e&er #o'e to be king o$ the -edes. who li&e at Creston abo&e the Tyrrhenians. $or ha&ing on#e %ro&ed its truth$ulness. who $or'erly dwelt in the distri#t na'ed Thessaliotis. and the %er%etual right o$ be#o'ing at %leasure #iti/ens o$ their town) *$ter sending these %resents to the 5el%hians.this the 5el%hians granted to Croesus and the Lydians the %ri&ilege o$ %re#eden#y in #onsulting the ora#le.

#ertainly +elasgi. and with this &iew #reated a third %arty) Gathering together a band o$ %artisans. the *thenian. who disregarded it. while the language s%oken by these two %eo%le is the sa'e( whi#h shows that they both retain the idio' whi#h they brought with the' into the #ountries where they are now settled) The Helleni# ra#e has ne&er. the son o$ Hi%%o#rates. de#ei&ed by his story. $ull o$ water and o$ the $lesh o$ the &i#ti's. to disown hi') Chilon1s ad&i#e did not at all %lease Hi%%o#rates. on the other hand. were. re'inding the' o$ the glory whi#h he had gained when he led the atta#k u%on the -egarians. the #auldrons whi#h stood near. and the sa'e is true o$ the +la#ianians. and at $irst was s#anty in nu'bers and o$ little %ower( but it gradually s%read and in#reased to a 'ultitude o$ nations. and then dro&e his #hariot into the 'arket7%la#e. whi#h se%arated $ro' the 'ain body. he #ontri&ed the $ollowing stratage') He wounded hi'sel$ and his 'ules. sin#e its $irst origin. when he was a %ri&ate #iti/en. and that o$ the +lain headed by Ly#urgus.%loits) The *thenians. to send her ba#k to her $riends( i$ he had a son. #hanged its s%ee#h) This at least see's e&ident to 'e) t was a bran#h o$ the +elasgi#. who were to #arry #lubs instead o$ s%ears. +isistratus broke into re&olt and sei/ed . who ha%%ened to be there and to witness the %rodigy. and took the town o$ 3isaea. so that the water o&er$lowed the %ots) Chilon the La#edae'onian. as think. who had atte'%ted his li$e as he was on his way into the #ountry) He besought the %eo%le to assign hi' a guard to %rote#t his %erson. ne&er to take into his house a wi$e who #ould bear hi' a #hild( i$ he already had one. $or'ed the %ro2e#t o$ 'aking hi'sel$ tyrant. a%%ointed hi' a band o$ #iti/ens to ser&e as a guard. is said to ha&e gone on#e u%on a ti'e to !ly'%ia to see the Ga'es. and so'e ti'e a$ter be#a'e the $ather o$ +isistratus) This +isistratus. %ro$essing to ha&e 2ust es#a%ed an atta#k o$ his ene'ies. began to boil without the hel% o$ $ire. one o$ the *ristolaids. 'ust ha&e #hanged their language at the sa'e ti'e that they %assed into the Helleni# body( $or it is a #ertain $a#t that the %eo%le o$ Creston s%eak a language unlike any o$ their neighbours. #hie$ly by the &oluntary entran#e into its ranks o$ nu'erous tribes o$ barbarians) The +elasgi. at a ti'e when there was #i&il #ontention in *tti#a between the %arty o$ the "ea7#oast headed by -ega#les the son o$ *l#'aeon. Croesus $ound that one. was in a state o$ grie&ous o%%ression and distra#tion under +isistratus. at the sa'e ti'e %er$or'ing 'any other e. a barbarian ra#e whi#h ne&er greatly 'ulti%lied) !n in. and gi&ing hi'sel$ out $or the %rote#tor o$ the Highlanders. ad&ised Hi%%o#rates. i$ he were un'arried. who was at that ti'e tyrant o$ *thens) Hi%%o#rates. and to a##o'%any hi' where&er he went) Thus strengthened.uiring into the #ondition o$ these two nations. when a wonder$ul %rodigy ha%%ened to hi') *s he was e'%loyed in sa#ri$i#ing.

the %artisans o$ -ega#les and those o$ Ly#urgus agreed to $orget their di$$eren#es. sent a herald to +isistratus. on whi#h +isistratus. who o$ all 'en honours hi' the 'ost. and at last -ega#les. instru#ting her as to the #arriage whi#h she was to 'aintain in order to besee' her %art. a##ording to agree'ent. and re'e'bering that the %ersons on who' this tri#k was %layed were not only Greeks but *thenians.uestioned her. ha&ing by the 'eans des#ribed $irst 'ade hi'sel$ 'aster o$ *thens. and to 'ake %ro#la'ation to this e$$e#t0 9Citi/ens o$ *thens.the #itadel) n this way he a#. wearied with the struggle. in his anger instantly 'ade u% his di$$eren#es with the o%%osite $a#tion. or it 'ay be that she told it o$ her own a##ord) *t any rate. and on these ter's an agree'ent was #on#luded between the two. was he de%arted than the $a#tions whi#h had dri&en hi' out . a$ter a little ti'e. either her 'other . ha&ing thus re#o&ered the so&ereignty. the daughter o$ -ega#les) *s. hersel$ #ondu#ts hi' ba#k to her own #itadel)9 This they %ro#lai'ed in all dire#tions.uarter. whi#h he #ontinued to hold without disturbing the %re&iously e. they %la#ed her in a #hariot and dro&e to the #ity) Heralds had been sent $orward to %re#ede her. 'ore es%e#ially #onsidering that the Greeks ha&e been $ro' &ery an#ient ti'es distinguished $ro' the barbarians by su%erior saga#ity and $reedo' $ro' $oolish si'%leness. howe&er. aware o$ what was %lanning against hi'. he had already a $a'ily o$ grown u% sons. and re#ei&ed +isistratus ba#k) +isistratus. and united to dri&e hi' out) "o +isistratus. she in$or'ed her 'other. he deter'ined that there should be no issue o$ the 'arriage) His wi$e at $irst ke%t this 'atter to hersel$. and who was altogether #o'ely to look u%on) This wo'an they #lothed in #o'%lete ar'our. but a$ter a ti'e.uired the so&ereignty o$ *thens. and the *l#'aeonidae were su%%osed to be under a #urse. and. re#ei&e again +isistratus with $riendly 'inds) -iner&a.uarrelled anew. with an o$$er to re7establish hi' on the throne i$ he would 'arry his daughter) +isistratus #onsented. indignant at re#ei&ing an a$$ront $ro' su#h a . whose height only $ell short o$ $our #ubits by three $ingers1 breadth. and his arrange'ents were wise and salutary) Howe&er. took hi'sel$ . who ha&e the #redit o$ sur%assing all other Greeks in #le&erness) There was in the +aeanian distri#t a wo'an na'ed +hya. and i''ediately the ru'our s%read throughout the #ountry distri#ts that -iner&a was bringing ba#k her $a&ourite) They o$ the #ity also. howe&er. and so it rea#hed her $ather1s ears) -ega#les. $ully %ersuaded that the wo'an was the &eritable goddess. a$ter whi#h they %ro#eeded to de&ise the 'ode o$ his restoration) *nd here the de&i#e on whi#h they hit was the silliest that $ind on re#ord. %rostrated the'sel&es be$ore her.isting o$$i#es or altering any o$ the laws) He ad'inistered the state a##ording to the established usages. lost his %ower again be$ore it had ti'e to take root) 3o sooner. 'arried.

and all was at length got ready $or their return) * band o$ *rgi&e 'er#enaries arri&ed $ro' the +elo%onnese. whereby the 'ight be indu#ed to dis%erse and not unite in a body any 'ore) He 'ounted his sons on horseba#k and sent the' on in $ront to o&ertake the $ugiti&es. who &olunteered his ser&i#es. #a'e into the %resen#e o$ +isistratus. es%e#ially $ro' the Thebans. and +isistratus be#a'e $or the third ti'e 'aster o$ *thens) 6%on this he set hi'sel$ to root his %ower 'ore $ir'ly. near -arathon. others to slee%. de#lared that he a##e%ted the ora#le. +isistratus bethought hi'sel$ o$ a 'ost wise #ontri&an#e.iles) -eanti'e the ar'y o$ +isistratus. su%%lying both 'en and 'oney) n the ele&enth year o$ their e. 'eeting their ad&ersaries near the te'%le o$ the +allenian -iner&a.ile the $a'ily o$ +isistratus set sail $ro' Eretria on their return ho'e) They 'ade the #oast o$ *tti#a. %it#hed their #a'% o%%osite the') Here a #ertain soothsayer. so'e to di#e.hort the' to be o$ good #heer. was %arti#ularly /ealous in the #ause. an *#arnanian. while +isistratus was obtaining $unds. and it was agreed to ai' at regaining the so&ereignty) The $irst ste% was to obtain ad&an#es o$ 'oney $ro' su#h states as were under obligations to the') By these 'eans they #olle#ted large su's $ro' se&eral #ountries.out o$ the #ountry) *rri&ed at Eretria. and a%%roa#hing hi' uttered this %ro%he#y in the he. 'o&ed by a di&ine i'%ulse. when +isistratus with his troo%s $ell u%on the' and %ut the' to the rout) *s soon as the $light began. and instantly led on his ar'y) The *thenians $ro' the #ity had 2ust $inished their 'idday 'eal. the whole $or#e o$ the state was le&ied. and a #ertain 3a. ti'e %assed.a'eter 'easure07 3ow has the #ast been 'ade.uer. a%%rehending its 'eaning. %artly $ro' the #ountries about . Through the 'oonshiny night the tunnies will enter the 'eshes) "u#h was the %ro%he#y uttered under a di&ine ins%iration) +isistratus. a$ter whi#h they had betaken the'sel&es. who ga&e the' $ar 'ore than any o$ the rest) To be brie$. %artly su%%lied $ro' nati&e sour#es. *'%hilytus by na'e. and return ea#h 'an to his ho'e) The *thenians took the ad&i#e. and were 2oined by their %artisans $ro' the #a%ital and by nu'bers $ro' the #ountry distri#ts. and was 'ar#hing u%on the #ity. howe&er. whi#h had broken u% $ro' -arathon. who lo&ed tyranny better than $reedo') *t *thens. no one %aid any attention to his %ro#eedings) 4hen. by the aid o$ a nu'erous body o$ 'er#enaries. and led against the returning e. and e.ian na'ed Lygda'is. and e&en a$ter he landed at -arathon.#he. and by kee%ing u% a $ull e. %re%arations were 'ade $or resistan#e. where they en#a'%ed. the net is out7s%read in the water. it be#a'e known that he had le$t -arathon. he held a #oun#il with his #hildren to de#ide what was to be done) The o%inion o$ Hi%%ias %re&ailed.

the ri&er "try'on) He also de'anded hostages $ro' 'any o$ the *thenians who had re'ained at ho'e. or only a 'ortal. Tria#ades.uiry #on#erning the') +ro#eeding to seek in$or'ation #on#erning the La#edae'onians. substituting new ones. when he was guardian o$ his ne%hew. and re'o&ed to another %art o$ the isle) Thus was the tyranny o$ +isistratus established at *thens. and e&er sin#e they ha&e worshi%%ed hi' with the ut'ost re&eren#e) Their soil being good and the %o%ulation nu'erous. he %uri$ied the island o$ 5elos. as well in 'atters o$ internal 'anage'ent as in their relations towards $oreigners. a$ter the $ollowing $ashion) *ll the dead bodies whi#h had been interred within sight o$ the te'%le he dug u%. 'any o$ the *thenians ha&ing $allen in the battle.uered by $or#e o$ ar's. and regent in his roo'. when the +ythoness e.uen#e they soon #eased to be . whi#h he took #are should be obser&ed by all) *$ter this he arranged whate&er a%%ertained to war. they s%rang u% ra%idly to %ower. they had lately been &i#torious in a war with the %eo%le o$ Tegea( $or. he altered the whole o$ the e. 5ear to lo&e. establishing the Eno'otiae. that the +ythoness deli&ered to hi' the entire syste' o$ laws whi#h are still obser&ed by the "%artans) The La#edae'onians. and to all who sit in the halls o$ !ly'%us. Ly#urgus) "o'e re%ort besides. the La#edae'onians. a##ording to the in2un#tions o$ an ora#le. introdu#ed the' $ro' Crete( $or as soon as he be#a'e regent.os. besides whi#h he instituted the senate. during the 2oint reign o$ Leo and *gasi#les. whi#h he had #on. and "yssitia.1 and the e%horalty) "u#h was the way in whi#h the La#edae'onians be#a'e a well7go&erned %eo%le) !n the death o$ Ly#urgus they built hi' a te'%le. and gi&en o&er into the #harge o$ Lygda'is) Farther. Labotas. a 'an o$ distin#tion a'ong the "%artans. 4hether to hail thee a god know not. kings o$ "%arta. su$$ered #ontinual de$eat at the hands o$ the Tegeans) *t a still earlier %eriod they had been the &ery worst go&erned %eo%le in Gree#e. and 'any others ha&ing $led the #ountry together with the son o$ *l#'aeon) "u#h was the #ondition o$ the *thenians when Croesus 'ade in. he learnt that. !h> thou great Ly#urgus. But 'y ho%e is strong that a god thou wilt %ro&e. and be#a'e a $lourishing %eo%le) n #onse. and not le$t *thens at his a%%roa#h( and these he sent to 3a. to &isit the ora#le) "#ar#ely had he entered into the inner $ane. a$ter %assing through a %eriod o$ great de%ression.isting #usto's. $ro' who' they ke%t entirely aloo$) The #ir#u'stan#es whi#h led to their being well go&erned were the $ollowing07 Ly#urgus.#lai'ed aloud. had gone to 5el%hi. howe&er) the'sel&es assert that Ly#urgus. king o$ "%arta. that #o'1st to 'y beauti$ul dwelling. su##ess$ul in all their other wars.

in 'y day. they sent a se#ond ti'e.uired o$ the ora#le what god they 'ust %ro%itiate to %re&ail in the war against the Tegeans) The answer o$ the +ythoness was that be$ore they #ould %re&ail. and e&il lies u%on e&il) There all7tee'ing Earth doth harbour the son o$ *trides( Bring thou hi' to thy #ity. they sent to #onsult the ora#le about #on. but o$ base 'etal< 'ade the' that they would ensla&e the Tegeans) The battle.uering the whole o$ *r#adia) The +ythoness thus answered the'0 Cra&est thou *r#ady: Bold is thy #ra&ing) shall not #ontent it) -any the 'en that in *r#ady dwell. and in. they 'ar#hed against the Tegeans. howe&er.uiet( and. *nd with the 'easuring line 'ete out the glorious #ha'%aign) 4hen the La#edae'onians re#ei&ed this re%ly. the La#edae'onians were no nearer dis#o&ering the burial7%la#e than be$ore. and are bound during the year a$ter their dis#harge to go where&er the "tate sends the'.satis$ied to stay . and 'any $ell into the ene'y1s hands) Then these %ersons. whose $ood is the a#orn7 They will ne&er allow thee) t is not that a' niggard) will gi&e thee to dan#e in Tegea. went against the'. $ound it) The *gathoergi are #iti/ens who ha&e 2ust ser&ed their ti'e a'ong the knights) The $i&e eldest o$ the knights go out e&ery year. in the 'anner whi#h will now relate) Ha&ing been worsted in e&ery engage'ent by their ene'y.e#uted their labours) The $etters in whi#h they worked were still. and then be Tegea1s 'aster) *$ter this re%ly. wearing the $etters whi#h they had the'sel&es brought. the La#edae'onians 'et with nothing but de$eats( but in the ti'e o$ Croesus. with noisy $oot7$all. the son o$ *ga'e'non) 6nable to dis#o&er his burial7%la#e.whi#h was. though they #ontinued to sear#h $or it diligently( until at last a 'an na'ed Li#has. so #on$ident had this ora#le . regarding the *r#adians as &ery 'u#h their in$eriors. #arrying with the' $etters. lea&ing the rest o$ *r#adia untou#hed. Counter7stroke answers stroke. and $astened together in a string. blowing. %reser&ed at Tegea where they hung round the walls o$ the te'%le o$ -iner&a *lea) Throughout the whole o$ this early #ontest with the Tegeans. and a#ti&ely e'%loy the'sel&es in . in truth. and asked the god where the body o$ the hero had been laid) The $ollowing was the answer they re#ei&ed07 Le&el and s'ooth is the %lain where *r#adian Tegea standeth( There two winds are e&er. 'easured the Tegean %lain as they e. by strong ne#essity. under the kings *na. they sent to 5el%hi. one o$ the "%artans #alled *gathoergi. $ortune had turned in their $a&our. they 'ust re'o&e to "%arta the bones o$ !restes.andrides and *risto.

who were to ask the "%artans to enter into allian#e with hi') They re#ei&ed stri#t in2un#tions as to what they should say. whene&er the "%artans and the Tegeans 'ade trial o$ ea#h other1s skill in ar's. the "%artans always had greatly the ad&antage( and by the ti'e to whi#h we are now #o'e they were 'asters o$ 'ost o$ the +elo%onnese) Croesus. and the ha''er and an&il would do $or the stroke and the #ounterstroke. by a #on#erted %lan. the god has bidden 'e to 'ake the Greek 'y $riend( there$ore a%%ly to you. %artly by good lu#k. knowing that you hold the $irst rank in Gree#e. ha%%ening to enter into the worksho% o$ a s'ith. they brought a #harge against hi'. he saw hi' $orging so'e iron) *s he stood 'ar&elling at what he beheld. and on their arri&al at "%arta s%ake as $ollows07 9Croesus. on turning the 'atter o&er in his 'ind. sin#e you 'ake a 'ar&el e&en o$ the working in iron) wanted to 'ake 'ysel$ a well in this roo'. in$or'ed o$ all these #ir#u'stan#es. o$ whi#h the ora#le had s%oken) He guessed so. has sent us to s%eak thus to you0 1!h La#edae'onians. and on his arri&al a#. when what think you: #a'e u%on a #o$$in se&en #ubits long) had ne&er belie&ed that 'en were taller in the olden ti'es than they are now. and took u% his abode in it) Then he o%ened the gra&e. he went to Tegea. so o%ened the #o$$in) The body inside was o$ the sa'e length0 'easured it. he was obser&ed by the s'ith who. in #on$or'ity with the ora#le. with gi$ts in their hands. and %ro%osed to rent his roo' o$ hi') The s'ith re$used $or so'e ti'e( but at last Li#has %ersuaded hi'. you would ha&e been wonder$ully sur%rised i$ you had seen what ha&e. then. %artly by his own wisdo'. and #olle#ting the bones. who were aware be$orehand o$ the re%ly gi&en hi' by . sent 'essengers to "%arta. lea&ing o$$ his work. and the iron that was being wrought $or the e&il lying u%on e&il) This he i'agined 'ight be so be#ause iron had been dis#o&ered to the hurt o$ 'an) Full o$ these #on2e#tures. you "%artan stranger. and desire to be#o'e your $riend and ally in all true $aith and honesty)19 "u#h was the 'essage whi#h Croesus sent by his heralds) The La#edae'onians. and. went u% to hi' and said. he s%ed ba#k to "%arta and laid the whole 'atter be$ore his #ountry'en) "oon a$ter.uainted the s'ith with his 'is$ortune. king o$ the Lydians and o$ other nations. #on2e#tured that this was the body o$ !restes.its ser&i#e) Li#has was one o$ this body when. he dis#o&ered the burial7%la#e) nter#ourse between the two "tates e. be#ause he obser&ed that the s'ithy had two bellows. whi#h he understood to be the two winds. and began a %rose#ution) Li#has betook hi'sel$ to Tegea. and began to dig it. 9Certainly.isting 2ust at this ti'e. returned with the' to "%arta) Fro' hen#e$orth. and $illed u% the hole again)9 "u#h was the 'an1s a##ount o$ what he had seen) The other.

oh> king. and ha&e all their other gar'ents o$ leather( who $eed not on what they like. %ut to sea in their shi%s o$ war and 'ade it their %ri/e) But the "a'ians de#lare that the La#edae'onians who had the &ase in #harge.%e#ting to de$eat Cyrus and destroy the e'%ire o$ the +ersians) 4hile he was still engaged in 'aking %re%arations $or his atta#k. thou #on. a' thank$ul to the gods that they ha&e not %ut it into the hearts o$ the +ersians to in&ade Lydia)9 Croesus was not %ersuaded by this s%ee#h. a Lydian na'ed "andanis. they say.uer thee. and large enough to #ontain three hundred a'%horae. but on what they #an get $ro' a soil that is sterile and unkindly( who do not indulge in wine. howe&er. whi#h re'ains to this day at Thorna. but drink water( who %ossess no $igs nor anything else that is good to eat) $. intending to use it on a statue o$ *%ollo7 the statue. na'ely. %ri&ate %ersons< 'ade an o$$ering o$ it at the shrine o$ 8uno0 the sellers were &ery likely on their return to "%arta to ha&e said that they had been robbed o$ it by the "a'ians) "u#h. ne&er rea#hed "ardis) ts 'is#arriage is a##ounted $or in two . though it was true .uerest the'. #onsider how 'u#h that is %re#ious thou wilt lose0 i$ they on#e get a taste o$ our %leasant things. when Croesus. whi#h they sent to Croesus as a return $or his %resents to the') The &ase. but who a$ter this obtained a &ery great na'e indeed a'ong his #ountry'en. was the $ate o$ the &ase) -eanwhile Croesus. and at on#e took the oaths o$ $riendshi% and allian#e0 this they did the 'ore readily as they had %re&iously #ontra#ted #ertain obligations towards hi') They had sent to "ardis on one o##asion to %ur#hase so'e gold. the "a'ians ha&ing knowledge o$ it. seeing that they ha&e nothing at all: But i$ they #on.who were. who had always been looked u%on as a wise 'an. on its way towards "ardis. sold it in their island.the ora#le. $ully e. #o&ered with $igures o$ ani'als all round the outside o$ the ri'.uite di$$erent ways) The La#edae'onian story is that when it rea#hed "a'os. ga&e the' as a gi$t the gold whi#h they wanted) This was one reason why the La#edae'onians were so willing to 'ake the allian#e0 another was. and learning that "ardis had $allen and that Croesus was a %risoner. they will kee% su#h hold o$ the' that we shall ne&er be able to 'ake the' loose their gras%) For 'y %art. were $ull o$ 2oy at the #o'ing o$ the 'essengers. what #anst thou get $ro' the'. be#ause Croesus had #hosen the' $or his $riends in %re$eren#e to all the other Greeks) They there$ore held the'sel&es in readiness to #o'e at his su''ons. led his $or#es into Ca%%ado#ia. #a'e $orward and #ounselled the king in these words0 9Thou art about. and the %ur#hasers . hearing o$ the 'atter. ha%%ening to arri&e too late. in La#onia. then. and not #ontent with so doing. to 'ake war against 'en who wear leathern trousers. taking the ora#le in a wrong sense. they $urther had a huge &ase 'ade in bron/e. then.

ares and his guests ate o$ the $lesh %re%ared by the "#ythians.ares and king o$ the -edes.ares. he began by treating the' with kindness.ine) 8ust there is the ne#k o$ the %eninsula. day a$ter day. war broke out between the Lydians and the -edes. who was hot7te'%ered. was at that ti'e king o$ the #ountry) Re#ognising the' as su%%liants. who o##u%y the le$t bank. son o$ Ca'byses. $led to *lyattes in the guise o$ su%%liants) *$terwards. son o$ +hraortes. he #o&eted the land. when they are %assed. whi#h they did not #on#ei&e the'sel&es to ha&e deser&ed. whi#h rises in the 'ountain #ountry o$ *r'enia. $or the boundary between the -edian and the Lydian e'%ires was the ri&er Halys) This strea'. who' they were to tea#h their language and to instru#t in the use o$ the bow) Ti'e %assed. $ro' the sea o%%osite Cy%rus to the Eu. a 2ourney o$ $i&e days a#ross $or an a#ti&e walker) There were two 'oti&es whi#h led Croesus to atta#k Ca%%ado#ia0 $irstly. and was 'ade #on$ident by the ora#le o$ being able so to do0 $or *styages. to the #ourt o$ *lyattes.uest o$ Lydia. and they the'sel&es.uen#e o$ this treat'ent. runs $irst through Cili#ia( a$terwards it $lows $or a while with the -atieni on the right. as he showed u%on the o##asion. whi#h he wished to add to his own do'inions( but the #hie$ reason was that he wanted to re&enge on Cyrus the wrongs o$ *styages. and #ontinued $or $i&e years. was Croesus1 brother by 'arriage) This 'arriage had taken %la#e under #ir#u'stan#es whi#h will now relate) * band o$ "#ythian no'ads. on the re$usal o$ *lyattes to gi&e u% his su%%liants when Cya. son o$ Cya. #ut hi' in %ie#es. that 'onar#h. who had been dethroned by Cyrus. they had been sub2e#t to the -edes( but at the %resent ti'e they were within the e'%ire o$ Cyrus. and grandson o$ 5eio#es.ares as ga'e0 a$ter whi#h they resol&ed to #on&ey the'sel&es with all s%eed to "ardis. with &arious . se%arating the Ca%%ado#ian "yrians $ro' the +a%hlagonians. the son o$ "adyattes) The %lan was #arried out0 Cya.ares with e'%ty hands. and the +hrygians on the le$t0 then.enough( $or be$ore the #on. ha&ing a##o'%lished their %ur%ose. and always brought ho'e so'e ga'e( but at last it #han#ed that one day they took nothing) !n their return to Cya.uries or delights o$ li$e) The Ca%%ado#ians are known to the Greeks by the na'e o$ "yrians) Be$ore the rise o$ the +ersian %ower. and the "#ythians e'%loyed the'sel&es. who had le$t their own land on o##asion o$ so'e disturban#e. ser&e it u% to Cya. thus $or'ing the boundary o$ al'ost the whole o$ Lower *sia. the "#ythians deter'ined to take one o$ the boys who' they had in #harge. and then dressing the $lesh as they were wont to dress that o$ the wild ani'als. in hunting. re#ei&ed the' &ery rudely and insultingly) n #onse. the +ersians %ossessed none o$ the lu. he intrusted to their #are a nu'ber o$ boys. had taken re$uge in -edia) Cya. and #o'ing %resently to estee' the' highly. it %ro#eeds with a northern #ourse.ares sent to de'and the' o$ hi'.

and brought about the e. #eased $ighting. di&ided the strea' and #aused it to $low on both sides o$ the ar'y instead o$ on the le$t only) This he e$$e#ted thus07 Beginning so'e distan#e abo&e the #a'%. knowing. as the bridges were not 'ade at that ti'e. that without so'e sure bond o$ strong ne#essity. who ha%%ened to be in the #a'%. and a$terwards $all again into the an#ient bed) n this way the ri&er was s%lit into two strea's. when they obser&ed the #hange.th year. #arried his ar's into the +ersian territory) 4hen he rea#hed the ri&er Halys.ares. and that Thales. were the %ersons who 'ediated between the %arties. di&erted $ro' its natural #ourse into the new #hannel at the %oint where this le$t the strea'. and the Lydians also gained 'any &i#tories o&er the -edes) *'ong their other battles there was one night engage'ent) *s. the balan#e had not in#lined in $a&our o$ either nation. and Labynetus o$ Babylon. whi#h were both easily $ordable) t is said by so'e that the water was entirely drained o$$ $ro' the natural bed o$ the ri&er) But a' o$ a di$$erent o%inion( $or do not see how. the -ilesian. day was on a sudden #hanged into night) This e&ent had been $oretold by Thales. who hastened the taking o$ the oaths.#hange o$ es%ousals) t was they who ad&ised that *lyattes should gi&e his daughter *ryenis in 'arriage to *styages. the son o$ Cya. 2ust as the battle was growing war'.ing $or it the &ery year in whi#h it a#tually took %la#e) The -edes and Lydians. $i. by the bridges whi#h e. and ke%t hi' %risoner. who $orewarned the onians o$ it. $an#ying it to be in his $a&our. so that it 'ight %ass to rearward o$ the #a'%( and that thus the ri&er. in the #ourse o$ whi#h.#e%t that they 'ake a slight $lesh wound in their ar's. he trans%orted his ar'y a#ross it. another #o'bat took %la#e in the si. as they did. he dug a dee% #hannel. e. $or a reason whi#h shall bring $orward in another o$ 'y history) This #a%ture $or'ed the ground o$ . a##ording to the general belie$ o$ the Greeks.uen#e o$ whi#h Croesus sent his ser&ants to ask the ora#le i$ he should atta#k the +ersians( and when an e&asi&e answer #a'e. $ro' whi#h ea#h su#ks a %ortion o$ the other1s blood) Cyrus had #a%tured this *styages. in that #ase. Croesus entered the distri#t o$ Ca%%ado#ia whi#h is #alled +teria) t lies . 'ight $low by the station o$ the ar'y. howe&er. as 'aintain. there is wont to be but little se#urity in 'en1s #o&enants) !aths are taken by these %eo%le in the sa'e way as by the Greeks. and were alike an.uarrel between Cyrus and Croesus. in #onse. by the aid o$ Thales the -ilesian) The tale is that Croesus was in doubt how he should get his ar'y a#ross. they #ould ha&e #rossed it on their return) Ha&ing %assed the Halys with the $or#es under his #o''and.su##ess) n the #ourse o$ it the -edes gained 'any &i#tories o&er the Lydians.ist there at the %resent day( but. who was his 'other1s $ather.ious to ha&e ter's o$ %ea#e agreed on) "yennesis o$ Cili#ia. whi#h he brought round in a se'i#ir#le.

in the neighbourhood o$ the #ity o$ "ino%e u%on the Eu. on the a%%earan#e o$ whi#h the horses le$t $eeding in the %asture7grounds. where the trial o$ strength took %la#e between the #ontending %owers) The #o'bat was hot and bloody. he set o$$ on his return to "ardis. whi#h $ell &ery short o$ the ene'y( and as on the ne. 'ar#hed against the ene'y. but $ate did not allow the' . who were guilty o$ no o$$en#e towards hi') -eanwhile. and is the strongest %osition in the whole #ountry thereabouts) Here Croesus %it#hed his #a'%. with an in&itation to the' to re&olt $ro' the Lydian king0 they.ine. and began to ra&age the $ields o$ the "yrians) He besieged and took the #hie$ #ity o$ the +terians.uest that they would 2oin hi' at "ardis in the #ourse o$ the $i$th 'onth $ro' the ti'e o$ the de%arture o$ his 'essengers) He then disbanded the ar'y #onsisting o$ 'er#enary troo%s7 whi#h had been engaged with the +ersians and had sin#e a##o'%anied hi' to his #a%ital. under their king Labynetus. he would. ne&er i'agining that Cyrus. regarded it &ery rightly as a %rodigy) He there$ore instantly sent 'essengers to the soothsayers o$ Tel'essus. with a re. and obtained $ro' the Tel'essians an e. howe&er. would &enture to 'ar#h u%on "ardis) 4hile Croesus was still in this 'ind. and u%on both sides the nu'ber o$ the slain was great( nor had &i#tory de#lared in $a&our o$ either %arty. and redu#ed the inhabitants to sla&ery0 he likewise 'ade hi'sel$ 'aster o$ the surrounding &illages) Thus he brought ruin on the "yrians. had re$used #o'%lian#e) Cyrus. $or they too were bound to hi' by treaty0 and $urther. and let the' de%art to their ho'es. all the suburbs o$ "ardis were $ound to swar' with snakes. a##ording to the ter's o$ the allian#e whi#h he had #on#luded with *'asis. intending to #olle#t his allies and renew the #ontest in the s%ring) He 'eant to #all on the Egy%tians to send hi' aid. His 'essengers rea#hed the #ity. in#reasing his nu'bers at e&ery ste% by the $or#es o$ the nations that lay in his way) Be$ore beginning his 'ar#h he had sent heralds to the onians. he 'eant to send word to "%arta.t day Cyrus did not re%eat the atta#k. a$ter a battle in whi#h &i#tory had been so e&enly balan#ed. 'ar#h on#e 'ore against the +ersians) 4ith these intentions Croesus. and $lo#ked to the suburbs to eat the') The king. when night #a'e down u%on the battle7$ield) Thus both ar'ies $ought &aliantly) Croesus laid the bla'e o$ his ill su##ess on the nu'ber o$ his troo%s. %re&iously to his league with the La#edae'onians) He intended also to su''on to his assistan#e the Babylonians. who witnessed the unusual sight. des%at#hed heralds to his &arious allies. i''ediately on his return. and en#a'%ed o%%osite the' in the distri#t o$ +teria. Cyrus had le&ied an ar'y and 'ar#hed against Croesus. and a%%oint a day $or the #o'ing o$ their su##ours) Ha&ing got together these $or#es in addition to his own.%lanation o$ what the %rodigy %ortended. notwithstanding. as soon as the winter was %ast and s%ringti'e #o'e. to #onsult the' u%on the 'atter.

he 'ounted riders u%on the' a##outred as horse'en) These he #o''anded to ad&an#e in $ront o$ his other troo%s against the Lydian horse( behind the' were to $ollow the $oot soldiers. e&en i$ he should be sei/ed and o$$er resistan#e) The reason why Cyrus o%%osed his #a'els to the ene'y1s horse was be#ause the horse has a natural dread o$ the #a'el. #alled the Her'us) This ri&er rises in the sa#red 'ountain o$ the 5indy'enian -other. bare o$ trees. he lost no ti'e in #arrying out his %lan) He 'ar#hed $orward with su#h s%eed that he was hi'sel$ the $irst to announ#e his #o'ing to the Lydian king) That 'onar#h. and taking o$$ their loads. suggested to hi') He #olle#ted together all the #a'els that had #o'e in the train o$ his ar'y to #arry the %ro&isions and the baggage. and i''ediately the Lydian war7horses. said they. he ga&e his troo%s orders to slay all the other Lydians who #a'e in their way without 'er#y. and $alls into the sea near the town o$ +ho#aea) 4hen Cyrus beheld the Lydians arranging the'sel&es in order o$ battle on this %lain. one o$ the -edes.uarters a$ter the battle at +teria. he ado%ted a de&i#e whi#h Har%agus. $ear$ul o$ the strength o$ their #a&alry. when Croesus broke u% so suddenly $ro' his . be$ore the Lydians #ould get their $or#es together a se#ond ti'e) Ha&ing thus deter'ined.to in$or' their lord( $or ere they entered "ardis on their return. howe&er. turned round and . is a #hild o$ earth. Croesus was a %risoner) 4hat the Tel'essians had de#lared was that Croesus 'ust look $or the entry o$ an ar'y o$ $oreign in&aders into his #ountry. and #annot abide either the sight or the s'ell o$ that ani'al) By this stratage' he ho%ed to 'ake Croesus1s horse useless to hi'. the horse being what he #hie$ly de%ended on $or &i#tory) The two ar'ies then 2oined battle. watered by the Hyllus and a nu'ber o$ other strea's. and that when they #a'e they would subdue the nati&e inhabitants( sin#e the snake. %la#ed in the ut'ost di$$i#ulty by the turn o$ e&ents whi#h had gone so entirely against all his #al#ulations. but they had no knowledge o$ what was taking %la#e at "ardis. seeing and s'elling the #a'els.uiry. and soon saw that it was ad&isable $or hi' to ad&an#e u%on "ardis with all haste. or o$ the $ate o$ the 'onar#h) Cyrus. ne&ertheless led out the Lydians to battle) n all *sia there was not at that ti'e a bra&er or 'ore warlike %eo%le) Their 'anner o$ $ighting was on horseba#k( they #arried long lan#es. whi#h all $low into one larger than the rest. and were #le&er in the 'anage'ent o$ their steeds) The two ar'ies 'et in the %lain be$ore "ardis) t is a &ast $lat. and the horse a warrior and a $oreigner) Croesus was already a %risoner when the Tel'essians thus answered his in. #onsidered a little. #on#ei&ing that he had 'ar#hed away with the intention o$ disbanding his ar'y. but to s%are Croesus and not kill hi'. and last o$ all the #a&alry) 4hen his arrange'ents were #o'%lete.

gallo%ed o$$( and so it #a'e to %ass that all Croesus1s ho%es withered away) The Lydians. hundred only three 'en re'ained ali&e. in whi#h both %arties su$$ered great loss. both %arties #lai'ing the &i#tory. and a battle was $ought. beha&ed 'an$ully) *s soon as they understood what was ha%%ening. that at the #lose o$ the day. when night %ut a sto% to the $ight. the "%artan. the one.t day the two ar'ies returned to learn the result) *t $irst they dis%uted. and. and stri%%ed the bodies o$ the slain. 'ight hasten to their assistan#e) These ter's being agreed on. stri%%ing the bodies o$ the *rgi&es who had $allen. on seeing their #ountry'en undergoing de$eat. the two ar'ies 'ar#hed o$$. and a single "%artan. and not only that entire tra#t u%on the 'ainland. #arried their ar'our to the "%artan #a'%) 3e. that either the one or the other. #ut it . but be$ore any battle was $ought. that the "%artans were the'sel&es 2ust at this ti'e engaged in a . be#ause their 'an re'ained on the $ield. they lea%ed o$$ their horses.ual were the #o'batants. whi#h should belong to the nation with who' the &i#tory rested) t was sti%ulated also that the other troo%s on ea#h side should return ho'e to their res%e#ti&e #ountries. and so e. but had been sei/ed on by the La#edae'onians) ndeed. two *rgi&es. who u% to that ti'e had worn their hair long. howe&er. and it was agreed that three hundred "%artans and three hundred *rgi&es should 'eet and $ight $or the %la#e. and to besee#h the' to #o'e to his aid with all %ossible s%eed) *'ong his other allies Croesus did not o'it to send to La#edae'on) t #han#ed.uarrel with the *rgi&es about a %la#e #alled Thyrea. lea&ing three hundred %i#ked 'en on ea#h side to $ight $or the territory) The battle began. whi#h was within the li'its o$ *rgolis. belonged on#e to the *rgi&es. hurried to *rgos) !thryadas. and not re'ain to witness the #o'bat. a$ter a great slaughter on both sides. sent o$$ $resh heralds to his allies $ro' the beleaguered town) His $or'er 'essengers had been #harged to bid the' asse'ble at "ardis in the #ourse o$ the $i$th 'onth( they who' he now sent were to say that he was already besieged. the whole #ountry westward. but also Cythera. howe&er. thinking that the %la#e would hold out no in#onsiderable ti'e. re'ained u%on the $ield. !thryadas) The two *rgi&es. regarding the'sel&es as the &i#tors. as there was danger. whereas the two 'en o$ the other side ran away( but at last they $ell $ro' words to blows. *l#anor and Chro'ius. and the other islands) The *rgi&es #olle#ted troo%s to resist the sei/ure o$ Thyrea. the Lydians turned and $led) They were dri&en within their walls and the +ersians laid siege to "ardis) Thus the siege began) -eanwhile Croesus. and engaged with the +ersians on $oot) The #o'bat was long( but at last. the two %arties #a'e to ter's. as $ar as Ca%e -alea. o$ the whole si. i$ the ar'ies stayed. but at the end the La#edae'onians gained the &i#tory) 6%on this the *rgi&es. be#ause they had the greater nu'ber o$ sur&i&ors( the other.

and a'ong other %lans whi#h he had de&ised. and 'ade a law. and $or'ed his %lan) He #li'bed the ro#k hi'sel$.o$$ #lose. yet. the "%artans #eased their e$$orts) The $ollowing is the way in whi#h "ardis was taken) !n the $ourteenth day o$ the siege Cyrus bade so'e horse'en ride about his lines. he s#orned to take it round this side. the sole sur&i&or o$ the three hundred. whose only de$e#t was that he was dea$ and du'b) n the days o$ his %ros%erity Croesus had done the ut'ost that be #ould $or hi'. but a #ertain -ardian. howe&er.as it see'ed< so i'%regnable. na'ely. and 'ake %ro#la'ation to the whole ar'y that he would gi&e a reward to the 'an who should $irst 'ount the wall) *$ter this he 'ade an assault. it is said. when a se#ond 'essage in$or'ed the' that the %la#e had already $allen. this is what be$ell hi' at the taking o$ the town) He had a son. and ne&er to allow their wo'en to wear gold. resol&ed to a%%roa#h the #itadel and atte'%t it at a %la#e where no guards were e&er set) !n this side the ro#k was so %re#i%itous. Hyroeades by na'e. and gi&en u% entirely to %illage) 4ith res%e#t to Croesus hi'sel$. and ha&ing seen hi' %i#k it u% and #arry it ba#k. until a large nu'ber had 'ounted to the to%) Thus was "ardis taken. that no $ear was entertained o$ its being #arried in this %la#e) Here was the only %ortion o$ the #ir#uit round whi#h their old king -eles did not #arry the lion whi#h his le'an bore to hi') For when the Tel'essians had de#lared that i$ the lion were taken round the de$en#es.uen#e. #arried it round the rest o$ the $ortress where the #itadel see'ed o%en to atta#k. %re&ented by a sense o$ sha'e $ro' returning to "%arta a$ter all his #o'rades had $allen. thought o&er what he had witnessed. in #onse. and -eles. notwithstanding. but without su##ess) His troo%s retired. they instantly set to work to a$$ord hi' hel%) They had #o'%leted their %re%arations. until they should re#o&er Thyrea) *t the sa'e ti'e the La#edae'onians 'ade a law the &ery re&erse o$ this. a worthy youth. whi#h he looked on as a sheer %re#i%i#e. to wear their hair long. had sent to 5el%hi to #onsult the ora#le on his behal$) The answer whi#h he had re#ei&ed $ro' the +ythoness ran thus07 . "ardis would be i'%regnable. laid &iolent hands u%on hi'sel$ in Thyrea) *lthough the "%artans were engaged with these 'atters when the herald arri&ed $ro' "ardis to entreat the' to #o'e to the assistan#e o$ the besieged king. ha&ing the day be$ore obser&ed a Lydian soldier des#end the ro#k a$ter a hel'et that had rolled down $ro' the to%. though they had always be$ore #ut it #lose) !thryadas hi'sel$. and the shi%s were 2ust ready to start. and that Croesus was a %risoner) 5ee%ly grie&ed at his 'is$ortune. binding the'sel&es ne&er 'ore to let their hair grow. o$ who' 'ade 'ention abo&e. and other +ersians $ollowed in his tra#k. to whi#h they atta#hed a #urse. and there$ore absolutely se#ure) t is on that side o$ the #ity whi#h $a#es -ount T'olus) Hyroeades. and the #itadel .

and with hi' twi#e se&en o$ the sons o$ the Lydians) know not whether Cyrus was 'inded to 'ake an o$$ering o$ the to so'e god or other. he e. 9-an. although it was nothing that es%e#ially #on#erned hi'. laden with $etters. but he held his %ea#e. but a$terwards he retained the %ower o$ s%ee#h $or the re'ainder o$ his li$e) Thus was "ardis taken by the +ersians. groaned out aloud. a long ti'e be$ore. and 'ost to those who see'ed to . had #o'e and seen all his s%lendour. 4ish not e&er to hear in thy %ala#e the &oi#e thou hast %rayed $or 6ttering intelligent sounds) Far better thy son should be silent> *h> woe worth the day when thine #ar shall $irst list to his a##ents) 4hen the town was taken. "olon. thou wondrous si'%le Croesus.a#tly as he $oreshowed. do not kill Croesus)9 This was the $irst ti'e that he had e&er s%oken a word. the inter%reters begged hi' to e.uire o$ Croesus who it was he #alled on) They drew near and asked hi'.Lydian. but under the %ressure o$ his a$$li#tion. thri#e uttering the na'e o$ "olon) Cyrus #aught the sounds. 93o one while he li&es is ha%%y)9 4hen this thought s'ote hi' he $et#hed a long breath. wide7ruling 'onar#h. and $or a long ti'e 'ade no answer to their . or whether he had &owed a &ow and was %er$or'ing it. he had heard that Croesus was a holy 'an. and Croesus was already on the %ile. and said. an *thenian. not 'inding whether or no he died beneath the stroke) Then this son o$ his. as 'ay well be. was %la#ed u%on it. a$ter ha&ing reigned $ourteen years. in the agony o$ his $ear and grie$ burst into s%ee#h. and Croesus hi'sel$ $ell into their hands. $or#ed to say so'ething. beholding the +ersian as he rushed towards Croesus.%lain hi'sel$( and as they %ressed $or an answer. not knowing who he was) Croesus saw the 'an #o'ing. but a%%lied to all 'ankind alike.uestionings. and breaking his dee% silen#e. one o$ the +ersians was 2ust going to kill Croesus. and grew to be troubleso'e. until at length. he told the' how. when it entered his 'ind in the de%th o$ his woe that there was a di&ine warning in the words whi#h had #o'e to hi' $ro' the li%s o$ "olon. and Croesus. Cyrus was thus engaged. whi#h said that he should destroy a 'ighty e'%ire by destroying his own) Then the +ersians who had 'ade Croesus %risoner brought hi' be$ore Cyrus) 3ow a &ast %ile had been raised by his orders. and been besieged in his #a%ital $ourteen days( thus too did Croesus $ul$ill the ora#le. 9!ne would gi&e 'u#h to see #on&erse with e&ery 'onar#h)9 3ot knowing what he 'eant by this re%ly. did not #are to a&oid the blow. or whether. and so wished to see i$ any o$ the hea&enly %owers would a%%ear to sa&e hi' $ro' being burnt ali&e) Howe&er it 'ight be. and 'ade light o$ it( and how whate&er he had said to hi' had $allen out e. who was &oi#eless. and bade the inter%reters in.#lai'ed.

and 'ade hi' sit down near hi'sel$. and so be#o'e his $oe rather than #ontinue his $riend:9 to whi#h Croesus 'ade answer as $ollows0 94hat did. whi#h they tried to do. and one who had on#e been as blessed by $ortune as hi'sel$.uestion0 94hat is it. 'oreo&er. bade all the #ourt to withdraw. was to thy ad&antage and to 'y own loss) $ there be bla'e. dark #louds gathered.tinguished) Cyrus. in whi#h. what ha&e in 'y 'ind. %er#ei&ing by the e$$orts 'ade to . the Lydians say that Croesus. or is silen#e best:9 Cyrus bade hi' s%eak his 'ind boldly) Then he %ut this . it see's to 'e that it is 'y %art. ha%%ening to turn and %er#ei&e the +ersian soldiers engaged in %lundering the town. and %rayed hi'. he said to Cyrus. and then asked Croesus what he thought it best $or hi' to do as regarded the %lundering) Croesus answered. as he thus s%oke. and the stor' burst o&er their heads with rain o$ su#h &iolen#e. with a sort o$ wonder) Croesus. the %ile was lighted. oh> king. as did also the #ourtiers. whi#h those 'en yonder are doing so busily:9 9+lundering thy #ity. 9-ay now tell thee. 9and #arrying o$$ thy ri#hes)9 93ot 'y #ity. uttered no word) *$ter a while. instead o$ sons burying their $athers. and take down Croesus and the other Lydians. bethinking hi'sel$ that he too was a 'an. and %aid hi' 'u#h res%e#t. and that the 'en #ould not get the $ire under. i$ he e&er re#ei&ed at his hands any a##e%table gi$t. but the $la'es were not to be 'astered) Then. 9nor 'y ri#hes) They are not 'ine any 'ore) t is thy wealth whi#h they are %illaging)9 Cyrus. #on&in#ed by this that Croesus was a good 'an and a $a&ourite o$ hea&en. asked hi' a$ter he was taken o$$ the %ile. and deli&er hi' $ro' his %resent danger) *s thus with tears he besought the god. and the outer %ortion began to bla/e) Then Cyrus. wra%%ed in thought. o$ retribution.9 Cyrus answered. oh> king. looking u%on hi'. 94ho it was that had %ersuaded hi' to lead an ar'y into his #ountry. to #o'e to his aid. and $ull o$ the thought that whate&er is hu'an is inse#ure) "o he bade the' . suddenly. stru#k by what Croesus had said. and seeing also that all was in &ain. the +ersians. and that it was a $ellow7'an. it rests with the god o$ the Greeks.uen#h the $ire that Cyrus had relented. are a %oor %eo%le with a %roud s%irit) $ then . #alled with a loud &oi#e u%on the god *%ollo. 93ow that the gods ha&e 'ade 'e thy sla&e. that he was burning ali&e( a$raid.ui#kly as they #ould. relented. to show it to thee) Thy sub2e#ts.9 re2oined the other. hearing $ro' the inter%reters what Croesus had said. i$ see anything to thy ad&antage. who en#ouraged 'e to begin the war) 3o one is so $oolish as to %re$er war to %ea#e.the'sel&es ha%%y) -eanwhile. $athers bury their sons) But the gods willed it so)9 Thus did Croesus s%eak) Cyrus then ordered his $etters to be taken o$$. that the $la'es were s%eedily e. though u% to that ti'e the sky had been #lear and the day without a breath o$ wind. oh> Cyrus.uen#h the bla/ing $ire as . oh> Cyrus.

look to ha&ing hi' rebel against thee) 3ow then. howe&er. to begin a war with +ersia. 9 $ he were not asha'ed o$ ha&ing en#ouraged hi'.uest allowed. there$ore.uire.#ellent did it see' to hi') He %raised Croesus highly. and at the end again besought %er'ission to re%roa#h the god with his beha&iour) Cyrus answered with a laugh. and. 9This readily grant thee. so e. 9!h> 'y lord. and whate&er else thou shalt at any ti'e ask at 'y hands)9 Croesus. seeing that what is %ro%osed is 2ust. and ga&e orders to his bodyguard to do as he had suggested) Then. i$ 'y words %lease thee. see that thou are resol&ed both in s%ee#h and a#t to show thysel$ a &irtuous %rin#e0 ask 'e. 9 $ it was the wont o$ the Greek gods to be ungrate$ul:9 The Lydians went to 5el%hi and deli&ered their 'essage. wrong$ully sei/ed the throne) *%ollo was an. will tell thee what thou hast to e. will do it willingly)9 Cyrus was beyond 'easure %leased with this ad&i#e. and o$ the o$$erings whi#h he had sent. oh> king07 Let so'e o$ thy bodyguards be %la#ed as sentinels at ea#h o$ the #ity gates. and ask hi' i$ it is his wont to de#ei&e his bene$a#tors7 that will be the highest $a&our thou #anst #on$er on 'e)9 Cyrus u%on this in. i$ thou wilt su$$er 'e to send these $etters to the god o$ the Greeks.ious that the $all o$ "ardis should not ha%%en in the li$eti'e o$ Croesus. 2oined in a wo'an1s $raud. who' on#e honoured abo&e all other gods.thou lettest the' %illage and %ossess the'sel&es o$ great wealth. do thus. 9!h> Croesus. as the destined destroyer o$ the e'%ire o$ Cyrus. on whi#h the +ythoness is said to ha&e re%lied7 9 t is not %ossible e&en $or a god to es#a%e the de#ree o$ destiny) Croesus has been %unished $or the sin o$ his $i$th an#estor. and ask the god.uired what #harge he had to 'ake against the god) Then Croesus ga&e hi' a $ull a##ount o$ all his %ro2e#ts.%e#t at their hands) The 'an who gets the 'ost. en2oining the' to lay his $etters u%on the threshold o$ the te'%le. sent #ertain Lydians to 5el%hi. when he was one o$ the bodyguard o$ the Hera#lides. turning to Croesus. slaying his 'aster. and o$ the answers o$ the ora#le. on whi#h he dwelt es%e#ially. %ersuade the Fates) *ll that they were willing to allow he took and ga&e to Croesus) Let Croesus know that *%ollo delayed the taking o$ "ardis three $ull years. o$ whi#h su#h were the $irst7$ruits:9 *s they said this they were to %oint to the $etters7 and $urther they were to in. but be delayed to his son1s days( he #ould not. whate&er thou wilt as a gi$t at this 'o'ent)9 Croesus re%lied. who. and told hi' how it was the en#ourage'ent gi&en hi' by the ora#le whi#h had led hi' to 'ake war u%on +ersia) *ll this he related. he said. and let the' take their booty $ro' the soldiers as they lea&e the town. $inding his re. and tell the' that they do so be#ause the tenths are due to 8u%iter) "o wilt thou es#a%e the hatred they would $eel i$ the %lunder were taken away $ro' the' by $or#e( and they. and that he is thus a %risoner three years later than was his destiny) .

and those sent to *'%hiaraus. i$ he had been wise. i$ he atta#ked the +ersians. whi#h he ga&e) *ll these o$$erings were still in e. unlike 'ost other #ountries. there are 'any others in &arious %arts o$ Gree#e %resented by Croesus( as at Thebes in Boeotia. who #on$essed. the rest being a &ast 'ound o$ . one stru#ture o$ enor'ous si/e. and o$ di$$erent #onditions7 his 'other a -edian %rin#ess. by the a%%oint'ent o$ his $ather. and in all res%e#ts like to those at 5el%hi) The 5el%hian %resents. that the $ault was his. only in$erior to the 'onu'ents o$ Egy%t and Babylon) This is the to'b o$ *lyattes. had 'arried his royal 'istress)9 "u#h was the answer o$ the +ythoness) The Lydians returned to "ardis and #o''uni#ated it to Croesus. not the god1s) "u#h was the way in whi#h onia was $irst #on.uired whi#h e'%ire was 'eant. as a' in$or'ed. who. where the golden hei$ers. where there is a huge shield in gold. though so $ar beneath her in all res%e#ts. daughter o$ ?ing *styages. e. but by a di$$erent 'other $ro' Croesus( $or the 'other o$ Croesus was a Carian wo'an. who. where there is a golden tri%od. the base o$ whi#h is $or'ed o$ i''ense blo#ks o$ stone. he ought.isten#e in 'y day( 'any others ha&e %erished0 a'ong the' those whi#h he dedi#ated at Bran#hidae in -ilesia. be$ore he 'ounted the throne. he has only hi'sel$ to bla'e $or the result) Besides. the $ather o$ Croesus.-oreo&er it was *%ollo who sa&ed hi' $ro' the burning %ile) 3or has Croesus any right to #o'%lain with res%e#t to the ora#ular answer whi#h he re#ei&ed) For when the god told hi' that.#e%t the gold7dust whi#h is washed down $ro' the range o$ T'olus) t has. headed a %arty against hi'. e. Croesus obtained the kingly dignity. howe&er. #a'e $ro' his own %ri&ate %ro%erty. to ha&e sent again and in. with the &iew o$ obtaining the #rown o$ Lydia $or +antaleon) This +antaleon was a son o$ *lyattes. he sei/ed the 'an who had %lotted against hi'. he would destroy a 'ighty e'%ire. that o$ Cyrus or his own( but i$ he neither understood what was said. but the 'other o$ +antaleon an onian) 4hen. s#ar#ely o$$ers any wonders $or the historian to des#ribe. on hearing it. and his $ather a +ersian and a sub2e#t. and so was the e'%ire o$ Croesus brought to a #lose) Besides the o$$erings whi#h ha&e been already 'entioned. being the $irst7$ruits o$ the $ortune whi#h he inherited $ro' his $ather( his other o$$erings #a'e $ro' the ri#hes o$ an ene'y. he had 'isunderstood the last answer whi#h had been gi&en hi' about the 'ule) Cyrus was that 'ule) For the %arents o$ Cyrus were o$ di$$erent ra#es. Croesus a%%lied in the way 'entioned abo&e) This is all shall say about his o$$erings) Lydia. and broke hi' u%on the wheel) His %ro%erty. in the te'%le o$ +ronaia. and 'ost o$ the #olu'ns are his gi$t( and at 5el%hi. dedi#ated by hi' to s'enian *%ollo( at E%hesus. whi#h he had %re&iously de&oted to the ser&i#e o$ the gods.ual in weight. nor took the trouble to seek $or enlighten'ent.uered.

t day to eat and abstain $ro' ga'es) n this way they %assed eighteen years) "till the a$$li#tion #ontinued and e&en be#a'e 'ore grie&ous) "o the king deter'ined to di&ide the nation in hal$.#e%t tables. a$ter they had %ut on board all need$ul stores. and hu#kle7bones. where they built #ities $or the'sel&es. with the e. and the $irst who sold goods by retail) They #lai' also the in&ention o$ all the ga'es whi#h are #o''on to the' with the Greeks) These they de#lare that they in&ented about the ti'e when they #olonised Tyrrhenia. and to 'ake the two %ortions draw lots.ed their residen#e) Their $or'er na'e o$ Lydians they laid aside. and the ne. who led the #olony. and they who had to e'igrate went down to "'yrna. there was great s#ar#ity through the whole land o$ Lydia) For so'e ti'e the Lydians bore the a$$li#tion %atiently. one and all. and had at the to% $i&e stone %illars.earth) t was raised by the 2oint labour o$ the trades'en. they were the $irst nation to introdu#e the use o$ gold and sil&er #oin. stades and two %lethra in #ir#u'$eren#e( its breadth is thirteen %lethra) Close to the to'b is a large lake. and #ourtesans o$ "ardis. whi#h re'ained to 'y day.%edients were dis#o&ered by &arious %ersons( di#e. they set to work to de&ise re'edies $or the e&il) @arious e. e. and by what 'eans the +ersians had be#o'e the lords . the one to stay. whi#h the Lydians say is ne&er dry) They #all it the Lake Gygaea) The Lydians ha&e &ery nearly the sa'e #usto's as the Greeks. handi#ra$ts'en. but $inding that it did not %ass away.#e%tion that these last do not bring u% their girls in the sa'e way) "o $ar as we ha&e any knowledge. and ball. the son o$ -anes. %ursue this tra$$i#. Tyrrhenians) Thus $ar ha&e been engaged in showing how the Lydians were brought under the +ersian yoke) The #ourse o$ 'y history now #o'%els 'e to in. and all su#h ga'es were in&ented. and #alled the'sel&es a$ter the na'e o$ the king1s son. showing how 'u#h o$ the work was done by ea#h #lass o$ work%eo%le) t a%%eared on 'easure'ent that the %ortion o$ the #ourtesans was the largest) The daughters o$ the #o''on %eo%le in Lydia. and built the'sel&es shi%s.uire who this Cyrus was by who' the Lydian e'%ire was destroyed. an e&ent o$ whi#h they gi&e the $ollowing a##ount) n the days o$ *tys. and $i. they sailed away in sear#h o$ new ho'es and better sustenan#e) *$ter sailing %ast 'any #ountries they #a'e to 6'bria. the other to lea&e the land) He would #ontinue to reign o&er those whose lot it should be to re'ain behind( the e'igrants should ha&e his son Tyrrhenus $or their leader) The lot was #ast. in whi#h. the in&ention o$ whi#h they do not #lai' as theirs) The %lan ado%ted against the $a'ine was to engage in ga'es one day so entirely as not to $eel any #ra&ing $or $ood. wishing to #olle#t 'oney $or their %ortions) They #ontinue the %ra#ti#e till they 'arry( and are wont to #ontra#t the'sel&es in 'arriage) The to'b is si. with ins#ri%tions #ut on the'.

as think.%ara'ount o$ *sia) *nd herein shall $ollow those +ersian authorities whose ob2e#t it a%%ears to be not to 'agni$y the e. and %re&ailed through the #ountry e&en 'ore than hereto$ore( where$ore the -edes asse'bled $ro' all . he $or'ed and #arried into e. and a%%eared no 'ore in the seat in whi#h he had been a##usto'ed to sit and ad'inister 2usti#e) 9 t did not s. 5eio#es. he showed hi'sel$ an honest and an u%right 2udge. were #hie$ly $riends o$ 5eio#es) 94e #annot %ossibly.9 he said.uarters.uen#e %re&ailed throughout the land. but they $ell again under the sway o$ kings. a 'an o$ 'u#h wisdo'. and lawlessness in #onse. when they heard o$ the singular u%rightness o$ 5eio#es. son o$ +hraortes. there$ore. in the 'anner whi#h will now relate) There was a #ertain -ede na'ed 5eio#es.%loits o$ Cyrus. and by these 'eans gained su#h #redit with his $ellow7#iti/ens as to attra#t the attention o$ those who li&ed in the surrounding &illages) They had long been su$$ering $ro' un2ust and o%%ressi&e 2udg'ents( so that. 9to s%end the whole day in regulating other 'en1s a$$airs to the negle#t o$ his own)9 Hereu%on robbery and lawlessness broke out a$resh. and held a #onsultation on the state o$ a$$airs) The s%eakers. in whi#h they beha&ed with su#h gallantry as to shake o$$ the yoke o$ ser&itude.uity o$ his de#isions.9 they said.a'%le o$ re&olt $ro' their authority) They took ar's $or the re#o&ery o$ their $reedo'. and to be#o'e a $ree %eo%le) 6%on their su##ess the other nations also re&olted and regained their inde%enden#e) Thus the nations o&er that whole e.tent o$ #ountry obtained the blessing o$ sel$7go&ern'ent. 9go on li&ing in this . $eeling hi'sel$ now all i'%ortant.uarrels and suits that arose. who had #on#ei&ed the desire o$ obtaining to hi'sel$ the so&ereign %ower) n $urtheran#e o$ his a'bition. announ#ed that he did not intend any longer to hear #auses.e#ution the $ollowing s#he'e) *s the -edes at that ti'e dwelt in s#attered &illages without any #entral authority.uare with his interests. they 2oy$ully had re#ourse to hi' in the &arious . until at last they #a'e to %ut #on$iden#e in no one else) The nu'ber o$ #o'%laints brought be$ore hi' #ontinually in#reasing. as %eo%le learnt 'ore and 'ore the $airness o$ his 2udg'ents. obser&ing his integrity. when the -edes set the e. and $ought a battle with the *ssyrians. a%%lied hi'sel$ with greater /eal and earnestness than e&er be$ore to the %ra#ti#e o$ 2usti#e a'ong his $ellows) t was his #on&i#tion that 2usti#e and in2usti#e are engaged in %er%etual war with one another) He there$ore began his #ourse o$ #ondu#t. who was already a 'an o$ 'ark in his own &illage. 5eio#es. all di$$ering $ro' 'y own narrati&e) The *ssyrians had held the E'%ire o$ 6%%er *sia $or the s%a#e o$ $i&e hundred and twenty years. but to relate the si'%le truth) know besides three ways in whi#h the story o$ Cyrus is told. and o$ the e. and %resently the 'en o$ his &illage. #hose hi' to be the arbiter o$ all their dis%utes) Bent on obtaining the so&ereign %ower.

he %ro#eeded to arrange the #ere'onial) He allowed no one to ha&e dire#t a##ess to the %erson o$ the king. they would think hi' . and resol&ed to a%%oint a king) t $ollowed to deter'ine who should be #hosen to the o$$i#e) 4hen this debate began the #lai's o$ 5eio#es and his %raises were at on#e in e&ery 'outh( so that %resently all agreed that he should be king) 6%on this he re. and built the #ity now #alled *gbatana. he $urther re. and a guard to be gi&en hi' $or his %erson) The -edes #o'%lied. and no whit in$erior to hi' in 'anly .ualities. o$ the $ourth blue. and. and likewise ga&e hi' liberty to #hoose hi'sel$ a bodyguard $ro' the whole nation) Thus settled u%on the throne. the walls o$ whi#h are o$ great si/e and strength.#ountry i$ things #ontinue as they now are( let us there$ore set a king o&er us. who were brought u% together with hi'. and we oursel&es 'ay be able to attend to our own a$$airs. and sent in to . and would there$ore be likely to #ons%ire against hi'( whereas i$ they did not see hi'. and not be $or#ed to .uired the' to build a single great #ity. but it was 'ainly e$$e#ted by art) The nu'ber o$ the #ir#les is se&en.uently would be %ained at the sight.t bla#k. 'ake the new #a%ital the ob2e#t o$ their #hie$ attention) The -edes were again obedient. o$ the third s#arlet.uired to build their dwellings outside the #ir#uit o$ the walls) 4hen the town was $inished. on a s%ot whi#h he hi'sel$ %ointed out. $earing that his #o'%eers. and built hi' a strong and large %ala#e. i$ they saw hi' $re. that so the land 'ay be well go&erned. whi#h is a gentle hill. o$ the ne. the royal %ala#e and the treasuries standing within the last) The #ir#uit o$ the outer wall is &ery nearly the sa'e with that o$ *thens) !$ this wall the battle'ents are white.uit our #ountry on a##ount o$ anar#hy)9 The asse'bly was %ersuaded by these argu'ents. 5eio#es established $or his own se#urity. $a&ours this arrange'ent in so'e degree. rising in #ir#les one within the other) The %lan o$ the %la#e is that ea#h o$ the walls should out7to% the one beyond it by the battle'ents) The nature o$ the ground. and $ir'ly settling hi'sel$ u%on the throne. o$ the $i$th orange( all these are #oloured with %aint) The two last ha&e their battle'ents #oated res%e#ti&ely with sil&er and gold) *ll these $orti$i#ations 5eio#es #aused to be raised $or hi'sel$ and his own %ala#e) The %eo%le were re. but 'ade all #o''uni#ation %ass through the hands o$ 'essengers. and $orbade the king to be seen by his sub2e#ts) He also 'ade it an o$$en#e $or any one whatsoe&er to laugh or s%it in the royal %resen#e) This #ere'onial.uite a di$$erent sort o$ being $ro' the'sel&es) *$ter #o'%leting these arrange'ents. 5eio#es #ontinued to ad'inister 2usti#e with the sa'e stri#tness as be$ore) Causes were stated in writing. and were o$ as good $a'ily as he. disregarding the %etty towns in whi#h they had $or'erly dwelt.uired a %ala#e to be built $or hi' suitable to his rank. o$ whi#h he was the $irst in&entor.

brought the' under the -edian yoke be$ore any other %eo%le) *$ter this su##ess. burst into *sia in %ursuit o$ the Ci''erians who' they had dri&en out o$ Euro%e.ares had already begun the siege o$ the %la#e. who turned out o$ the straight #ourse. 'ean. both o$ the' %ower$ul. resol&ed to a&enge his $ather. when a nu'erous horde o$ "#yths. 'ar#hed against 3ine&eh. %assing who' you $ind yoursel$ in -edia) This howe&er was not the road $ollowed by the "#ythians. and awarded hi' the %unish'ent 'eet $or his o$$en#e) Thus 5eio#es #olle#ted the -edes into a nation. who were $or'erly the lords o$ *sia) *t %resent they stood alone by the re&olt and desertion o$ their allies. who be$ore his ti'e had been 'ingled in one 'ass. began by atta#king the +ersians( and 'ar#hing an ar'y into their #ountry. and #on$used together) He it was who $ought against the Lydians on the o##asion when the day was #hanged suddenly into night.the king. ha&ing thus in&aded -edia. the *ri/anti. and $or'ing distin#t bodies o$ the s%ear'en. o&errunning %ro&in#e a$ter %ro&in#e) *t last he engaged in war with the *ssyrians7 those *ssyrians. and Cya. son o$ +rtotohyes. the Budii. and trans'itted his de#isions to the %arties #on#erned0 besides whi#h he had s%ies and ea&esdro%%ers in all %arts o$ his do'inions. and entered the -edian territory) The distan#e $ro' the +alus -aeotis to the ri&er +hasis and the Col#hians is thirty days1 2ourney $or a lightly7e. were o%%osed by the -edes. #olle#ting together all the nations whi#h owned his sway. 5eio#es was at his death su##eeded by his son +hraortes) This %rin#e. and took the u%%er route. the "tru#hates.ui%%ed tra&eller) AFro' Col#his to #ross into -edia does not take long7 there is only a single inter&ening nation. the "as%irians. in whi#h the *ssyrians su$$ered a de$eat. he sent $or the guilty %arty. under their king -adyes. a$ter ha&ing reigned o&er the -edes two7and7twenty years) !n the death o$ +hraortes his son Cya. and that he was the $irst who ga&e organisation to an *siati# ar'y. kee%ing the Cau#asus u%on their right) The "#ythians. di&iding the troo%s into #o'%anies. . who %assed his 2udg'ent u%on the #ontents. not satis$ied with a do'inion whi#h did not e.tend beyond the single nation o$ the -edes. and ruled o&er the' alone) 3ow these are the tribes o$ whi#h they #onsist0 the Busae. being now at the head o$ two nations. and i$ he heard o$ any a#t o$ o%%ression. he %ro#eeded to #on.%edition with the greater %art o$ his ar'y. and #herishing a ho%e that he 'ight su##eed in taking the town) * battle was $ought. the ar#hers. to who' 3ine&eh belonged.ares as#ended the throne) !$ hi' it is re%orted that he was still 'ore war7like than any o$ his an#estors. and the #a&alry. the +areta#eni.uer *sia. and who brought under his do'inion the whole o$ *sia beyond the Halys) This %rin#e. yet still their internal #ondition was as $lourishing as e&er) +hraortes atta#ked the'. but %erished in the e. whi#h is 'u#h longer. and the -agi) Ha&ing reigned three7and7$i$ty years.

a #ity o$ "yria. he sent to +ersia and . whereat he was greatly terri$ied) !n this a##ount. a$ter whi#h. a$ter whi#h they were all 'assa#red) The -edes then re#o&ered their e'%ire. lest the drea' should be a##o'%lished( but he 'arried her to a +ersian o$ good $a'ily indeed. but. he would not gi&e her in 'arriage to any o$ the -edes who were o$ suitable rank. and o&ershadowed the whole o$ *sia) *$ter this drea'. %assing through *s#alon. they s#oured the #ountry and %lundered e&ery one o$ whate&er they #ould) *t length Cya.uiet te'%er. whi#h they $i.uet. who belong to this %art o$ "yria) The "#ythians who %lundered the te'%le were %unished by the goddess with the $e'ale si#kness. i$ we in#lude the ti'e o$ the "#ythian rule.#e%t the distri#t o$ Babylonia) *$ter this Cya. the son o$ Cya.uered all *ssyria e. and 'ade the' drunk with wine.ares and the -edes in&ited the greater %art o$ the' to a ban. as the Cy%rians the'sel&es ad'it.$or so was the +ersian #alled< wedded -andane. during whi#h ti'e their insolen#e and o%%ression s%read ruin on e&ery side) For besides the regular tribute. su##eeded to the throne) He had a daughter who was na'ed -andane #on#erning who' he had a wonder$ul drea') He drea't that $ro' her su#h a strea' o$ water $lowed $orth as not only to $ill his #a%ital. who' he looked on as 'u#h in$erior to a -ede o$ e&en 'iddle #ondition) Thus Ca'byses . and tra&ellers who &isit "#ythia #an see what sort o$ a disease it is) Those who su$$er $ro' it are #alled Enarees) The do'inion o$ the "#ythians o&er *sia lasted eight7and7twenty years.a#ted $ro' the se&eral nations additional i'%osts. was built in i'itation o$ it( and that in Cythera was ere#ted by the +hoeni#ians. $orty years) *styages. the greater %art o$ the' went their way without doing any da'age( but so'e $ew who lagged behind %illaged the te'%le o$ Celestial @enus) ha&e in.ares died.ares. whi#h he sub'itted also to the inter%reters. lost their e'%ire) The "#ythians be#a'e 'asters o$ *sia) *$ter this they 'ar#hed $orward with the design o$ in&ading Egy%t) 4hen they had rea#hed +alestine.who ga&e the' battle. +sa''eti#hus the Egy%tian king 'et the' with gi$ts and %rayers. howe&er. but to $lood the whole o$ *sia) This &ision he laid be$ore su#h o$ the -agi as had the gi$t o$ inter%reting drea's. in the &ery $irst year. who e. whi#h still atta#hes to their %osterity) They the'sel&es #on$ess that they are a$$li#ted with the disease $or this reason. ha&ing reigned o&er the -edes. they e. but o$ a .ed at %leasure( and $urther. and took her to his ho'e.uired and $ind that the te'%le at *s#alon is the 'ost an#ient o$ all the te'%les to this goddess( $or the one in Cy%rus. being de$eated. and had the sa'e e. and %re&ailed on the' to ad&an#e no $urther) !n their return. when his daughter was now o$ ri%e age. *styages saw another &ision) He $an#ied that a &ine grew $ro' the wo'b o$ his daughter.%ounded its 'eaning to hi' in $ull.tent o$ do'inion as be$ore) They took 3ine&eh7 will relate how in another history7 and #on.

9 said she.9 he answered( 9no. and was not $ar $ro' her ti'e) !n her arri&al he set a wat#h o&er her. whi#h is in Greek Cyno. *styages. and be sure that through all $uture ti'e he will be #are$ul in nothing to o$$end) $ there$ore it be thy will that this thing be done.9 re%lied the other. it is $or 'e to ser&e thee with all diligen#e)9 4hen Har%agus had thus answered. lie to the north o$ *gbatana. lying as they did a'ong 'ountains in$ested with wild beasts) This 'an was 'arried to one o$ the king1s $e'ale sla&es. to who' he was wont to entrust all his a$$airs. #lothed in the garb o$ death. and he hastened wee%ing to his ho'e) There on his arri&al he $ound his wi$e.$et#hed away -andane. but will not be the 'an to work his will. but anyhow allowest hi' to es#a%e. Har%agus said to hi'7 9*styages re.uires. as soon as Cyrus was born. where he will be sure to die s%eedily) *nd he bade 'e tell thee. &ery 'ountainous.t *styages is old. on the skirts o$ whi#h his #attle gra/ed. and addressed hi' thus7 9Har%agus. the #hild 'ust die( but so'e one belonging to *styages 'ust take his li$e. who was now with #hild. and #o&ered with $orests.ine) That %art o$ -edia whi#h borders on the "as%irians is an ele&ated tra#t. or lend a hel%ing hand to su#h a 'urder as this) -any things $orbid 'y slaying hi') n the $irst %la#e the boy is 'y own kith and kin( and ne. indeed. while the rest o$ the -edian territory is entirely le&el ground) !n the arri&al o$ the herds'an. not or 'ine)9 "o saying he sent o$$ a 'essenger to $et#h a #ertain -itradates. lest thou bring destru#tion on thine own head at so'e $uture ti'e) Take the #hild born o$ -andane 'y daughter( #arry hi' with thee to thy ho'e and slay hi' there) Then bury hi' as thou wilt)9 9!h> king. he 'ay be 'adder and 'ore $ranti# still than he is now. sent $or Har%agus. besee#h thee negle#t not the business with whi#h a' about to #harge thee( neither betray thou the interests o$ thy lord $or others1 sake. 9ne&er in ti'e %ast did Har%agus disoblige thee in anything. one o$ the herds'en o$ *styages. sin#e in the -edian tongue the word 9"%a#a9 'eans a bit#h) The 'ountains. towards the Eu.%ounded the &ision to $oreshow that the o$$s%ring o$ his daughter would reign o&er *sia in his stead) To guard against this. a 'an o$ his own house and the 'ost $aith$ul o$ the -edes.uires thee to take this #hild and lay hi' in the wildest %art o$ the hills. and has no son) $ then when he dies the #rown should go to his daughter7 that daughter whose #hild he now wishes to slay by 'y hand7 what re'ains $or 'e but danger o$ the $ear$ullest kind: For 'y own sa$ety. the #hild was gi&en into his hands. whose %asturages he knew to be the $ittest $or his %ur%ose. to who' he told all that *styages had said) 94hat then. intending to destroy the #hild to whi#h she should gi&e birth( $or the -agian inter%reters had e. 9is it now in thy heart to do:9 93ot what *styages re. he will %ut thee to the 'ost . who #a'e at the hasty su''ons. that i$ thou dost not kill the boy. whose -edian na'e was "%a#o.

the son o$ Cyrus( and that the king orders hi' to be killed( and look.%ain$ul o$ deaths) 'ysel$ a' a%%ointed to see the #hild e.9 said he. to lay hi' in the 'ountains. as Har%agus would be sure to send %ersons to see and re%ort to hi'.%osed)9 The herds'an on hearing this took the #hild in his ar's. as #a'e along. had 2ust.%e#tedly. but went in) The 'o'ent ste%%ed inside. &ery soon.%osed u%on the 'ountains. and #ould not think why there was su#h a wee%ing in Har%agus1s house) 4ell. %anting and whi'%ering. his wi$e. and showed hi' to his wi$e. got at the truth) They sent a ser&ant with 'e to show 'e the way out o$ the town. here the #hild is)9 4ith this the herds'an un#o&ered the in$ant. burst into tears. was the $irst to s%eak. at least do thus) The #hild o$ whi#h ha&e 2ust been deli&ered is stillborn( take it and lay it on the hills. and obser&ed how $ine a #hild and how beauti$ul he was. and to lea&e the baby in 'y hands( and he told 'e that the #hild1s 'other is the king1s daughter -andane. and this li&ing #hild will not be . what should see but a baby lying on the $loor. who. the wo'an s%oke a se#ond ti'e. the wo'an alar'ed be#ause it was a new thing $or her husband to be sent $or by Har%agus) 4hen there$ore he #a'e into the house u%on his return. been deli&ered o$ a #hild) Both the herds'an and his wi$e were uneasy on ea#h other1s a##ount. and #linging to the knees o$ her husband.%ose the babe( to whi#h he answered. and went ba#k the way he had #o'e till he rea#hed the $olds) There.%e#ting daily to be %ut to bed.uite $rightened 'e. that it was not %ossible $or hi' to do otherwise. seeing hi' arri&e so une. the $or'er $ear$ul be#ause his wi$e was so near her ti'e. and he was to su$$er a 'ost #ruel death i$ he disobeyed) Failing thus in her $irst atte'%t to %ersuade her husband. and his $ather Ca'byses. nor shall we ha&e 'anaged badly $or oursel&es) !ur dead babe will ha&e a royal $uneral. and wra%%ed in #lothes o$ su#h beauti$ul #olours) Har%agus saw 'e. think you: 4hy. and a #hild 'ust needs be seen e. and all #o&ered with gold. where the wild beasts are 'ost %lenti$ul) *nd he told 'e it was the king hi'sel$ that ordered it to be done. and let us bring u% as our own the #hild o$ the daughter o$ *styages) "o shalt thou not be #harged with un$aith$ulness to thy lord. 9when got to the town saw and heard su#h things as would to hea&en had ne&er seen su#h things as would to hea&en had ne&er ha%%ened to our 'asters) E&ery one was wee%ing in Har%agus1s house) t . besought hi' on no a##ount to e. and he threatened 'e with su#h dread$ul things i$ $ailed) "o took the #hild u% in 'y ar's. %ro&identially. saying. during the absen#e o$ her husband. and begged to know why Har%agus had sent $or hi' in su#h a hurry) 94i$e. when she saw hi'. and dire#tly ordered 'e to take the #hild 'y ar's and #arry hi' o$$. and what was to do with hi'. 9 $ then there is no %ersuading thee. and #arried hi' along) thought it 'ight be the son o$ one o$ the household sla&es) did wonder #ertainly to see the gold and the beauti$ul baby7#lothes. his wi$e. who had been e.

as he was #alled. sent $or the #owherd and his boy) 4hen they #a'e together into his %resen#e. on who' he had the $ir'est relian#e. 9 only treated hi' as he deser&ed) was #hosen king in %lay by the boys o$ our &illage. others he 'ade his guards. and. to &iew the body $or hi'. be#ause they thought 'e the best $or it) He hi'sel$ was one . he started o$$ $or the #ity. the son o$ *rte'bares. but #alled hi' the son o$ the king1s #owherd) *rte'bares. #lothing it $irst in all the other1s #ostly attire. another had the o$$i#e o$ #arrying his 'essages( all had so'e task or other) *'ong the boys there was one. along with the boys o$ his own age. lea&ing one o$ his hel%ers to wat#h the body. and the other #hild. in the street) The other boys who were %laying with hi' #hose the #owherd1s son.%osed. 9Thus. the son o$ so 'ean a $ellow as that. has thy sla&e. as soon as he was let go. a##o'%anied by his son. *styages said. to be their king) He then %ro#eeded to order the' about so'e he set to build hi' houses. $i. wishing to a&enge the son o$ *rte'bares $or his $ather1s sake. went to *styages. he #hastised hi' 'ost se&erely with the whi%) The son o$ *rte'bares.9 by whi#h na'e the boy was not yet known. who was a$terwards known by the na'e o$ Cyrus. oh> king. say 9Cyrus. o$ #ourse.9 re%lied the boy. the son o$ a #owherd. and his own dead #hild he %ut in the #radle wherein he had #arried the other. and going straight to Har%agus1s house. in the heat o$ his %assion. and when his orders were obeyed. one o$ the' was to be the king1s eye. an a##ident whi#h will now relate.#lai'ed. and taking it in his ar's he laid it in the wildest %la#e o$ all the 'ountain7range) 4hen the #hild had been three days e. hastened to the #ity and #o'%lained bitterly to his $ather o$ what had been done to hi' by Cyrus) He did not. one o$ the $irst in 'y #ourt:9 9-y lord. $ull o$ rage at treat'ent so little be$itting his rank. and brought u% under a di$$erent na'e) 4hen the boy was in his tenth year. hea%ed insult u%on us)9 *t this sight and these words *styages. de#lared hi'sel$ ready to show the #or%se o$ the boy) Har%agus sent #ertain o$ his bodyguard. who re$used to do what Cyrus had set hi') Cyrus told the other boys to take hi' into #ustody. a -ede o$ distin#tion. #aused it to be dis#o&ered who he was) He was at %lay one day in the &illage where the $olds o$ the #attle were. 9Hast thou then. was taken by the herds'an1s wi$e. ga&e orders $or the $uneral) Thus was the herds'an1s #hild buried. and 'ade #o'%laint o$ the gross in2ury whi#h had been done hi') +ointing to the boy1s shoulders.ing his eyes on Cyrus. dared to beha&e thus rudely to the son o$ yonder noble.de%ri&ed o$ li$e)9 t see'ed to the herds'an that this ad&i#e was the best under the #ir#u'stan#es) He there$ore $ollowed it without loss o$ ti'e) The #hild whi#h he had intended to %ut to death he ga&e o&er to his wi$e. he e. satis$ied with their seeing it.

re#o&ering hi'sel$ with di$$i#ulty. and the #hild had died. ending with entreaties and %rayers to the king to grant hi' $orgi&eness) *styages. *styages #ould not s%eak $or a while) *t last. at the bidding o$ the king.o$ the boys who #hose 'e) *ll the others did a##ording to 'y orders( but he re$used. he said to the $or'er. so to settle this business that neither thou nor thy son shall ha&e any #ause to #o'%lain)9 *rte'bares retired $ro' his %resen#e. when he had done a##ording to all that #o''anded hi'. but with Har%agus he was e. until at last he got his due reward) $ $or this deser&e to su$$er %unish'ent. *rte'bares. and told the whole story e. sent so'e o$ the 'ost trustworthy o$ 'y eunu#hs. and 'ade light o$ the'. and that the 'other who bore hi' was still ali&e with hi' in his house) *styages re'arked that he was &ery ill7ad&ised to bring hi'sel$ into su#h great trouble. began at the beginning. as they were dragging hi' to the ra#k. here a' ready to sub'it to it)9 4hile the boy was yet s%eaking *styages was stru#k with a sus%i#ion who he was) He thought he saw so'ething in the #hara#ter o$ his $a#e like his own. led Cyrus into an inner a%art'ent) *styages then being le$t alone with the herds'an. ha&ing got the truth o$ the 'atter $ro' the herds'an. and on his a%%earan#e *styages asked hi'. when thou ga&est the #hild into 'y hands instantly #onsidered with 'ysel$ how #ould #ontri&e to e. who . that thou slewest the #hild o$ 'y daughter who' ga&e into thy hands:9 Har%agus. and who had gi&en hi' to hi'( to whi#h he 'ade answer that the lad was his own #hild. 9By what death was it.uit o$ *rte'bares. and yet. seeing the #owherd in the roo'. a&oid i'bruing 'y hands in blood whi#h was in truth thy daughter1s and thine own) *nd this was how #ontri&ed it) sent $or this #owherd. and ga&e the #hild o&er to hi'. 9 %ro'ise thee. $or thou hadst so #o''anded) -oreo&er. and to stay near and wat#h till it was dead( and threatened hi' with all 'anner o$ %unish'ent i$ he $ailed) *$terwards.%osed) *stonished at all this.#eedingly enraged) The guards were bidden to su''on hi' into the %resen#e. in. that he 'ight e. but re%lied as $ollows07 9"ire. en2oined hi' to lay it so'ewhere in the wilds o$ the 'ountains. and at the sa'e ti'e signed to his bodyguard to lay hold o$ hi') Then the herds'an. and wishing to be . did not betake hi'sel$ to lies. and the attendants.e#ute thy wishes.a#tly as it ha%%ened. without #on#ealing anything. while guiltless o$ any un$aith$ulness towards thee. begotten by hi'sel$. Har%agus.a'ine the herds'an alone. lest he should be #on$uted and %ro&ed $alse. when ga&e hi' the #hild. telling hi' that by the king1s orders it was to be %ut to death) *nd in this told no lie. was &ery little $urther #on#erned about hi'. and there was a nobleness about the answer he had 'ade( besides whi#h his age see'ed to tally with the ti'e when his grand#hild was e.uired o$ hi' where he had got the boy.

in the gladness o$ his heart. and then #on#luded with saying. and that whate&er the king did was agreeable) *$ter this re%ly. and boiled others( and when all were duly %re%ared. nothing was %la#ed e. and do whate&er *styages should dire#t) Then. and with hi' the other guests. began by re%eating to hi' all that he had 2ust heard $ro' the #owherd.uet #a'e. and saw within it the re'ains o$ his son) The sight. his grand#hild.%ounded it) . to #olle#t the re'ains and bury the') "u#h was the 'ode in whi#h *styages %unished Har%agus0 a$terwards. intending.#e%t the hands and $eet and head. he went to his wi$e and told her all that had ha%%ened) *styages. whi#h were laid by the'sel&es in a #o&ered basket) 4hen Har%agus see'ed to ha&e eaten his $ill.&iewed the body $or 'e. %ro#eeding to #onsider what he should do with Cyrus. he answered that he knew &ery well. howe&er. *styages #alled out to hi' to know how he had en2oyed the re%ast) !n his re%ly that he had en2oyed it e. as 'ean to sa#ri$i#e thank7o$$erings $or the #hild1s sa$ety to the gods to who' su#h honour is due. did not s#are hi'. took the son o$ Har%agus. and bade hi' go to the %ala#e. 9"o the boy is ali&e. he was in&ited to a ban. he ke%t the' ready $or use) The hour $or the ban. and take out what he %leased) Har%agus a##ordingly un#o&ered the basket.uet)9 Har%agus. is the si'%le truth. the only #hild o$ his %arents. and send thy son to be with the new #o'er. e. and went ho'e re2oi#ing to $ind that his disobedien#e had turned out so $ortunately. and slew hi'. look to ha&e thee a guest at the ban. a youth o$ about thirteen. a$ter whi#h he #ut hi' in %ie#es. 'eanwhile. on hearing this. 'ade obeisan#e. and it is best as it is) For the #hild1s $ate was a great sorrow to 'e. they whose business it was brought hi' the basket. in whi#h were the hands and $eet and head o$ his son.#e%t the $lesh o$ his own son) This was all %ut be$ore hi'. and all sat down to the $east) *styages and the rest o$ the guests had 2oints o$ 'eat ser&ed u% to the'( but on the table o$ Har%agus. and roasted so'e %ortions be$ore the $ire.uet gi&en in honour o$ the ha%%y o##asion) The 'o'ent he rea#hed ho'e he #alled $or his son. and this is the death by whi#h the #hild died)9 Thus Har%agus related the whole story in a %lain. and to7night. sire. and went ho'e. he took with hi' su#h 'orsels o$ the $lesh as were uneaten.#essi&ely. and bade hi' o%en it. letting no sign es#a%e hi' o$ the anger that he $elt. and that. and the re%roa#hes o$ 'y daughter went to 'y heart) Truly $ortune has %layed us a good turn in this) Go thou ho'e then. or rob hi' o$ his sel$7%ossession) Being asked by *styages i$ he knew what beast1s $lesh it was that he had been eating. and Har%agus a%%eared. and then had the #hild buried) This. he sent $or the -agi. who $or'erly inter%reted his drea' in the way whi#h alar'ed hi' so 'u#h. straight$orward way( u%on whi#h *styages. as #on#ei&e. instead o$ being %unished. and asked the' how they had e.

ha&e wondrously 'ean a##o'%lish'ents)9 9 t is what 'ysel$ 'ost in#line to think. to what. 9 $ the boy sur&i&es. sin#e he is a +ersian0 and then we -edes should lose our $reedo'. does all this tend:9 The -agi answered.uite other %eo%le $ro' -itradates the #owherd and his wi$e)9 4ith these words *styages dis'issed his grand#hild) !n his arri&al at the house o$ Ca'byses. and we are e&en not without so'e share in the go&ern'ent) -u#h reason there$ore ha&e we to $ore#ast well $or thee and $or thy so&ereignty) $ then we saw any #ause $or %resent $ear. think you. still o$tener. in that #ase we bid thee #heer u%. then. and did not die too soon)9 Then *styages addressed the' thus0 9The boy has es#a%ed. and be . . ha&ing always been #on&in#ed that he died al'ost as soon as he was born) "o they asked hi' by what 'eans he had #han#ed to es#a%e( and he told the' how that till lately he had known nothing at all about the 'atter.uite sure that he was the son o$ the king1s #owherd. and #alling Cyrus into his %resen#e. and $eel no 'ore alar' on his a##ount) He will not reign a se#ond ti'e) For we ha&e $ound e&en ora#les so'eti'es $ul$illed in an uni'%ortant way( and drea's. our ad&i#e is that thou send hi' away to +ersia. 9-y #hild.9 said the -agi in re%ly. who. without &arying $ro' what they had said be$ore.They answered. said to hi'. the drea' is out. and his doorkee%ers. but on the road the king1s . to his $ather and 'other)9 *styages heard their answer with %leasure. that 9the boy 'ust needs be a king i$ he grew u%. when they learnt who he was. take good heed and #ounsel 'e the best you #an $or the sa$ety o$ 'y house and your own interests)9 9Truly. and when thou gettest to thy 2ourney1s end. and all the other usual o$$i#ers) Tell 'e. and ha&e nothing 'ore to $ear $ro' hi') 3e&ertheless. was led to do thee a wrong by a drea' whi#h has #o'e to nothing0 $ro' that wrong thou wert sa&ed by thy own good $ortune) Go now with a light heart to +ersia( will %ro&ide thy es#ort) Go. we re#o''end thee to banish thine) *s $or the boy. be sure we would not kee% it ba#k $ro' thee) But truly we are %ersuaded that the drea' has had its a##o'%lish'ent in this har'less way( and so our own $ears being at rest. and has ruled as a king without any #ra$t or #ontri&an#e. e'bra#ed hi' heartily. art on the throne. he was re#ei&ed by his %arents.uite des%ised by the +ersians. and the lads o$ the &illage where he li&es ha&e 'ade hi' their king) *ll that kings #o''only do he has done) He has had his guards. and his 'essengers.9 *styages re2oined( 9the boy ha&ing been already king. as he #a'e $ro' -edia) He had been . but had been 'istaken7 oh> so widely>7 and how that he had learnt his history by the way. our $ellow7#ountry'an. all 'anner o$ honours are ours. as being $oreigners) But so long as thou. 9it &ery 'u#h #on#erns our interests that thy kingdo' be $ir'ly established( $or i$ it went to this boy it would %ass into $oreign hands. and li&es( he has been brought u% in the #ountry. thou wilt behold thy $ather and thy 'other.

he had to #ontri&e a 'eans o$ sending word se#retly. when he was e. the gods assuredly wat#h o&er thee. disguising hi' as a hunter with nets. and did not %ut thee to death) Listen now to 'e. by %ersuading. that the best %lan would be to %ut Cyrus at their head. or whether he a%%oint any other o$ the %rin#es o$ the -edes. and all the e'%ire o$ *styages shall be thine) Raise the standard o$ re&olt in +ersia. who was bent on re&enging hi'sel$ u%on *styages. who' the harsh rule o$ their 'onar#h had o$$ended. Har%agus. and wishing to %ersuade the +ersians that there was a s%e#ial %ro&iden#e in his %reser&ation. and 2oining thy side.ious to 'ake known his wishes to Cyrus.as it were< to be the a&enger who' he needed. or ne&er wouldst thou ha&e %assed through thy 'any wonder$ul ad&entures7 now is the ti'e when thou 'ayst a&enge thysel$ u%on *styages. by word o$ 'outh. was su#kled by a bit#h) This was the sole origin o$ the ru'our) *$terwards. he sli%%ed in a letter #ontaining what he wanted to say. and #utting o%en its belly without hurting the $ur. #at#hing the na'e at his 'outh.%osed. who still li&ed in +ersia( but as the roads between -edia and +ersia were guarded. Har%agus. and dethrone *styages) These %re%arations 'ade. on #utting the hare o%en. he ga&e the hare to one o$ his 'ost $aith$ul sla&es. growing u% e. it was always Cyno7 Cyno was e&erything) "o it ha%%ened that his %arents. to %aun#h the ani'al hi'sel$. whi#h he did in the $ollowing way) He took a hare. and $illed his whole talk with her %raises( in all that he had to tell the' about hi'sel$. he set to work to %ro#ure his su%%ort and aid in the 'atter) He had already %a&ed the way $or his designs. began to %ay hi' #ourt by gi$ts and 'essages) His own rank was too hu'ble $or hi' to ho%e to obtain &engean#e without so'e $oreign hel%) 4hen there$ore he saw Cyrus. nor o$ what su$$ered at his hands be#ause #o''itted thee to the #owherd. and sent hi' o$$ to +ersia to take the ga'e as a %resent to Cyrus.%ressly . and Cyrus. and be#a'e known as the bra&est and 'ost %o%ular o$ all his #o'%eers. s%read the re%ort that Cyrus. and obey 'y words. and then 'ar#h straight on -edia) 4hether *styages a%%oint 'e to #o''and his $or#es against thee. whose wrongs were so si'ilar to his own. and read as $ollows07 9"on o$ Ca'byses. thy 'urderer) He willed thy death. se&erally. and let no one be %resent at the ti'e) *ll was done as he wished. was an. bidding hi' tell Cyrus. being now ready $or re&olt. when Cyrus grew to 'anhood.ert the'sel&es to o&erturn his %ower) Be sure that on our %art all is ready( where$ore do thou thy %art. e. re'e'ber( to the gods and to 'e thou owest that thou art still ali&e) think thou art not ignorant o$ what he did to thee. and . and then #are$ully sewing u% the %aun#h.es#ort had told hi' all the truth( and then he s%oke o$ the #owherd1s wi$e who had brought hi' u%. all will go as thou #ouldst wish) They will be the $irst to $all away $ro' hi'. $ound the letter inside. the great -edian nobles.

and then #alling an asse'bly o$ the +ersians. to7day1s work. and bread o$ the #hoi#est kinds were %re%ared $or the o##asion) 4hen the 'orrow #a'e. there$ore. #o&ered with thorns. o$ who' the +asargadae are the noblest) The *#hae'enidae. he re. and all his o. and ordered the' to #lear it be$ore the day was out) They a##o'%lished their task( u%on whi#h he issued a se#ond order to the'. $ro' *styages. set hi'sel$ to #onsider how he 'ight best %ersuade the +ersians to re&olt) *$ter 'u#h thought. the 5erusiaeans. without a 'o'ent1s delay)9 The +ersians.that s%eedily)9 Cyrus. 9sin#e it is so. about eighteen or twenty $urlongs ea#h way. he un$olded the roll. who are engaged in husbandry( the 5aans. and slaughtered the'.uested the' to tell hi' 9whi#h they liked best. a' sure.%edient #ourse0 he wrote what he thought %ro%er u%on a roll. in obedien#e to the orders whi#h they had re#ei&ed.9 said he. in$or'ed o$ the doings o$ Cyrus. Cyrus led the' to a tra#t o$ ground. is one o$ their #lans) The rest o$ the +ersian tribes are the $ollowing0 the +anthialaeans. and the "agartians. and the +ersians a%%eared. the +ersians #a'e with their rea%ing7hooks. .en. he bade the' re#line u%on the grass. or yesterday1s:9 They answered that 9the #ontrast was indeed strong0 yesterday brought the' nothing but what was bad. the -ara%hians. %re%are yoursel&es $or unnu'bered toils as hard as yesterday1s) 3ow there$ore $ollow 'y bidding. he hit on the $ollowing as the 'ost e. the Ger'anians. and 'ade ready to gi&e an entertain'ent to the entire +ersian ar'y) 4ine. and again #o'e to hi') -eanwhile he #olle#ted together all his $ather1s $lo#ks. and laid bare his %ur%ose in these words0 9=e 'en o$ +ersia. and be $ree) For 'ysel$ $eel that a' destined by +ro&iden#e to undertake your liberation( and you. on re#ei&ing the tidings #ontained in this letter. and the -as%ians. were delighted to shake o$$ the yoke) -eanwhile *styages. the 5ro%i#ans. least o$ all in bra&ery) Re&olt. thus do 'atters stand with you) $ you #hoose to hearken to 'y words. to7day e&erything that was good)9 Cyrus instantly sei/ed on their re%ly. who are no'ads) 4hen. and en2oy the'sel&es) *$ter the $east was o&er. #o''and you to go and bring ea#h 'an his rea%ing7hook)9 4ith these words he dis'issed the asse'bly) 3ow the +ersian nation is 'ade u% o$ 'any tribes) Those whi#h Cyrus asse'bled and %ersuaded to re&olt $ro' the -edes were the %rin#i%al ones on whi#h all the others are de%endent) These are the +asargadae. you 'ay en2oy these and ten thousand si'ilar delights. are no whit in$erior to the -edes in anything. and read out o$ it that *styages a%%ointed hi' their general) 9*nd now. too. and ne&er #ondes#end to any sla&ish toil( but i$ you will not hearken. $ro' whi#h s%ring all the +erseid kings. to take the bath the day $ollowing. who had long been i'%atient o$ the -edian do'inion. both shee% and goats. now that they had $ound a leader. the -ardians.

but were de$eated in battle. he ar'ed all the -edes who had re'ained in the #ity.9 said Har%agus. rather than a +ersian. only a $ew o$ the -edes.uired that a -ede. and $led) *styages. and sla&es 'oreo&er o$ those who till re#ently had been their sub2e#ts)9 Thus a$ter a reign o$ thirty7$i&e years. 9Tell *styages that shall a%%ear in his %resen#e sooner than he will like)9 *styages. who were not in the se#ret. and asked hi' in return. were brought under the rule o$ the +ersians) Their e'%ire o&er the %arts o$ *sia beyond the Halys had lasted one hundred and twenty7eight years. saying. broke out into threats against Cyrus. 9Cyrus shall ne&ertheless ha&e no reason to re2oi#e9( and dire#tly he sei/ed the -agian inter%reters. #a'e near. he alluded to the su%%er where the $lesh o$ his son was gi&en hi' to eat. his ar'y being destroyed. as i$ God had de%ri&ed hi' o$ his senses. both young and old( and leading the' against the +ersians. and re&olted $ro' 5arius. and e. in the ti'e o$ *styages.#e%t during the ti'e when the "#ythians had the do'inion) *$terwards the -edes re%ented o$ their sub'ission. in whi#h he was utterly de$eated. and asked *styages to answer hi' now. how he en2oyed being a sla&e instead o$ a king: *styages looked in his $a#e. and he hi'sel$ $alling into the ene'y1s hands) Har%agus then.sent a 'essenger to su''on hi' to his %resen#e) Cyrus re%lied. it was the +ersians who under Cyrus re&olted $ro' the -edes. and not retain it hi'sel$. howe&er. when he re#ei&ed this 'essage. and again redu#ed to sub2e#tion) 3ow. who had %ersuaded hi' to allow Cyrus to es#a%e. on learning the sha'e$ul $light and dis%ersion o$ his ar'y. howe&er. were 'ade sla&es instead o$ lords. *styages lost his #rown. $ought a battle. and the -edes. the -edes. why he #lai'ed as his own the a#hie&e'ents o$ Cyrus: 9Be#ause. i$ the re&olt was entirely his doing. who had been no %arties to the wrong o$ whi#h he #o'%lained. $ought( others deserted o%enly to the +ersians( while the greater nu'ber #ounter$eited $ear. and be#a'e then#e$orth the rulers o$ *sia) Cyrus ke%t *styages at his #ourt during the re'ainder o$ his li$e. as it 'ust assuredly ha&e been.ulted o&er hi' with 'any 2ibes and 2eers) *'ong other #utting s%ee#hes whi#h he 'ade. yet 2usti#e re. e. and i'%aled the'( a$ter whi#h. and so a' entitled to all the #redit o$ the enter%rise)9 Then *styages de#lared that 9in that #ase he was at on#e the silliest and the 'ost un2ust o$ 'en0 the silliest. 9it was 'y letter whi#h 'ade hi' re&olt. should re#ei&e the dignity) 3ow.uen#e o$ his #ruelty. su%%osing that he was obliged to in&est another with the kingly %ower. without doing hi' any $urther in2ury) "u#h then were the #ir#u'stan#es . and. i$ when it was in his %ower to %ut the #rown on his own head. $orgetting how greatly he had in2ured hi') "o when the two ar'ies 'et and engaged. instantly ar'ed all his sub2e#ts. i$ on a##ount o$ that su%%er he had brought sla&ery on the -edes) For. he had %la#ed it on the head o$ another( the 'ost un2ust. a%%ointed Har%agus to be their general. seeing hi' a %risoner. in #onse.

tre$oil es%e#ially) 4hen all is ready. lea&e o$$ hungry. whi#h is set on table a $ew dishes at a ti'e( this it is whi#h 'akes the' say that 9the Greeks.. to the earth. ha&ing nothing worth 'ention ser&ed u% to the' a$ter the 'eats( whereas. light no $ire. $ro' their not belie&ing the gods to ha&e the sa'e nature with 'en. whi#h they borrowed $ro' the *rabians and *ssyrians) -ylitta is the na'e by whi#h the *ssyrians know this goddess. a'ong who' he is o$ ne#essity in#luded) He #uts the &i#ti' in %ie#es. and su#h were the ste%s by whi#h he 'ounted the throne) t was at a later date that he was atta#ked by Croesus. as ha&e related in an earlier %ortion o$ this history) The o&erthrow o$ Croesus 'ade hi' 'aster o$ the whole o$ *sia) The #usto's whi#h know the +ersians to obser&e are the $ollowing0 they ha&e no i'ages o$ the gods. the one whi#h they #elebrate 'ost is their birthday) t is #usto'ary to ha&e the board $urnished on that day with an a'%ler su%%ly than #o''on) The ri#her +ersians #ause an o. they would not sto% eating)9 They are &ery $ond o$ wine.o$ the birth and bringing u% o$ Cyrus. and there #alls u%on the na'e o$ the god to who' he intends to o$$er) t is usual to ha&e the turban en#ir#led with a wreath. he lays it out u%on the tenderest herbage that he #an $ind. a #a'el. and ha&ing boiled the $lesh. howe&er. whi#h is the na'e they gi&e to the whole #ir#uit o$ the $ir'a'ent) They likewise o$$er to the sun and 'oon. to $ire. and to the winds) These are the only gods whose worshi% has #o'e down to the' $ro' an#ient ti'es) *t a later %eriod they began the worshi% o$ 6rania. no %utting on o$ #ha%lets. and drink it in large . and o&erthrew hi'. is to as#end the su''its o$ the lo$tiest 'ountains. think. but he %rays $or the wel$are o$ the king. a horse. to water. and 'akes whate&er use o$ it he 'ay %lease) !$ all the days in the year. when they eat. and #onsider the use o$ the' a sign o$ $olly) This #o'es. no #onse#rated barley7#ake( but the 'an who wishes to sa#ri$i#e brings his &i#ti' to a s%ot o$ ground whi#h is %ure $ro' %ollution. %our no libations( there is no sound o$ the $lute. and the +ersians -itra) To these gods the +ersians o$$er sa#ri$i#e in the $ollowing 'anner0 they raise no altar.uantities) To &o'it or obey natural #alls . 'ost #o''only o$ 'yrtle) The sa#ri$i#er is not allowed to %ray $or blessings on hi'sel$ alone. one o$ the -agi #o'es $orward and #hants a hy'n. i$ they had 'ore %ut be$ore the'. who' the *rabians #all *litta. as the Greeks i'agine) Their wont. and there to o$$er sa#ri$i#e to 8u%iter. whi#h they say re#ounts the origin o$ the gods) t is not law$ul to o$$er sa#ri$i#e unless there is a -agus %resent) *$ter waiting a short ti'e the sa#ri$i#er #arries the $lesh o$ the &i#ti' away with hi'. and an ass to be baked whole and so ser&ed u% to the'0 the %oorer #lasses use instead the s'aller kinds o$ #attle) They eat little solid $ood but abundan#e o$ dessert. no te'%les nor altars. and o$ the whole +ersian %eo%le.

a'ong other no&elties. they kiss ea#h other on the li%s) n the #ase where one is a little in$erior to the other. but in this #ase they always re#onsider the 'atter under the in$luen#e o$ wine) 4hen they 'eet ea#h other in the streets. they a#t on it( i$ not. and to s%eak the truth) 6ntil their $i$th year they are not allowed to #o'e into the sight o$ their $ather. howe&er. the $urther they are re'o&ed. you 'ay know i$ the %ersons 'eeting are o$ e.er#ised authority o&er ea#h other in this order) The -edes were lords o&er all. when they are sober. like the -edes. they ha&e learnt unnatural lust $ro' the Greeks) Ea#h o$ the' has se&eral wi&es.t to the'sel&es( those who li&e beyond these they honour in the se#ond degree( and so with the re'ainder. and go&erned the nations u%on their borders.in the %resen#e o$ another is $orbidden a'ong the') "u#h are their #usto's in these 'atters) t is also their general %ra#ti#e to deliberate u%on a$$airs o$ weight when they are drunk( and then on the 'orrow. i$ the #hild . they are sober at their $irst deliberation.#ellen#e to be the $ather o$ 'any sons) E&ery year the king sends ri#h gi$ts to the 'an who #an show the largest nu'ber0 $or they hold that nu'ber is strength) Their sons are #are$ully instru#ted $ro' their $i$th to their twentieth year. the in$erior %rostrates hi'sel$ u%on the ground) !$ nations.t to %rowess in ar's. they set it aside) "o'eti'es. in three things alone. who likewise bore rule o&er the nations whi#h ad2oined on the') *nd this is the order whi#h the +ersians also $ollow in their distribution o$ honour( $or that %eo%le. they ha&e taken the dress o$ the -edes. who' they estee' ne. and a still larger nu'ber o$ #on#ubines) 3e.ual rank by the $ollowing token0 i$ they are.#ellen#e in %ro%ortion as they dwell nearer to the'( when#e it #o'es to %ass that those who are the $arthest o$$ 'ust be the 'ost degraded o$ 'ankind) 6nder the do'inion o$ the -edes. who in their turn go&erned the "tates beyond. the less the estee' in whi#h they hold the') The reason is that they look u%on the'sel&es as &ery greatly su%erior in all res%e#ts to the rest o$ 'ankind. the kiss is gi&en on the #heek( where the di$$eren#e o$ rank is great. they instantly 'ake it their own0 and hen#e. has a %rogressi&e s#ale o$ ad'inistration and go&ern'ent) There is no nation whi#h so readily ado%ts $oreign #usto's as the +ersians) Thus. to draw the bow. regarding others as a%%roa#hing to e.7 to ride. the se&eral nations o$ the e'%ire e. but %ass their li&es with the wo'en) This is done that. the de#ision to whi#h they #a'e the night be$ore is %ut be$ore the' by the 'aster o$ the house in whi#h it was 'ade( and i$ it is then a%%ro&ed o$.ury. #onsidering it su%erior to their own( and in war they wear the Egy%tian breast%late) *s soon as they hear o$ any lu. it is regarded as the greatest %roo$ o$ 'anly e. they honour 'ost their nearest neighbours. instead o$ s%eaking.

the aggrie&ed %arty shall then %ro#eed to %unish'ent) The +ersians 'aintain that ne&er yet did any one kill his own $ather or 'other( but in all su#h #ases they are . a'ong other reasons. nor e&en wash their hands in one( nor will they allow others to do so. whi#h the +ersians the'sel&es ha&e ne&er noti#ed. and "ig'a by the onians) *ny one who e. e. is to tell a lie( the ne. it would be $ound that the #hild was either a #hangeling or else the $ruit o$ adultery( $or it is not likely.#e%tion. di$$erent entirely $ro' the Egy%tian %riests. until it has been torn either by a dog or a bird o$ %rey) That the -agi ha&e this #usto' is beyond a doubt. or to ha&e any dealings with the other +ersians( he 'ust. as also is the $ollowing7 that the king shall not %ut any one to death $or a single $ault. are $or#ed to lea&e the #ountry0 e&en white %igeons are o$ten dri&en away. whi#h are e.#e%ting dogs and 'en) They e&en see' to take a delight in the e'%loy'ent. and then buried in the ground) The -agi are a &ery %e#uliar ra#e. and not o%enly. the $ather 'ay not be a$$li#ted by its loss) To 'y 'ind it is a wise rule. that the real $ather should %erish by the hands o$ his #hild) They hold it unlaw$ul to talk o$ anything whi#h it is unlaw$ul to do) The 'ost disgra#e$ul thing in the world. i$ 'atters were si$ted to the botto'.#ellen#e.%ressi&e o$ so'e bodily or 'ental e. the debtor is obliged to tell lies) $ a +ersian has the le%rosy he is not allowed to enter into a #ity. as they ha&e a great re&eren#e $or ri&ers) There is another %e#uliarity. $or they %ra#tise it without any #on#eal'ent) The dead bodies are #o&ered with wa. they think. #on#erning their dead) t is said that the body o$ a 'ale +ersian is ne&er buried. one and all without e. and indeed $ro' all other 'en whatsoe&er) The Egy%tian %riests 'ake it a %oint o$ religion not to kill any li&e ani'als e. to owe a debt0 be#ause.#e%t those whi#h they o$$er in sa#ri$i#e) The -agi.t worst..uite sure that. as guilty o$ the sa'e o$$en#e) They ne&er de$ile a ri&er with the se#retions o$ their bodies. they say. ha&e sinned against the sun) Foreigners atta#ked by this disorder. but whi#h has not es#a%ed 'y obser&ation) Their na'es. all end with the sa'e letter7 the letter whi#h is #alled "an by the 5orians. and that none o$ the +ersians shall &isit a single $ault in a sla&e with any e. kill ani'als o$ all kinds with their own hands.a'ines will $ind that the +ersian na'es. they say. end with this letter) Thus 'u#h #an de#lare o$ the +ersians with entire #ertainty.tre'e %enalty( but in e&ery #ase the ser&i#es o$ the o$$ender shall be set against his 'isdoings( and. i$ the latter be $ound to outweigh the $or'er. on the #ontrary. $ro' 'y own a#tual knowledge) There is another #usto' whi#h is s%oken o$ with reser&e. .die young.

the -ilesians. while "a'os %ossesses a language %e#uliar to itsel$) "u#h are the $our &arieties o$ whi#h s%oke) !$ the onians at this %eriod. and %rayed to be#o'e his lieges on the $ooting whi#h they had o##u%ied under Croesus) Cyrus listened attenti&ely to their %ro%osals. as Cyrus had re#ei&ed the' into allian#e) The islanders also had as yet nothing to $ear. two situate in isles. "a'os and Chios( and one u%on the 'ainland.t to whi#h lie -yus and +riene( all these three are in Caria and ha&e the sa'e diale#t) Their #ities in Lydia are the $ollowing0 E%hesus. Colo%hon. to send a'bassadors to "%arta to i'%lore assistan#e) 3ow the onians o$ *sia. he took a net. by whi#h he allowed the' the ter's they had $or'erly obtained $ro' Croesus) The other onians resol&ed. Teos. and held 'eetings at the +anioniu'. 1Cease your dan#ing now.#e%ting the -ilesians. ne.and kill.ually blessed with onia. sin#e +hoeni#ia was . the onian and *eolian Greeks sent a'bassadors to Cyrus at "ardis. one %eo%le. and +ho#aea) The inhabitants o$ these towns ha&e none o$ the %e#uliarities o$ s%ee#h whi#h belong to the three $irst7na'ed #ities. with who' Cyrus had #on#luded a se%arate treaty. with one a##ord. and answered the' by a $able) 9There was a #ertain %i%er. but use in di$$erent %la#es $our di$$erent diale#ts) Towards the south their $irst #ity is -iletus. nor east nor west o$ it) For in other #ountries either the #li'ate is o&er #old and da'%. and su#h like $lying or #ree%ing things) Howe&er. na'ely. there$ore.uest o$ Lydia by the +ersians. be#ause. neither abo&e it nor below it. when he es%ied so'e $ish( so he began to %i%e to the'. whi#h were attended by all e. 9who was walking one day by the seaside. were in no danger o$ atta#k. when he urged the' by his 'essengers to re&olt $ro' Croesus. who 'eet at the +anioniu'.9 he said. sin#e this has always been their #usto'. when his work was done. that he 'ade the' this re%ly) The onians. on hearing it. let the' kee% to it) return to 'y $or'er narrati&e) ''ediately a$ter the #on. or else the heat and drought are sorely o%%ressi&e) The onians do not all s%eak the sa'e language. Cla/o'enae. as you did not #hoose to #o'e and dan#e when %i%ed to you)19 Cyrus ga&e this answer to the onians and *eolians. they re$used( but now. ants and snakes. as readily as they do other ani'als. i'agining they would #o'e out to hi' u%on the land) But as he $ound at last that his ho%e was &ain. set to work to $orti$y their towns. and en#losing a great draught o$ $ishes. drew the' ashore) The $ish then began to lea% and dan#e( but the %i%er said. ha&e built their #ities in a region where the air and #li'ate are the 'ost beauti$ul in the whole world0 $or no other region is e. whi#h is Erythrae) !$ these Chios and Erythrae ha&e the sa'e diale#t. Lebedus. but use a diale#t o$ their own) There re'ain three other onian towns. they #a'e to o$$er their allegian#e) t was in anger.

$eeble as the %ower o$ the entire Helleni# ra#e was at that ti'e.7 Bura. the Trio%iu'0 nay.as i'agine< o$ their ha&ing been di&ided into twel&e "tates when they li&ed in the +elo%onnese( 2ust as the *#haeans. whi#h lie u% the #ountry) These are the twel&e di&isions o$ what is now *#haea. the $i&e other #ities. . took the tri%od ho'e to his own house and there hung it against the wall) *s a %unish'ent $or this $ault. o$ the right o$ entering the te'%le) The onians $ounded twel&e #ities in *sia. Lindus. sin#e the truth is that no s'all %ortion o$ the' were *bantians $ro' Euboea. Cos. ne. o$ all its tribes the oni# was by $ar the $eeblest and least estee'ed. but whi#h was $or'erly known as the 5ori# He. the %ri/es gi&en to the &i#tors were tri%ods o$ brass( and the rule was that these tri%ods should not be #arried away $ro' the te'%le. whi#h is a large ri&er7 5y'e and Tritaeeis. +hareis. e. they ha&e e&en gone so $ar as to shut out $ro' it #ertain o$ their own body who were guilty o$ an o$$en#e against the #usto's o$ the %la#e) n the ga'es whi#h were an#iently #elebrated in honour o$ the Trio%ian *%ollo. a strea' whi#h is ne&er dry. and Cnidus. and de#reed that it should not be o%en to any o$ the other oni# "tates( no "tate. alyssus. Ca'eirus.t to whi#h are *egeira. on rea#hing *sia. e. being de#lared &i#tor in the ga'es. is +ellene. and the +ersians the'sel&es were not a sea$aring %eo%le) The -ilesians had se%arated $ro' the #o''on #ause solely on a##ount o$ the e. *egae u%on the Crathis. Rhy%es.#e%ting *thens) The *thenians and 'ost o$ the other oni# "tates o&er the world. Hali#arnassus.#lude all their 5orian neighbours $ro' their te'%le. !lenus on the +eirus. and was $or'erly onia( and it was owing to their #o'ing $ro' a #ountry so di&ided that the onians.tre'e weakness o$ the onians0 $or. howe&er. went so $ar in their dislike o$ the na'e as a#tually to lay it aside( and e&en at the %resent day the greater nu'ber o$ the' see' to 'e to be asha'ed o$ it) But the twel&e #ities in *sia ha&e always gloried in the a%%ellation( they ga&e the te'%le whi#h they built $or the'sel&es the na'e o$ the +anioniu'. or in any res%e#t better born.still inde%endent o$ +ersia. but should then and there be dedi#ated to the god) 3ow a 'an o$ Hali#arnassus. Heli#e7 where the onians took re$uge on their de$eat by the *#haean in&aders7 *egiu'. $ounded their twel&e "tates0 $or it is the height o$ $olly to 'aintain that these onians are 'ore onian than the rest.#e%t "'yrna. are at the %resent day) The $irst #ity o$ the *#haeans a$ter "i#yon. who dro&e the' out. has #ra&ed ad'ission to it) n the sa'e way the 5orians o$ the region whi#h is now #alled the +enta%olis. and re$used to enlarge the nu'ber. whose na'e was *gasi#les. de%ri&ed the si.#e%t the last two. on a##ount .a%olis. all sea7%ort towns e. in o%en #onte'%t o$ the law.th #ity. and $ro' whi#h the talian Crathis re#ei&ed its na'e. +atreis. not %ossessing a single "tate o$ any 'ark e.

e. indeed. #alled also +hri#onis. whi#h they bound the'sel&es by an oath to obser&e. -yrina. brought no wi&es with the' to the new #ountry. and ter's were agreed on between the %arties. and their sons. son o$ Hi%%olo#hus. let the' %ass $or the %ure7bred onians( though truly all are onians who ha&e their origin $ro' *thens. and kee% the *%aturia) This is a $esti&al whi#h all the onians #elebrate. *egiroessa. the onians #onsenting to gi&e u% all the 'o&eables.ed u% with the e'igration -inyae $ro' !r#ho'enus. but 'arried Carian girls. 3otiu'. or #all hi' by his na'e9( be#ause the in&aders slew their $athers. 5ryo%ians. stret#hing out westward towards "a'os. and then $or#ed the' to be#o'e their wi&es) t was at -iletus that these e&ents took %la#e) The kings. but the #li'ate is less agreeable) The $ollowing is the way in whi#h the loss o$ "'yrna ha%%ened) Certain 'en o$ Colo%hon had been engaged in a sedition there. wat#hing their o%%ortunity. 5orians $ro' E%idaurus. and 'any other distin#t tribes) E&en those who #a'e $ro' the +rytaneu' o$ *thens.#e%t the E%hesians and the Colo%honians. shut to the gates. son o$ -elanthus( or else $ro' both those $a'ilies) But sin#e these onians set 'ore store by the na'e than any o$ the others. and the *eolians 'aking a surrender o$ the . but the onians de%ri&ed the' o$ "'yrna. a$ter a ti'e. too. who. +ho#ians $ro' the se&eral #ities o$ +ho#is. and re#kon the'sel&es the %urest onians o$ all. Larissa.who are not e&en onians in na'e( and. are the twel&e towns o$ the onians) The *eoli# #ities are the $ollowing07 Cy'e. while the inhabitants were #elebrating a $east to Ba##hus outside the walls. *r#adian +elasgi. they had twel&e #ities u%on the 'ainland. Cad'eians. in one and the sa'e letter) The abo&e7'entioned. o$ the blood o$ Glau#us. and Gryneia) These are the ele&en an#ient #ities o$ the *eolians) !riginally. not only a'ong the onians but a'ong all the Greeks. like the +ersian %ro%er na'es. one o$ the nu'ber) The soil o$ *eolis is better than that o$ onia. their husbands. who' they set o&er the'. were dri&en by the others into banish'ent) The "'yrnaeans re#ei&ed the $ugiti&es. +itane.#ludes $ro' it) The +anioniu' is a %la#e in -y#ale. 3eontei#hus. 9That none should e&er sit at 'eat with her husband. Te'nus. who' a #ertain a#t o$ bloodshed e. Cilla. end. like the onians. and so got %ossession o$ the town) The *eolians o$ the other "tates #a'e to their aid. in whi#h the onians asse'ble $ro' all their "tates to kee% the $east o$ the +anionia) The na'es o$ $esti&als. were either Ly#ians. and being the weaker %arty. *egaeae. -olossians. there were 'i. besides. whi#h was #hosen by the #o''on &oi#e o$ the onians and 'ade sa#red to Heli#onian 3e%tune) -y#ale itsel$ is a %ro'ontory o$ the 'ainland. $a#ing the north. whose $athers they had slain) Hen#e these wo'en 'ade a law. then. and whi#h they handed down to their daughters a$ter the'. or +ylian Cau#ons o$ the blood o$ Codrus.

like the onian islanders.#e%tion o$ those about -ount da. whi#h is a #usto' unknown to the +ersians. they #hose one o$ their nu'ber. lea&ing the #ity under the #harge o$ Tabalus. in the na'e o$ the La#edae'onians. sin#e they would not allow it) Cyrus is said. and were e&erywhere ad'itted to #iti/enshi%) These. 9 ha&e ne&er yet been a$raid o$ any 'en. whate&er #ourse they should %ursue) 4hen the de%uties o$ the onians and *eolians. to #olle#t the treasure belonging to Croesus and the other Lydians. and so attired stood $orth to s%eak) n a long dis#ourse he besought the "%artans to #o'e to the assistan#e o$ his #ountry'en. rea#hed the #ity. and what was their nu'ber. to be their s%okes'an) n order to draw together as large an audien#e as %ossible. but they were not to be %ersuaded. on hearing the s%ee#h o$ the herald. and the inhabitants redu#ed to sla&ery) Tenedos #ontains one #ity. to ha&e asked so'e Greeks who were standing by. 94ho these La#edae'onians were. as think. a +ersian. notwithstanding the re$usal whi#h they had gi&en to the %rayer o$ the de%utation.%la#e) The e. $ro' o$$ering 'olestation to any #ity o$ Gree#e. with the e. then. had at this ti'e nothing to $ear) The other *eolians de#ided in their #o''on asse'bly to $ollow the onians. $or the %ur%ose. sent to "ardis La#rines. he turned to the "%artan herald and said.th. des%at#hed a %ente#onter to the *siati# #oast with #ertain "%artans on board. that they dared to send hi' su#h a noti#e:9 4hen he had re#ei&ed their re%ly. but a%%ointing +a#tyas. who had 2ourneyed with all s%eed to "%arta. o$ wat#hing Cyrus and onia) These 'en. #arrying Croesus along with hi'. while the La#edae'onians. were all the *eoli# #ities u%on the 'ainland. +yther'us. whi#h 'ade no %art o$ this #on$edera#y) *s $or the islands. Lesbos #ontains $i&e #ities) *risba. and indeed ha&e not in their whole #ountry a single 'arket7%la#e) *$ter this inter&iew Cyrus . without #on#erning the'sel&es about the onians)9 Cyrus intended these words as a re%roa#h against all the Greeks. was taken by the -ethy'naeans. and &oted against sending any su##our) The de%uties a##ordingly went their way. not regarding the onians . and bring a$ter hi') Cyrus hi'sel$ %ro#eeded towards *gbatana.uitted "ardis. where they #o'e together to #heat ea#h other and $orswear the'sel&es) $ li&e. to %rohibit Cyrus. on their arri&al at +ho#aea. who ne&er 'ake %ur#hases in o%en 'arts. and there is another whi#h is built on what are #alled the Hundred sles) The *eolians o$ Lesbos and Tenedos. a +ho#aean. he #lothed hi'sel$ in a %ur%le gar'ent. the "%artans shall ha&e troubles enough o$ their own to talk o$.%elled "'yrnaeans were distributed a'ong the other "tates o$ the *eolians. a nati&e. the si. who ha&e a set %la#e in the 'iddle o$ their #ity. be#ause o$ their ha&ing 'arket7%la#es where they buy and sell. the 'ost distinguished o$ their nu'ber. their kins'en.

-a/ares by na'e. nor doo' to destru#tion an an#ient #ity. and sho%7kee%ing) "o wilt thou soon see the' be#o'e wo'en instead o$ 'en. and 'ake the' bring u% their sons to #ithern7%laying. he would not be able to %ersuade hi' to alter his 'ind) He was likewise a$raid lest. $ull o$ alar' lest Cyrus should lay "ardis in ruins. and e'%loyed the' in hiring 'er#enary troo%s. $orgi&eness to the Lydians. unless he brought $orward so'e notable suggestion. while at the sa'e ti'e he engaged the %eo%le o$ the #oast to enrol the'sel&es in his ar'y) He then 'ar#hed u%on "ardis. who wert so'ething 'ore than a $ather to thy %eo%le. har%ing. 94here will all this end. and in 'y own %erson now %ay the $or$eit) +a#tyas has #aused the other. the "a#ae. besee#h thee. and #harged hi' to issue orders to the Lydians in a##ordan#e with the ter's o$ Croesus1 dis#ourse) Further. then. and Egy%t( he there$ore deter'ined to assign to one o$ his generals the task o$ #on. on his way to *gbatana. and to %ut buskins u%on their legs. and to 'ake sure o$ their ne&er rebelling against thee. and .as i'%ortant enough to be his i''ediate ob2e#t) Larger designs were in his 'ind) He wished to war in %erson against Babylon. knowing that. where he besieged Tabalus. howe&er. he #o''anded hi' to sell $or sla&es all who had 2oined the Lydians in their atta#k u%on "ardis. the Ba#trians. thinkest thou: t see'eth that these Lydians will not #ease to #ause trouble both to the'sel&es and others) doubt 'e i$ it were not best to sell the' all $or sla&es) -ethinks what ha&e now done is as i$ a 'an were to 1kill the $ather and then s%are the #hild)1 Thou. and there$ore ga&e the abo&e ad&i#e to Cyrus. or alar'ing thee 'ore. and to that %eo%le ha&e entrusted their #ity) Can then $eel sur%rise at their rebellion:9 Thus did Cyrus o%en to Croesus his thoughts( whereat the latter. who #onsented to $orego his anger and do as Croesus had said) Thereu%on he su''oned to his %resen#e a #ertain -ede. guiltless alike o$ the %ast and o$ the %resent trouble) #aused the one. gi&e $ull &ent to thy anger. re%lied as $ollows0 9!h> 'y king. Croesus. he to who' thou ga&est "ardis in #harge( let hi' bear the %unish'ent) Grant. thy words are reasonable( but do not. who shut hi'sel$ u% in the #itadel) 4hen Cyrus. the Lydians at so'e $uture ti'e 'ight re&olt $ro' the +ersians and so bring the'sel&es to ruin) The ad&i#e %leased Cyrus. ha&e sei/ed and #arried o$$. a$ter es#a%ing the danger whi#h now %ressed. #o''and the' to wear tuni#s under their #loaks. send and $orbid the' to kee% any wea%ons o$ war. was Cyrus gone $ro' "ardis than +a#tyas indu#ed his #ountry'en to rise in o%en re&olt against hi' and his de%uty Tabalus) 4ith the &ast treasures at his dis%osal he then went down to the sea. he returned to Croesus and said. re#ei&ed these tidings. and there will be no 'ore $ear o$ their re&olting $ro' thee)9 Croesus thought the Lydians would e&en so be better o$$ than i$ they were sold $or sla&es.uering the onians) 3o sooner.

was des%at#hed. i''ediately entered the town) *nd $irst o$ all he $or#ed the Lydians to obey the orders o$ his 'aster.t. *ristodi#us. and re. what is this thou hast the $a#e to do: 5ost thou tear 'y su%%liants $ro' 'y te'%le:9 *ristodi#us. to gi&e hi' u% to the +ersians) 4ith this answer the 'essengers returned. and belie&ed that the 'essengers had re%orted it $alsely( until at last another e'bassy.uiry #on#erning +a#tyas) !n their arri&al at the shrine o$ the god. +a#tyas the Lydian. there$ore. in re%ly. who had 'ar#hed on "ardis with a deta#h'ent o$ the ar'y o$ Cyrus. 9 do #o''and it. and to take all the nests o$ young s%arrows and other birds that he #ould $ind about the building) *s he was thus e'%loyed. *ristodi#us. to re%eat the $or'er in. that so $or the i'%iety you 'ay the sooner %erish. #a'e $orth $ro' the inner san#tuary. at no loss $or a re%ly. 9!h. yet ha&e we not been bold to gi&e u% our su%%liant. the -edian general. threatened by the +ersians with a &iolent death. +a#tyas:9 The ora#le told the'. $inding on his arri&al that +a#tyas and his troo%s were gone. %ro#eeded to 'ake the #ir#uit o$ the te'%le. addressing *ristodi#us in these words0 9-ost i'%ious o$ 'en. king. #alling u%on our nation to deli&er hi' u%) 3ow. till we ha&e #ertain knowledge o$ thy 'ind. has #o'e to us $or san#tuary.abo&e aught else to be sure that he brought +a#tyas with hi' ali&e on his return) Ha&ing gi&en these orders Cyrus #ontinued his 2ourney towards the +ersian territory) +a#tyas.uestioned ga&e the sa'e answer as be$ore. and #hange . they ask hi' at our hands. o$ whi#h *ristodi#us hi'sel$ 'ade %art. and dost thou #o''and the Cy'aeans to gi&e u% a su%%liant:9 9=es. though we greatly dread the +ersian %ower. hindered the') He de#lared that he distrusted the res%onse.9 returned the god. and the %eo%le o$ Cy'd were ready to surrender hi' a##ordingly( but as they were %re%aring to do so. a &oi#e. thus addressed the ora#le0 9!h> king. and lo. re2oined. established in &ery an#ient ti'es. he des%at#hed 'essengers to Cy'e. a #iti/en o$ distin#tion.uiry at the shrine. who had #o'e %re%ared $or su#h an answer. $led in terror to Cy'e) -a/ares. bidding the' surrender +a#tyas to the +ersians( whereu%on *ristodi#us. son o$ Hera#lides. it is said. and not #o'e here again to #onsult 'y ora#le about the surrender o$ su%%liants)9 . s%eaking on behal$ o$ the whole body. 94hat the gods would like the' to do with the Lydian. when news #a'e o$ the near a%%roa#h o$ the ar'y sent against hi'. whi#h both the onians and *eolians were wont o$ten to #onsult) Hither there$ore the Cy'aeans sent their de%uties to 'ake in.uired to ha&e +a#tyas deli&ered u% to hi') !n this the Cy'aeans resol&ed to send to Bran#hidae and ask the ad&i#e o$ the god) Bran#hidae is situated in the territory o$ -iletus. art thou so ready to %rote#t thy su%%liants. what thou wouldst ha&e us to do)9 The ora#le thus . abo&e the %ort o$ +anor'us) There was an ora#le there.as they did $ro' that ti'e< their entire 'anner o$ li&ing) 3e.

and they were %re%aring to gi&e hi' u% $or a reward . with beria. he hea%ed 'ounds o$ earth against their walls. whose na'e was *rganthonius. but the long %ente#onter) !n their arri&al at Tartessus. who ke%t a stri#t wat#h u%on hi' that they 'ight be able to %rodu#e hi' be$ore Cyrus) For a long ti'e a$terwards none o$ the Chians would use the barley o$ *tarneus to %la#e on the heads o$ &i#ti's. and who lent his aid to +la#e Cyrus u%on the throne) *%%ointed by Cyrus to #ondu#t the war in these %arts. on #ondition o$ re#ei&ing the distri#t o$ *tarneus. and took the #ities by 'eans o$ 'ounds) For#ing the ene'y to shut the'sel&es u% within their de$en#es. being the 'an who' the -edian king. the king o$ the #ountry. and li&ed to be a hundred and twenty years old) He regarded the +ho#aeans with so 'u#h $a&our as. $inding that he #ould not %re&ail u%on the' to agree to this.!n the re#ei%t o$ this answer the Cy'aeans. and hearing that the -ede was growing great in their neighbourhood. he entered onia. as the bargain was not #o'%leted<. sent a &essel to Lesbos. . at $irst. and a$raid o$ ha&ing to endure a siege i$ they #ontinued to harbour hi'. a tra#t o$ -ysia o%%osite to Lesbos. both o$ whi#h he ga&e u% $or %illage to the soldiery) He then suddenly si#kened and died) 6%on his death Har%agus was sent down to the #oast to su##eed to his #o''and) He also was o$ the ra#e o$ the -edes. and the #ity o$ Tartessus) The &essel whi#h they used in their &oyages was not the round7built 'er#hant7shi%. as the %ri#e o$ the surrender) Thus did +a#tyas $all into the hands o$ his %ursuers. #annot say with #ertainty how large. a$ter whi#h he o&erran the whole %lain o$ the -aeander and the distri#t o$ -agnesia. and #on&eyed away +a#tyas to Chios) Fro' hen#e it was that he was surrendered) The Chians dragged hi' $ro' the te'%le o$ -iner&a +oliu#hus and ga&e hi' u% to the +ersians.uet. and thus #arried the towns) +ho#aea was the #ity against whi#h he dire#ted his $irst atta#k) 3ow the +ho#aeans were the $irst o$ the Greeks who %er$or'ed long &oyages. *styages. and in the $irst %la#e took +riene and sold the inhabitants $or sla&es.uainted with the *driati# and with Tyrrhenia. a$ter he had re#o&ered +a#tyas $ro' the Chians.#luded $ro' all their te'%les) -eanwhile -a/ares. unwilling to bring the threatened destru#tion on the'sel&es by gi&ing u% the 'an. and it was they who 'ade the Greeks a#. $easted at the unholy ban.uit onia and settle in whate&er %art o$ his #ountry they liked) *$terwards. he ga&e the' 'oney to build a wall about their town. but the whole %rodu#e o$ the land was e. or 'ake sa#ri$i#ial #akes o$ the #orn grown there. to beg the' to . sent +a#tyas away to -ytilene) !n this -a/ares des%at#hed en&oys to the -ytilenaeans to de'and the $ugiti&e o$ the'. when the Cy'aeans hearing what the -ytilenaeans were about. took a liking to the') This 'onar#h reigned o&er the Tartessians $or eighty years. 'ade war u%on those who had taken %art in the atta#k on Tabalus.

. and %utting to sea. they sailed on#e 'ore to +ho#aea. and e&en the i'ages o$ their gods. twenty years be$ore.Corsi#a<. 'ore than hal$ o$ their nu'ber were sei/ed with su#h sadness and so great a longing to see on#e 'ore their #ity and their an#ient ho'es. $or the town is 'any $urlongs in #ir#uit. they had $ounded a #ity. on their return. as they were %re%aring to de%art $or Cyrnus.#lude their 'er#hants $ro' the #o''er#e o$ those seas) !n their re$usal. on this &oyage. $ollowing the dire#tion o$ an ora#le. sorely &e. but ne&ertheless he would grant their re. set sail $or Chios) The +ersians. the +ho#aeans. 'ade u% their 'inds to sail to Cyrnus . but the Chians re$used to %art with the'. 9i$ the +ho#aeans would agree to throw down one o$ their battle'ents. and sent ea#h a $leet o$ si. took %ossession o$ an e'%ty town) *rri&ed at Chios. was built by his aid) Har%agus. with all the &oti&e o$$erings $ro' the $anes e. and e. whi#h was #alled *lalia) Be$ore they set out. and dedi#ate one dwelling7house to the king)9 The +ho#aeans. 9that he understood well enough what they were about to do. until at length the Carthaginians and Tyrrhenians leagued against the'.uest)9 *##ordingly the troo%s were withdrawn. and sur%rising the +ersian troo%s a%%ointed by Har%agus to garrison town.and #ertainly he 'ust ha&e gi&en it with a bounti$ul hand.ed at the thought o$ be#o'ing sla&es. and besought Har%agus during that day to draw o$$ his $or#es $ro' the walls) Har%agus re%lied. ha&ing ad&an#ed against the +ho#aeans with his ar'y. that they broke the oath by whi#h they had bound the'sel&es and sailed ba#k to +ho#aea) The rest o$ the +ho#aeans who ke%t their oath. on their %art.#e%t the %aintings and the works in stone or brass. and when they #a'e to Cyrnus established the'sel&es along with the earlier settlers at *lalia and built te'%les in the %la#e) For $i&e years they annoyed their neighbours by %lundering and %illaging on all sides. their household goods. %ut the' all to the sword) *$ter this laid the hea&iest #urses on the 'an who should draw ba#k and $orsake the ar'a'ent( and ha&ing dro%%ed a hea&y 'ass o$ iron into the sea. $earing lest the +ho#aeans should establish a $a#tory there. the +ho#aeans 'ade o$$ers $or the %ur#hase o$ the islands #alled the !enussae. %ro#eeded without sto%%ing u%on their &oyage. asked a single day to deliberate on the answer they should return. where. o$$ering the' ter's) 9 t would #ontent hi'.9 he said. swore ne&er to return to +ho#aea till that 'ass rea%%eared u%on the sur$a#e) 3e&ertheless. howe&er. then. laid siege to their #ity. $irst. as *rganthonius was now dead. howe&er. and the wall is built entirely o$ great blo#ks o$ stone skil$ully $itted together) The wall. and %ut on board their wi&es and #hildren. whi#h were le$t behind) 4ith the rest they e'barked.ty shi%s to atta#k the town) The +ho#aeans. and the +ho#aeans $orthwith took ad&antage o$ their absen#e to laun#h their %ente#onters.

but one a$ter another they su$$ered de$eat( the #ities were taken.%elled by the Thra#ians) "till the Teians o$ *bdera worshi% hi' to this day as a hero) !$ all the onians these two states alone. both gy'ni# and e. and %er$or'ed 'any $eats o$ ar's. when shee%.'anned all their &essels. and the twenty whi#h re'ained #a'e out o$ the engage'ent with beaks so bent and blunted as to be no longer ser&i#eable) The +ho#aeans there$ore sailed ba#k again to *lalia. and sole'n ga'es. and obeying the behests o$ their new lords) -iletus. re'aining in their res%e#ti&e #ountries.uestrian) "u#h. who suggested that the ora#le had not 'eant to bid the' set u% a town in Cyrnus the island. was the $ate that be$ell the +ho#aean %risoners) The other +ho#aeans. ea#h $ighting in their own de$en#e. and so #ontinued at %ea#e) Thus was #ontinental onia on#e 'ore redu#ed to ser&itude( and when the onians o$ the islands saw their brethren u%on the 'ainland sub2ugated. landed their #a%ti&es u%on the #oast a$ter the $ight. be#a'e a$ter a while the $ounders o$ the #ity #alled @ela. but set u% the worshi% o$ Cyrnus the hero) Thus $ared it with the 'en o$ the #ity o$ +ho#aea in onia) They o$ Teos did and su$$ered al'ost the sa'e( $or they too. one and all. in the distri#t o$ !enotria) This #ity they #olonised. whi#h they still obser&e. and stoned the' all to death) *$terwards. o$ honouring the dead +ho#aeans with 'agni$i#ent $uneral rites. $orsook their $atherland) The others .%iate their sin) The answer o$ the +ythoness re. ga&e the'sel&es . had 'ade ter's with Cyrus. $or he was e. then. but without any lasting su##ess. $ounded there the #ity o$ *bdera) The site was one whi#h Ti'esius o$ Cla/o'enae had %re&iously tried to #olonise. and sailing a#ross the sea to Thra#e. who had got into their hands 'any 'ore than the +ho#aeans $ro' a'ong the #rews o$ the $orty &essels that were destroyed. si. or they were sei/ed with %alsy.#e%t -iletus< resisted Har%agus no less bra&ely than those who $led their #ountry. dreading the like. they also. u%on the showing o$ a 'an o$ +osidonia. their bodies be#a'e distorted. and the inhabitants sub'itted.en. and taking their wi&es and #hildren on board. bade adieu to Cyrnus and sailed to Rhegiu') The Carthaginians and Tyrrhenians. who had $led to Rhegiu'. or o. e.ty in nu'ber. or they lost the use o$ so'e o$ their li'bs) !n this the %eo%le o$ *gylla sent to 5el%hi to ask the ora#le how they 'ight e. when Har%agus had raised his 'ound to the height o$ their de$en#es. but their su##ess was only a sort o$ Cad'eian &i#tory)1 They lost $orty shi%s in the battle.uired the' to institute the #usto'. took shi%. as ha&e already 'entioned. with su#h %ortion o$ their goods and #hattels as the &essels #ould bear. or e&en 'en o$ the distri#t o$ *gylla %assed by the s%ot where the 'urdered +ho#aeans lay. rather than sub'it to sla&ery. and 'et their ene'y on the "ardinian sea) n the engage'ent whi#h $ollowed the +ho#aeans were &i#torious.

as a' in$or'ed< a %ro2e#t o$ the &ery highest wisdo'. a 'an o$ -iletus. so $ar as ha&e been able to %ush 'y in. ha&e the a$oresaid right( but su#h as are o$ a . and there $ound a single +an7 oni# #ity( so they would es#a%e $ro' sla&ery and rise to great $ortune. the Carians were in his day the 'ost $a'ous by $ar o$ all the nations o$ the earth) They likewise were the in&entors o$ three things. e. as o$ old. the Carians were dri&en $ro' the islands by the onians and 5orians.u% to Cyrus) t was while the onians were in this distress. were brothers o$ Car) These nations. re#o''ended .uired( and thus. but still. as brother ra#es to the Carians0 $or Lydus and -ysus. the Caunians. that Bias o$ +riene. they say. 9was the #entre o$ onia) Their other #ities 'ight still #ontinue to en2oy their own laws. dwelling a'ong the isles. 2ust as i$ they were inde%endent states)9 This also was good ad&i#e) *$ter #on. and.9 he said. and %ointed out Teos as the $ittest %la#e $or it( 9$or that. Har%agus %ro#eeded to atta#k the Carians.horted the' 9to 2oin in one body. being 'asters o$ the largest island in the world. and they also in&ented handles $or shields) n the earlier ti'es shields were without handles. in whi#h the -ysians and Lydians ha&e the right o$ worshi%%ing. by whi#h they were slung round the ne#k and le$t shoulder) Long a$ter the ti'e o$ -inos. at the +anioniu'. he saw no %ros%e#t o$ their e&er re#o&ering their lost $reedo')9 "u#h was the #ounsel whi#h Bias ga&e the onians in their a$$li#tion) Be$ore their 'is$ortunes began. and went by the na'e o$ Leleges. and ne&er had any other na'e than that whi#h they still bear( and in %roo$ o$ this they show an an#ient te'%le o$ Carian 8o&e in the #ountry o$ the -ylasians. had it been e'bra#ed. a'id it all. the use o$ whi#h was borrowed $ro' the' by the Greeks( they were the $irst to $asten #rests on hel'ets and to %ut de&i#es on shields. as he was a great #on. there$ore. ne&er liable to gi&e tribute to any 'an) They ser&ed on board the shi%s o$ king -inos whene&er he re. ha&e enabled the onians to be#o'e the ha%%iest and 'ost $lourishing o$ the Greeks) He e. set sail $or "ardinia.ueror and %ros%ered in his wars. o$ the abo&e nations the Carians are a ra#e who #a'e into the 'ainland $ro' the islands) n an#ient ti'es they were sub2e#ts o$ king -inos. and their wearers 'anaged the' by the aid o$ a leathern thong. Thales.uering the onians. and so settled u%on the 'ainland) The abo&e is the a##ount whi#h the Cretans gi&e o$ the Carians0 the Carians the'sel&es say &ery di$$erently) They 'aintain that they are the aboriginal inhabitants o$ the %art o$ the 'ainland where they now dwell.er#ising do'inion e&en beyond its bounds( whereas i$ they stayed in onia. had re#o''ended a di$$erent %lan) He #ounselled the' to establish a single seat o$ go&ern'ent. whi#h would. held their 'eetings. and the Ly#ians) The onians and *eolians were $or#ed to ser&e in his ar'y) 3ow. who was %resent at the $esti&al.uiries. o$ +hoeni#ian des#ent.

$or the %ur%ose o$ drinking wine) *gain. who o##u%y a distri#t $a#ing the sea. and on the south by the . was wholly %eo%led with barbarians) * . they #a'e. they di$$er greatly $ro' the Carians. and were #alled Ter'ilae. and not only so. and striking the air with their s%ears. in 'y 2udg'ent. being bounded on the north by the Cera'i# Gul$. but would worshi% their own old an#estral gods alone) Then their whole youth took ar's. as the Ly#ians still are by those who li&e in their neighbourhood) But a$ter Ly#us. whether they be 'en. his $ollowers ke%t the na'e whi#h they brought with the' $ro' Crete. e&en though they ha&e #o'e to use the Carian tongue. whose %arty %re&ailed.#luded $ro' this te'%le) The Caunians. howe&er. either they ha&e a%%ro. de#laring that they were dri&ing out the $oreign gods) The Ly#ians are in good truth an#iently $ro' Crete( whi#h island.uarrel arising there between the two sons o$ Euro%a. and landed on the -ilyan territory) -ilyas was the an#ient na'e o$ the #ountry now inhabited by the Ly#ians0 the -ilyae o$ the %resent day were. and so on in the $e'ale line) -oreo&er. wo'en. i$ a $ree wo'an 'arry a 'an who is a sla&e. dro&e "ar%edon and his $ollowers into banish'ent) The e. to 'eet together in large #o'%anies. whi#h is #alled Trio%iu') This region ad2oins u%on the Bybassian Chersonese( and. in $or'er days.i'ated to the Carians. e.iles sailed to *sia. that o$ his 'other. or #hildren. or the Carians to the'7 on this %oint #annot s%eak with #ertainty) n their #usto's. the Carians sub'itted to Har%agus without %er$or'ing any brilliant e. #olonists $ro' La#edae'on. are aboriginals( but by their own a##ount they #a'e $ro' Crete) n their language. their #hildren are $ull #iti/ens( but i$ a $ree 'an 'arry a $oreign wo'an. howe&er. in #ourse o$ ti'e. but $ro' all other 'en) They think it a 'ost honourable %ra#ti#e $or $riends or %ersons o$ the sa'e age. in those ti'es. and he answers by gi&ing his own na'e. as to whi#h o$ the' should be king. to be #alled $ro' hi' Ly#ians) Their #usto's are %artly Cretan. #alled "oly'i) "o long as "ar%edon reigned. one singular #usto' in whi#h they di$$er $ro' e&ery other nation in the world) They take the 'other1s and not the $ather1s na'e) *sk a Ly#ian who he is. the son o$ +andion. 'ar#hed to the Calyndi# $rontier. "ar%edon and -inos. are e. the #hildren $or$eit all the rights o$ #iti/enshi%) !$ these nations. e&en though he be the $irst %erson in the "tate.di$$erent ra#e. or li&e with a #on#ubine.#e%t a &ery s'all s%a#e. %artly Carian) They ha&e. on one o##asion they deter'ined that they would no longer 'ake use o$ the $oreign te'%les whi#h had been long established a'ong the'.%loits) 3or did the Greeks who dwelt in Caria beha&e with any greater gallantry) *'ong the' were the Cnidians. -inos. is surrounded by the sea. banished $ro' *thens by his brother *egeus had $ound a re$uge with "ar%edon in the #ountry o$ these Ter'ilae.

resisted Har%agus $or a while. a##ording to their own a##ount. wishing to 'ake their #ountry an island. Cyrus in %erson sub2e#ted the u%%er regions. to in. and ga&e hi' 'u#h trouble.uering e&ery nation.%loits) !&er%owered at last. were the +edasians) 4ith this %eo%le. whi#h they had $orti$ied( but in #ourse o$ ti'e they also were $or#ed to sub'it) 4hen Har%agus. and so sur&i&ed the others) Thus was Banthus taken by Har%agus. and sallying $orth against the ene'y. $ired the building.uest o$ onia. and burnt it to the ground) *$ter this. and %er$or'ed 'any glorious e. who ha%%ened to be absent $ro' the #ountry. there$ore. $ro' the s%lintering o$ the ro#k) The Cnidians.a'%le o$ the Ly#ians) 4hile the lower %arts o$ *sia were in this way brought under by Har%agus. led his $or#es into the Banthian %lain. they #olle#ted into the #itadel their wi&es and #hildren. they ga&e the'sel&es u% to hi' without striking a blow) *bo&e Hali#arnassus and $urther $ro' the #oast.#e%t eighty $a'ilies. and when Har%agus ad&an#ed with his ar'y. had he wished) "o the Cnidians #eased digging. and gi&e an a##ount o$ those only whi#h ga&e hi' the 'ost trouble. died sword in hand. they bound the'sel&es together by dread$ul oaths. the isth'us begins whi#h they were now seeking to #ut through) The work had been #o''en#ed.#hannel towards the islands o$ "y'e and Rhodes) 4hile Har%agus was engaged in the #on. and Caunus $ell in like 'anner into his hands( $or the Caunians in the 'ain $ollowed the e. the Cnidians. and $or#ed within their walls. not one es#a%ing) Those Ly#ians who now #lai' to be Banthians. and 'any hands were e'%loyed u%on it. atte'%ted to #ut through this narrow ne#k o$ land. when any e&il is about to be$all either the'sel&es or their neighbours. are $oreign i''igrants. they engaged in battle. a$ter these su##esses. whi#h was no 'ore than $i&e $urlongs a#ross $ro' sea to sea) Their whole territory lay inside the isth'us( $or where Cnidia ends towards the 'ainland. 'aintaining the'sel&es in a #ertain 'ountain #alled Lida. #on. all their treasures. and not su$$ering one to es#a%e) !$ these #on. es%e#ially about their eyes. and are the worthiest o$ 'ention) . the Ly#ians o$ Banthus went out to 'eet hi' in the $ield0 though but a s'all band against a nu'erous host. nor dig it through7 8o&e would ha&e 'ade an island. sent to 5el%hi. when it was obser&ed that there see'ed to be so'ething unusual and unnatural in the nu'ber o$ wounds that the work'en re#ei&ed. the %riestess o$ -iner&a grows an a'%le beard) Three ti'es has this 'ar&el ha%%ened) They alone. and their sla&es( and ha&ing so done. o$ all the dwellers in Caria. e.uire what it was that hindered their e$$orts( and re#ei&ed.uests shall %ass by the greater %ortion. the $ollowing answer $ro' the ora#le07 Fen#e not the isth'us o$$.

4hen he had brought all the rest o$ the #ontinent under his sway, he 'ade war on the *ssyrians) *ssyria %ossesses a &ast nu'ber o$ great #ities, whereo$ the 'ost renowned and strongest at this ti'e was Babylon, whither, a$ter the $all o$ 3ine&eh, the seat o$ go&ern'ent had been re'o&ed) The $ollowing is a des#ri%tion o$ the %la#e07 The #ity stands on a broad %lain, and is an e.a#t s,uare, a hundred and twenty $urlongs in length ea#h way, so that the entire #ir#uit is $our hundred and eighty $urlongs) 4hile su#h is its si/e, in 'agni$i#en#e there is no other #ity that a%%roa#hes to it) t is surrounded, in the $irst %la#e, by a broad and dee% 'oat, $ull o$ water, behind whi#h rises a wall $i$ty royal #ubits in width, and two hundred in height) ;The royal #ubit is longer by three $ingers1 breadth than the #o''on #ubit)< *nd here 'ay not o'it to tell the use to whi#h the 'ould dug out o$ the great 'oat was turned, nor the 'anner wherein the wall was wrought) *s $ast as they dug the 'oat the soil whi#h they got $ro' the #utting was 'ade into bri#ks, and when a su$$i#ient nu'ber were #o'%leted they baked the bri#ks in kilns) Then they set to building, and began with bri#king the borders o$ the 'oat, a$ter whi#h they %ro#eeded to #onstru#t the wall itsel$, using throughout $or their #e'ent hot bitu'en, and inter%osing a layer o$ wattled reeds at e&ery thirtieth #ourse o$ the bri#ks) !n the to%, along the edges o$ the wall, they #onstru#ted buildings o$ a single #ha'ber $a#ing one another, lea&ing between the' roo' $or a $our7horse #hariot to turn) n the #ir#uit o$ the wall are a hundred gates, all o$ brass, with bra/en lintels and side7%osts) The bitu'en used in the work was brought to Babylon $ro' the s, a s'all strea' whi#h $lows into the Eu%hrates at the %oint where the #ity o$ the sa'e na'e stands, eight days1 2ourney $ro' Babylon) Lu'%s o$ bitu'en are $ound in great abundan#e in this ri&er) The #ity is di&ided into two %ortions by the ri&er whi#h runs through the 'idst o$ it) This ri&er is the Eu%hrates, a broad, dee%, swi$t strea', whi#h rises in *r'enia, and e'%ties itsel$ into the Erythraean sea) The #ity wall is brought down on both sides to the edge o$ the strea'0 then#e, $ro' the #orners o$ the wall, there is #arried along ea#h bank o$ the ri&er a $en#e o$ burnt bri#ks) The houses are 'ostly three and $our stories high( the streets all run in straight lines, not only those %arallel to the ri&er, but also the #ross streets whi#h lead down to the water7side) *t the ri&er end o$ these #ross streets are low gates in the $en#e that skirts the strea', whi#h are, like the great gates in the outer wall, o$ brass, and o%en on the water) The outer wall is the 'ain de$en#e o$ the #ity) There is, howe&er, a se#ond inner wall, o$ less thi#kness than the $irst, but &ery little in$erior to it in strength) The #entre o$ ea#h di&ision o$ the town was o##u%ied by a $ortress) n the one stood the %ala#e o$ the

kings, surrounded by a wall o$ great strength and si/e0 in the other was the sa#red %re#in#t o$ 8u%iter Belus, a s,uare en#losure two $urlongs ea#h way, with gates o$ solid brass( whi#h was also re'aining in 'y ti'e) n the 'iddle o$ the %re#in#t there was a tower o$ solid 'asonry, a $urlong in length and breadth, u%on whi#h was raised a se#ond tower, and on that a third, and so on u% to eight) The as#ent to the to% is on the outside, by a %ath whi#h winds round all the towers) 4hen one is about hal$7way u%, one $inds a resting7%la#e and seats, where %ersons are wont to sit so'e ti'e on their way to the su''it) !n the to%'ost tower there is a s%a#ious te'%le, and inside the te'%le stands a #ou#h o$ unusual si/e, ri#hly adorned, with a golden table by its side) There is no statue o$ any kind set u% in the %la#e, nor is the #ha'ber o##u%ied o$ nights by any one but a single nati&e wo'an, who, as the Chaldaeans, the %riests o$ this god, a$$ir', is #hosen $or hi'sel$ by the deity out o$ all the wo'en o$ the land) They also de#lare7 but $or 'y %art do not #redit it7 that the god #o'es down in %erson into this #ha'ber, and slee%s u%on the #ou#h) This is like the story told by the Egy%tians o$ what takes %la#e in their #ity o$ Thebes, where a wo'an always %asses the night in the te'%le o$ the Theban 8u%iter) n ea#h #ase the wo'an is said to be debarred all inter#ourse with 'en) t is also like the #usto' o$ +atara, in Ly#ia, where the %riestess who deli&ers the ora#les, during the ti'e that she is so e'%loyed7 $or at +atara there is not always an ora#le7 is shut u% in the te'%le e&ery night) Below, in the sa'e %re#in#t, there is a se#ond te'%le, in whi#h is a sitting $igure o$ 8u%iter, all o$ gold) Be$ore the $igure stands a large golden table, and the throne whereon it sits, and the base on whi#h the throne is %la#ed, are likewise o$ gold) The Chaldaeans told 'e that all the gold together was eight hundred talents1 weight) !utside the te'%le are two altars, one o$ solid gold, on whi#h it is only law$ul to o$$er su#klings( the other a #o''on altar, but o$ great si/e, on whi#h the $ull7grown ani'als are sa#ri$i#ed) t is also on the great altar that the Chaldaeans burn the $rankin#ense, whi#h is o$$ered to the a'ount o$ a thousand talents1 weight, e&ery year, at the $esti&al o$ the God) n the ti'e o$ Cyrus there was likewise in this te'%le a $igure o$ a 'an, twel&e #ubits high, entirely o$ solid gold) 'ysel$ did not see this $igure, but relate what the Chaldaeans re%ort #on#erning it) 5arius, the son o$ Hystas%es, %lotted to #arry the statue o$$, but had not the hardihood to lay his hands u%on it) Ber.es, howe&er, the son o$ 5arius, killed the %riest who $orbade hi' to 'o&e the statue, and took it away) Besides the orna'ents whi#h ha&e 'entioned, there are a large nu'ber o$ %ri&ate o$$erings in this holy %re#in#t) -any so&ereigns ha&e ruled o&er this #ity o$ Babylon, and lent their aid to the building o$ its walls and the adorn'ent o$ its te'%les, o$ who' shall 'ake 'ention in 'y *ssyrian history) *'ong

the' two were wo'en) !$ these, the earlier, #alled "e'ira'is, held the throne $i&e generations be$ore the later %rin#ess) "he raised #ertain e'bank'ents well worthy o$ ins%e#tion, in the %lain near Babylon, to #ontrol the ri&er, whi#h, till then, used to o&er$low, and $lood the whole #ountry round about) The later o$ the two ,ueens, whose na'e was 3ito#ris, a wiser %rin#ess than her %rede#essor, not only le$t behind her, as 'e'orials o$ her o##u%an#y o$ the throne, the works whi#h shall %resently des#ribe, but also, obser&ing the great %ower and restless enter%rise o$ the -edes, who had taken so large a nu'ber o$ #ities, and a'ong the' 3ine&eh, and e.%e#ting to be atta#ked in her turn, 'ade all %ossible e.ertions to in#rease the de$en#es o$ her e'%ire) *nd $irst, whereas the ri&er Eu%hrates, whi#h tra&erses the #ity, ran $or'erly with a straight #ourse to Babylon, she, by #ertain e.#a&ations whi#h she 'ade at so'e distan#e u% the strea', rendered it so winding that it #o'es three se&eral ti'es in sight o$ the sa'e &illage, a &illage in *ssyria, whi#h is #alled *rderi#ea( and to this day, they who would go $ro' our sea to Babylon, on des#ending to the ri&er tou#h three ti'es, and on three di$$erent days, at this &ery %la#e) "he also 'ade an e'bank'ent along ea#h side o$ the Eu%hrates, wonder$ul both $or breadth and height, and dug a basin $or a lake a great way abo&e Babylon, #lose alongside o$ the strea', whi#h was sunk e&erywhere to the %oint where they #a'e to water, and was o$ su#h breadth that the whole #ir#uit 'easured $our hundred and twenty $urlongs) The soil dug out o$ this basin was 'ade use o$ in the e'bank'ents along the waterside) 4hen the e.#a&ation was $inished, she had stones brought, and bordered with the' the entire 'argin o$ the reser&oir) These two things were done, the ri&er 'ade to wind, and the lake e.#a&ated, that the strea' 'ight be sla#ker by reason o$ the nu'ber o$ #ur&es, and the &oyage be rendered #ir#uitous, and that at the end o$ the &oyage it 'ight be ne#essary to skirt the lake and so 'ake a long round) *ll these works were on that side o$ Babylon where the %asses lay, and the roads into -edia were the straightest, and the ai' o$ the ,ueen in 'aking the' was to %re&ent the -edes $ro' holding inter#ourse with the Babylonians, and so to kee% the' in ignoran#e o$ her a$$airs) 4hile the soil $ro' the e.#a&ation was being thus used $or the de$en#e o$ the #ity, 3ito#ris engaged also in another undertaking, a 'ere by7work #o'%ared with those we ha&e already 'entioned) The #ity, as said, was di&ided by the ri&er into two distin#t %ortions) 6nder the $or'er kings, i$ a 'an wanted to %ass $ro' one o$ these di&isions to the other, he had to #ross in a boat( whi#h 'ust, it see's to 'e, ha&e been &ery troubleso'e) *##ordingly, while she was digging the lake, 3ito#ris be) thought hersel$ o$ turning it to a use whi#h should at on#e re'o&e this in#on&enien#e, and enable her to lea&e another 'onu'ent o$ her reign o&er Babylon) "he ga&e

orders $or the hewing o$ i''ense blo#ks o$ stone, and when they were ready and the basin was e.#a&ated, she turned the entire strea' o$ the Eu%hrates into the #utting, and thus $or a ti'e, while the basin was $illing, the natural #hannel o$ the ri&er was le$t dry) Forthwith she set to work, and in the $irst %la#e lined the banks o$ the strea' within the #ity with ,uays o$ burnt bri#k, and also bri#ked the landing7%la#es o%%osite the ri&er7gates, ado%ting throughout the sa'e $ashion o$ bri#kwork whi#h had been used in the town wall( a$ter whi#h, with the 'aterials whi#h had been %re%ared, she built, as near the 'iddle o$ the town as %ossible, a stone bridge, the blo#ks whereo$ were bound together with iron and lead) n the dayti'e s,uare wooden %lat$or's were laid along $ro' %ier to %ier, on whi#h the inhabitants #rossed the strea'( but at night they were withdrawn, to %re&ent %eo%le %assing $ro' side to side in the dark to #o''it robberies) 4hen the ri&er had $illed the #utting, and the bridge was $inished, the Eu%hrates was turned ba#k again into its an#ient bed( and thus the basin, trans$or'ed suddenly into a lake, was seen to answer the %ur%ose $or whi#h it was 'ade, and the inhabitants, by hel% o$ the basin, obtained the ad&antage o$ a bridge) t was this sa'e %rin#ess by who' a re'arkable de#e%tion was %lanned) "he had her to'b #onstru#ted in the u%%er %art o$ one o$ the %rin#i%al gateways o$ the #ity, high abo&e the heads o$ the %assers by, with this ins#ri%tion #ut u%on it07 9 $ there be one a'ong 'y su##essors on the throne o$ Babylon who is in want o$ treasure, let hi' o%en 'y to'b, and take as 'u#h as he #hooses7 not, howe&er, unless he be truly in want, $or it will not be $or his good)9 This to'b #ontinued untou#hed until 5arius #a'e to the kingdo') To hi' it see'ed a 'onstrous thing that he should be unable to use one o$ the gates o$ the town, and that a su' o$ 'oney should be lying idle, and 'oreo&er in&iting his gras%, and he not sei/e u%on it) 3ow he #ould not use the gate, be#ause, as he dro&e through, the dead body would ha&e been o&er his head) *##ordingly he o%ened the to'b( but instead o$ 'oney, $ound only the dead body, and a writing whi#h said7 9Hadst thou not been insatiate o$ %el$, and #areless how thou gottest it, thou wouldst not ha&e broken o%en the se%ul#hres o$ the dead)9 The e.%edition o$ Cyrus was undertaken against the son o$ this %rin#ess, who bore the sa'e na'e as his $ather Labynetus, and was king o$ the *ssyrians) The Great ?ing, when he goes to the wars, is always su%%lied with %ro&isions #are$ully %re%ared at ho'e, and with #attle o$ his own) 4ater too $ro' the ri&er Choas%es, whi#h $lows by "usa, is taken with hi' $or his drink, as that is the only water whi#h the kings o$ +ersia taste) 4here&er he tra&els, he is attended by a nu'ber o$ $our7wheeled #ars drawn by 'ules, in whi#h the Choas%es water, ready boiled $or use, and stored in $lagons o$ sil&er, is 'o&ed with hi' $ro' %la#e to %la#e) Cyrus on his way to Babylon #a'e to the banks o$ the Gyndes, a

strea' whi#h, rising in the -atienian 'ountains, runs through the #ountry o$ the 5ardanians, and e'%ties itsel$ into the ri&er Tigris) The Tigris, a$ter re#ei&ing the Gyndes, $lows on by the #ity o$ !%is, and dis#harges its waters into the Erythraean sea) 4hen Cyrus rea#hed this strea', whi#h #ould only be %assed in boats, one o$ the sa#red white horses a##o'%anying his 'ar#h, $ull o$ s%irit and high 'ettle, walked into the water, and tried to #ross by hi'sel$( but the #urrent sei/ed hi', swe%t hi' along with it, and drowned hi' in its de%ths) Cyrus, enraged at the insolen#e o$ the ri&er, threatened so to break its strength that in $uture e&en wo'en should #ross it easily without wetting their knees) *##ordingly he %ut o$$ $or a ti'e his atta#k on Babylon, and, di&iding his ar'y into two %arts, he 'arked out by ro%es one hundred and eighty tren#hes on ea#h side o$ the Gyndes, leading o$$ $ro' it in all dire#tions, and setting his ar'y to dig, so'e on one side o$ the ri&er, so'e on the other, he a##o'%lished his threat by the aid o$ so great a nu'ber o$ hands, but not without losing thereby the whole su''er season) Ha&ing, howe&er, thus wreaked his &engean#e on the Gyndes, by dis%ersing it through three hundred and si.ty #hannels, Cyrus, with the $irst a%%roa#h o$ the ensuing s%ring, 'ar#hed $orward against Babylon) The Babylonians, en#a'%ed without their walls, awaited his #o'ing) * battle was $ought at a short distan#e $ro' the #ity, in whi#h the Babylonians were de$eated by the +ersian king, whereu%on they withdrew within their de$en#es) Here they shut the'sel&es u%, and 'ade light o$ his siege, ha&ing laid in a store o$ %ro&isions $or 'any years in %re%aration against this atta#k( $or when they saw Cyrus #on,uering nation a$ter nation, they were #on&in#ed that he would ne&er sto%, and that their turn would #o'e at last) Cyrus was now redu#ed to great %er%le.ity, as ti'e went on and he 'ade no %rogress against the %la#e) n this distress either so'e one 'ade the suggestion to hi', or he bethought hi'sel$ o$ a %lan, whi#h he %ro#eeded to %ut in e.e#ution) He %la#ed a %ortion o$ his ar'y at the %oint where the ri&er enters the #ity, and another body at the ba#k o$ the %la#e where it issues $orth, with orders to 'ar#h into the town by the bed o$ the strea', as soon as the water be#a'e shallow enough0 he then hi'sel$ drew o$$ with the unwarlike %ortion o$ his host, and 'ade $or the %la#e where 3ito#ris dug the basin $or the ri&er, where he did e.a#tly what she had done $or'erly0 he turned the Eu%hrates by a #anal into the basin, whi#h was then a 'arsh, on whi#h the ri&er sank to su#h an e.tent that the natural bed o$ the strea' be#a'e $ordable) Hereu%on the +ersians who had been le$t $or the %ur%ose at Babylon by the, ri&er7side, entered the strea', whi#h had now sunk so as to rea#h about 'idway u% a 'an1s thigh, and thus got into the town) Had the Babylonians been a%%rised o$ what Cyrus was about, or had they noti#ed their danger, they would ne&er ha&e allowed the +ersians to enter the #ity, but would ha&e destroyed the' utterly(

$or they would ha&e 'ade $ast all the street7gates whi#h ga&e u%on the ri&er, and 'ounting u%on the walls along both sides o$ the strea', would so ha&e #aught the ene'y, as it were, in a tra%) But, as it was, the +ersians #a'e u%on the' by sur%rise and so took the #ity) !wing to the &ast si/e o$ the %la#e, the inhabitants o$ the #entral %arts ;as the residents at Babylon de#lare< long a$ter the outer %ortions o$ the town were taken, knew nothing o$ what had #han#ed, but as they were engaged in a $esti&al, #ontinued dan#ing and re&elling until they learnt the #a%ture but too #ertainly) "u#h, then, were the #ir#u'stan#es o$ the $irst taking o$ Babylon) *'ong 'any %roo$s whi#h shall bring $orward o$ the %ower and resour#es o$ the Babylonians, the $ollowing is o$ s%e#ial a##ount) The whole #ountry under the do'inion o$ the +ersians, besides %aying a $i.ed tribute, is %ar#elled out into di&isions, whi#h ha&e to su%%ly $ood to the Great ?ing and his ar'y during di$$erent %ortions o$ the year) 3ow out o$ the twel&e 'onths whi#h go to a year, the distri#t o$ Babylon $urnishes $ood during $our, the other o$ *sia during eight( by the whi#h it a%%ears that *ssyria, in res%e#t o$ resour#es, is one7third o$ the whole o$ *sia) !$ all the +ersian go&ern'ents, or satra%ies as they are #alled by the nati&es, this is by $ar the best) 4hen Tritantae#h'es, son o$ *rtaba/us, held it o$ the king, it brought hi' in an artaba o$ sil&er e&ery day) The artaba is a +ersian 'easure, and holds three #hoeni.es 'ore than the 'edi'nus o$ the *thenians) He also had, belonging to his own %ri&ate stud, besides war horses, eight hundred stallions and si.teen thousand 'ares, twenty to ea#h stallion) Besides whi#h he ke%t so great a nu'ber o$ ndian hounds, that $our large &illages o$ the %lain were e.e'%ted $ro' all other #harges on #ondition o$ $inding the' in $ood) But little rain $alls in *ssyria, enough, howe&er, to 'ake the #orn begin to s%rout, a$ter whi#h the %lant is nourished and the ears $or'ed by 'eans o$ irrigation $ro' the ri&er) For the ri&er does not, as in Egy%t, o&er$low the #orn7lands o$ its own a##ord, but is s%read o&er the' by the hand, or by the hel% o$ engines) The whole o$ Babylonia is, like Egy%t, interse#ted with #anals) The largest o$ the' all, whi#h runs towards the winter sun, and is i'%assable e.#e%t in boats, is #arried $ro' the Eu%hrates into another strea', #alled the Tigris, the ri&er u%on whi#h the town o$ 3ine&eh $or'erly stood) !$ all the #ountries that we know there is none whi#h is so $ruit$ul in grain) t 'akes no %retension indeed o$ growing the $ig, the oli&e, the &ine, or any other tree o$ the kind( but in grain it is so $ruit$ul as to yield #o''only two7hundred7$old, and when the %rodu#tion is the greatest, e&en three7hundred7$old) The blade o$ the wheat7%lant and barley7%lant is o$ten $our $ingers in breadth) *s $or the 'illet and the sesa'e, shall not say to what height they grow, though within 'y own knowledge( $or a' not ignorant that what ha&e already written

#on#erning the $ruit$ulness o$ Babylonia 'ust see' in#redible to those who ha&e ne&er &isited the #ountry) The only oil they use is 'ade $ro' the sesa'e7%lant) +al'7trees grow in great nu'bers o&er the whole o$ the $lat #ountry, 'ostly o$ the kind whi#h bears $ruit, and this $ruit su%%lies the' with bread, wine, and honey) They are #ulti&ated like the $ig7tree in all res%e#ts, a'ong others in this) The nati&es tie the $ruit o$ the 'ale7%al's, as they are #alled by the Greeks, to the bran#hes o$ the date7bearing %al', to let the gall7$ly enter the dates and ri%en the', and to %re&ent the $ruit $ro' $alling o$$) The 'ale7%al's, like the wild $ig7trees, ha&e usually the gall7$ly in their $ruit) But that whi#h sur%rises 'e 'ost in the land, a$ter the #ity itsel$, will now %ro#eed to 'ention) The boats whi#h #o'e down the ri&er to Babylon are #ir#ular, and 'ade o$ skins) The $ra'es, whi#h are o$ willow, are #ut in the #ountry o$ the *r'enians abo&e *ssyria, and on these, whi#h ser&e $or hulls, a #o&ering o$ skins is stret#hed outside, and thus the boats are 'ade, without either ste' or stern, ,uite round like a shield) They are then entirely $illed with straw, and their #argo is %ut on board, a$ter whi#h they are su$$ered to $loat down the strea') Their #hie$ $reight is wine, stored in #asks 'ade o$ the wood o$ the %al'7tree) They are 'anaged by two 'en who stand u%right in the', ea#h %lying an oar, one %ulling and the other %ushing) The boats are o$ &arious si/es, so'e larger, so'e s'aller( the biggest rea#h as high as $i&e thousand talents1 burthen) Ea#h &essel has a li&e ass on board( those o$ larger si/e ha&e 'ore than one) 4hen they rea#h Babylon, the #argo is landed and o$$ered $or sale( a$ter whi#h the 'en break u% their boats, sell the straw and the $ra'es, and loading their asses with the skins, set o$$ on their way ba#k to *r'enia) The #urrent is too strong to allow a boat to return u%strea', $or whi#h reason they 'ake their boats o$ skins rather than wood) !n their return to *r'enia they build $resh boats $or the ne.t &oyage) The dress o$ the Babylonians is a linen tuni# rea#hing to the $eet, and abo&e it another tuni# 'ade in wool, besides whi#h they ha&e a short white #loak thrown round the', and shoes o$ a %e#uliar $ashion, not unlike those worn by the Boeotians) They ha&e long hair, wear turbans on their heads, and anoint their whole body with %er$u'es) E&ery one #arries a seal, and a walking7sti#k, #ar&ed at the to% into the $or' o$ an a%%le, a rose, a lily, an eagle, or so'ething si'ilar( $or it is not their habit to use a sti#k without an orna'ent) !$ their #usto's, whereo$ shall now %ro#eed to gi&e an a##ount, the $ollowing ;whi#h understand belongs to the' in #o''on with the llyrian tribe o$ the Eneti< is the wisest in 'y 2udg'ent) !n#e a year in ea#h &illage the 'aidens o$ age to 'arry were #olle#ted all together into one %la#e( while the 'en stood round the' in a

#ir#le) Then a herald #alled u% the da'sels one by one, and o$$ered the' $or sale) He began with the 'ost beauti$ul) 4hen she was sold $or no s'all su' o$ 'oney, he o$$ered $or sale the one who #a'e ne.t to her in beauty) *ll o$ the' were sold to be wi&es) The ri#hest o$ the Babylonians who wished to wed bid against ea#h other $or the lo&eliest 'aidens, while the hu'bler wi$e7seekers, who were indi$$erent about beauty, took the 'ore ho'ely da'sels with 'arriage7%ortions) For the #usto' was that when the herald had gone through the whole nu'ber o$ the beauti$ul da'sels, he should then #all u% the ugliest7 a #ri%%le, i$ there #han#ed to be one7 and o$$er her to the 'en, asking who would agree to take her with the s'allest 'arriage7%ortion) *nd the 'an who o$$ered to take the s'allest su' had her assigned to hi') The 'arriage7%ortions were $urnished by the 'oney %aid $or the beauti$ul da'sels, and thus the $airer 'aidens %ortioned out the uglier) 3o one was allowed to gi&e his daughter in 'arriage to the 'an o$ his #hoi#e, nor 'ight any one #arry away the da'sel who' he had %ur#hased without $inding bail really and truly to 'ake her his wi$e( i$, howe&er, it turned out that they did not agree, the 'oney 'ight be %aid ba#k) *ll who liked 'ight #o'e e&en $ro' distant &illages and bid $or the wo'en) This was the best o$ all their #usto's, but it has now $allen into disuse) They ha&e lately hit u%on a &ery di$$erent %lan to sa&e their 'aidens $ro' &iolen#e, and %re&ent their being torn $ro' the' and #arried to distant #ities, whi#h is to bring u% their daughters to be #ourtesans) This is now done by all the %oorer o$ the #o''on %eo%le, who sin#e the #on,uest ha&e been 'altreated by their lords, and ha&e had ruin brought u%on their $a'ilies) The $ollowing #usto' see's to 'e the wisest o$ their institutions ne.t to the one lately %raised) They ha&e no %hysi#ians, but when a 'an is ill, they lay hi' in the %ubli# s,uare, and the %assers7by #o'e u% to hi', and i$ they ha&e e&er had his disease the'sel&es or ha&e known any one who has su$$ered $ro' it, they gi&e hi' ad&i#e, re#o''ending hi' to do whate&er they $ound good in their own #ase, or in the #ase known to the'( and no one is allowed to %ass the si#k 'an in silen#e without asking hi' what his ail'ent is) They bury their dead in honey, and ha&e $uneral la'entations like the Egy%tians) 4hen a Babylonian has #onsorted with his wi$e, he sits down be$ore a #enser o$ burning in#ense, and the wo'an sits o%%osite to hi') *t dawn o$ day they wash( $or till they are washed they will not tou#h any o$ their #o''on &essels) This %ra#ti#e is obser&ed also by the *rabians) The Babylonians ha&e one 'ost sha'e$ul #usto') E&ery wo'an born in the #ountry 'ust on#e in her li$e go and sit down in the %re#in#t o$ @enus, and there #onsort with a stranger) -any o$ the wealthier sort, who are too %roud to 'i. with the others, dri&e in #o&ered

#arriages to the %re#in#t, $ollowed by a goodly train o$ attendants, and there take their station) But the larger nu'ber seat the'sel&es within the holy en#losure with wreaths o$ string about their heads7 and here there is always a great #rowd, so'e #o'ing and others going( lines o$ #ord 'ark out %aths in all dire#tions the wo'en, and the strangers %ass along the' to 'ake their #hoi#e) * wo'an who has on#e taken her seat is not allowed to return ho'e till one o$ the strangers throws a sil&er #oin into her la%, and takes her with hi' beyond the holy ground) 4hen he throws the #oin he says these words7 9The goddess -ylitta %ros%er thee)9 ;@enus is #alled -ylitta by the *ssyrians)< The sil&er #oin 'ay be o$ any si/e( it #annot be re$used, $or that is $orbidden by the law, sin#e on#e thrown it is sa#red) The wo'an goes with the $irst 'an who throws her 'oney, and re2e#ts no one) 4hen she has gone with hi', and so satis$ied the goddess, she returns ho'e, and $ro' that ti'e $orth no gi$t howe&er great will %re&ail with her) "u#h o$ the wo'en as are tall and beauti$ul are soon released, but others who are ugly ha&e to stay a long ti'e be$ore they #an $ul$il the law) "o'e ha&e waited three or $our years in the %re#in#t) * #usto' &ery 'u#h like this is $ound also in #ertain %arts o$ the island o$ Cy%rus) "u#h are the #usto's o$ the Babylonians generally) There are likewise three tribes a'ong the' who eat nothing but $ish) These are #aught and dried in the sun, a$ter whi#h they are brayed in a 'ortar, and strained through a linen sie&e) "o'e %re$er to 'ake #akes o$ this 'aterial, while others bake it into a kind o$ bread) 4hen Cyrus had a#hie&ed the #on,uest o$ the Babylonians, he #on#ei&ed the desire o$ bringing the -assagetae under his do'inion) 3ow the -assagetae are said to be a great and warlike nation, dwelling eastward, toward the rising o$ the sun, beyond the ri&er *ra.es, and o%%osite the ssedonians) By 'any they are regarded as a "#ythian ra#e) *s $or the *ra.es, it is, a##ording to so'e a##ounts, larger, a##ording to others s'aller than the ster ;5anube<) t has islands in it, 'any o$ whi#h are said to be e,ual in si/e to Lesbos) The 'en who inhabit the' $eed during the su''er on roots o$ all kinds, whi#h they dig out o$ the ground, while they store u% the $ruits, whi#h they gather $ro' the trees at the $itting season, to ser&e the' as $ood in the winter7ti'e) Besides the trees whose $ruit they gather $or this %ur%ose, they ha&e also a tree whi#h bears the strangest %rodu#e) 4hen they are 'et together in #o'%anies they throw so'e o$ it u%on the $ire round whi#h they are sitting, and %resently, by the 'ere s'ell o$ the $u'es whi#h it gi&es out in burning, they grow drunk, as the Greeks do with wine) -ore o$ the $ruit is then thrown on the $ire, and, their drunkenness in#reasing, they o$ten 2u'% u% and begin to dan#e and sing) "u#h is the a##ount whi#h ha&e heard o$ this %eo%le) The ri&er *ra.es, like the Gyndes, whi#h Cyrus dis%ersed into

three hundred and si. To'yris sent a herald to hi'.ed with water. $ro' the lea&es o$ whi#h. and bear to see us reign o&er the #ountries that are ours . 'ost o$ who' li&e entirely on the wild $ruits o$ the $orest) n these $orests #ertain trees are said to grow.uented by the Greeks. has its sour#e in the #ountry o$ the -atienians) t has $orty 'ouths. and his good $ortune in all his $or'er wars. that he #ourted. it was i'%ossible $or that %eo%le to es#a%e) *t this ti'e the -assagetae were ruled by a . stret#hing out inter'inably be$ore the eye. howe&er. wherewith they %aint u%on their #lothes the $igures o$ ani'als( and the $igures so i'%ressed ne&er wash out. aware that it was her kingdo'. #ease to %ress this enter%rise. the greater %ortion o$ whi#h is %ossessed by those -assagetae. that beyond the +illars o$ Her#ules. whereo$ all. lying by itsel$. eight days1 &oyage) *long its western shore runs the #hain o$ the Cau#asus. who said. but last as though they had been inwo&en in the #loth $ro' the $irst. and o%enly dis%laying his hostile intentions( set to work to #onstru#t a bridge on whi#h his ar'y 'ight #ross the ri&er. whi#h see'ed so'ething 'ore than hu'an. ha&ing no #onne#tion with any other) The sea $re.es. and wear as long as the gar'ent) !n the west then. and #lothe the'sel&es with the skins o$ seals) The other 'outh o$ the ri&er $lows with a #lear #ourse into the Cas%ian "ea) The Cas%ian is a sea by itsel$. %retending that he wished to take her to wi$e) To'yris. had 'ounted the throne) To her Cyrus sent a'bassadors. there$ore. wherein he had always $ound that against what #ountry soe&er he turned his ar's.ty #hannels. with instru#tions to #ourt her on his %art. the 'ost e. 9?ing o$ the -edes. in breadth. na'ed To'yris. in length $i$teen days1 &oyage with a row7boat. are all one and the sa'e sea) But the Cas%ian is a distin#t sea. and not hersel$. and also the Erythraean. e. and began building towers u%on the boats whi#h were to be used in the %assage) 4hile the +ersian leader was o##u%ied in these labours. who at the death o$ her husband. $orbade the 'en to a%%roa#h) Cyrus.#e%t one. the Cas%ian "ea is bounded by the range o$ Cau#asus) !n the #ast it is $ollowed by a &ast %lain. whi#h is #alled the *tlanti#.ueen.tensi&e and lo$tiest o$ all 'ountain7ranges) -any and &arious are the tribes by whi#h it is inhabited. %ounded and 'i. as ha&e said.ious to 'ake an e. at the broadest %art. $inding that he did not ad&an#e his designs by this de#eit. against who' Cyrus was now so an. the late king. end in bogs and swa'%s) These bogs and swa'%s are said to be inhabited by a ra#e o$ 'en who $eed on raw $ish. the inhabitants 'ake a dye.%edition) -any strong 'oti&es weighed with hi' and urged hi' on7 his birth es%e#ially. $or thou #anst not know i$ what thou art doing will be o$ real ad&antage to thee) Be #ontent to rule in %ea#e thy own kingdo'. 'ar#hed towards the *ra.

that there is a wheel on whi#h the a$$airs o$ 'en re&ol&e. then thou gainest $ar less than i$ thou wert a#ross the strea'. and gi&ing battle on +ersian ground) But Croesus the Lydian. lay this $irst to heart. retire thysel$ an e. why. i$ they win the $ight. and the wine#u%s be $illed $ull o$ noble li. #o'e now. will not return to their ho'es. and laid the 'atter be$ore the'. as 8o&e had gi&en 'e into thy hands. lea&e thy useless toil o$ bridge7'aking( let us retire three days1 'ar#h $ro' the ri&er bank. were it not disgra#e intolerable $or Cyrus the son o$ Ca'byses to retire be$ore and yield ground to a wo'an: -y #ounsel. would.ual distan#e)9 Cyrus. know thou wilt not #hoose to hearken to this #ounsel. ha&e taught 'e to be keen7sighted o$ dangers) $ thou dee'est thysel$ an i''ortal. #onsider what risk is run> Lose the battle.uainted with the good things on whi#h the +ersians li&e. and %ushing $orward as $ar as they shall $all ba#k. and thine ar'y an ar'y o$ i''ortals. a&ert i'%ending danger $ro' thy house) *las> 'y own su$$erings. but will %ush $orward against the states o$ thy e'%ire) !r i$ thou gainest the battle. by their &ery bitterness. they will $orget all else and $all to) Then it will re'ain $or us to do our %arts 'an$ully)9 . and a ruler o$ 'en. on this o$$er. sin#e there is nothing thou less desirest than %ea#e and . i$ thou likest better to gi&e us battle on thy side the strea'. i$ thou art so 'ightily desirous o$ 'eeting the -assagetae in ar's. let us $all ba#k towards the ri&er) 6nless &ery 'u#h 'istake. and let all 'anner o$ dishes be %re%ared0 then lea&ing behind us our worst troo%s. and do thou #o'e a#ross with thy soldiers( or. 'y #ounsel will doubtless be thrown away u%on thee) But i$ thou $eelest thysel$ to be a 'an. to the best o$ 'y %ower. disa%%ro&ed o$ this ad&i#e( he there$ore rose. where thou 'ightest $ollow u% thy &i#tory) For against thy loss.uietness. and therewith thy whole kingdo' is lost) For assuredly. when they see the good $are set out.uesting the' to ad&ise hi' what he should do) *ll the &otes were in $a&our o$ his letting To'yris #ross the strea'. 'ust be set theirs in like #ase) Rout their ar'y on the other side o$ the ri&er. and ha&e ne&er tasted the great delights o$ li$e) Let us then %re%are a $east $or the' in our #a'%( let shee% be slaughtered without stint. then seek to get the better o$ the' by stratage') a' told they are una#. and thou 'ayest %ush at on#e into the heart o$ their #ountry) -oreo&er. i$ they de$eat thee on thine own ground. and thus deli&ered his senti'ents in o%%osition to it0 9!h> 'y king> %ro'ised thee long sin#e. 'y 2udg'ent runs #ounter to the 2udg'ent o$ thy other #ounsellors) For i$ thou agreest to gi&e the ene'y entran#e into thy #ountry.uor. #alled together the #hie$s o$ the +ersians. the -assagetae. that. is that we #ross the strea'. re. and that its 'o&e'ent $orbids the sa'e 'an to be always $ortunate) 3ow #on#erning the 'atter in hand. there$ore. who was %resent at the 'eeting o$ the #hie$s.to go&ern) *s. howe&er.

was o$ the ra#e o$ the *#hae'enidae. gi&ing Croesus into the #are o$ his son Ca'byses . shadowing with the one wing *sia. #hanged his 'ind.Cyrus. resign hi' into thy hands to deal with as thou wilt)9 Hystas%es. #o'ing . i$ the e. and that his kingdo' was to $all at last to 5arius) Hystas%es 'ade answer to Cyrus in these words07 9Hea&en $orbid. as lay in 'y bed. saw in a &ision the eldest o$ thy sons with wings u%on his shoulders. that he is engaged in so'e %lot against 'e) Return thou then at on#e to +ersia. whi#h was sent by God to $orewarn hi'. to ha&e thy son ready to %rodu#e be$ore 'e. was at that ti'e s#ar#e twenty years old( where$ore. that 'ay e. a deta#h'ent o$ the -assagetae. when #o'e ba#k $ro' #on.who' he had a%%ointed to su##eed hi' on the throne<.a'ine hi')9 Thus Cyrus s%oke. son o$ the . did as Croesus had ad&ised hi'. thou hast 'ade the' lords o$ all) $ a &ision has announ#ed that 'y son is %ra#tising against thee.%edition $ailed o$ su##ess( and sending the' both ba#k to +ersia. thou hast 'ade the' $ree 'en0 thou $oundest the' sub2e#t to others. to kee% a wat#h on his son 5arius) -eanwhile Cyrus. re#rossed the *ra. that he was to die then and there. the son o$ *rsa'es.es and hastened ba#k to +ersia. thy son is dis#o&ered to be %lotting against 'e and 'y #rown) will tell thee how know it so #ertainly) The gods wat#h o&er 'y sa$ety. and %re$erring the ad&i#e whi#h Croesus had gi&en. he had re'ained behind in +ersia) 4hen Cyrus woke $ro' his slee%. when he had thus answered. with wings u%on his shoulders. ha&ing ad&an#ed a day1s 'ar#h $ro' the ri&er. not being o$ age to go to the wars. and taking hi' aside said.ueen To'yris. when the two %lans were thus %la#ed in #ontrast be$ore hi'. as she had engaged( and Cyrus. with stri#t #harge to %ay hi' all res%e#t and treat hi' well. that there should be a +ersian li&ing who would %lot against thee> $ su#h an one there be. #rossed the ri&er with his ar'y) The $irst night a$ter the %assage. and be sure. shadowing with the one wing *sia. beyond all %ossible doubt. and his eldest son. 'ay a s%eedy death o&ertake hi'> Thou $oundest the +ersians a ra#e o$ sla&es. 5arius. and warn 'e be$orehand o$ e&ery danger) 3ow last night. a &ision a%%eared to hi') He see'ed to see in his slee% the eldest o$ the sons o$ Hystas%es. and. in the belie$ that he was %lotted against by 5arius( but he 'issed the true 'eaning o$ the drea'.uering the -assagetae. 9Hystas%es. and that he would #ross the strea') "he there$ore retired. returned $or answer to To'yris that she should retire. and Euro%e with the other) Fro' this it is #ertain. as he sle%t in the ene'y1s #ountry. and turned the &ision o&er in his 'ind. led by "%arga%ises. drew o$$ with his good troo%s towards the ri&er) "oon a$terwards. one7third o$ their entire ar'y. sire. it see'ed to hi' no light 'atter) He there$ore sent $or Hystas%es. and Euro%e with the other) 3ow Hystas%es. lea&ing the worthless %ortion o$ his ar'y in the #a'%. lo.

was the 'anner o$ it07 First.ueen. and as ye swallow it down brings u% to your li%s su#h bold and wi#ked words7 it was this %oison wherewith thou didst ensnare 'y #hild. he 'ade re. and 'ade e&en a larger nu'ber %risoners) *'ong these last was "%arga%ises hi'sel$) 4hen To'yris heard what had be$allen her son and her ar'y. and the $etters were taken $ro' his li'bs. $or thou tookest 'y son with guile( but thus 'ake good 'y threat. $illing it $ull o$ hu'an blood. and ga&e hi' battle) !$ all the #o'bats in whi#h the barbarians ha&e engaged a'ong the'sel&es. and on their resistan#e %ut the' to the sword) Then. and so o&er#a'est hi'. #olle#ted all the $or#es o$ her kingdo'. and yet by thee a' ruined. and swear by the sun. 1and he saw the e.uet %re%ared. triu'%hant o&er a third %art o$ the host o$ the -assagetae) Re$use. when the wine went o$$. slaughtered a great 'ultitude. as understand. she sent a herald to Cyrus.u%. bloodthirsty as thou art. neither #hoosing to gi&e ground) *t length the -assagetae %re&ailed) The greater %art o$ the ar'y o$ the +ersians was destroyed and Cyrus hi'sel$ $ell. and be sure ad&ise thee $or thy good) Restore 'y son to 'e and get thee $ro' the land unhar'ed. $ell u%on the body whi#h had been le$t behind by Cyrus.ueen $or the body o$ Cyrus. when his %rayer was granted. and gi&e thee thy $ill o$ blood)9 !$ the 'any di$$erent a##ounts whi#h are gi&en o$ the death o$ Cyrus. not in $air o%en $ight) 3ow hearken what ad&ise. will gi&e thee thy $ill o$ blood)9 To the words o$ this 'essage Cyrus %aid no 'anner o$ regard) *s $or "%arga%ises. and when it was $ound she took a skin. she di%%ed the head o$ Cyrus in the gore. and. but their $a&ourite . when their . they sat down and began to $east) 4hen they had eaten and drunk their $ill. as she thus insulted the #orse. who thus addressed the #on.uest to Cyrus to release hi' $ro' his bonds( then.uered thee in $ight. re#kon this to ha&e been the $ier#est) The $ollowing. he destroyed hi'sel$) To'yris. the two ar'ies stood a%art and shot their arrows at ea#h other( then. as soon as his hands were $ree. 'akes you so 'ad.tent o$ his #ala'ity. %ride not thysel$ on this %oor su##ess0 it was the gra%e72ui#e7 whi#h. they #losed and $ought hand7to7hand with lan#es and daggers( and thus they #ontinued $ighting $or a length o$ ti'e.ueror07 9Thou bloodthirsty Cyrus. the so&ereign lord o$ the -assagetae. and were now sunk in slee%. seeing the ban. when ye drink it. 9 li&e and ha&e #on. neither 'ethod is strange to the'0 they use bows and lan#es. this whi#h ha&e $ollowed a%%ears to 'e 'ost worthy o$ #redit) n their dress and 'ode o$ li&ing the -assagetae rese'ble the "#ythians) They $ight both on horseba#k and on $oot. the +ersians under Cyrus arri&ed. when she $ound that Cyrus %aid no heed to her ad&i#e. saying.ui&ers were e'%ty. a$ter reigning nine and twenty years) "ear#h was 'ade a'ong the slain by order o$ the . the son o$ the .

uity) This king. o$ gold) "o too with the #a%arison o$ their horses.wea%on is the battle7a. the +hrygians sur%ass the' in anti. and $or their battle7a. yet all the wi&es are held in #o''on( $or this is a #usto' o$ the -assagetae and not o$ the "#ythians. what word they would . and to hi' they o$$er the horse in sa#ri$i#e( under the notion o$ gi&ing to the swi$test o$ the gods the swi$test o$ all 'ortal #reatures) The "e#ond Book. regarding the onian and *eolian Greeks as &assals o$ his $ather.es. but e'%loy gold about the reins. the bit. see that they got their $ill o$ 'ilk. o$ whi#h there is great %lenty in the *ra. took the' with hi' in his e. all his kins$olk #olle#t together and o$$er hi' u% in sa#ri$i#e( o$$ering at the sa'e ti'e so'e #attle also) *$ter the sa#ri$i#e they boil the $lesh and $east on it( and those who thus end their days are re#koned the ha%%iest) $ a 'an dies o$ disease they do not eat hi'. and had #o''anded all the sub2e#ts o$ his e'%ire to obser&e the like) Ca'byses. they gi&e the' breast%lates o$ brass. ha&ing none in their #ountry( but they ha&e brass and gold in abundan#e) The $ollowing are so'e o$ their #usto's(7 Ea#h 'an has but one wi$e. and ga&e the' o&er to a herds'an to bring u% at his $olds. they ha&e been o$ o%inion that while they sur%ass all other nations. as the Greeks wrongly say) Hu'an li$e does not #o'e to its natural #lose with this %eo%le( but when a 'an grows &ery old. belie&ed the'sel&es to be the 'ost an#ient o$ 'ankind) "in#e +sa''eti#hus. belts.uestered #ottage. bewailing his ill7$ortune that he did not #o'e to be sa#ri$i#ed) They sow no grain. but bury hi' in the ground. Ca'byses his son by Cassandane daughter o$ +harnas%es took the kingdo') Cassandane had died in the li$eti'e o$ Cyrus. and arrow7heads. and the #heek7%lates) They use neither iron nor sil&er. and girdles. and $ro' ti'e to ti'e introdu#e goats to their a%art'ent.%edition against Egy%t a'ong the other nations whi#h owned his sway) 3ow the Egy%tians. who had 'ade a great 'ourning $or her at her death. but to kee% the' in a se. howe&er. #ontri&ed the $ollowing 'ethod o$ dis#o&ery07 He took two #hildren o$ the #o''on sort.uiry what 'en were the 'ost an#ient. and on $ish. $inding it i'%ossible to 'ake out by dint o$ in. 'ade an atte'%t to dis#o&er who were a#tually the %ri'iti&e ra#e. be$ore the reign o$ their king +sa''eti#hus. but li&e on their herds. Entitled E6TER+E !n the death o$ Cyrus. stri#tly #harging hi' to let no one utter a word in their %resen#e. they 'ake use o$ brass( $or head7gear. the son o$ this lady and o$ Cyrus. a$ter the indistin#t babblings o$ in$an#y were o&er. and in all other res%e#ts look a$ter the') His ob2e#t herein was to know.e) Their ar's are all either o$ gold or brass) For their s%ear7%oints.es) -ilk is what they #hie$ly drink) The only god they worshi% is the sun.

and te'%les to the gods( and also $irst engra&ed u%on stone the $igures o$ ani'als) n 'ost o$ these #ases they %ro&ed to 'e that what they said was true) *nd they told 'e that the $irst 'an who ruled o&er Egy%t was -in. they said. and e&en went to Helio%olis and to Thebes.uity o$ the +hrygians) That these were the real $a#ts learnt at -e'%his $ro' the %riests o$ @ul#an) The Greeks. and to %ortion out its #ourse into twel&e %arts) They obtained this knowledge $ro' the stars) . it will only be when #o'%elled to do so by the #ourse o$ 'y narrati&e) 3ow with regard to 'ere hu'an 'atters. whi#h belie&e all 'en know e. i'ages. and at the end o$ that ti'e.%ressly to try whether the %riests o$ those %la#es would agree in their a##ounts with the %riests at -e'%his) The Helio%olitans ha&e the re%utation o$ being the best skilled in history o$ all the Egy%tians) 4hat they told 'e #on#erning their religion it is not 'y intention to re%eat. none o$ the land below Lake -oeris then showing itsel$ abo&e the sur$a#e o$ the water) This is a distan#e o$ se&en days1 sail $ro' the sea u% the ri&er) 4hat they said o$ their #ountry see'ed to 'e &ery reasonable) .#e%t the na'es o$ their deities.#e%t the Thebai# #anton. and that in his ti'e all Egy%t. they went on to a$$ir'. he in$or'ed his lord. were the $irst to dis#o&er the solar year. whereby the #ir#uit o$ the seasons is 'ade to return with uni$or'ity)< The Egy%tians. $irst brought into use the na'es o$ the twel&e gods. a'ong other $oolish tales. that the word was #onstantly in their 'ouths. and in whi#h all agreed. were the $ollowing) The Egy%tians. the #hildren both ran u% to hi' with outstret#hed ar's. relate that +sa''eti#hus had the #hildren brought u% by wo'en whose tongues he had %re&iously #ut out( but the %riests said their bringing u% was su#h as ha&e stated abo&e) got 'u#h other in$or'ation also $ro' #on&ersation with these %riests while was at -e'%his. u%on whi#h he %ro#eeded to 'ake in. e.To 'y 'ind they #ontri&e their year 'u#h 'ore #le&erly than the Greeks. the a##ounts whi#h they ga&e. add e&ery year a s%a#e o$ $i&e days besides. and by his #o''and brought the #hildren into his %resen#e) +sa''eti#hus then hi'sel$ heard the' say the word.$irst arti#ulate) t ha%%ened as he had anti#i%ated) The herds'an obeyed his orders $or two years.ually) $ relate anything else #on#erning these 'atters.9 and hereu%on he learnt that 9be#os9 was the +hrygian na'e $or bread) n #onsideration o$ this #ir#u'stan#e the Egy%tians yielded their #lai's. was a 'arsh. and distin#tly said 9Be#os)9 4hen this $irst ha%%ened the herds'an took no noti#e( but a$terwards when he obser&ed.uiry what %eo%le there was who #alled anything 9be#os. di&iding the year into twel&e 'onths o$ thirty days ea#h. on his one day o%ening the door o$ their roo' and going in. e. on #o'ing o$ten to see a$ter the'. e. $or these last e&ery other year inter#alate a whole 'onth. but the Egy%tians. whi#h the Greeks ado%ted $ro' the'( and $irst ere#ted altars. and ad'itted the greater anti.

ty $urlongs) Thus the #oastline o$ Egy%t would e.a#tly the sa'e kind o$ #ountry) The $ollowing is the general #hara#ter o$ the region) n the $irst %la#e.ty s#hoenes) The nations whose territories are s#anty 'easure the' by the $atho'( those whose bounds are less #on$ined. without s%rings. on a%%roa#hing it by sea. and $ull o$ swa'%s) The length o$ the route $ro' the sea u% to Helio%olis is al'ost e. i$ you let down a sounding7line you will bring u% 'ud. to the distan#e o$ three days1 &oyage.tends to that distan#e) The length o$ the #ountry along shore. i$ he has only #o''on %owers o$ obser&ation. na'ely $ro' the +linthineti# gul$ to Lake "erbonis. but whi#h e. by the %arasang( but i$ 'en ha&e a #ountry whi#h is &ery &ast. the other ridge whereon the %yra'ids stand is ro#ky and #o&ered with sand( its dire#tion is the sa'e as that o$ the *rabian ridge in the $irst %art o$ its #ourse) *bo&e Helio%olis. that the Egy%t to whi#h the Greeks go in their shi%s is an a#. without ha&ing heard a word about it be$ore. the *rabian range o$ hills.uarries when#e the stone was #ut $or the %yra'ids o$ -e'%his0 and this is the %oint where it #eases its $irst dire#tion. whi#h shows that the soil washed down by the strea' e. and stret#hes away to the sea #alled the Erythraean( it #ontains the . as ha&e been in$or'ed. a##ording to the bounds that we assign to Egy%t. whi#h is an Egy%tian 'easure. and $ind yoursel$ in ele&en $atho's1 water. Egy%t be#o'es narrow. by the $urlong( those who ha&e an a'%le territory. they 'easure it by the s#hoene) 3ow the length o$ the %arasang is thirty $urlongs. but the s#hoene. whi#h e. a distan#e o$ two 'onths1 2ourney towards the e. is si. and the Libyan range u%on the other) The $or'er ridge runs on without a break. hundred $urlongs) Fro' the #oast inland as $ar as Helio%olis the breadth o$ Egy%t is #onsiderable.a#tly the sa'e as that o$ the road whi#h runs $ro' the altar o$ the twel&e gods at *thens to the te'%le o$ !ly'%ian 8o&e at +isa) $ a %erson 'ade a #al#ulation he would $ind but a &ery little di$$eren#e between the two routes.a#tly $i$teen. shutting it in u%on the one side. is si.For any one who sees Egy%t. but during $our days1 sail . the #ountry is $lat. the gi$t o$ the ri&er) The sa'e is true o$ the land abo&e the lake.tend a length o$ three thousand si. #on#erning whi#h the Egy%tians say nothing.tre'e east its skirts %rodu#e $rankin#ense) "u#h are the #hie$ $eatures o$ this range) !n the Libyan side.tends along the base o$ -ount Casius.uired #ountry. then. and bends away in the 'anner abo&e indi#ated) n its greatest length $ro' east to west it is. there is no great breadth o$ territory $or su#h a #ountry as Egy%t. whereas the distan#e o$ Helio%olis $ro' the sea is 2ust the round nu'ber) *s one %ro#eeds beyond Helio%olis u% the #ountry. when you are still a day1s sail $ro' the land. not 'ore than about $i$teen $urlongs( $or the road $ro' *thens to +isa $alls short o$ $i$teen hundred $urlongs by e. whi#h has a dire#tion $ro' north to south. 'ust %er#ei&e.

ha&e been $illed u% in the ages that %assed be$ore was born. by a ri&er that is at on#e so large and so gi&en to working #hanges: Thus gi&e #redit to those $ro' who' re#ei&ed this a##ount o$ Egy%t. that ha&e e$$e#ted &ery great #hanges) *'ong these not the least is the *#helous. 'oreo&er. and the distan#e $ro' the sea inland to Thebes DFG0 $urlongs) Further. while you 'ay #ross the gul$ at its widest %art in the s%a#e o$ hal$ a day) n this sea there is an ebb and $low o$ the tide e&ery day) -y o%inion is that Egy%t was $or'erly &ery 'u#h su#h a gul$ as this7 one gul$ %enetrated $ro' the sea that washes Egy%t on the north. e&en o$ 'u#h greater si/e.tended itsel$ towards Ethio%ia( another entered $ro' the southern o#ean. and see'ed to 'e to be. think it would be $illed in hal$ the ti'e) How then should not a gul$. o$ whi#h will here set down the di'ensions) "tarting $ro' its inner'ost re#ess. there is a long and narrow gul$ running inland $ro' the sea #alled the Erythraean.Egy%t is narrow( the &alley between the two ranges is a le&el %lain. at the narrowest %oint. it is a distan#e o$ eighteen hundred $urlongs $ro' Thebes to the %la#e #alled Ele%hantine) The greater %ortion o$ the #ountry abo&e des#ribed see'ed to 'e to be. and stret#hed towards "yria( the two gul$s ran into the land so as al'ost to 'eet ea#h other. at the ut'ost. lying between the two ranges o$ hills that ha&e been s%oken o$. you take $orty days to rea#h the o%en 'ain. not 'ore than two hundred $urlongs a#ross $ro' the *rabian to the Libyan hills) *bo&e this %oint Egy%t again widens) Fro' Helio%olis to Thebes is nine days1 sail u% the ri&er( the distan#e is eighty7one s#hoenes. as the %riests de#lared. strongly o$ the sa'e o%inion. ED00 $urlongs. whi#h.to #o'%are s'all things with great< the %arts about liu' and Teuthrania. a$ter %assing through *#arnania. and the %lain o$ the -aeander) n all these regions the land has been $or'ed by ri&ers. what is there to hinder it $ro' being $illed u% by the strea' within. a%%eared e&idently to ha&e $or'ed at one ti'e a gul$ o$ the sea) t rese'bles . whereo$ the greatest is not to #o'%are $or si/e with any one o$ the $i&e 'ouths o$ the 3ile) #ould 'ention other ri&ers also. and a' 'ysel$. e'%ties itsel$ into the sea o%%osite the islands #alled E#hinades. and using a row7boat. as stated abo&e. and le$t between the' only a &ery narrow tra#t o$ #ountry) 3ow i$ the 3ile should #hoose to di&ert his waters $ro' their %resent bed into this *rabian gul$. not $ar $ro' Egy%t. and has already 2oined one7hal$ o$ the' to the #ontinent) n *rabia. or 4CD0 $urlongs) $ we now %ut together the se&eral 'easure'ents o$ the #ountry we shall $ind that the distan#e along shore is. $ar in$erior to the 3ile in 'agnitude. sin#e re'arked that the #ountry %ro2e#ts into the sea $urther than the . twenty thousand years: For 'y %art. and e. a tra#t gained by the inhabitants) For the whole region abo&e -e'%his. E%hesus.

the #ountry below -e'%his. the rest o$ the Egy%tians in#luded. they obtain the $ruits o$ the $ield with less trouble than any other %eo%le in the world. will one day. the 3ile o&er$lowed all Egy%t below -e'%his. and the ri&er will not be able to o&er$low their #ornlands: *t %resent.tent as e&en to in2ure the %yra'ids( and noti#ed also that there is but a single hill in all Egy%t where sand is $ound.neighbouring shores. it does not o&er$low the lands) t see's to 'e. inundated by ri&ers.%e#ted would so'e ti'e or other be$all the Greeks) !n hearing that the whole land o$ Gree#e is watered by rain $ro' hea&en. in the 5elta . like their own. and then they will be wret#hedly hungry9( whi#h was as 'u#h as to say. it 'ust be #on$essed. whi#h is the land that is always rising. su$$er %er'anently the $ate whi#h they told 'e they e. unless the ri&er rise si. 9 $ God shall so'e day see $it not to grant the Greeks rain. or. and ha&e no other resour#e $or water)9 *nd #ertes. the Egy%tians who dwell below Lake -oeris. how will it be %ossible $or the inhabitants o$ that region to a&oid hunger. that i$ the land goes on rising and growing at this rate. or to Libya7 nay. and then sows his %lot . na'ely. we know. the Greeks will be swe%t away by a $a'ine. nor e&en to "yria. sandy and o$ a reddish hue. and not. #ontinues to in#rease in height at the rate at whi#h it has risen in ti'es gone by. as soon as it rose so little as eight #ubits) 3ow -oeris had not been dead H00 years at the ti'e when heard this o$ the %riests( yet at the %resent day. they obser&ed7 9"o'e day the Greeks will be disa%%ointed o$ their grand ho%e. the hill abo&e -e'%his( and $urther.uded $ro' the soil to su#h an e. and that salt e. in thus s%eaking o$ the Greeks the Egy%tians say nothing but what is true) But now let 'e tell the Egy%tians how the #ase stands with the'sel&es) $. Egy%t has a soil that is bla#k and #ru'bly. as said be$ore. as being allu&ial and $or'ed o$ the de%osits brought down by the ri&er $ro' Ethio%ia) !ne $a#t whi#h learnt o$ the %riests is to 'e a strong e&iden#e o$ the origin o$ the #ountry) They said that when -oeris was king. nor to do any o$ the work whi#h the rest o$ 'ankind $ind ne#essary i$ they are to get a #ro%( but the husband'an waits till the ri&er has o$ its own a##ord s%read itsel$ o&er the $ields and withdrawn again to its bed. at the &ery least. sin#e they ha&e no need to break u% the ground with the %lough. by the sto%%age o$ the inundations.as it is #alled< and elsewhere. $i$teen #ubits. and obser&ed that there were shells u%on the hills. and that o$ *rabia and "yria in#lines to stone and #lay. but shall a$$li#t the' with a long drought.teen. there$ore. sin#e they ha&e nothing to rely on but rain $ro' 8o&e. $ound the #ountry to bear no rese'blan#e either to its borderland *rabia. whi#h $or's the seaboard o$ *rabia( but whereas the soil o$ Libya is. nor to use the hoe. when they will #ertainly ha&e no rain.

either to *rabia or Libya) But the 5elta.o$ ground. whi#h is then #arried to the garner) $ then we #hoose to ado%t the &iews o$ the onians #on#erning Egy%t. and Libya.tends along shore $ro' the 4at#h7tower o$ +erseus. as the Egy%tians a$$ir'. how #a'e they to be so e. 2ust as Cili#ia is the tra#t o##u%ied by the Cili#ians. sin#e they do not in#lude it either in *sia or Libya) For is it not their theory that the 3ile se%arates *sia $ro' Libya: *s the 3ile. then. whereas they ought to add a $ourth %art. ea#h belonging to a di$$erent %ortion o$ the world. we 'ust regard Egy%t as di&ided. as the onians #all it( think they ha&e always e. as it is #alled. and stret#hes inland as $ar as the #ity o$ Cer#asorus.%eri'ent with the #hildren to see what language they would $irst s%eak) But in truth do not belie&e that the Egy%tians #a'e into being at the sa'e ti'e with the 5elta. and *ssyria that %ossessed by the *ssyrians) *nd regard the only %ro%er boundary7line between Libya and *sia to be that whi#h is 'arked out by the Egy%tian $rontier) For i$ we take the boundary7line #o''only re#ei&ed by the Greeks. we 'ust #o'e to the #on#lusion that the Egy%tians had $or'erly no #ountry at all) For the onians say that nothing is really Egy%t but the 5elta. #o'e to light) $. they say. a distan#e o$ $orty s#hoenes. on the #ontrary. %art re'ained in their old settle'ents) n an#ient ti'es the Thebais bore the na'e o$ Egy%t.isted e&er sin#e the hu'an ra#e began( as the land went on in#reasing. there$ore. the 5elta o$ Egy%t. and a$ter sowing turns his swine into it7 the swine tread in the #orn7 a$ter whi#h he has only to await the har&est) The swine ser&e hi' also to thrash the grain. and as 'ysel$ a' %ersuaded. %art o$ the %o%ulation #a'e down into the new #ountry. and has only re#ently. Euro%e. s%lits in two at the a%e. *sia. where the 3ile di&ides into the two strea's whi#h rea#h the sea at +elusiu' and Canobus res%e#ti&ely) The rest o$ what is a##ounted Egy%t belongs. i$ 'ay use the e. o$ the 5elta. to the +elusia# "alt7+ans. into two %arts. a distri#t o$ whi#h the entire #ir#u'$eren#e is but DFG0 $urlongs) $. then. the onians are 'istaken in what they say o$ Egy%t) $. whi#h e. is $or'ed o$ the de%osits o$ the ri&er. the 5elta itsel$ 'ust be a se%arate #ountry. they had $or'erly no territory at all. and %ro#eed to deli&er 'y own senti'ents on these sub2e#ts) #onsider Egy%t to be the whole #ountry inhabited by the Egy%tians. not #ontained in either *sia or Libya) Here take 'y lea&e o$ the o%inions o$ the onians.%ression. it is they who are right. one to *sia. along its whole length $ro' Ele%hantine and the Catara#ts to Cer#asorus. then undertake to show that neither the onians nor any o$ the other Greeks know how to #ount) For they all say that the earth is di&ided into three %arts. the . 'y 2udg'ent on these 'atters be right.tra&agant as to $an#y the'sel&es the 'ost an#ient ra#e in the world: "urely there was no need o$ their 'aking the e.

the 'outh #alled the "ebennyti#) Besides these there are two other 'ouths whi#h run out o$ the "ebennyti# #alled res%e#ti&ely the "aiti# and the -endesian) The Bolbitine 'outh. was not able to gain any in$or'ation either $ro' the %riests or $ro' others) was %arti#ularly an. neither inhabiting the 5elta nor using the Egy%tian tongue. unlike e&ery other ri&er. and #arries as large a body o$ water. it $orthwith retires and #ontra#ts its strea'. #ontinuing low during the whole o$ the winter until the su''er solsti#e #o'es round again) !n none o$ these %oints #ould obtain any e. o$ the 5elta. as 'ost o$ the others. though 'ade e&ery in. o$ whi#h had no knowledge at all until a$ter had $or'ed 'y o%inion) t ha%%ened that the %eo%le o$ the #ities -area and *%is.tent o$ two days1 2ourney $ro' its banks. are not natural bran#hes. howe&er. but #hannels 'ade by e. ha&ing nothing in #o''on with the Egy%tians. was re$used by the god. running as $ar as the #ity o$ Cer#asorus in a single strea'.ious to learn $ro' the' why the 3ile. when it o&er$lows. took a dislike to the religious usages o$ the #ountry #on#erning sa#ri$i#ial ani'als.uiry. who de#lared in re%ly that Egy%t was the entire tra#t o$ #ountry whi#h the 3ile o&ers%reads and irrigates. $loods not only the 5elta.other to Libya( sin#e the 3ile di&ides Egy%t in two $ro' the Catara#ts to the sea.tent o$ Egy%t is #on$ir'ed by an ora#le deli&ered at the shrine o$ *''on. whereo$ the one whi#h bends eastward is #alled the +elusia# 'outh. #ontinues on. it gi&es $orth no bree/es $ro' its sur$a#e) .#a&ation) -y 2udg'ent as to the e. in so'e e&en e.%lanation $ro' the inhabitants. who li&e in the %art o$ Egy%t that borders on Libya. but at that %oint se%arating into three bran#hes. in so'e %la#es rea#hing to the e. they #lai'ed to be allowed to eat whate&er they %leased) Their re. and #ontinues to in#rease $or a hundred days7 and why.#eeding that distan#e. they sent to the shrine to say that. whi#h is as #elebrated. and the Egy%tians were the %eo%le who li&ed below Ele%hantine.uest. as soon as that nu'ber is %ast. and wished no longer to be restri#ted $ro' eating the $lesh o$ #ows) "o. and that whi#h slants to the west. but in others $alling short o$ it) Con#erning the nature o$ the ri&er. and e'%ties itsel$ into the sea by a 'outh. nor why. as they belie&ed the'sel&es to be Libyans and not Egy%tians. whi#h #o'es down $ro' the u%%er #ountry and 'eets the a%e. at the #o''en#e'ent o$ the su''er solsti#e. and the Bu#oli#. di&iding the 5elta down the 'iddle. begins to rise. wishing to know what was #o''only re%orted7 they #ould neither tell 'e what s%e#ial &irtue the 3ile has whi#h 'akes it so o%%osite in its nature to all other strea's. but also the tra#ts o$ #ountry on both sides the strea' whi#h are thought to belong to Libya and *rabia. the Canobi#) -eanwhile the straight #ourse o$ the strea'. and drank the waters o$ that ri&er) "o said the ora#le) 3ow the 3ile.

and think that Ho'er. one ought to %ro%ose so'e theory o$ . and also. or one o$ the earlier %oets. it is absolutely i'%ossible that any o$ these #ir#u'stan#es #ould take %la#e) *s $or the writer who attributes the %heno'enon to the o#ean. his a##ount is in&ol&ed in su#h obs#urity that it is i'%ossible to dis%ro&e it by argu'ent) For 'y %art know o$ no ri&er #alled !#ean. into Egy%t. are entirely unlike the 3ile in this res%e#t) The se#ond o%inion is e&en 'ore uns#ienti$i# than the one 2ust 'entioned. any 'ore than in the other theories) t is. and ha&e a weaker #urrent) But these ri&ers. how is it %ossible that it #an be $or'ed o$ 'elted snow.%lanation. o$ whi#h there are 'any both in "yria and Libya. when they $ly $ro' the rigours o$ a "#ythian winter. ha&e o$$ered e. and introdu#ed it into his %oetry) +erha%s. whi#h always blow hot $ro' these regions) The se#ond is that rain and $rost are unknown there) 3ow whene&er snow $alls. and that the o#ean $lows all round the earth) The third e. as the 3ile $lows out o$ Libya. wishing to get a re%utation $or #le&erness. there $ell e&er so little snow."o'e o$ the Greeks. as it does. in the #ountry when#e the 3ile has its sour#e. $ro' the hottest regions o$ the world into #ooler #ountries: -any are the %roo$s whereby any one #a%able o$ reasoning on the sub2e#t 'ay be #on&in#ed that it is 'ost unlikely this should be the #ase) The $irst and strongest argu'ent is $urnished by the winds. the other ri&ers whi#h $low in a dire#tion o%%osite to those winds ought to %resent the sa'e %heno'ena as the 3ile. that the 3ile has risen a##ording to its usual wont( and $urther. when the Etesian winds did not blow. be#ause it $lows $ro' the o#ean. through Ethio%ia.%lanations o$ the %heno'ena o$ the ri&er. whi#h is &ery 'u#h 'ore %lausible than either o$ the others. and that the #ranes. $or whi#h they ha&e a##ounted in three di$$erent ways) Two o$ these do not think it worth while to s%eak o$. a$ter #ensuring all the o%inions that ha&e been %ut $orward on this obs#ure sub2e#t. i$ the Etesian winds %rodu#ed the e$$e#t. or in that through whi#h it $lows. it 'ust o$ ne#essity rain within $i&e days()so that. 'ore 'ar&ellous) t is that the 3ile a#ts so strangely. there 'ust be rain also in those %arts) Thirdly. it is #ertain that the nati&es o$ the #ountry are bla#k with the heat. that the kites and the swallows re'ain there the whole year. running. $urther than si'%ly to 'ention what they are) !ne %retends that the Etesian winds #ause the rise o$ the ri&er by %re&enting the 3ile7water $ro' running o$$ into the sea) But in the $irst %la#e it has o$ten ha%%ened. that the inundation o$ the 3ile is #aused by the 'elting o$ snows) 3ow. howe&er. and the 'ore so as they are all s'aller strea's. is %ositi&ely the $urthest $ro' the truth( $or there is really nothing in what it says. in&ented the na'e. i$ 'ay so say. i$ there were snow. $lo#k thither to %ass the #old season) $ then.

he attra#ts the water) *$ter attra#ting it. and then belie&e his %assage a#ross Euro%e would a$$e#t the ster e.a#tly as the 3ile is a$$e#ted at the %resent day) *nd with res%e#t to the $a#t that no bree/e blows $ro' the 3ile. and being in winter sub2e#t to the attra#tion o$ the sun. naturally runs at that season.%lain what think to be the reason o$ the 3ile1s swelling in the su''er ti'e) 5uring the winter.a#tly as he wont to a#t elsewhere in su''er. regard as the sole #ause o$ the %heno'enon) t is the sun also. while. unlike all other strea's. and the #ountry war' through the absen#e o$ #old winds.one1s own) will there$ore %ro#eed to e.uarter7 the south and south7west7 are o$ all winds the 'ost rainy) *nd 'y own o%inion is that the sun does not get rid o$ all the water whi#h he draws year by year $ro' the 3ile. would betake hi'sel$ to the u%%er %arts o$ Euro%e. will be s#antest o$ water. not deri&ing any o$ its bulk $ro' rains. and that there the strea's whi#h $eed the ri&ers will shrink the 'ost) To e. in his %assage a#ross the u%%er %arts o$ Libya. as he now does to those o$ Libya. when the showers $ail. dri&en $ro' the 'id7hea&en by the winter and the northern gales. and whi#h he %asses 'ost dire#tly o&er. but retains so'e about hi') 4hen the winter begins to so$ten. a$$e#ts the' in the $ollowing way) *s the air in those regions is #onstantly #lear. the #ase is this) The sun. the #onse. by heating the s%a#e through whi#h it %asses. and the sun attra#ts their water. on the other hand. $ro' the . where the winds lay hold o$ it.uantity o$ rain7water whi#h they bring down $ro' #ountries where so 'u#h 'oisture $alls that all the land is #ut into gullies( but in su''er.%osed to attra#tion e. whi#h. howe&er. but in winter it su$$ers alone) The sun. and redu#e it to a &a%our.ually $ro' all #ountries) Till then the other ri&ers run big. the station o$ the south wind be#a'e that o$ the north. . 'ore at length. when his %ath is in the 'iddle o$ hea&en7 that is. the sun is dri&en out o$ his usual #ourse by the stor's. on the #ontrary. with a less burthen o$ water than in the su''er ti'e) For in su''er it is e.ually with all other ri&ers. and re'o&es to the u%%er %arts o$ Libya) This is the whole se#ret in the $ewest %ossible words( $or it stands to reason that the #ountry to whi#h the "un7god a%%roa#hes the nearest. the sun goes ba#k again to his old %la#e in the 'iddle o$ the hea&en. s#atter it. there$ore.%lain. they be#o'e low) The 3ile. when#e it naturally enough #o'es to %ass that the winds whi#h blow $ro' this . and %ro#eeds to attra#t water e. the sun in his %assage a#ross the' a#ts u%on the' e. so that the %la#e where now the north wind and the winter ha&e their dwelling be#a'e the station o$ the south wind and o$ the noon7day. 'akes the air in Egy%t so dry) There is thus %er%etual su''er in the u%%er %arts o$ Libya) 4ere the %osition o$ the hea&enly regions re&ersed. in 'y o%inion. he again re%els it into the u%%er regions.uen#e would be that the sun.

and the sunken ro#ks whi#h abound in that %art o$ the strea') 4hen you ha&e %assed this %ortion o$ the ri&er in the s%a#e o$ $orty days. or Greeks. you #o'e again to the strea' o$ the 3ile. round an island #alled Ta#ho'%so) The #ountry abo&e Ele%hantine is inhabited by the Ethio%ians. an Egy%tian king. and hen#e a "ounding7line #annot be got to rea#h the botto' o$ the s%ring) 3o other in$or'ation on this head #ould obtain $ro' any . and so %ro#eed on the 2ourney) $ the ro%e sna%s. had 'ade trial o$ the') He had #aused a ro%e to be 'ade. was the $ollowing07 *s one ad&an#es beyond Ele%hantine. -o%hi) -idway between the' are the $ountains o$ the 3ile. Libyans. that in this $ountain there are #ertain strong eddies. i$ there was any truth at all in what he said. you go on board . and a regurgitation. to their natural #ourse. like the -aeander. where the 3ile $lows in two bran#hes. and had sounded the $ountain with it.. ha&e $ound no one a'ong all those with who' ha&e #on&ersed. e. by as#ending 'ysel$ as high as Ele%hantine and 'aking in. whi#h runs into the lake) Here you land. who %ossess one7hal$ o$ this island. owing to the $or#e wherewith the water dashes against the 'ountains.uarter) Let us lea&e these things. as 'en harness an o. the &essel is borne away down strea' by the $or#e o$ the #urrent) The na&igation #ontinues the sa'e $or $our days. to #ontinue as they are and ha&e been $ro' the beginning) 4ith regard to the sour#es o$ the 3ile. hal$ to the south towards Ethio%ia)9 The $ountains were known to be un$atho'able. the land rises) Hen#e it is ne#essary in this %art o$ the ri&er to atta#h a ro%e to the boat on ea#h side. there are9 . who %ro$essed to ha&e any knowledge. $or bree/es lo&e to blow $ro' so'e #old . howe&er. and he did not see' to 'e to be in earnest when he said that he knew the' %er$e#tly well) His story was as $ollows07 9Between "yene. whether Egy%tians. and Ele%hantine. and the distan#e tra&ersed a'ounting to twel&e s#hoenes) Here you #o'e u%on a s'ooth and le&el %lain. 'any thousand $atho's in length. be#ause +sa''eti#hus. the ri&er winding greatly. the Egy%tians o##u%ying the other) *bo&e the island there is a great lake. and tra&el $or $orty days along the banks o$ the ri&er.he said< 9two hills with shar% #oni#al to%s( the na'e o$ the one is Cro%hi. a #ity o$ the Thebais.uarter) *ll that su##eeded in learning $urther o$ the 'ore distant %ortions o$ the 3ile. but #ould $ind no botto') By this the s#ribe ga&e 'e to understand. he de#lared. $ountains whi#h it is i'%ossible to $atho') Hal$ the water runs northward into Egy%t.#e%t a single %erson) He was the s#ribe who ke%t the register o$ the sa#red treasures o$ -iner&a in the #ity o$ "ais. o$ the other.uiries #on#erning the %arts beyond.a' o$ o%inion that no wind is likely to arise in &ery hot #ountries. sin#e it is i'%ossible to %ro#eed $urther in a boat on a##ount o$ the shar% %eaks whi#h 2ut out $ro' the water. the shores o$ whi#h are inhabited by Ethio%ian no'ads( a$ter %assing it.

9 said one o$ the deserters with an unsee'ly gesture. went o&er to the Ethio%ians in the reign o$ king +sa''eti#hus) The #ause o$ their desertion was the $ollowing07 Three garrisons were 'aintained in Egy%t at that ti'e. translated into our language. that on one o##asion the garrisons were not relie&ed during the s%a#e o$ three years( the soldiers. to who' great honours are %aid) There is an ora#le o$ 8u%iter in the #ity. against the "yrians and *rabians. 'ar#hed away towards Ethio%ia) +sa''eti#hus. another in the +elusia# 5a%hnae. and again 'ounting the strea'. at the end o$ that ti'e. in -area) . but. nor abandon their wi&es and #hildren) 93ay. you #o'e to the 5eserters. one in the #ity o$ Ele%hantine against the Ethio%ians. not only throughout Egy%t. they said. 9where&er we go. to the nu'ber o$ two hundred and $orty thousand. against the Libyans. when it #han#ed that in the #ourse o$ . and #o'ing u% with the'. indeed. they were on a &isit to the ora#ular shrine o$ *''on. in the sa'e s%a#e o$ ti'e whi#h it took you to rea#h the #a%ital $ro' Ele%hantine. thither straightway they #arry their ar's) !n lea&ing this #ity. no one has any #ertain knowledge o$ its #ourse. and in whate&er dire#tion it bids the' 'ar#h. but to the e. bidding the' e. at the end o$ whi#h ti'e you rea#h a great #ity #alled -eroe. $ro' #ertain nati&es o$ Cyrene) !n#e u%on a ti'e. their a#.uaintan#e with Egy%tian 'anners has tended to #i&ilise the Ethio%ians) Thus the #ourse o$ the 3ile is known. he 'ade the' a %resent o$ a tra#t o$ land whi#h belonged to #ertain Ethio%ians with who' he was at $eud. we are sure enough o$ $inding wi&es and #hildren)9 *rri&ed in Ethio%ia. besought the' with 'any words not to desert the gods o$ their #ountry. whose $or#es are in garrison both in 5a%hnae and in Ele%hantine)< 3ow it ha%%ened. whi#h is said to be the #a%ital o$ the other Ethio%ians) The only gods worshi%%ed by the inhabitants are 8u%iter and Ba##hus. set out in %ursuit.The &ery sa'e %osts are to this day o##u%ied by the +ersians. there$ore.tent o$ $our 'onths1 2ourney either by land or water abo&e the Egy%tian boundary( $or on #al#ulation it will be $ound that it takes that length o$ ti'e to tra&el $ro' Ele%hantine to the #ountry o$ the 5eserters) There the dire#tion o$ the ri&er is $ro' west to east) Beyond. #onsulted together.another boat and %ro#eed by water $or twel&e days 'ore. they %la#ed the'sel&es at the dis%osal o$ the king) n return. and ha&ing deter'ined by #o''on #onsent to re&olt. who. who bear the na'e o$ *s'a#h) This word. whi#h dire#ts the warlike e. and a third.#essi&e heat) did hear. in$or'ed o$ the 'o&e'ent.%editions o$ the Ethio%ians( when it #o''ands they go to war.%el the inhabitants and take %ossession o$ their territory) AFro' the ti'e that this settle'ent was $or'ed. 'eans 9the 'en who stand on the le$t hand o$ the king)9 These 5eserters are Egy%tians o$ the warrior #aste. what will now relate. sin#e the #ountry is uninhabited by reason o$ the e.

Etear#hus #on2e#tured it to be the 3ile( and reason $a&ours that &iew) For the 3ile #ertainly $lows out o$ Libya. nor had they any a#. running $ro' west to east. and runs through the 'iddle o$ Euro%e. di&iding it down the 'iddle. and his story. and seeing $ruit on the'. when#e they $inally entered u%on the desert. when they #a'e to 'an1s estate. and a'ong other things drew lots $or $i&e o$ their nu'ber to go and e.#on&ersation with Etear#hus. whi#h they %ro#eeded to #ross in a dire#tion $ro' east to west) *$ter 2ourneying $or 'any days o&er a wide e. who sei/ed the' and #arried the' o$$) The 3asa'onians #ould not understand a word o$ their language.#e%t #ertain %ortions whi#h belong to the +hoeni#ians and the Greeks) *bo&e the #oast7line and the #ountry inhabited by the 'ariti'e tribes. and a tra#t o$ no great si/e towards the east)< They said there had grown u% a'ong the' so'e wild young 'en. only adding that . indulged in all 'anner o$ e. 2udging the unknown $ro' the known.uaintan#e with the language o$ the 3asa'onians) They were led a#ross e. throughout its entire length $ro' Egy%t to Ca%e "oloeis. there #a'e u%on the' so'e dwar$ish 'en. had told the $ollowing tale) . and #ontaining #ro#odiles) Here let 'e dis'iss Etear#hus the *''onian. the talk $ell u%on the 3ile. whi#h is its $urthest %oint. rises at the sa'e distan#e $ro' its 'outh as the ster) This latter ri&er has its sour#e in the #ountry o$ the Celts near the #ity +yrene. where all the 'en were o$ the height o$ their #ondu#tors. who. the sons o$ #ertain #hie$s.%lore the desert %arts o$ Libya.ioned) * great ri&er $lowed by the town. di&iding it into two %ortions) The Celts li&e beyond the .tent o$ sand. and that the 'en whose #ity they had rea#hed were a nation o$ sor#erers) 4ith res%e#t to the ri&er whi#h ran by their town. and bla#k7#o'%le. and try i$ they #ould not %enetrate $urther than any had done %re&iously) The #oast o$ Libya along the sea whi#h washes it to the north. tra&elled at $irst through the inhabited region. the *''onian king. &ery s#ant o$ water. they %ro#eeded to gather it) 4hile they were thus engaged.The 3asa'onians are a Libyan ra#e who o##u%y the "yrtis. des%at#hed on this errand by their #o'rades with a %lenti$ul su%%ly o$ water and %ro&isions.a##ording to the Cyrenaeans< he de#lared that the 3asa'onians got sa$e ba#k to their #ountry. and as #on#ei&e. and when asked i$ they #ould gi&e any in$or'ation #on#erning the uninhabited %arts o$ Libya. and $inally #a'e to a town. how that its sour#es were unknown to all 'en) Etear#hus u%on this 'entioned that so'e 3asa'onians had on#e #o'e to his #ourt. %assing whi#h they #a'e to the wild beast tra#t. under the 'iddle height. and utterly and entirely a desert) The young 'en there$ore.tra&agan#ies.tensi&e 'arshes. is inhabited by Libyans o$ 'any distin#t tribes who %ossess the whole tra#t e. Libya is $ull o$ wild beasts( while beyond the wild beast region there is a tra#t whi#h is wholly sand. they #a'e at last to a %lain where they obser&ed trees growing( a%%roa#hing the'.

'ud. either $or god or goddess. while the 'en sit at ho'e at the loo'( and here. as it tra&erses the whole o$ Libya. their wo'en but one) They %ut on the rings and $asten the ro%es to sails inside( others %ut . gi&ing as a reason that what is unsee'ly. its #ourse is %er$e#tly well known( but o$ the sour#es o$ the 3ile no one #an gi&e any a##ount. but 'en are %riests to both( sons need not su%%ort their %arents unless they #hoose. be#ause there is no #ountry that %ossesses so 'any wonders. but the %eo%le also. where the grain they li&e on is s%elt.ual length with the ster) *nd here take 'y lea&e o$ this sub2e#t) Con#erning Egy%t itsel$ shall e. and the ri&ers unlike any other ri&ers. $or near relations to #ut their hair #lose0 the Egy%tians. whi#h so'e #all /ea) 5ough they knead with their $eet( but they 'i.ine at stria. while the 'en #arry the' u%on their heads) They eat their $ood out o$ doors in the streets. one o$ the #olonies o$ the -ilesians) 3ow as this ri&er $lows through regions that are inhabited. in 'ourning. is o$ e. should be done o%enly) * wo'an #annot ser&e the %riestly o$$i#e. while the rest o$ the world works the woo$ u% the war%. let their beards and the hair o$ their heads grow long) *ll other 'en %ass their li&es se%arate $ro' ani'als. nor any that has su#h a nu'ber o$ works whi#h de$y des#ri%tion) 3ot only is the #li'ate di$$erent $ro' that o$ the rest o$ the world.tend 'y re'arks to a great length.a#tly o%%osite the 'ountainous %ortion o$ Cili#ia.uiry. with their hands) They are the only %eo%le in the world7 they at least. is desert and without inhabitants) *s $ar as it was %ossible to get in$or'ation by in. in 'ost o$ their 'anners and #usto's. but what has nothing unsee'ly about it. the #ountry through whi#h it %asses.ine in $i&e days by the dire#t route) "ino%e lies o%%osite the %la#e where the ster $alls into the sea) -y o%inion there$ore is that the 3ile. when#e a lightly7e.ui%%ed tra&eller 'ay rea#h "ino%e on the Eu. whether they #hoose or no) n other #ountries the %riests ha&e long hair.%illars o$ Her#ules. but retire $or %ri&ate %ur%oses to their houses. who wear no hair at any other ti'e. ought to be done in se#ret. and border on the Cynesians. but ne#essary. and su#h as ha&e learnt the %ra#ti#e $ro' the'7 who use #ir#u'#ision) Their 'en wear two gar'ents a%ie#e. e. the Egy%tians ha&e ani'als always li&ing with the'( others 'ake barley and wheat their $ood( it is a disgra#e to do so in Egy%t. and e&en take u% dirt.a#tly re&erse the #o''on %ra#ti#e o$ 'ankind) The wo'en attend the 'arkets and trade. ha&e gi&en a des#ri%tion o$ the strea') t enters Egy%t $ro' the %arts beyond) Egy%t lies al'ost e. the Egy%tians work it down( the wo'en likewise #arry burthens u%on their shoulders. who dwell at the e. sin#e Libya. but daughters 'ust.tre'e west o$ Euro%e) Thus the ster $lows through the whole o$ Euro%e be$ore it $inally e'%ties itsel$ into the Eu. in Egy%t their heads are sha&en( elsewhere it is #usto'ary. when they lose a relati&e.

like the Greeks. and twi#e ea#h night( besides whi#h they obser&e.what they are will 'ention elsewhere<( he also ins%e#ts the hairs o$ the tail. or eat. 'arked with their signet. to see i$ it be #lean in res%e#t o$ the %res#ribed 'arks .uite di$$erent kinds o$ writing.the' outside) 4hen they write or #al#ulate. and are there$ore tested in the $ollowing 'anner07 !ne o$ the %riests a%%ointed $or the %ur%ose sear#hes to see i$ there is a single bla#k hair on the whole body. and again laid u%on his ba#k( a$ter whi#h he takes the tongue out o$ his 'outh.#ess. ea#h god has the attendan#e o$ a #ollege. and their shoes o$ the %a%yrus %lant0 it is not law$ul $or the' to wear either dress or shoes o$ any other 'aterial) They bathe twi#e e&ery day in #old water. whi#h they are s%e#ially #are$ul to ha&e always $resh washed) They %ra#tise #ir#u'#ision $or the sake o$ #leanliness. and are at no e. and atta#hing thereto so'e sealing7#lay. and also a %ortion o$ wine 'ade $ro' the gra%e) Fish they are not allowed to eat( and beans7 whi#h none o$ the Egy%tians e&er sow. to sa#ri$i#e an ani'al whi#h has not been 'arked in this way) The $ollowing is their 'anner o$ sa#ri$i#e07 They lead the &i#ti'. and a %lenti$ul su%%ly o$ bee$ and o$ goose1s $lesh is assigned to ea#h. the %riest 'arks hi' by twisting a %ie#e o$ %a%yrus round his horns. %our a libation o$ wine u%on the altar in $ront o$ the &i#ti'. his son is a%%ointed in his roo') -ale kine are re#koned to belong to E%a%hus. one o$ whi#h is #alled sa#red. $ro' le$t to right. and use the $ollowing #ere'onies07 They drink out o$ bra/en #u%s. and at the sa'e ti'e in&oke the god) .a'ines hi' all o&er. $ar beyond any other ra#e o$ 'en. at the head o$ whi#h is a #hie$ %riest( when one o$ these dies. sin#e they #onsider it an un#lean kind o$ %ulse) nstead o$ a single %riest. either raw or boiled7 the %riests will not e&en endure to look on. under the %enalty o$ death. not a $ew ad&antages) They #onsu'e none o$ their own %ro%erty.#e%tion to this %ra#ti#e) They wear linen gar'ents. standing on his legs. thousands o$ #ere'onies) They en2oy. i$ they #o'e u% o$ their own a##ord. whi#h they s#our e&ery day0 there is no e. the other #o''on) They are religious to e. that no li#e or other i'%ure thing 'ay adhere to the' when they are engaged in the ser&i#e o$ the gods) Their dress is entirely o$ linen. to obser&e i$ they grow naturally) $ the ani'al is %ronoun#ed #lean in all these &arious %oints. notwithstanding. and setting the wood alight. and the Greeks who go to the le$t) They ha&e two . #onsidering it better to be #leanly than #o'ely) The %riests sha&e their whole body e&ery other day. that it is they who go to the right. sin#e in that #ase the beast is un#lean) He e. so to s%eak. to the altar where they are about to o$$er it. they 'o&e their hand $ro' right to le$t( and they insist.%ense $or anything( but e&ery day bread is baked $or the' o$ the sa#red #orn. whi#h he then sta'%s with his own signet7ring) *$ter this the beast is led away( and it is $orbidden. instead o$ going. howe&er.

known to be %ure. howe&er. or use the kni$e o$ a Greek. i$ there is a 'arket7%la#e and a body o$ Greek traders in the #ity.en) +roso%itis is a distri#t #ontaining se&eral #ities( the na'e o$ that $ro' whi#h the boats #o'e is *tarbe#his) @enus has a te'%le there o$ 'u#h san#tity) Great nu'bers o$ 'en go $orth $ro' this #ity and %ro#eed to the other towns. and while the bodies o$ the &i#ti's are being #onsu'ed they beat the'sel&es) *$terwards. howe&er. or taste the $lesh o$ an o. there are no Greeks a'ong the'. and when their %rayer is ended they take the %aun#h o$ the ani'al out entire. they #arry it there and sell it instantly( i$. $igs.Then they slay the ani'al. they throw the head into the ri&er) The i'%re#ation is to this e$$e#t07 They %ray that i$ any e&il is i'%ending either o&er those who sa#ri$i#e. when they ha&e #on#luded this %art o$ the #ere'ony. at an a%%ointed ti'e. and the ne#k( and ha&ing so done. the i'%re#ations u%on the heads. are used $or sa#ri$i#e by the Egy%tians uni&ersally( but the $e'ales they are not allowed to sa#ri$i#e. lea&ing the intestines and the $at inside the body( they then #ut o$$ the legs. and hea%ing i'%re#ations on it. %re&ail all o&er Egy%t. and the libations o$ wine. and other aro'ati#s) Thus $illed. they burn the body. sin#e they are sa#red to sis) The statue o$ this goddess has the $or' o$ a wo'an but with horns like a #ow. they $ill the body o$ the steer with #lean bread. there$ore. where they dig u% the bones. i$ #lean. a boat #o'es. whi#h they take . nine s#hoenes in #ir#u'$eren#e. whether 'an or wo'an. they ha&e the other %arts o$ the &i#ti' ser&ed u% to the' $or a re%ast) The 'ale kine.t they take the head. and #utting o$$ his head.. honey. i$ it has been #ut with a Greek kni$e) 4hen kine die. or his s%it. &enerate #ows 'u#h 'ore highly than any other ani'al) This is the reason why no nati&e o$ Egy%t. di$$erent in di$$erent sa#ri$i#es) will 'ention the 'ode in use with res%e#t to the goddess who' they regard as the greatest. raisins. one and all. rese'bling thus the Greek re%resentations o$ o( and the Egy%tians. or o&er uni&ersal Egy%t. $ro' the island #alled +roso%itis. or his #auldron.uantities o$ oil) Be$ore o$$ering the sa#ri$i#e they $ast. 'yrrh.7 whi#h is a %ortion o$ the 5elta. $rankin#ense. will gi&e a Greek a kiss. and the 'ale #al&es.tend to &i#ti's o$ all sorts( and hen#e the Egy%tians will ne&er eat the head o$ any ani'al) The dise'bowelling and burning are. %ro#eed to $lay the body) 3e. and honour with the #hie$est $esti&al) 4hen they ha&e $layed their steer they %ray. with one or both o$ their horns a%%earing abo&e the sur$a#e o$ the ground to 'ark the %la#e) 4hen the bodies are de#ayed.7 and #alls at the se&eral #ities in turn to #olle#t the bones o$ the o. %ouring o&er it great . the $ollowing is the 'anner o$ their se%ulture07 The $e'ales are thrown into the ri&er( the 'ales are buried in the suburbs o$ the towns. it 'ay be 'ade to $all u%on that head) These %ra#ti#es. the shoulders. and e. the ends o$ the loins.

and the Greeks also were so'e o$ the' 'ariners. the Egy%tians dis#lai' all knowledge o$ the na'es o$ 3e%tune and the 5ios#uri. gi&e the $ollowing a##ount o$ the origin o$ the #usto'07 9Her#ules. these would ha&e been the likeliest to obtain noti#e. the whole asse'bly beat their breasts in 'ourning $or the ra'. they a$$ir'. the latter o$ who' they say is the Gre#ian Ba##hus) Those. they slay a single ra'. or belong to the -endesian #anton. but 8o&e did not #hoose to be seen o$ hi') *t length. sin#e the Egy%tians. is the reason why the Thebans do not sa#ri$i#e ra's. hold the head be$ore hi'. o$$er no shee% in sa#ri$i#e. the latter %eo%le took their na'e o$ *''onians. so that they would ha&e been 'ore likely to know the na'es o$ these gods than that o$ Her#ules) But the Egy%tian Her#ules is one o$ their an#ient gods) "e&enteen thousand years be$ore the reign o$ *'asis. and su#h as i'itate the' in their %ra#ti#e. %ra#tised na&igation at that ti'e. took the na'e $ro' the Egy%tians. %rodu#ed $ro' the eight0 and o$ these twel&e. and #o&er hi'sel$ with the $lee#e) n this guise he showed hi'sel$ to Her#ules)9 There$ore the Egy%tians gi&e their statues o$ 8u%iter the $a#e o$ a ra'0 and $ro' the' the %ra#ti#e has %assed to the *''onians. and then bring u% to the statue o$ 8o&e an i'age o$ Her#ules) 4hen this has been done. when Her#ules %ersisted. and a$terwards bury hi' in a holy se%ul#hre) The a##ount whi#h re#ei&ed o$ this Her#ules 'akes hi' one o$ the twel&e gods) !$ the other Her#ules. by the $a#t that both the %arents o$ Her#ules. who are a 2oint #olony o$ Egy%tians and Ethio%ians. or li&e in the Thebai# #anton.#e%ting sis and !siris.away with the' and bury together in one %la#e) The sa'e %ra#ti#e %re&ails with res%e#t to the inter'ent o$ all other #attle7 the law so deter'ining( they do not slaughter any o$ the') "u#h Egy%tians as %ossess a te'%le o$ the Theban 8o&e. who %ossess a te'%le dedi#ated to -endes. howe&er. at the $esti&al o$ 8u%iter.those 'ean who ga&e the son o$ *'%hitryon that na'e<. and sa#ri$i#e shee% instead) The Thebans. the twel&e gods were. as a' well #on&in#ed.9 they say. howe&er . a'ong other argu'ents. e. #ould hear nothing in any %art o$ Egy%t) That the Greeks. and stri%%ing o$$ the $lee#e. s%eaking a language between the two( hen#e also. #utting o$$ his head. in 'y o%inion. *'%hitryon as well as *l#'ena. and do not in#lude the' in the nu'ber o$ their gods( but had they ado%ted the na'e o$ any god $ro' the Greeks. is think #learly %ro&ed. sin#e the Egy%tian na'e $or 8u%iter is *'un) "u#h. on the #ontrary. then. but #onsider the' sa#red ani'als) 6%on one day in the year. as he on#e #o&ered hi'sel$. but only goats( $or the Egy%tians do not all worshi% the sa'e gods. with who' the Greeks are $a'iliar. #o&er with it the statue o$ that god. were o$ Egy%tian origin) *gain. Her#ules is one) . and. abstain $ro' o$$ering goats. and not the Egy%tians $ro' the Greeks. 8o&e hit on a de&i#e7 to $lay a ra'. 9wished o$ all things to see 8o&e.

intending to o$$er hi' a sa#ri$i#e to 8u%iter) For a while he sub'itted . and.n the wish to get the best in$or'ation that #ould on these 'atters. a'ong whi#h were two %illars. and a'ong the' the $ollowing silly $able res%e#ting Her#ules07 9Her#ules. di$$ered $ro' the Greeks) They said that the te'%le was built at the sa'e ti'e that the #ity was $ounded. shining with great brillian#y at night) n a #on&ersation whi#h held with the %riests. he %ut $orth his strength and slew the' all)9 3ow to 'e it see's that su#h a story %ro&es the Greeks to be utterly ignorant o$ the #hara#ter and #usto's o$ the %eo%le) The Egy%tians do not think it allowable e&en to sa#ri$i#e #attle. and also geese) How. and there the inhabitants took hi'. one o$ %ure gold. &ery highly &enerated) &isited the te'%le. %ro&ided they be %ure. 2ust as he is in Gree#e.uired how long their te'%le had been built. to destroy so 'any thousands: n saying thus 'u#h #on#erning these 'atters. in the one o$ whi#h the Her#ules worshi%%ed is known by the na'e o$ !ly'%ian. then. and that the $oundation o$ the #ity took %la#e two thousand three hundred years ago) n Tyre re'arked another te'%le where the sa'e god was worshi%%ed as the Thasian Her#ules) "o went on to Thasos. and the 'ale kine and #al&es. #onsider +an to be one o$ the eight gods who e. and +an is re%resented in Egy%t by the %ainters and the s#ul%tors. 'ade a &oyage to Tyre in +hoeni#ia. was born in Gree#e) These resear#hes show %lainly that there is an an#ient god Her#ules( and 'y own o%inion is that those Greeks a#t 'ost wisely who build and 'aintain two te'%les o$ Her#ules.uietly( but when they led hi' u% to the altar and began the #ere'onies. belie&e this to be his sha%e. led hi' out in sole'n %ro#ession. and has sa#ri$i#e o$$ered to hi' as an i''ortal. and $ound by their answer that they. howe&er. who are the -endesians. as they #on$ess. too.isted be$ore the twel&e. #an it be belie&ed that they would sa#ri$i#e 'en: *nd again. hearing there was a te'%le o$ Her#ules at that %la#e.#e%ting shee%. and %utting a #ha%let on his head. son o$ *'%hitryon. 'ay in#ur no dis%leasure either o$ god or hero> 'entioned abo&e that so'e o$ the Egy%tians abstain $ro' sa#ri$i#ing goats. how would it ha&e been %ossible $or Her#ules alone. a 'ere 'ortal. either 'ale or $e'ale) The reason is the $ollowing07 These Egy%tians. while in the other the honours %aid are su#h as are due to a hero) The Greeks tell 'any tales without due in&estigation. and $ound it ri#hly adorned with a nu'ber o$ o$$erings. or #onsider hi' in any res%e#t unlike the other gods( but they re%resent hi' thus $or a reason whi#h %re$er not to relate) The -endesians hold all goats .9 they say. 9went on#e to Egy%t. e. in. where $ound a te'%le o$ Her#ules whi#h had been built by the +hoeni#ians who #olonised that island when they sailed in sear#h o$ Euro%a) E&en this was $i&e generations earlier than the ti'e when Her#ules. with the $a#e and legs o$ a goat) They do not. the other o$ e'erald.

so #o'%letely a%%rehend the whole do#trine as to be able to #o''uni#ate it entirely. the s%leen. gi&ing the goatherds o$ the 'ales es%e#ial honour) !ne is &enerated 'ore highly than all the rest.in &eneration. whi#h is the day o$ the $ull 'oon0 at any other ti'e they would not so 'u#h as taste it) The %oorer sort. whi#h they bake and o$$er in sa#ri$i#e) To Ba##hus. the goat and +an are both #alled -endes) The %ig is regarded a'ong the' as an un#lean ani'al. and by hi' #arried away) n other res%e#ts the $esti&al is #elebrated al'ost e. but the 'ale 'ore than the $e'ale. who #annot a$$ord li&e %igs. and the wo'en $ollow. #onsisting o$ i'ages a #ubit high. he instantly hurries to the ri&er. whi#h is then gi&en ba#k to the swineherd by who' it was $urnished. are $orbidden to enter into any o$ the te'%les. and their use o$ the' at this $esti&al. whi#h are o%en to all other Egy%tians( and $urther. are straightway burnt) The re'ainder o$ the $lesh is eaten on the sa'e day that the sa#ri$i#e is o$$ered.#e%ting that the Egy%tians ha&e no #horal dan#es) They also use instead o$ %halli another in&ention. singing hy'ns in honour o$ Ba##hus) They gi&e a religious reason $or the %e#uliarities o$ the i'age) -ela'%us. and a$terwards eating o$ the $lesh) There is a reason alleged by the' $or their detestation o$ swine at all other seasons. and ha&ing been #o&ered with all the $at that has been $ound in the ani'al1s belly.#e%ting Ba##hus and the -oon. whi#h the wo'en #arry round to the &illages) * %i%er goes in $ront. and %lunges in with all his #lothes on) Hen#e. so 'u#h so that i$ a 'an in %assing a##identally tou#h a %ig. think< ha&e been ignorant o$ this #ere'ony7 nay.uainted with it) He it was who introdu#ed into Gree#e the na'e o$ Ba##hus. e. on the e&e o$ his $east. e&ery Egy%tian sa#ri$i#es a hog be$ore the door o$ his house.uainted. %ulled by strings. he 'ust. #annot . but &arious sages sin#e his ti'e ha&e #arried out his tea#hing to greater %er$e#tion) "till it is #ertain that -ela'%us introdu#ed the %hallus. too. the son o$ *'ytheon. the swineherds. should #on#ei&e. e. and the #aul are %ut together. $or' %igs o$ dough. with whi#h a' well a#. and when he dies there is a great 'ourning throughout all the -endesian #anton) n Egy%tian. the #ere'onial o$ his worshi%. howe&er. and the %ro#ession o$ the %hallus) He did not. no one will gi&e his daughter in 'arriage to a swineherd. but whi#h do not think it %ro%er to 'ention) The $ollowing is the 'ode in whi#h they sa#ri$i#e the swine to the -oon07 *s soon as the &i#ti' is slain.a#tly as Ba##hi# $esti&als are in Gree#e. the ti% o$ the tail. and that the . ha&e been well a#. so that the swineherds are $or#ed to inter'arry a'ong the'sel&es) They do not o$$er swine in sa#ri$i#e to any o$ their gods. notwithstanding that they are o$ %ure Egy%tian blood. or take a wi$e $ro' a'ong the'. sa#ri$i#ing %igs to both o$ the' at the sa'e $ull 'oon. who' they honour in this way at the sa'e ti'e.

%lained in the "a'othra#ian 'ysteries) n early ti'es the +elasgi. and had a#. at the sa'e ti'e that he brought in &arious other %ra#ti#es) For #an by no 'eans allow that it is by 'ere #oin#iden#e that the Ba##hi# #ere'onies in Gree#e are so nearly the sa'e as the Egy%tian7 they would then ha&e been 'ore Greek in their #hara#ter. and the $ollowers who' he brought $ro' +hoeni#ia into the #ountry whi#h is now #alled Boeotia) *l'ost all the na'es o$ the gods #a'e into Gree#e $ro' Egy%t) -y in. sin#e they had ne&er heard o$ any) They #alled the' gods .uiries %ro&e that they were all deri&ed $ro' a $oreign sour#e. and a$terwards it %assed $ro' the *thenians to the other Greeks) For 2ust at the ti'e when the *thenians were entering into the Helleni# body. or any other. $ro' the +elasgi. learnt the %ra#ti#e $ro' the +elasgians( and by this %eo%le a religious a##ount o$ the 'atter is gi&en. with whose na'es they %ro$ess the'sel&es una#. introdu#ed it into Gree#e. then. whi#h they obser&e in their statues o$ -er#ury they did not deri&e $ro' the Egy%tians. . e. the Gra#es. o$$ered sa#ri$i#es o$ all kinds. the Greeks re#ei&ed. @esta. the +elasgi #a'e to li&e with the' in their #ountry. who.Theoi.#e%t 3e%tune) !$ hi' they got their knowledge $ro' the Libyans. as know by in$or'ation whi#h got at 5odona.Greeks learnt $ro' hi' the #ere'onies whi#h they now %ra#tise) there$ore 'aintain that -ela'%us. and 'y o%inion is that Egy%t $urnished the greater nu'ber) For with the e. howe&er. and less re#ent in their origin) -u#h less #an ad'it that the Egy%tians borrowed these #usto's. but had no distin#t na'es or a%%ellations $or the'. by who' he has been always honoured.uainted with the worshi% o$ Ba##hus through knowledge deri&ed $ro' Egy%t. who was a wise 'an.#e%tion o$ 3e%tune and the 5ios#uri. ha&ing be#o'e a#. there are 'any other %ra#ti#es whereo$ shall s%eak herea$ter.uired the art o$ di&ination. and i'%arted their religious #ere'onies to the inhabitants) The *thenians. whi#h the Greeks ha&e borrowed $ro' Egy%t) The %e#uliarity. with a $ew slight #hanges.uainted. and who were an#iently the only %eo%le that had a god o$ the na'e) The Egy%tians di$$er $ro' the Greeks also in %aying no di&ine honours to heroes) Besides these whi#h ha&e been here 'entioned. but $ro' the +elasgi( $ro' the' the *thenians $irst ado%ted it. and the 3ereids. dis%osers<. who' 'entioned abo&e. the other gods ha&e been known $ro' ti'e i''e'orial in Egy%t) This assert on the authority o$ the Egy%tians the'sel&es) The gods. be$ore they went to li&e in *tti#a. who were the $irst o$ all the Greeks to 'ake their statues o$ -er#ury in this way. belie&e. $ro' the Greeks) -y belie$ is that -ela'%us got his knowledge o$ the' $ro' Cad'us the Tyrian. and %rayed to the gods. whi#h is e. were dwellers in "a'othra#e. The'is. and 8uno. when#e it was that the latter #a'e $irst to be regarded as Greeks) 4hoe&er has been initiated into the 'ysteries o$ the Cabiri will understand what 'ean) The "a'othra#ians re#ei&ed these 'ysteries $ro' the +elasgi.

howe&er. and told the' that on the s%ot where she was. 94hether they should ado%t the na'es that had been i'%orted $ro' the $oreigners:9 the ora#le re%lied by re#o''ending their use) Then#e$orth in their sa#ri$i#es the +elasgi 'ade use o$ the na'es o$ the gods. de#idedly later writers) n these 'atters ha&e the authority o$ the %riestesses o$ 5odona $or the $or'er %ortion o$ 'y state'ents( what ha&e said o$ Ho'er and Hesiod is 'y own o%inion) The $ollowing tale is #o''only told in Egy%t #on#erning the ora#le o$ 5odona in Gree#e. and gi&e the gods their e%ithets. whether or no they had all e. and $ro' the' the na'es %assed a$terwards to the Greeks) 4hen#e the gods se&erally s%rang. o$ who' they $irst heard at a 'u#h later date) 3ot long a$ter the arri&al o$ the na'es they sent to #onsult the ora#le at 5odona about the') This is the 'ost an#ient ora#le in Gree#e. but that it had not been $ound %ossible to dis#o&er where they were( a$terwards. howe&er. and while one dire#ted its $light to Libya. the ne. so they set to work at on#e and ere#ted the shrine) The do&e whi#h $lew to Libya bade the Libyans to establish there the ora#le o$ *''on)9 This likewise is an ora#le o$ 8u%iter) The %ersons $ro' who' re#ei&ed these %arti#ulars were three %riestesses o$ the 5odonaeans. the wo'en who deli&er the ora#les relate the 'atter as $ollows07 9Two bla#k do&es $lew away $ro' Egy%tian Thebes. and these wo'en were the $irst $ounders o$ the ora#les in the two #ountries)9 !n 'y in. and at that ti'e there was no other) To their . in 'y 2udg'ent. they answered.a#tly what be#a'e o$ the wo'en. and the youngest 3i#andra7 . and the +elasgi learnt the'. so to s%eak) For Ho'er and Hesiod were the $irst to #o'%ose Theogonies.be#ause they dis%osed and arranged all things in su#h a beauti$ul order) *$ter a long la%se o$ ti'e the na'es o$ the gods #a'e to Gree#e $ro' Egy%t. 9that diligent sear#h had been 'ade a$ter the' at the ti'e. and the other into Gree#e. what $or's they bore7 these are . as belie&e) *s $or the %oets who are thought by so'e to be earlier than these.t Ti'arete. and that the story went that one o$ the' was sold into Libya. they are. the other #a'e to the') "he alighted on an oak.uestions o$ whi#h the Greeks knew nothing until the other day.uiring how they #a'e to know so e. there should hen#e$orth be an ora#le o$ 8o&e) They understood the announ#e'ent to be $ro' hea&en. they re#ei&ed the in$or'ation whi#h they had gi&en 'e)9 This was what heard $ro' the %riests at Thebes( at 5odona.uestion. and des#ribe their $or's( and they li&ed but $our hundred years be$ore 'y ti'e. the eldest +ro'eneia.isted $ro' eternity. and sitting there began to s%eak with a hu'an &oi#e. to allot the' their se&eral o$$i#es and o##u%ations. only as yet they knew nothing o$ Ba##hus. and that o$ *''on in Libya) -y in$or'ants on the %oint were the %riests o$ 8u%iter at Thebes) They said 9that two o$ the sa#red wo'en were on#e #arried o$$ $ro' Thebes by the +hoeni#ians.

she built under a real oak a te'%le to 8u%iter. and see'ed to the' to 'ake a noise like birds) *$ter a while the do&e s%oke with a hu'an &oi#e. but se&eral in the #ourse o$ the year) !$ these the #hie$. 'ale and $e'ale.what they said was #on$ir'ed by the other 5odonaeans who dwell around the te'%le) -y own o%inion o$ these 'atters is as $ollows07 think that. and litanies to the gods( o$ all whi#h the Greeks were taught the use by the') t see's to 'e a su$$i#ient %roo$ o$ this that in Egy%t these %ra#ti#es ha&e been established $ro' re'ote anti. 'any o$ the wo'en with #astanets. while so'e o$ the 'en %i%e during the whole ti'e o$ the &oyage( the re'ainder o$ the &oyagers. whi#h is better attended than any other. whose $oreign talk had %re&iously sounded to the' like the #hattering o$ a bird. be#ause the wo'an. &ast nu'bers in ea#h boat. her thoughts in her new abode re&erting7 as it was likely they would do. who is #alled in the Greek tongue 5e'iter .uired a knowledge o$ the Greek tongue. while so'e o$ the wo'en #ontinue to %lay and sing. a#. while undergoing ser&itude in those %arts. ha&ing a#. this last 'ust ha&e been sold to the Thes%rotians) *$terwards. they a%%roa#h the shore. a $i$th in Buto to Latona. whi#h they strike. and 'ake a #la%%ing with their hands) 4hen they arri&e o%%osite any o$ the towns u%on the banks o$ the strea'. while in Gree#e they are only re#ently known) The Egy%tians do not hold a single sole'n asse'bly.uired the %ower o$ s%eaking what they #ould understand) For how #an it be #on#ei&ed %ossible that a do&e should really s%eak with the &oi#e o$ a 'an: Lastly. others #all aloud to the $e'ales o$ the %la#e and load the' with abuse.uity. a #ity situated in the &ery 'iddle o$ the 5elta( it is in honour o$ sis. and sold the' $or sla&es. by #alling the do&e bla#k the 5odonaeans indi#ated that the wo'an was an Egy%tian) *nd #ertainly the #hara#ter o$ the ora#les at Thebes and 5odona is &ery si'ilar) Besides this $or' o$ di&ination. while a .t in i'%ortan#e is that whi#h takes %la#e at Busiris. and. i$ she had been an attendant in a te'%le o$ 8u%iter at Thebes7 to that %arti#ular god) Then. the one into Libya and the other into Gree#e. the Greeks learnt also di&ination by 'eans o$ &i#ti's $ro' the Egy%tians) The Egy%tians were also the $irst to introdu#e sole'n asse'blies. a $ourth in Helio%olis to the "un. or +elasgia . sing the while.Ceres<) There is a third great $esti&al in "ais to -iner&a. and a si.as it was then #alled<. she set u% an ora#le) "he also 'entioned that her sister had been sold $or a sla&e into Libya by the sa'e %ersons as hersel$) The 5odonaeans #alled the wo'en do&es be#ause they were $oreigners. is held at the #ity o$ Bubastis in honour o$ 5iana) The ne.th in +a%re'is to -ars) The $ollowing are the %ro#eedings on o##asion o$ the asse'bly at Bubastis07 -en and wo'en #o'e sailing all together. %ro#essions. i$ it be true that the +hoeni#ians #arried o$$ the holy wo'en.

tends o&er the whole o$ Egy%t) *nd there is a religious reason assigned $or the s%e#ial honour %aid to this night. a##ording to the nati&e re%orts.#ertain nu'ber dan#e. 'any thousands in nu'ber. and gi&e to the $esti&al the na'e o$ the Feast o$ La'%s) The Egy%tians who are absent $ro' the $esti&al obser&e the night o$ the sa#ri$i#e. who are sure to o$$er resistan#e) * shar% $ight with #lubs ensues. a' #on&in#ed. and set u%on the o%%onents. a'ounts. no less than the rest. and so'e standing u% un#o&er the'sel&es) *$ter %ro#eeding in this way all along the ri&er7#ourse. on the to% o$ whi#h the wi#k $loats) These burn the whole night. with #lubs. as well as $or the illu'ination whi#h a##o'%anies it) *t Helio%olis and Buto the asse'blies are 'erely $or the %ur%ose o$ sa#ri$i#e( but at +a%re'is. e&en #utting their $a#es with their kni&es. a $ew only o$ the %riests #ontinue o##u%ied about the i'age o$ the god. and begin to drag it along( the others stationed at the gateway o$ the te'%le. when the asse'bly takes %la#e $or the sa#ri$i#es. in honour o$ a god. both o$ 'en and wo'en. beat the'sel&es at the #lose o$ the sa#ri$i#e. they rea#h Bubastis. ar'ed. while the greater nu'ber. like the others. whereby they let it been seen that they are not Egy%tians but $oreigners) *t "ais. the $ollowing #usto' is obser&ed07 4hen the sun is getting low. #ounting only the 'en and wo'en and o'itting the #hildren. is #on&eyed $ro' the te'%le into a se#ond sa#red building the day be$ore the $esti&al begins) The $ew %riests still in attendan#e u%on the i'age %la#e it. together with the shrine #ontaining it. though . ar'ed with wooden #lubs. in nu'ber abo&e a thousand. die o$ the wounds that they re#ei&e. in whi#h heads are #o''only broken on both sides) -any. to se&en hundred thousand) The #ere'onies at the $east o$ sis in the #ity o$ Busiris ha&e been already s%oken o$) t is there that the whole 'ultitude. o%%ose its ad'ission) Then the &otaries #o'e $orward to es%ouse the . take their station at the %ortal o$ the te'%le) !%%osite to the' is drawn u% a body o$ 'en. there is one night on whi#h the inhabitants all burn a 'ultitude o$ lights in the o%en air round their houses) They use la'%s in the sha%e o$ $lat sau#ers $illed with a 'i.uarrel o$ the god.ture o$ oil and salt. on a $our7wheeled #ar. whose na'e a religious s#ru%le $orbids 'e to 'ention) The Carian dwellers in Egy%t %ro#eed on this o##asion to still greater lengths. #onsisting o$ %ersons engaged in the %er$or'an#e o$ their &ows) The i'age o$ the god. by a general lighting o$ la'%s( so that the illu'ination is not #on$ined to the #ity o$ "ais. besides the sa#ri$i#es and other rites whi#h are %er$or'ed there as elsewhere. where they #elebrate the $east with abundant sa#ri$i#es) -ore gra%e7wine is #onsu'ed at this $esti&al than in all the rest o$ the year besides) The nu'ber o$ those who attend. but e. whi#h is ke%t in a s'all wooden shrine #o&ered with %lates o$ gold.

the Egy%tians insist that no one is e&er killed) The nati&es gi&e the sub2oined a##ount o$ this $esti&al) They say that the 'other o$ the god -ars on#e dwelt in the te'%le) Brought u% at a distan#e $ro' his %arent. no longer seek the #o'%any o$ the . are all regarded as sa#red) $ were to e. but the attendants. so'e 'ale. and su##eeded in kee%ing hi' out) "o he went to another #ity and #olle#ted a body o$ 'en. and not to enter the' without washing.%lain why they are #onse#rated to the se&eral gods. when they ha&e kittened. and would be still greater were it not $or what be$alls the #ats) *s the $e'ales.%lain) *t the ti'e o$ 'aking the &ow they sha&e the head o$ the #hild. re$used hi' entran#e. whose business it is to look a$ter the'( and this honour is 'ade to des#end $ro' $ather to son) The inhabitants o$ the &arious #ities. whi#h %arti#ularly shrink $ro' 'entioning( the %oints whereon ha&e tou#hed slightly hitherto ha&e all been introdu#ed $ro' sheer ne#essity) Their #usto' with res%e#t to ani'als is as $ollows07 For e&ery kind there are a%%ointed #ertain guardians. or a hawk is killed. #utting o$$ all the hair. so'e $e'ale. whi#h would #ertainly not ha%%en i$ the gods were dis%leased at it) "u#h are the argu'ents by whi#h they de$end their %ra#ti#e. when they ha&e 'ade a &ow to any god. howe&er. though it borders u%on Libya. or so'eti'es a third %art. who thereu%on #uts u% so'e $ish. should be led to s%eak o$ religious 'atters. the 'an 'ust needs die) The nu'ber o$ do'esti# ani'als in Egy%t is &ery great. whether it was done by a##ident or on %ur%ose. a$ter su#h #on&erse) *l'ost all other nations. he has to %ay su#h a $ine as the %riests #hoose to i'%ose) 4hen an ibis. but ne&ertheless #an by no 'eans a%%ro&e o$ it) n these %oints the Egy%tians are s%e#ially #are$ul. is not a region abounding in wild ani'als) The ani'als that do e. e. 'ay be seen to #ou%le in the te'%les and the sa#red %re#in#ts. they say. regarding 'an as in this 'atter under no other law than the brutes) -any ani'als.#e%t the Greeks and the Egy%tians. whether do'esti#ated or otherwise. he is %unished with death( i$ unwittingly. %ay it to his ani'als in the way whi#h will now e. when he grew to 'an1s estate he #on#ei&ed a wish to &isit her) *##ordingly he #a'e. who had ne&er seen hi' be$ore.ist in the #ountry. as they are indeed in e&erything whi#h #on#erns their sa#red edi$i#es) Egy%t. and $or#ed his way in to his 'other) Hen#e they say arose the #usto' o$ a $ight with sti#ks in honour o$ -ars at this $esti&al) The Egy%tians $irst 'ade it a %oint o$ religion to ha&e no #on&erse with wo'en in the sa#red %la#es. a#t di$$erently. and gi&es it to the' $or $ood7 su#h being the stu$$ whereon they are $ed) 4hen a 'an has killed one o$ the sa#red ani'als. or else hal$. i$ he did it with 'ali#e %re%ense. and &arious kinds o$ birds. whi#h they then weigh in a balan#e against a su' o$ sil&er( and whate&er su' the hair weighs is %resented to the guardian o$ the ani'als. with whose aid he handled the attendants &ery roughly.

on the #ontrary. also in sa#red burial7%la#es) The sa'e %ra#ti#e obtains with res%e#t to the i#hneu'ons( the hawks and shrew7'i#e. where they are e'bal'ed. and longing to su%%ly their %la#e. %ra#tise a #urious arti$i#e) They sei/e the kittens. it has the inside o$ its 'outh #onstantly #o&ered with lee#hes( hen#e it ha%%ens that. these last. and the wol&es. %assing the greater %ortion o$ the day on dry land.es. all the in'ates o$ the house sha&e their eyebrows( on the death o$ a dog they sha&e the head and the whole o$ the body) The #ats on their de#ease are taken to the #ity o$ Bubastis. sin#e it owes 'u#h to that bird0 $or the #ro#odile. .uently se&enteen #ubits and e&en 'ore) t has the eyes o$ a %ig. rush headlong into the $la'es) 4hen this ha%%ens. and the ibises to Her'o%olis) The bears. whi#h are s#ar#e in Egy%t. while they stand about at inter&als and wat#h these ani'als. it is without a tongue( it #annot 'o&e its under72aw. sin#e they are %arti#ularly $ond o$ their o$$s%ring) !n e&ery o##asion o$ a $ire in Egy%t the strangest %rodigy o##urs with the #ats) The inhabitants allow the $ire to rage as it %leases. #arry the' o$$. and kill the'. to obtain on#e 'ore their #o'%anionshi%. the ani'al 'easures $re. are #on&eyed to the #ity o$ Buto $or burial. and the young #ro#odile is in %ro%ortion to the egg( yet when it is $ull grown. who is %leased. they bury where&er they ha%%en to $ind the' lying) The $ollowing are the %e#uliarities o$ the #ro#odile07 5uring the $our winter 'onths they eat nothing( they are $our7$ooted. but at night retiring to the ri&er. when he lea&es the water and #o'es out u%on the land. with the tro#hilus it li&es at %ea#e.'ales. whi#h. is in the habit o$ lying with his 'outh wide o%en. $a#ing the western bree/e0 at su#h ti'es the tro#hilus goes into his 'outh and de&ours the lee#hes) This bene$its the #ro#odile. while all the other birds and beasts a&oid it. being de%ri&ed o$ their young. a$ter whi#h they are buried in #ertain sa#red re%ositories) The dogs are interred in the #ities to whi#h they belong. but do not #at the' a$terwards) 6%on this the $e'ales. teeth large and tusk7like. being the only ani'al in the world whi#h 'o&es the u%%er72aw but not the under) t has strong #laws and a s#aly skin. and li&e indi$$erently on land or in the water) The $e'ale lays and hat#hes her eggs ashore. the Egy%tians are in dee% a$$li#tion) $ a #at dies in a %ri&ate house by a natural death. sli%%ing by the 'en or else lea%ing o&er the'. seek the 'ales on#e 'ore. and in this res%e#t too it is singular. whi#h are not 'u#h bigger than $o. the water o$ whi#h is war'er than the night7air and the dew) !$ all known ani'als this is the one whi#h $ro' the s'allest si/e grows to be the greatest0 $or the egg o$ the #ro#odile is but little bigger than that o$ the goose. but on land it is &ery keen o$ sight) *s it li&es #hie$ly in the ri&er. i'%enetrable u%on the ba#k) n the water it is blind. o$ a si/e %ro%ortioned to its $ra'e( unlike any other ani'al.

dies) ts si/e and a%%earan#e. by others he is treated as an ene'y) Those who li&e near Thebes. with a #ertain nu'ber o$ &i#ti's( and.. regard the' with es%e#ial &eneration) n ea#h o$ these %la#es they kee% one #ro#odile in %arti#ular. #lo&en7$ooted. and a &oi#e like a horse1s neigh) n si/e it e. whi#h does not see' to 'e to be #redible0 that he #o'es all the way $ro' *rabia.uadru%ed.7goose) They ha&e also another sa#red bird #alled the %hoeni. they e'bal' hi' when he dies and bury hi' in a sa#red re%ository) The %eo%le o$ Ele%hantine on the other hand. gi&ing hi' daily a set %ortion o$ bread. and those who dwell around Lake -oeris. and %ut bra#elets on his $ore7%aws. who is taught to be ta'e and tra#table) They adorn his ears with ear7rings o$ 'olten stone or gold. a$ter ha&ing thus treated hi' with the greatest %ossible attention while ali&e. whi#h he belabours) The #ro#odile hears its #ries.en. with hoo$s like an o. while the hunter u%on the bank holds a li&ing %ig. while the general 'ake and si/e are al'ost e. in the #anton o$ +a%re'is. huge tusks whi#h are &ery #ons%i#uous. the $irst thing the hunter does is to %laster his eyes with 'ud) This on#e a##o'%lished.#e%t in %i#tures) ndeed it is a great rarity. and its skin is so tough that when dried it is 'ade into 2a&elins) !tters also are $ound in the 3ile.uals the biggest o. otherwise he gi&es great trouble) The hi%%o%ota'us.a#tly that o$ the eagle) They tell a story o$ what this bird does. en#ounters the %ork. are as $ollow07 The %lu'age is %artly red. whi#h he instantly swallows down) The 'en on the shore haul. that #alled the le%idotus and the eel) These are regarded as sa#red to the 3ile. but not in any other %art o$ Egy%t) t 'ay be thus des#ribed07 t is a . but Cha'%sae) The na'e o$ #ro#odiles was gi&en the' by the onians. or $o.and takes #are not to hurt the tro#hilus) The #ro#odile is estee'ed sa#red by so'e o$ the Egy%tians. e. are so $ar $ro' #onsidering these ani'als as sa#red that they e&en eat their $lesh) n the Egy%tian language they are not #alled #ro#odiles. whi#h in onia li&e in the walls and are #alled #ro#odiles) The 'odes o$ #at#hing the #ro#odile are 'any and &arious) shall only des#ribe the one whi#h see's to 'e 'ost worthy o$ 'ention) They bait a hook with a #hine o$ %ork and let the 'eat be #arried out into the 'iddle o$ the strea'. the ani'al is des%at#hed with ease. and when they ha&e got hi' to land. and 'aking $or the sound. %artly golden. whi#h 'ysel$ ha&e ne&er seen. and a $lat nose) t has the 'ane and tail o$ a horse. only #o'ing there . and are #onsidered sa#red) !nly two sorts o$ $ish are &enerated. is a sa#red ani'al. who re'arked their rese'blan#e to the li/ards. i$ it is like the %i#tures. as likewise a'ong birds is the &ul%anser.a##ording to the a##ounts o$ the %eo%le o$ Helio%olis< on#e in $i&e hundred years. when the old %hoeni. and brings the %arent . e&en in Egy%t.

and there buries the body) n order to bring hi'. %lastered o&er as ha&e said. as also are the ti%s o$ the wings and the e. they say. so'e s'all. and de%osits it in the te'%le o$ the "un) "u#h is the story they tell o$ the doings o$ this bird) n the neighbourhood o$ Thebes there are so'e sa#red ser%ents whi#h are %er$e#tly har'less) They are o$ s'all si/e.tre'ity o$ the tail( in its beak and legs it rese'bles the other s%e#ies) The winged ser%ent is sha%ed like the water7snake) ts wings are not $eathered. all %lastered o&er with 'yrrh. but the head and ne#k are 2et bla#k. it is to be re'arked that those who li&e in the #orn #ountry. but are 'et in this gorge by the birds #alled ibises. and ha&e two horns growing out o$ the to% o$ the head) These snakes. as they do. to the %reser&ation o$ the 'e'ory o$ %ast a#tions. who $orbid their entran#e and destroy the' all) The *rabians assert. a$ter whi#h he #o&ers o&er the o%ening with $resh 'yrrh. he $irst $or's a ball o$ 'yrrh as big as he $inds that he #an #arry( then he hollows out the ball. $ar 'ore than any other %eo%le in the world. and %uts his %arent inside. with legs like a #rane( its beak is strongly hooked. so'e great. whi#h is done out o$ a regard $or their health. are the best skilled in history o$ any 'en that ha&e e&er 'et) The $ollowing is the 'ode o$ li$e habitual to the'07 For three su##essi&e days in ea#h 'onth they %urge the body by 'eans o$ e'eti#s and #lysters. and the ball is then o$ e.a#tly o%%osite the #ity o$ Buto. the god to who' they are sa#red) went on#e to a #ertain %la#e in *rabia. so'e 'iddle7si/ed) The %la#e where the bones lie is at the entran#e o$ a narrow gorge between stee% 'ountains. they . $or there are two .uite distin#t s%e#ies. has the head and the whole throat bare o$ $eathers( its general %lu'age is white. and the Egy%tians also ad'it.bird. when they die. but rese'ble &ery #losely those o$ the bat) *nd thus #on#lude the sub2e#t o$ the sa#red ani'als) 4ith res%e#t to the Egy%tians the'sel&es. that it is on a##ount o$ the ser&i#e thus rendered that the Egy%tians hold the ibis in so 'u#h re&eren#e) The ibis is a bird o$ a dee%7bla#k #olour. to the te'%le o$ the "un. are buried in the te'%le o$ 8u%iter. sin#e they ha&e a %ersuasion that e&ery disease to whi#h 'en are liable is o##asioned by the substan#es whereon they $eed) *%art $ro' any su#h %re#autions. de&oting the'sel&es.a#tly the sa'e weight as at $irst( so he brings it to Egy%t. to 'ake in.uiries #on#erning the winged ser%ents) !n 'y arri&al saw the ba#k7bones and ribs o$ ser%ents in su#h nu'bers as it is i'%ossible to des#ribe0 o$ the ribs there were a 'ultitude o$ hea%s. al'ost e. whi#h there o%en u%on a s%a#ious %lain #o''uni#ating with the great %lain o$ Egy%t) The story goes that with the s%ring the winged snakes #o'e $lying $ro' *rabia towards Egy%t. and its si/e is about that o$ the land7rail) This is a des#ri%tion o$ the bla#k ibis whi#h #ontends with the ser%ents) The #o''oner sort.

these latter rise $ro' their seats) n a third %oint they di$$er entirely $ro' all the nations o$ Gree#e) nstead o$ s%eaking to ea#h other when they 'eet in the streets.%osed to a #hange.uet is ended. gi&e way to the' and ste% aside( and i$ an elder #o'e in where young 'en are %resent. they 'ake an obeisan#e. the Linus. howe&er. but whi#h are in reality Egy%tian and +ythagorean( $or no one initiated in these 'ysteries #an be buried in a woollen shroud. ne. in 'y o%inion. na'ely the La#edae'onians) Their young 'en. sinking the hand to the knee) They wear a linen tuni# $ringed about the legs. whi#h is sung under &arious na'es not only in Egy%t but in +hoeni#ia. and #alled #alasiris( o&er this they ha&e a white woollen gar'ent thrown on a$terwards) 3othing o$ woollen.#e%ting those whi#h are set a%art as sa#red. e.t to the Libyans. belie&e. 9Ga/e here. as their religion $orbids it) Here their %ra#ti#e rese'bles the rites #alled !r%hi# and Ba##hi#. and that on his unti'ely death he was honoured by the Egy%tians with these dirgelike strains. and in this way they got their $irst and only 'elody) There is another #usto' in whi#h the Egy%tians rese'ble a %arti#ular Greek %eo%le.are. a ser&ant #arries round to the se&eral guests a #o$$in. whi#h has no sudden #hanges) 5iseases al'ost always atta#k 'en when they are e. and this was one o$ the') 4hen#e #ould the Egy%tians ha&e got the Linus: t a%%ears to ha&e been sung by the' $ro' the &ery earliest ti'es) For the Linus in Egy%tian is #alled -aneros( and they told 'e that -aneros was the only son o$ their $irst king. the ser&ant says.a#tly the sa'e as that in use a'ong the Greeks. in whi#h there is a wooden i'age o$ a #or%se. in Cy%rus. the healthiest %eo%le in the world7 an e$$e#t o$ their #li'ate. when the ban. are eaten either roasted or boiled) n so#ial 'eetings a'ong the ri#h. and by the' #alled Linus) There were &ery 'any things in Egy%t whi#h $illed 'e with astonish'ent. whi#h they $or' into loa&es #alled in their own tongue #yllestis) Their drink is a wine whi#h they obtain $ro' barley. about a #ubit or two #ubits in length) *s he shows it to ea#h guest in turn. and du#ks and s'all birds. a religious reason being assigned $or the obser&an#e) . and ado%t no $oreign usages) -any o$ these #usto's are worthy o$ note0 a'ong others their song. is taken into their te'%les or buried with the'. 'erely $irst salting the') *ll other birds and $ishes. they eat un#ooked. and drink and be 'erry( $or when you die. either salted or dried in the sun) Iuails also. as they ha&e no &ines in their #ountry) -any kinds o$ $ish they eat raw. su#h will you be)9 The Egy%tians adhere to their own national #usto's. #ar&ed and %ainted to rese'ble nature as nearly as %ossible. when they 'eet their elders in the streets. and ne&er 'ore than during #hanges o$ the weather) They li&e on bread 'ade o$ s%elt. and in other %la#es( and whi#h see's to be e.

i$ anything si'ilar e&er ha%%ens again. they wat#h and re#ord the result( then. and 'ake it their %ro%er business) These %ersons. and then ask in whi#h way it is wished that the #or%se should be %re%ared) The bearers tell the'. beating the'sel&es as they walk) *ll the $e'ale relations 2oin the' and do the sa'e) The 'en too. and their boso's bare. take their de%arture.t they 'ake a #ut along the $lank with a shar% Ethio%ian stone. they e. while the e'bal'ers. and so'eti'es e&en their $a#es. show the bearers &arious 'odels o$ #or%ses. %ro#eed to their task) The 'ode o$ e'bal'ing. a##ording to the 'ost %er$e#t %ro#ess. and less #ostly( the third is the #hea%est o$ all) *ll this the e'bal'ers e.uen#e. le$t to the'sel&es.uen#es) 4ith res%e#t to di&ination. 'ade in wood. lea&ing the body indoors. and no 'ore0 thus the #ountry swar's with 'edi#al %ra#titioners. si'ilarly begirt. there is the ora#le o$ Latona at Buto. while the skull is #leared o$ the rest by rinsing with drugs( ne. and ha&ing #on#luded their bargain. but only #ertain o$ the gods0 thus they ha&e an ora#le o$ Her#ules. so'e undertaking to #ure diseases o$ the eye. $orthwith the wo'en o$ the $a'ily be%laster their heads.The Egy%tians likewise dis#o&ered to whi#h o$ the gods ea#h 'onth and day is sa#red( and $ound out $ro' the day o$ a 'an1s birth what he will 'eet with in the #ourse o$ his li$e. sally $orth and wander through the #ity. and so'e those whi#h are not lo#al) The $ollowing is the way in whi#h they #ondu#t their 'ournings and their $unerals07 !n the death in any house o$ a 'an o$ #onse. and o$ 8u%iter) Besides these. one o$ *%ollo. o$ -ars. others again o$ the teeth. whi#h is held in 'u#h higher re%ute than any o$ the rest) The 'ode o$ deli&ering the ora#les is not uni$or'. with their dress $astened by a band. o$ -iner&a. and take out the whole #ontents o$ the . and with it draw out the brain through the nostrils. thus getting rid o$ a %ortion. with 'ud( and then. but &aries at the di$$erent shrines) -edi#ine is %ra#tised a'ong the' on a %lan o$ se%aration( ea#h %hysi#ian treats a single disorder.%e#t the sa'e #onse. when a body is brought to the'. the body is #arried away to be e'bal'ed) There are a set o$ 'en in Egy%t who %ra#ti#e the art o$ e'bal'ing. o$ 5iana. others o$ the intestines. and what sort o$ 'an he will be7 dis#o&eries whereo$ the Greeks engaged in %oetry ha&e 'ade a use) The Egy%tians ha&e also dis#o&ered 'ore %rognosti#s than all the rest o$ 'ankind besides) 4hene&er a %rodigy takes %la#e. and how he will end his days. and %ainted so as to rese'ble nature) The 'ost %er$e#t is said to be a$ter the 'anner o$ hi' who' do not think it religious to na'e in #onne#tion with su#h a 'atter( the se#ond sort is in$erior to the $irst.%lain. beat their breasts se%arately) 4hen these #ere'onies are o&er. is the $ollowing07 They take $irst a #rooked %ie#e o$ iron. others o$ the head. they hold that it is a gi$t whi#h no 'ortal %ossesses.

has lost his li$e by $alling a %rey to a #ro#odile. whi#h is %ra#tised in the #ase o$ the %oorer #lasses. washing it thoroughly with %al' wine. .#eeded.uently with an in$usion o$ %ounded aro'ati#s) *$ter this they $ill the #a&ity with the %urest bruised 'yrrh. a$ter whi#h it is at on#e gi&en to those who #o'e to $et#h it away) The wi&es o$ 'en o$ rank are not gi&en to be e'bal'ed i''ediately a$ter death. the $ollowing is the 'ethod %ursued07 "yringes are $illed with oil 'ade $ro' the #edar7tree. in2e#ted into the abdo'en) The %assage by whi#h it 'ight be likely to return is sto%%ed.#e%t $rankin#ense. is to #lear out the intestines with a #lyster. but only the %riests o$ the 3ile. s'eared o&er with gu'. sha%ed into the $igure o$ a 'an) Then $astening the #ase. Egy%tian or $oreigner. whi#h 'ust not be e. with bandages o$ $ine linen #loth. u%right against the wall) "u#h is the 'ost #ostly way o$ e'bal'ing the dead) $ %ersons wish to a&oid e. in a word. and in this state it is gi&en ba#k to the relations. and wra%%ed round. who en#lose it in a wooden #ase whi#h they ha&e had 'ade $or the %ur%ose. or. or by drowning in the ri&er. and e&ery other sort o$ s%i#ery e. the law #o'%els the inhabitants o$ the #ity near whi#h the body is #ast u% to ha&e it e'bal'ed. and #hoose the se#ond %ro#ess. and the body laid in natru' the %res#ribed nu'ber o$ days) *t the end o$ the ti'e the #edar7oil is allowed to 'ake its es#a%e( and su#h is its %ower that it brings with it the whole sto'a#h and intestines in a li. and sew u% the o%ening) Then the body is %la#ed in natru' $or se&enty days. and so nothing is le$t o$ the dead body but the skin and the bones) t is returned in this #ondition to the relati&es.abdo'en.%iration o$ that s%a#e o$ ti'e. and #o&ered entirely o&er) *$ter the e. $ro' head to $oot. without any $urther trouble being bestowed u%on it) The third 'ethod o$ e'bal'ing. whi#h they then #leanse. not e&en any o$ the $riends or relati&es. who %re%are it $or burial with their own hands7 regarding it as so'ething 'ore than the 'ere body o$ a 'an7 and the'sel&es lay it in the to'b) The Egy%tians are a&erse to ado%t Greek #usto's.%ense. and again $re. whi#h is then. whi#h is used generally by the Egy%tians in the %la#e o$ glue. they %la#e it in a se%ul#hral #ha'ber. nor indeed are any o$ the 'ore beauti$ul and &alued wo'en) t is not till they ha&e been dead three or $our days that they are #arried to the e'bal'ers) This is done to %re&ent indignities $ro' being o$$ered the') t is said that on#e a #ase o$ this kind o##urred0 the 'an was dete#ted by the in$or'ation o$ his $ellow7work'an) 4hensoe&er any one. with #assia. and to bury it in one o$ the sa#red re%ositories with all %ossible 'agni$i#en#e) 3o one 'ay tou#h the #or%se. and let the body lie in natru' the se&enty days.uid state) The natru' 'eanwhile has dissol&ed the $lesh. without any in#ision or dise'bowelling. the body is washed.

sur'ounted by two #olossal statues. and has a %leasant sweet taste0 it is round. so'eti'es within the sa#red en#losure.whi#h the Greeks also assign< 9o$ bringing away $ro' Libya the Gorgon1s head. the blosso's o$ this %lant and dry the' in the sun. 9that +erseus belonged to their #ity by des#ent) 5anans and Lyn#eus were Che''ites be$ore they set sail $or Gree#e. as well in those 'atters whi#h ha&e been 'entioned abo&e as in res%e#t o$ 'arriage. and in the te'%le an i'age o$ +erseus) The %eo%le o$ Che''is say that +erseus o$ten a%%ears to the'. whi#h are good to eat0 and these are eaten both green and dried) The byblus . whi#h they #rush and 'ake into bread) The root o$ the lotus is likewise eatable. whi#h has a stone gateway o$ an unusual si/e. say. and about the si/e o$ an a%%le) There is also another s%e#ies o$ the lily in Egy%t. also in stone) nside this %re#in#t is a te'%le.a#tly the look o$ the #o'b 'ade by was%s) t #ontains a nu'ber o$ seeds. #loaks. and skins) 'ade in. like the Greeks. and that was the reason why they obser&ed the %ra#ti#e)9 The #usto's hitherto des#ribed are those o$ the Egy%tians who li&e abo&e the 'arsh7#ountry) The inhabitants o$ the 'arshes ha&e the sa'e #usto's as the rest. howe&er. #o'%rising e&ery kind o$ #ontest. like the lotus.uiries o$ the Che''ites why it was that +erseus a%%eared to the' and not elsewhere in Egy%t. ea#h Egy%tian taking to hi'sel$. whi#h is a large #ity in the Thebai# #anton. a$ter whi#h they e. and how they #a'e to #elebrate gy'nasti# #ontests unlike the rest o$ the Egy%tians0 to whi#h they answered.9 they said. as they a$$ir'7 and then all Egy%t $lourishes greatly) n the worshi% o$ +erseus Greek #ere'onies are used( gy'nasti# ga'es are #elebrated in his honour. with %ri/es o$ #attle. and has al'ost e. %aid the' a &isit. tra#ing the genealogy( 9and he. a single wi$e( but $or greater #hea%ness o$ li&ing the 'arsh7'en %ra#tise #ertain %e#uliar #usto's.uare en#losure sa#red to +erseus. so'eti'es in the o%en #ountry0 one o$ the sandals whi#h he has worn is $re. son o$ 5anae) +al' trees grow all round the %la#e. on a se%arate stalk. when he #a'e to Egy%t $or the %ur%ose9 . in the ri&er.those o$ any other nation) This $eeling is al'ost uni&ersal a'ong the') *t Che''is.%a%yrus<. and $ro' the' +erseus was des#ended. and rese'bles the rose) The $ruit s%rings u% side by side with the blosso'. and a#knowledged the' $or his kins'en7 he had heard the na'e o$ their #ity $ro' his 'other be$ore he le$t Gree#e7 he bade the' institute a gy'nasti# #ontest in his honour. su#h as these $ollowing) They gather the blosso's o$ a #ertain water7lily. whi#h grows. about the si/e o$ an oli&e7stone.tra#t $ro' the #entre o$ ea#h blosso' a substan#e like the head o$ a %o%%y. whi#h grows year a$ter year in the .uently $ound7 two #ubits in length. near 3ea%olis. whi#h grows in great abundan#e all o&er the $lat #ountry at the ti'e when the 3ile rises and $loods the regions along its banks7 the Egy%tians #all it lotus7 they gather. there is a s.

$ollowing #lose behind. the hollows in the land and the 'arshy s%ots near the ri&er are $looded be$ore any other %la#es by the %er#olation o$ the water through the ri&erbanks( and these. and. howe&er. but with a &ery disagreeable s'ell) This $ruit is gathered. and dro% their 'ilt as they go. and do e. but the $e'ales. they had $irst de%osited their s%awn in the 'ud u%on the banks( and so.whi#h grows wild in Gree#e< along the banks o$ the ri&ers and by the sides o$ the lakes. heated to a glow) "o'e o$ these $olk. and when. where it %rodu#es $ruit in great abundan#e. little by little. al'ost as soon as they be#o'e %ools. and then hung u% in the sun0 when dry. and either eat it or else sell it) "u#h as wish to en2oy the byblus in $ull %er$e#tion bake it $irst in a #losed &essel. and hen#e #o'e the $ishes whi#h grow a$terwards to 'aturity) 4han any o$ this sort o$ $ish are taken on their %assage to the sea. to be sure that they 'iss not their road through the great $or#e o$ the #urrent) 4hen the 3ile begins to rise. the whole shoal sets o$$ on its return to its an#ient haunts) 3ow. when at the usual season the water returns. whi#h is known a'ong the' by the na'e o$ 9kiki)9 To obtain this they %lant the silli#y%riu' .uent the lagunes. and returning again u% strea' they still #ling to the sa'e side. the 'arks a%%ear on the right) The reason is that as they swi' down the 3ile seaward. whi#h is about a #ubit long. and then bruised and %ressed. who take the lead0 they swi' in $ront in a body. a$ter %assing so'e ti'e in the sea. they %ro#eed in shoals towards the sea) The 'ales lead the way.uid whi#h #o'es $ro' it is #olle#ted and is $ound to be . reser&e the u%%er %ortion $or other %ur%oses. howe&er. it is no longer the 'ales. whi#h are gutted as soon as #aught. while the $e'ales.a#tly as the 'ales did be$ore. or else boiled down a$ter roasting0 the li. eagerly swallow it down) Fro' this they #on#ei&e. when#e. ea#h one o$ whi#h is a $ish) * %ortion o$ the s%awn es#a%es and is not swallowed by the 'ales. li&e entirely on $ish. dro%%ing. at the season o$ breeding. #utting the %lant in two. they %ull u%. while the 'ales in the rear de&our the grains. are $ound to be $ull o$ nu'bers o$ little $ishes) think that understand how it is this #o'es to %ass) !n the subsiden#e o$ the 3ile the year be$ore. they are $ound to ha&e the le$t side o$ the head s#arred and bruised( while i$ taken on their return. s'all $ry are ra%idly engendered out o$ the s%awn o$ the %re#eding year) "o 'u#h #on#erning the $ish) The Egy%tians who li&e in the 'arshes use $or the anointing o$ their bodies an oil 'ade $ro' the $ruit o$ the silli#y%riu'. they begin to be in s%awn. but take the lower. though the $ish retired with the retreating waters.'arshes. their grains o$ s%awn as they go. they kee% #lose to the bank o$ the ri&er u%on their le$t. they are used as $ood) Gregarious $ish are not $ound in any nu'bers in the ri&ers( they $re. hugging it and brushing against it #onstantly.

towed u%7strea' $ro' the shore0 down7strea' they are 'anaged as $ollows) There is a ra$t belonging to ea#h. o$ the 5elta. the #ountry is #on&erted into a sea. do not so 'u#h as atte'%t to %ass the net) The &essels used in Egy%t $or the trans%ort o$ 'er#handise are 'ade o$ the *#antha . arranging the %lanks like bri#ks. when they lay the #ross7%lanks on the to% $ro' side to side) They gi&e the boats no ribs. and as well suited as oli&e7oil $or la'%s.uantity o$ %lanks about two #ubits in length $ro' this tree. wherewith the #ountry swar's. and #ree%ing in.un#tuous. whi#h are o$ great ser&i#e. and $ro' whi#h there e. goes to slee% underneath) The gnats. whi#h look like the islands in the Egean) *t this season boats no longer kee% the #ourse o$ the ri&er. you %ass #lose to the %yra'ids. whi#h is %ulled along in the wake o$ the &essel. ea#h 'an %ossesses a net instead) By day it ser&es hi' to #at#h $ish. whereas the usual #ourse is by the a%e. and atta#hing the' by ties to a nu'ber o$ long stakes or %oles till the hull is #o'%lete. there$ore. i$ he rolls hi'sel$ u% in his dress or in a %ie#e o$ 'uslin. 'ade o$ the wood o$ the ta'arisk. only that it gi&es out an un%leasant odour) The #ontri&an#es whi#h they use against gnats. whi#h is a %la#e o$ note. whi#h is dri&en straight through the keel) The 'ast is a %ie#e o$ a#antha7wood.Thorn<. goes ra%idly down the ri&er. and allowed to $loat down the strea' in $ront. and the #ity o$ Cer#asorus) =ou #an sail also $ro' the 'ariti'e town o$ Canobus a#ross the $lat to 3au#ratis. and then %ro#eed to their shi%7building. is . a tree whi#h in its growth is &ery like the Cyrenai# lotus. whi#h. hurried $orward by the #urrent. while the stone is atta#hed by another ro%e astern) The result is that the ra$t. where there are no towers. while at night he s%reads it o&er the bed in whi#h he is to rest. are sure to bite through the #o&ering. but #aulk the sea's with %a%yrus on the inside) Ea#h has a single rudder. as the gnats are unable to $ly to any height on a##ount o$ the winds) n the 'arsh7#ountry. and lies dee% in the water. and nothing a%%ears but the #ities. kee%s the boat straight) There are a &ast nu'ber o$ these &essels in Egy%t. and drags the 9baris9 .udes a gu') They #ut a . $astened together with a wattling o$ reeds( and also a stone bored through the 'iddle about two talents in weight) The ra$t is $astened to the &essel by a ro%e. but sail right a#ross the %lain) !n the &oyage $ro' 3au#ratis to -e'%his at this season. %assing by the #ities o$ *nthylla and *r#handro%olis) The $or'er o$ these #ities. and the sails are 'ade o$ %a%yrus) These boats #annot 'ake way against the #urrent unless there is a brisk bree/e( they are.$or so they #all this sort o$ boat< a$ter it( while the stone. are the $ollowing) n the %arts o$ Egy%t abo&e the 'arshes the inhabitants %ass the night u%on lo$ty towers. and so'e o$ the' are o$ 'any thousand talents1 burthen) 4hen the 3ile o&er$lows.

the ideas that $or'ed. he also. #o''uni#ating with the ri&er. and was %ut to death by his sub2e#ts. the na'e is not Egy%tian) Thus $ar ha&e s%oken o$ Egy%t $ro' 'y own obser&ation. na'ely. and the results o$ 'y own resear#hes) 4hat $ollows rests on the a##ounts gi&en 'e by the Egy%tians. and. and %our o&er the 'ound.assigned e. ha&ing thus. to the north and west. while he dug a new #ourse $or the strea' hal$way between the two lines o$ hills) To this day. dry land.#e%t that. who . relating what 'ysel$ saw. and strengthened e&ery year( $or i$ the ri&er were to burst out at this %la#e. 'ade the tra#t where it used to run. whi#h lies in the narrow %art o$ Egy%t( a$ter whi#h he $urther e. and that it was he who raised the dyke whi#h %rote#ts -e'%his $ro' the inundations o$ the 3ile) Be$ore his ti'e the ri&er $lowed entirely along the sandy range o$ hills whi#h skirts Egy%t on the side o$ Libya) He. when she had done as . laid the an#ient #hannel dry. on %reten#e o$ inaugurating it. whi#h was itsel$ the eastern boundary) Besides these works. as they were $easting. &ery worthy o$ 'ention) 3e. son o$ *#haeus.%ressly to the wi$e o$ the ruler o$ Egy%t $or the ti'e being. she suddenly.t. and one . the elbow whi#h the 3ile $or's at the %oint where it is $or#ed aside into the new #hannel is guarded with the greatest #are by the +ersians. #ontri&ed the $ollowing07 n&iting to a ban. adding thereto so'e %arti#ulars whi#h $ell under by own noti#e) The %riests said that -in was the $irst king o$ Egy%t. howe&er. to kee% her in shoes) "u#h has been the #usto' e&er sin#e Egy%t $ell under the +ersian yoke) The other #ity see's to 'e to ha&e got its na'e o$ *r#handro%olis $ro' *r#hander the +hthian. the $irst king. whi#h shall now re%eat. %ro#eeded in the $irst %la#e to build the #ity now #alled -e'%his. by banking u% the ri&er at the bend whi#h it $or's about a hundred $urlongs south o$ -e'%his.they said< were his su##essors u%on the throne) n this nu'ber o$ generations there were eighteen Ethio%ian kings. by turning the ri&er.#a&ated a lake outside the town. at any rate. e. there would be danger o$ -e'%his being #o'%letely o&erwhel'ed by the $lood) -in. the %riests said. who then %la#ed her u%on the throne) Bent on a&enging his death. they read 'e $ro' a %a%yrus the na'es o$ three hundred and thirty 'onar#hs.ueen who was a nati&e( all the rest were kings and Egy%tians) The . built the te'%le o$ @ul#an whi#h stands within the #ity.uet those o$ the Egy%tians who' she knew to ha&e had the #hie$ share in the 'urder o$ her brother. and son7in7law o$ 5anaus) There 'ight #ertainly ha&e been another *r#hander( but. let the ri&er in u%on the' by 'eans o$ a se#ret du#t o$ large si/e) This and this only did they tell 'e o$ her. she de&ised a #unning s#he'e by whi#h she destroyed a &ast nu'ber o$ Egy%tians) "he #onstru#ted a s%a#ious underground #ha'ber. a &ast edi$i#e. 3ito#ris) They said that she su##eeded her brother( he had been king o$ Egy%t.ueen bore the sa'e na'e as the Babylonian %rin#ess.

and le$t no 'onu'ents o$ any a##ount. the lake e. subduing the nations as he went. on whi#h he ins#ribed his own na'e and #ountry.tended its 'ar#h) For thus $ar the %illars whi#h he ere#ted are still &isible. but in the re'oter regions they are no longer $ound) Returning to Egy%t $ro' Thra#e. on the #ontrary. they said. and how that he had here redu#ed the inhabitants to sub2e#tion by the 'ight o$ his ar's0 where. $irst o$ all %ro#eeded in a $leet o$ shi%s o$ war $ro' the *rabian gul$ along the shores o$ the Erythraean sea. and 'ade hi'sel$ 'aster o$ "#ythia and o$ Thra#e. unwarlike and e$$e'inate) n this way he tra&ersed the whole #ontinent o$ *sia.%osed) The other kings.ha&e said.uering e&ery %eo%le whi#h $ell in his way) n the #ountries where the nati&es withstood his atta#k. or else a #ertain nu'ber o$ his soldiers. until he $inally rea#hed a sea whi#h #ould not be na&igated by reason o$ the shoals) Hen#e he returned to Egy%t. he ins#ribed on the %illars. an e'ble' to 'ark that they were a nation o$ wo'en. on the $a#t that they are . shall s%eak o$ the king who reigned ne. he ere#ted %illars. that she 'ight es#a%e the &engean#e whereto she would otherwise ha&e been e.uiries on the sub2e#t both in Col#his and in Egy%t. had re'arked it 'ysel$) *$ter the thought had stru#k 'e. the %riests said. wearied with their long wanderings. were %ersonages o$ no note or distin#tion. deserted. he #olle#ted a &ast ar'a'ent. and 'ade a %rogress by land a#ross the #ontinent. there$ore. when#e he %assed on into Euro%e. whose di'ensions shall gi&e %resently. and $ound that the Col#hians had a 'ore distin#t re#olle#tion o$ the Egy%tians. he #a'e. beyond whi#h #ountries do not think that his ar'y e. and the %yra'ids built by hi' in the lake. that is.#a&ated by his orders.#e%tion o$ the last. and established the'sel&es on the banks o$ this strea') There #an be no doubt that the Col#hians are an Egy%tian ra#e) Be$ore heard any 'ention o$ the $a#t $ro' others. than the Egy%tians had o$ the') "till the Egy%tians said that they belie&ed the Col#hians to be des#ended $ro' the ar'y o$ "esostris) -y own #on2e#tures were $ounded. with the e. on his way. whose na'e was "esostris) He. in addition to these %arti#ulars. the si/e o$ whi#h will be stated when des#ribe the lake itsel$ wherein they stand) "u#h were his works0 the other kings le$t absolutely nothing) +assing o&er these 'onar#hs. where. $irst. #on. to the banks o$ the ri&er +hasis) Here #annot say with any #ertainty what took %la#e) Either he o$ his own a##ord deta#hed a body o$ troo%s $ro' his 'ain ar'y and le$t the' to #olonise the #ountry. she threw hersel$ into an a%art'ent $ull o$ ashes. 'ade in. they sub'itted readily and without a struggle. they told 'e. who was na'ed -oeris) He le$t se&eral 'e'orials o$ his reign7 the northern gateway o$ the te'%le o$ @ul#an.t. and $ought gallantly $or their liberties.

whi#h he attended.bla#k7skinned and ha&e woolly hair. the other between "ardis and "'yrna) n ea#h #ase the $igure is that o$ a 'an.uantity o$ wood all round the . and allow their #hildren to re'ain un#ir#u'#ised) will add a $urther %roo$ to the identity o$ the Egy%tians and the Col#hians) These two nations wea&e their linen in e. $our #ubits and a s%an high. and the Ethio%ians. though elsewhere "esostris re#ords these $a#ts) Hen#e it has been i'agined by so'e o$ those who ha&e seen these $or's. that they are $igures o$ -e'non( but su#h as think so err &ery widely $ro' the truth) This "esostris. indeed. was re#ei&ed by his brother. or the Egy%tians o$ the'7 it is undoubtedly o$ &ery an#ient date in Ethio%ia7 but that the others deri&ed their knowledge o$ it $ro' Egy%t is #lear to 'e $ro' the $a#t that the +hoeni#ians. one on the road $ro' E%hesus to +ho#aea.uered #ountries ha&e $or the 'ost %art disa%%eared( but in the %art o$ "yria #alled +alestine.uered this land)9 The #on.uet.a#tly the sa'e way. while that whi#h #o'es $ro' Egy%t is known as Egy%tian) The %illars whi#h "esostris ere#ted in the #on. who' he had 'ade &i#eroy o$ Egy%t on his de%arture. and this is a way entirely unknown to the rest o$ the world( they also in their whole 'ode o$ li$e and in their language rese'ble one another) The Col#hian linen is #alled by the Greeks "ardinian. on the #ir#u'stan#e that the Col#hians. say that they ha&e re#ently ado%ted it $ro' the Col#hians) 3ow these are the only nations who use #ir#u'#ision. together with his sons) Then his brother %iled a . 'ysel$ saw the' still standing. #annot de#ide whether they learnt the %ra#ti#e o$ the Egy%tians. u%on his return ho'e. whi#h #ertainly a'ounts to but little. and the e'ble' distin#tly &isible) n onia also. as well as their neighbours the -a#ronians. and in&ited by hi' to a ban. a##o'%anied by &ast 'ultitudes o$ the %eo%le whose #ountries he had subdued. with the writing abo&e7'entioned. in the sa#red #hara#ter o$ Egy%t. are the only nations who ha&e %ra#tised #ir#u'#ision $ro' the earliest ti'es) The +hoeni#ians and the "yrians o$ +alestine the'sel&es #on$ess that they learnt the #usto' o$ the Egy%tians( and the "yrians who dwell about the ri&ers Ther'odon and +arthenius. hal$ Ethio%ian) There is an ins#ri%tion a#ross the breast $ro' shoulder to shoulder. and it is %lain that they all i'itate herein the Egy%tians) 4ith res%e#t to the Ethio%ians. sin#e se&eral other nations are so too( but $urther and 'ore es%e#ially. the %riests went on to say. whi#h says. #ease to $ollow the Egy%tians in this #usto'. 94ith 'y own shoulders #on. the Egy%tians.ueror does not tell who he is. at 5a%hnae near +elusiu'. when they #o'e to ha&e #o''er#e with the Greeks. there are two re%resentations o$ this %rin#e engra&ed u%on ro#ks. or when#e he #o'es. with a s%ear in his right hand and a bow in his le$t. the rest o$ his #ostu'e being likewise hal$ Egy%tian.

whereby the rest 'ight e$$e#t their es#a%e) "esostris did as she re#o''ended.a#t e. hen#e$orth it be#a'e entirely un$it $or either) Though a $lat #ountry throughout its whole e. and was ad&ised by her to lay two o$ their si. when#e it %assed into Gree#e) The sun7dial. were re#ei&ed by the Greeks $ro' the Babylonians) "esostris was king not only o$ Egy%t.a'ine. being #ut u% by the #anals.tre'ely nu'erous and run in all dire#tions) The king1s ob2e#t was to su%%ly 3ile water to the inhabitants o$ the towns situated in the 'id7#ountry. but also o$ Ethio%ia) He was the only Egy%tian 'onar#h who e&er ruled o&er the latter #ountry) He le$t. as 'e'orials o$ his reign. are thirty #ubits in height. two o$ whi#h. would not allow 5arius the +ersian to %la#e a statue o$ hi'sel$( 9be#ause. assigning s. &ery 'any years a$terwards. while the re'aining $our. he hi'sel$ and his other #hildren were sa&ed) The king then returned to his own land and took &engean#e u%on his brother.uired to %ay hi' year by year) $ the ri&er #arried away any %ortion o$ a 'an1s lot. in $ront o$ whi#h the %riest o$ @ul#an. think. 'ade a di&ision o$ the soil o$ Egy%t a'ong the inhabitants. howe&er. he a%%eared be$ore the king.building. and obtaining his #hie$ re&enue $ro' the rent whi#h the holders were re.ual si/e to all.tent.tent o$ the loss( and then#e$orth only su#h a rent was de'anded o$ hi' as was %ro%ortionate to the redu#ed si/e o$ his land) Fro' this %ra#ti#e. and the gno'on with the di&ision o$ the day into twel&e %arts. a$ter whi#h he %ro#eeded to 'ake use o$ the 'ultitudes who' he had brought with hi' $ro' the #on. sons u%on the $ire. and related what had ha%%ened( u%on whi#h the king sent %ersons to e. a$ter the subsiden#e o$ the $loods. the stone statues whi#h stand in $ront o$ the te'%le o$ @ul#an. dis#o&ering what had ha%%ened. and deter'ine by 'easure'ent the e. 95arius had not e.uare %lots o$ ground o$ e. whi#h re%resent his sons. whi#h are e. re%resenting hi'sel$ and his wi$e. and so 'ake a bridge a#ross the $la'es.9 he said. to drink a bra#kish water whi#h they obtained $ro' wells) "esostris also. and not lying u%on the ri&er( $or %re&iously they had been obliged. it is now un$it $or either horse or #arriage.ualled the a#hie&e'ents o$ "esostris the Egy%tian0 $or while "esostris had subdued to the $ull as . who had a##o'%anied hi' to the $east. they de#lared. and ha&ing so done set it alight) "esostris.uered #ountries. geo'etry $irst #a'e to be known in Egy%t. and thus while two o$ his sons were burnt to death. %artly to drag the huge 'asses o$ stone whi#h were 'o&ed in the #ourse o$ his reign to the te'%le o$ @ul#an7 %artly to dig the nu'erous #anals with whi#h the whole o$ Egy%t is interse#ted) By these $or#ed labours the entire $a#e o$ the #ountry was #hanged( $or whereas Egy%t had $or'erly been a region suited both $or horses and #arriages. are twenty #ubits) These are the statues. took #ounsel instantly with his wi$e.

was su##eeded by a 'an o$ -e'%his.ander had #arried o$$ Helen $ro' "%arta.'any nations as e&er 5arius had brought under. the daughter o$ Tyndarus( $irst. and had o&er$lowed all the $ields.uiries on the sub2e#t o$ Helen. whose deeds he had been unable to sur%ass)9 5arius. together with the %la#e itsel$) The wo'an to who' he owed his #ure. when. owing to the $ollowing #ir#u'stan#e) The ri&er had swollen to the unusual height o$ eighteen #ubits. in the ele&enth year. sei/ed his s%ear. as ha&e heard say. and had ne&er %re$erred to hi' another 'an)9 The king. a'ong whi#h the best worthy o$ 'ention are the two stone obelisks whi#h he ga&e to the te'%le o$ the "un) These are 'agni$i#ent works( ea#h is 'ade o$ a single stone. he there burnt the' all. a sudden wind arising. $irst o$ all 'ade trial o$ his wi$e. his son +heron. %assed so'e ti'e at the #ourt o$ +roteus( and se#ondly. and a hundred #ubits in height) +heron. they said. he took shi% and sailed ho'ewards) !n his way . an ora#ular announ#e'ent rea#hed hi' $ro' the #ity o$ Buto. %ardoned the $reedo' o$ this s%ee#h) !n the death o$ "esostris. who' 5arius had $ailed to 'aster) t was not $air. to the e$$e#t. and in this way re#o&ered his sight) Hereu%on he asse'bled all the wo'en. and a$ter his re#o&ery was #o'%lete. #ontinuing without the %ower o$ &ision $or ten years) *t last. whi#h is &ery beauti$ul.uered the "#ythians. and bringing the' to the #ity whi#h now bears the na'e o$ Erythrabolus . whose na'e. in a s%irit o$ i'%ious &iolen#e.%eri'ent with other wo'en. there$ore. be#ause the te'%le is dedi#ated to @enus the "tranger( $or a'ong all the 'any te'%les o$ @enus there is no other where the goddess bears this title) The %riests.#e%t the last. eight #ubits broad. 'ounted the throne) He undertook no warlike e. he %resented o$$erings to all the te'%les o$ any note.%editions( being stru#k with blindness. in answer to 'y in. and he should re#o&er his sight by washing his eyes with urine) He 'ust $ind a wo'an who had been $aith$ul to her husband. situated south o$ the great te'%le o$ @ul#an) +hoeni#ians $ro' the #ity o$ Tyre dwell all round this %re#in#t. $ro' whi#h a$ter a little while he be#a'e blind. that 9the ti'e o$ his %unish'ent had run out. e. the %riests said. in$or'ed 'e o$ the $ollowing %arti#ulars) 4hen *le. whi#h is #alled that o$ @enus the "tranger) #on2e#ture the building to ha&e been ere#ted to Helen.Red7soil<. and hurled it into the strong eddies o$ the strea') nstantly he was s'itten with disease o$ the eyes. until at length he su##eeded. he 'arried. he had likewise #on. but to no %ur%ose he #ontinued as blind as be$ore) "o he 'ade the e. that he should ere#t his statue in $ront o$ the o$$erings o$ a king. there$ore. they say. the water rose in great wa&es) Then the king. and ri#hly adorned. and the whole %la#e is known by the na'e o$ 9the #a'% o$ the Tyrians)9 4ithin the en#losure stands a te'%le. in the language o$ the Greeks. was +roteus) There is a sa#red %re#in#t o$ this king in -e'%his. be#ause she.

whi#h still e. and re#ei&es #ertain sa#red 'arks u%on his %erson. and told the whole history o$ the #ri'e) Finally. dedi#ated to Her#ules) $ a sla&e runs away $ro' his 'aster.ander. he has now %ut in here) *re we to let hi' de%art as he #a'e. and taking san#tuary at this shrine gi&es hi'sel$ u% to the god. +roteus asked *le. or shall we sei/e what he has brought:9 +roteus re%lied.a#ross the Egean a gale arose. Helen. the attendants o$ *le. to do so wi#ked a deed> First. but on lea&ing. and steal her away $ro' her husband) 3ay. arrested *le.#ite her 'ind. o$ the #usto' o$ the %la#e. he #annot lay hand on hi') This law still re'ained un#hanged to 'y ti'e) Hearing. 9"ei/e the 'an. there$ore. and has done a wi#ked deed in the #ountry $ro' whi#h he is #o'e) Ha&ing beguiled the wi$e o$ the 'an whose guest he was. that 'ay hear what he will say $or hi'sel$)9 Thonis. narrating all the #ir#u'stan#es o$ the ra%e o$ Helen and the wrong done to -enelaus) These #harges they brought. taking with hi' *le. not only be$ore the %riests. whereon the sla&es inter%osed. thou 'ust %lunder the house in whi#h thou hadst been a guest) 3ow then. Thonis sent a 'essage to +roteus.7 a$ter a##e%ting hos%itality. the na'e o$ his #ountry. he #arried her away with hi'. whosoe&er his 'aster 'ay be. and 'u#h treasure also) Co'%elled by stress o$ weather. wishing to da'age their 'aster. and a true a##ount o$ his late &oyage) Then +roteus . and also the $ugiti&e sla&es. thou didst sedu#e the wi$e o$ thy own host7 then. and bring hi' be$ore 'e. as think it o$ the greatest i'%ortan#e to %ut no stranger to death. would #ertainly ha&e a&enged the Greek by slaying thee) Thou basest o$ 'en. e&en so thou wert not satis$ied. as the wind did not abate. thou 'ust &iolently e.ander deserted hi'. and di&erged $ro' the truth. and when#e he had #o'e:9 *le. 9who he was. he went u% to -e'%his) 4hen all were arri&ed. landing at the "alt7+ans. they a##used hi' to the Egy%tians. whi#h dro&e hi' $ro' his #ourse and took hi' down to the sea o$ Egy%t( hen#e.ander be#a'e #on$used. +roteus deli&ered 2udg'ent as $ollows0 95id not regard it as a 'atter o$ the ut'ost #onse. when he went ashore. #on$uted his state'ents. be he who he 'ay. but also be$ore the warden o$ that 'outh o$ the ri&er. in that 'outh o$ the 3ile whi#h is now #alled the Canobi#) *t this %la#e there stood u%on the shore a te'%le. the treasures. and sto%%ed the de%arture o$ his shi%s( then. he was #arried on to the #oast.ander. whose na'e was Thonis) *s soon as he re#ei&ed the intelligen#e.uen#e that no stranger dri&en to 'y #ountry by ad&erse winds should e&er be %ut to death.uestioned hi' as to how he got %ossession o$ Helen) n his re%ly *le. to this e$$e#t0 9* stranger is arri&ed $ro' Gree#e( he is by ra#e a Teu#rian. and $led to the te'%le.ists. not #ontent therewith.ander re%lied by gi&ing his des#ent. su$$er thee to de%art( but the wo'an and the treasures . where they sat as su%%liants) 4hile there. that has dealt thus wi#kedly with his $riend.ander. on re#ei&ing these orders. who was at -e'%his.

%artner o$ Thonis. 'any7#oloured. were the drugs that her stores a$$orded. or no) n re%ly they related the $ollowing %arti#ulars. the work o$ "idonian wo'en0 They $ro' "idon had #o'e.uainted with the &oyage o$ *le. but the Gods still ke%t 'e in Egy%t7 *ngry be#ause had $ailed to %ay the' their he#ato'bs duly) n these %la#es Ho'er shows hi'sel$ a#.#ellent( gi$t whi#h on#e +olyda'na. howe&er. showed that it was not unknown to hi') This is e&ident $ro' the tra&els whi#h he assigns to *le. +otent to #ure in %art. what ti'e god7sha%ed *le. in the sa'e %oe'.uiry o$ the %riests whether the story whi#h the Greeks tell about liu' is a $able.shall not %er'it to be #arried away) Here they 'ust stay. the %oet 'akes hi' wander be$ore he brings her ho'e) Enough. thus addresses Tele'a#hus07 -u#h did long to return. be#ause he thought it less ada%ted $or e%i# %oetry than the &ersion whi#h he $ollowed. so wisely %re%ared. where 'any the si'%les that grow in the 'eadows. in these words07 "u#h. the high7born Helen) n the !dyssey also the sa'e $a#t is alluded to. and a$ter di&ers wanderings #o'e at last to "idon in +hoeni#ia) The %assage is in the Bra&ery o$ 5io'ed. E.ander arri&ed at liu' with Helen on the third day a$ter he le$t "%arta.ander to Egy%t. #o''and thee to begone $ro' 'y land within the s%a#e o$ three days7 and warn you.uainted with this story. dwell in "yria) Fro' these &arious %assages. the wind ha&ing been $a&ourable. that way. till the Greek stranger #o'es in %erson and takes the' ba#k with hi') For thysel$ and thy #o'%anions. and while dis#arding it.ander !&er the broad sea brought. in %art as %otent to in2ure) -enelaus too. o$ whi#h they de#lared that -enelaus had . $or "yria borders on Egy%t. it is #lear that Ho'er did not write the Cy%ria) For there it is said that *le. and the +hoeni#ians. to who' "idon belongs. and the sea s'ooth( whereas in the liad. and $ro' that about "idon es%e#ially.ander in the liad7 and let it be borne in 'ind that he has nowhere else #ontradi#ted hi'sel$7 'aking hi' be #arried out o$ his #ourse on his return with Helen. $or the %resent o$ Ho'er and the Cy%ria) 'ade in. Ga&e her in Egy%t. that otherwise at the end o$ that ti'e you will be treated as ene'ies)9 "u#h was the tale told 'e by the %riests #on#erning the arri&al o$ Helen at the #ourt o$ +roteus) t see's to 'e that Ho'er was a#. and the words are as $ollows07 There were the robes.

to wit. was detaining) The Greeks. he was detained by the wind being #ontrary. and +ria' too in ea#h battle lost a son.ander had #arried o$$. 'erely that *le.hi'sel$ in$or'ed the') *$ter the ra%e o$ Helen.7 both the one and the other had re'ained. and o$$ered the' u% in sa#ri$i#e) 4hen this be#a'e known. beha&ed 'ost un2ustly towards the Egy%tians( $or as it ha%%ened that at the ti'e when he wanted to take his de%arture. #ould ha&e been so in$atuated as to endanger their own %ersons. i'agining that the Teu#rians were 'erely laughing at the'. and %artly $ro' the #ir#u'stan#es ha&ing taken %la#e in their own land. their #hildren. no Helen was $ound. or three.%edient) He sei/ed. or e&en 'ore.ander #onsented to it or no) For surely neither +ria'. and there$ore not ad'itting o$ doubt) "u#h is the a##ount gi&en by the Egy%tian %riests. the indignation o$ the %eo%le was stirred. ba#king their assertions so'eti'es e&en with oaths. and they were still told the sa'e story. ha&e gi&en her u% to the Greeks. they said. yet a$terwards when so 'any o$ the Tro2ans $ell on e&ery en#ounter with the Greeks. they said. do not belie&e that e&en i$ +ria' hi'sel$ had been 'arried to her he would ha&e de#lined to deli&er her u%. a$ter whi#h the Egy%tians #ould not say whither he went) The rest they knew $ull well. that neither Helen. and their #ity. nor the treasures #lai'ed. howe&er. who. %artly by the in. o$ who' -enelaus was one) The e'bassy was re#ei&ed within the walls. or so'eti'es two. think. king o$ Egy%t. nor his $a'ily. and as he $ound this obstru#tion #ontinue. and likewise re. and ne&er rested until they $inally took it) *s. and des%at#hed -enelaus to the #ourt o$ +roteus) "o -enelaus tra&elled to Egy%t. i$ they deter'ined to re$use at $irst.ander 'ight %ossess Helen) *t any rate. and $or'ed their #a'%. and de'anded the restoration o$ Helen with the treasures whi#h *le.uiries whi#h they had 'ade. a &ast ar'y o$ Greeks. with the &iew o$ bringing the . whether *le. es#a%ed with his shi%s to Libya. re#ei&ed Helen ba#k unhar'ed.uired satis$a#tion $or the wrong done) The Teu#rians ga&e at on#e the answer in whi#h they %ersisted e&er a$terwards. howe&er. they said. and on his arri&al sailed u% the ri&er as $ar as -e'%his. i$ we 'ay #redit the e%i# %oets. and related all that had ha%%ened) He 'et with the ut'ost hos%itality. in Egy%t( and it was not 2ust to #o'e u%on the' $or what +roteus. and they went in %ursuit o$ -enelaus. a$ter whi#h they sent a'bassadors to liu'. wishing to render hel% to -enelaus. and re#o&ered all his treasures) *$ter this $riendly treat'ent -enelaus. they at length belie&ed in its truth. two #hildren o$ the %eo%le o$ the #ountry. and a' 'ysel$ in#lined to regard as true all that they say o$ Helen $ro' the $ollowing #onsiderations07 $ Helen had been at Troy. the inhabitants would. laid siege to the town. he had re#ourse to a 'ost wi#ked e. set sail $or the Teu#rian territory( on their arri&al they dise'barked. were in their %ossession.

in whi#h #ase he 'ight ha&e had the #hie$ 'anage'ent o$ a$$airs. $ound the stone in the wall o$ the building. %lundered the treasury o$ a round su') . and #o''uni#ated the 'easure'ents. the other 4inter. to insert in this wall a stone. the %riests in$or'ed 'e. and ha&ing re'o&ed it with ease. ea#h twenty7$i&e #ubits in height) The statue o$ "u''er. as think. the one "u''er. and the king1s 'oney stored away in it) Ti'e %assed. bidding the' #are$ully kee% the se#ret. he $ound that 'ore . sin#e +ria' was already old) He#tor. or e&en by one) "o the #ha'ber was $inished. o$ great ri#hes in sil&er7 indeed to su#h an a'ount. howe&er. he #alled $or his two sons. is worshi%%ed by the nati&es.G)< 4hen the king ne. as the seals were all %er$e#t. the gods will surely &isit the' with great %unish'ents) "u#h. they said. that none o$ the %rin#es. but the Greeks would not belie&e what they said7 5i&ine +ro&iden#e. whi#h stands towards the south. when $inding his end a%%roa#hing. so willing.uer so long as they li&ed) Then the $ather died. and a $ar bra&er 'an. whereby they would be Co'%trollers o$ the Royal E. who was his elder brother. at least. that so they 'ight always li&e in a$$luen#e) Then he ga&e the' #lear dire#tions #on#erning the 'ode o$ re'o&ing the stone.t %aid a &isit to the a%art'ent.ualled his wealth) For the better #ustody o$ this 'oney. and the builder $ell si#k. when it brought su#h dire #ala'ities u%on hi'sel$ and the other Tro2ans) But the $a#t was that they had no Helen to deli&er. telling the' it was $or their sakes he had done it. he was astonished to see that the 'oney was sunk in so'e o$ the &essels wherein it was stored away) 4ho' to a##use. su##eeded to the throne) His 'onu'ents were the western gateway o$ the te'%le o$ @ul#an. that by their utter destru#tion it 'ight be 'ade e&ident to all 'en that when great wrongs are done. is 'y &iew o$ the 'atter) . #ontri&ed.F)< 4hen +roteus died. Rha'%sinitus. and the $astenings o$ the roo' se#ure) "till ea#h ti'e that he re%eated his &isits. is treated in e. there$ore. and the two statues whi#h stand in $ront o$ this gateway. and the sons were not slow in setting to work0 they went by night to the %ala#e. and related to the' the #ontri&an#e he had 'ade in the king1s treasure7#ha'ber. stood be$ore hi'. one side o$ whi#h was to $or' a %art o$ the outer wall o$ his %ala#e) The builder.a#tly the #ontrary way) ?ing Rha'%sinitus was %ossessed.#he. whi#h #ould easily be re'o&ed $ro' its %la#e by two 'en. and was the heir to the kingdo' on the death o$ their $ather +ria') *nd it #ould not be He#tor1s interest to u%hold his brother in his wrong. he %ro%osed to build a &ast #ha'ber o$ hewn stone. whi#h is the northern'ost o$ the two. ha&ing designs u%on the treasures. as he was 'aking the building. he knew not. and has o$$erings 'ade to it( that o$ 4inter.ander had been heir to the #rown.series o$ #ala'ities to a #lose) 3or was it as i$ *le. sur%assed or e&en e. and so they told the Greeks. #alled by the Egy%tians. his su##essors.

and set to work to rearrange their burthens( 'eanwhile. and #aught the li. the king #a'e into the roo'. she would go hersel$ to the king. and stayed) *s the drinking went on. whi#h would ha&e the e$$e#t o$ bringing ruin u%on both) The other thie$ thought the ad&i#e good. and loaded the' with abuse( whereon they did their best to %a#i$y hi'.%osure o$ the #or%se o$ her son. taking with hi' his brother1s head) . and #ontri&ed as $ollows07 Filling so'e skins with wine. and s%oke to her sur&i&ing #hild. and set near the &essels whi#h #ontained his wealth) This was done. he untied so'e o$ the ne#ks whi#h dangled by the asses1 sides) The wine %oured $reely out. with orders that i$ any %ersons were seen wee%ing or la'enting near the %la#e. entreated hi' to enter as . and set a guard to wat#h it. they rushed one and all into the road.it was to be seen anywhere) n this %er%le. when %ulling two or three o$ the skins towards hi'. see'ing not to know whi#h o$ the donkeys he should turn to $irst) 4hen the guards saw the wine running. he instantly #alled his brother and telling hi' what had ha%%ened.uor as it was s%illing) The dri&er %retended anger. and when the thie&es #a'e. ea#h with so'e &essel or other. and threatening.ert hi'sel$. and neither entran#e nor e. so they begged hi' to re'ain and drink with the') Then the 'an let hi'sel$ be %ersuaded. as usual. while the building was still whole. he loaded the' on donkeys. one o$ the' began to rally hi'. $itting the stone into its %la#e.E)< 4hen day dawned. until at last he a%%eared to so$ten. she took it sorely to heart. bidding hi' de&ise so'e %lan or other to get ba#k the body. delighted to %ro$it by the o##asion. whereu%on he began to beat his head. suddenly he $ound hi'sel$ #aught in one o$ the tra%s) +er#ei&ing that he was lost. until at last he yielded to her i'%ortunity. 'ade straight $or the 2ars. and was %ersuaded to $ollow it then. as he talked and #hatted with the guards. and re#o&er his good hu'our. and one o$ the' entering through the a%erture.'oney was gone) The thie&es in truth ne&er sto%%ed. but %lundered the treasury e&er 'ore and 'ore) *t last the king deter'ined to ha&e so'e tra%s 'ade. they . they should be sei/ed and brought be$ore hi') 4hen the 'other heard o$ this e.ity he #o''anded the body o$ the dead 'an to be hung u% outside the %ala#e wall. but in &ain( she still #ontinued to trouble hi'. that when his body should be dis#o&ered it 'ight not be re#ognised. he went ho'e. and 'ake hi' laugh.ui#kly as %ossible and #ut o$$ his head.4)< The son said all he #ould to %ersuade her to let the 'atter rest. to the treasure7#ha'ber. and denoun#e hi' as the robber) . dro&e his asses aside out o$ the road. whi#h he dro&e be$ore hi' till he #a'e to the %la#e where the guards were wat#hing the dead body. whereu%on he ga&e the' one o$ the skins as a gi$t) They now 'ade u% their 'inds to sit down and ha&e a drinking7bout where they were. that i$ he did not e. and 'ar&elled greatly to see the body o$ the thie$ in the tra% without a head. and shout with all his 'ight.

she sei/ed and held it $ast( while the thie$.ed) 4ishing.uor. he re%lied that the wi#kedest thing he had e&er done was #utting o$$ the head o$ his brother when he was #aught in a tra% in the king1s treasury. to #at#h the 'an who had #ontri&ed the tri#k.J)< 4hen it #a'e to the king1s ears that the thie$1s body was stolen away. who was well aware o$ the king1s 'oti&e. and so went to the king1s daughter) 4hen she %ut the .#elled all other Egy%tians)9 The sa'e king. a'a/ed at the saga#ity and boldness o$ the 'an. %ut it under his dress. and brought with hi' a golden na%kin. $elt a desire to outdo hi' in #ra$t and #unning) *##ordingly he #ontri&ed the $ollowing %lan07 He %ro#ured the #or%se o$ a 'an lately dead. and looking on hi' as the 'ost knowing o$ 'en. in 'o#kery. ha&ing thus a##o'%lished the thing that she had re. there$ore. i$ he #a'e and 'ade hi'sel$ known) The thie$ took the king at his word. and then took down the body o$ his brother( a$ter whi#h.9 he said. he was sorely &e. but to re. whereon the thie$. so'eti'es winning and so'eti'es su$$ering de$eat) *$ter a while he returned to earth. and to %ro'ise hi' a ri#h reward. whate&er it 'ight #ost. when word was brought hi' o$ this $resh su##ess. so %resently he ga&e the' another skin. with orders to ad'it all #o'ers.grew &ery $riendly together.the %riests said< to an e. and there %layed at di#e with Ceres.D)< The king.uestion to hi' as she had done to all the rest.%edient. and #utting o$ one o$ the ar's at the shoulder. and so le$t the') Laying his brother1s body u%on the asses. and $ell aslee% on the s%ot) The thie$ waited till it was the dead o$ the night. 'ade his es#a%e by the door) . a gi$t whi#h he had re#ei&ed $ro' the goddess) Fro' . was also in$or'ed by the %riests. she was to lay hold o$ hi' and not allow hi' to get away) The daughter did as her $ather willed. sent 'essengers to all the towns in his do'inions to %ro#lai' a $ree %ardon $or the thie$. u%on whi#h they drank so #o%iously that they were all o&er#o'e with the li. 9e. he #arried it ho'e to his 'other. whi#h #an s#ar#ely #redit) He sent his own daughter to the #o''on stews. but the thie$ took ad&antage o$ the darkness to hold out to her the hand o$ the #or%se) 'agining it to be his own hand. and #a'e boldly into his %resen#e( whereu%on Rha'%sinitus. lea&ing it in her gras%. and growing drowsy lay down. he had re#ourse . and the #le&erest was 'aking the guards drunk and #arrying o$$ the body) *s he s%oke. he sha&ed o$$ the right side o$ all the soldiers1 beards.uired o$ hi') . and this 'an e. greatly ad'iring hi'. ga&e hi' his daughter in 'arriage) 9The Egy%tians. the %rin#ess #aught at hi'.#elled all the rest o$ the world in wisdo'. a$terwards des#ended ali&e into the region whi#h the Greeks #all Hades.uire e&ery 'an to tell her what was the #le&erest and wi#kedest thing he had done in the whole #ourse o$ his li$e) $ any one in re%ly told her the story o$ the thie$.

Egy%t was e. instituted a $esti&al. %ro%ose to 'ysel$ throughout 'y whole work $aith$ully to re#ord the traditions o$ the se&eral nations) The Egy%tians 'aintain that Ceres and Ba##hus %reside in the real's below) They were also the $irst to broa#h the o%inion that the soul o$ 'an is i''ortal and that. at the highest %art. but abstain $ro' doing so) Till the death o$ Rha'%sinitus.#ellently go&erned. and drew the' to the range o$ hills #alled the Libyan) * hundred thousand 'en laboured #onstantly. and the air. and %ut it $orward as their own) #ould 'ention their na'es. and $lourished greatly( but a$ter hi' Cheo%s su##eeded to the throne. so'e o$ an earlier. and is born anew) The whole %eriod o$ the trans'igration is . when they de%art and lea&e hi' to hi'sel$) Then the %riest. thus blind$olded. and take hi' with the' into the roadway #ondu#ting to the te'%le o$ Ceres. and binding the eyes o$ one o$ their nu'ber with a $illet. a work not 'u#h in$erior. one and all. whether u%on this or u%on any other. eight $atho's) t is built o$ %olished stone. and le$t u%on the s%ot where they $irst 2oined hi') "u#h as think the tales told by the Egy%tians #redible are $ree to a##e%t the' $or history) For 'y own %art. then#e %assing on $ro' one ani'al into another. #o'%elling the' instead to labour. #annot deter'ine) The $ollowing are the #ere'onies07 !n a #ertain day in the year the %riests wea&e a 'ande. where he stays awhile. the water. to the %yra'id itsel$) This #auseway is $i&e $urlongs in length. so'e o$ a later date.uired to drag blo#ks o$ stone down to the 3ile $ro' the . and return to earth again. it enters into the $or' o$ an ani'al whi#h is born at the 'o'ent.this des#ent o$ Rha'%sinitus into Hades. and the underground #ha'bers. the works on the 'ound where the %yra'id stands.uarries in the *rabian range o$ hills( others re#ei&ed the blo#ks a$ter they had been #on&eyed in boats a#ross the ri&er. in 'y 2udg'ent. and is #o&ered with #ar&ings o$ ani'als) To 'ake it took ten years. and in height. until it has #ir#led through the $or's o$ all the #reatures whi#h tenant the earth. when the body dies.they say< three thousand years) There are Greek writers. as said7 or rather to 'ake the #auseway. and %lunged into all 'anner o$ wi#kedness) He #losed the te'%les. the %riests said. a$ter whi#h it enters again into a hu'an $ra'e. is led . who ha&e borrowed this do#trine $ro' the Egy%tians.they say< by two wol&es to the te'%le o$ Ceres. distant twenty $urlongs $ro' the #ity. in his ser&i#e) "o'e were re. was told. whi#h Cheo%s intended as . whi#h they #ertainly #elebrated in 'y day) !n what o##asion it was that they instituted it. the Egy%tians. a$ter whi#h he is brought ba#k $ro' the te'%le by the wol&es. they %ut the 'antle u%on hi'. and $orbade the Egy%tians to o$$er sa#ri$i#e. ten $atho's wide. and were relie&ed e&ery three 'onths by a $resh lot) t took ten years1 o%%ression o$ the %eo%le to 'ake the #auseway $or the #on&eyan#e o$ the stones.

uired ea#h 'an to 'ake her a %resent o$ a stone towards the works whi#h she #onte'%lated) 4ith these stones she built the %yra'id whi#h stands 'id'ost o$ the three that are in $ront o$ the great %yra'id. their #on&eyan#e.uantity o$ radishes. whi#h did not. i'agine7 whi#h 'ust ha&e been o##u%ied by the . or. surrounded by water introdu#ed $ro' the 3ile by a #anal) The %yra'id itsel$ was twenty years in building) t is a s. he sent his daughter to the stews.&aults $or his own use0 these last were built on a sort o$ island. whi#h has already been stated. the 3ile water. onions. the Egy%tians said. his brother) Che%hren i'itated the #ondu#t o$ his %rede#essor. as the other %yra'id has) n that. whi#h. and #on&eyed it to the se#ond ste%. and at the sa'e ti'e. battle'ent7wise. and there$ore 'ention both) The u%%er %ortion o$ the %yra'id was $inished $irst. and garli# #onsu'ed by the labourers who #onstru#ted it( and %er$e#tly well re'e'ber that the inter%reter who read the writing to 'e said that the 'oney e. and was su##eeded at his de'ise by Che%hren. $itted together with the ut'ost #are) The stones o$ whi#h it is #o'%osed are none o$ the' less than thirty $eet in length) The %yra'id was built in ste%s. a##ording to others. as it is #alled.uare. when#e a third 'a#hine ad&an#ed it still higher) Either they had as 'any 'a#hines as there were ste%s in the %yra'id. #onsidering the length o$ ti'e the work lasted. what a &ast su' 'ust ha&e been s%ent on the iron tools used in the work. altar7wise) *$ter laying the stones $or the base. whi#h re#ei&ed the stone u%on its arri&al. $or was not told( she %ro#ured it. and on the $eeding and #lothing o$ the labourers. with orders to %ro#ure hi' a #ertain su'7 how 'u#h #annot say.ual the di'ensions o$ his brother1s) !$ this a' #ertain. or %ossibly they had but a single 'a#hine. built a %yra'id.uarrying o$ the stones. then the 'iddle. and the additional ti'e7 no s'all s%a#e. e. being easily 'o&ed. $or 'easured the' both 'ysel$) t has no subterraneous a%art'ents. . and $inally the %art whi#h was lowest and nearest the ground) There is an ins#ri%tion in Egy%tian #hara#ters on the %yra'id whi#h re#ords the . she re. like hi'. 'easuring along ea#h side a hundred and $i$ty $eet) Cheo%s reigned. nor any #anal $ro' the 3ile to su%%ly it with water. howe&er. $i$ty years. and. eight hundred $eet ea#h way. they raised the re'aining stones to their %la#es by 'eans o$ 'a#hines $or'ed o$ short wooden %lanks) The $irst 'a#hine raised the' $ro' the ground to the to% o$ the $irst ste%) !n this there was another 'a#hine. bent on lea&ing a 'onu'ent whi#h should %er%etuate her own 'e'ory. was trans$erred $ro' tier to tier as the stone rose7 both a##ounts are gi&en. built entirely o$ %olished stone.%ended in this way was FD00 talents o$ sil&er) $ this then is a true re#ord. howe&er. and the height the sa'e. when he had s%ent all his treasures and wanted 'ore. and the $or'ation o$ the underground a%art'ents) The wi#kedness o$ Cheo%s rea#hed to su#h a %it#h that.

whi#h runs thus0 9-y#erinus was ena'oured o$ his daughter.they said<. in his sorrow he #on#ei&ed the wish to ento'b his #hild in so'e unusual way) He there$ore #aused a #ow to be 'ade o$ wood. -y#erinus .%erien#ing a bitter grie$ at this &isitation. the only #hild that he %ossessed) E. and -y#erinus ento'bed her in the #ow) Then her 'other #ut o$$ the hands o$ all her tiring7 'aids. he had the whole sur$a#e #oated with gold( and in this no&el to'b laid the dead body o$ his daughter) The #ow was not %la#ed under ground. an ele&ation not $ar short o$ a hundred $eet in height) The reign o$ Che%hren lasted $i$ty7si. #annot say7 #an only re%eat the a##ount whi#h was gi&en to 'e) Con#erning these #olossal $igures and the sa#red #ow. and are re%resented naked) 4hose i'ages they really are. and betrayed the #hild( and so the . e. as#ended the throne) This %rin#e disa%%ro&ed the #ondu#t o$ his $ather.introdu#ed through an arti$i#ial du#t. in the royal %ala#e. years) Thus the a$$li#tion o$ Egy%t endured $or the s%a#e o$ one hundred and si. surrounds an island. and o$ the sa'e di'ensions. who were ground down to the lowest %oint o$ 'isery. but #ontinued &isible to 'y ti'es0 it was at "ais. where the body o$ Cheo%s is said to lie) Che%hren built his %yra'id #lose to the great %yra'id o$ Cheo%s. de#laring that he not only ga&e his 2udg'ents with $airness.#e%t that he lowered the height $orty $eet) For the base'ent he e'%loyed the 'any7#oloured stone o$ Ethio%ia) These two %yra'ids stand both on the sa'e hill. when the stroke o$ #ala'ity $ell on hi') First o$ all his daughter died. re7o%ened the te'%les. where it o##u%ied a #ha'ber ri#hly adorned) E&ery day there are burnt be$ore it aro'ati#s o$ e&ery kind( and all night long a la'% is ke%t burning in the a%art'ent) n an ad2oining #ha'ber are statues whi#h the %riests at "ais. and o$$ered her &iolen#e7 the da'sel $or grie$ hanged hersel$. during the whole o$ whi#h ti'e the te'%les were shut u% and ne&er o%ened) The Egy%tians so detest the 'e'ory o$ these kings that they do not 'u#h like e&en to 'ention their na'es) Hen#e they #o''only #all the %yra'ids a$ter +hilition. but also. and allowed the %eo%le. be#ause they had sided with the $ather. a she%herd who at that ti'e $ed his $lo#ks about the %la#e) *$ter Che%hren. o$ the nu'ber o$ about twenty. and was a#ting as ha&e des#ribed. years. there is also another tale narrated. to return to their o##u%ations. son o$ Cheo%s. when any one was dissatis$ied with his senten#e. de#lared to re%resent the &arious #on#ubines o$ -y#erinus) They are #olossal $igures in wood. and to resu'e the %ra#ti#e o$ sa#ri$i#e) His 2usti#e in the de#ision o$ #auses was beyond that o$ all the $or'er kings) The Egy%tians %raise hi' in this res%e#t 'ore highly than any o$ their other 'onar#hs. and thus %a#i$ied his anger) -y#erinus had established his #hara#ter $or 'ildness. and a$ter the interior had been hollowed out. 'ade #o'%ensation to hi' out o$ his own %urse.

with the li'bs under the body( the di'ensions being $ully those o$ a large ani'al o$ the kind) E&ery year it is taken $ro' the a%art'ent where it is ke%t. o$ whi#h shall now %ro#eed to gi&e an a##ount) *n ora#le rea#hed hi' $ro' the town o$ Buto. but lying down. when this answer rea#hed hi'.) He too le$t a %yra'id. years only shalt thou li&e u%on the earth.9 he said.statues o$ the 'aids ha&e no hands)9 *ll this is 'ere $able in 'y 2udg'ent. %er#ei&ing that his doo' was $i. re%roa#hing the god with his in2usti#e7 9-y $ather and un#le.uare. and e. who a' %ious. sent an angry 'essage to the ora#le. 9though they shut u% the te'%les. are #oated &ery thi#kly with gold. so to s%eak. 'o&ing about in the 'arsh7#ountry and the woods. whi#h he lighted e&ery day at e&enti'e. the greater %ortion o$ it is hidden by a s#arlet #o&erture( the head and ne#k.ed.%osed to the light o$ day7 this is done at the season when the Egy%tians beat the'sel&es in honour o$ one o$ their gods. and destroyed 'ultitudes o$ 'en. had %re%ared. 'ust ha&e been e. and &isiting all the %la#es that he heard were agreeable so2ourns) His wish was to %ro&e the ora#le $alse. but 'u#h in$erior in si/e to his $ather1s) t is a s. but they re%ort $alsely) t see's to 'e that these %ersons #annot ha&e any real knowledge who Rhodo%is was( otherwise they would s#ar#ely ha&e as#ribed to her a work on whi#h un#ounted treasures. and was thus &ery 'any . by turning the nights into days.uested her $ather in her dying 'o'ents to allow her on#e a year to see the sun) *$ter the death o$ his daughter.ui#kly to a #lose7 thou hast not done as it beho&ed thee) Egy%t was $ated to su$$er a$$li#tion one hundred and $i$ty years7 the two kings who %re#eded thee u%on the throne understood this7 thou hast not understood it)9 -y#erinus. es%e#ially what is said about the hands o$ the #olossal statues) #ould %lainly see that the $igures had only lost their hands through the e$$e#t o$ ti'e) They had dro%%ed o$$. whi#h are &isible. whose na'e a' unwilling to 'ention in #onne#tion with su#h a 'atter) They say that the daughter o$ -y#erinus re.%ended) Rhodo%is also li&ed during the reign o$ *'asis. and so li&ing twel&e years in the s%a#e o$ si. and is built $or hal$ its height o$ the stone o$ Ethio%ia) "o'e o$ the Greeks #all it the work o$ Rhodo%is the #ourtesan. took no thought o$ the gods. -y#erinus was &isited with a se#ond #ala'ity. 9"i. whi#h said. howe&er. ea#h side o$ whi#h $alls short o$ three %lethra by twenty $eet. and in the se&enth thou shalt end thy days)9 -y#erinus. a' to die so soon>9 There #a'e in re%ly a se#ond 'essage $ro' the ora#le7 9For this &ery reason is thy li$e brought so . indignant. and $easted and en2oyed hi'sel$ un#easingly both day and night. ne&ertheless en2oyed a long li$e( . and were still lying on the ground about the $eet o$ the statues) *s $or the #ow. and between the horns there is a re%resentation in gold o$ the orb o$ the sun) The $igure is not ere#t. not o$ -y#erinus.

though not so 'u#h talked o$ as her %rede#essor) Chara. su#h as are $it $or roasting o. 'ade %ro#la'ation that i$ any one #lai'ed #o'%ensation $or the 'urder o$ *eso% he should re#ei&e it. and to o$$er it at the shrine at 5el%hi) "o she set a%art a tenth o$ her %ossessions. and was o$ten lashed by "a%%ho in her %oetry) But enough has been said on the sub2e#t o$ this #ourtesan) *$ter -y#erinus. so #elebrated a %erson that her na'e #a'e to be $a'iliar to all the Greeks( and. #alled *r#hidi#e. and a &ast a'ount o$ ar#hite#tural orna'ent. behind the altar whi#h the Chians dedi#ated. so that a 'an who took u% 'oney under this %ledge. howe&er. the %erson who at last #a'e $orward was ad'on.en whole. was one o$ her $ellow7sla&es) That *eso% belonged to ad'on is %ro&ed by 'any $a#ts7 a'ong others. and brother o$ "a%%ho the %oetess) *$ter thus obtaining her $reedo'. enough to enable her to ere#t su#h a work as this %yra'id) *ny one who likes 'ay go and see to what the tenth %art o$ her wealth a'ounted. a$ter ranso'ing Rhodo%is.us. whi#h in si/e and beauty $ar sur%asses the other three) *ll the $our gateways ha&e $igures gra&en on the'. but the gateway o$ *sy#his is by $ar the 'ost ri#hly adorned) n the reign o$ this king. *sy#his as#ended the throne) He built the eastern gateway o$ the te'%le o$ @ul#an.years later than the ti'e o$ the kings who built the %yra'ids) "he was a Thra#ian by birth. a$terwards. but was redee'ed $or a &ast su' by Chara. the %riests said. a law was %assed that the borrower 'ight %ledge his $ather1s body to raise the su' whereo$ he had need) * %ro&iso was a%%ended to this law. a'assed great wealth. and he re#ei&ed the #o'%ensation) *eso% there$ore 'ust #ertainly ha&e been the $or'er ad'on1s sla&e) Rhodo%is really arri&ed in Egy%t under the #ondu#t o$ Bantheus the "a'ian( she was brought there to e. a "a'ian) *eso%. she re'ained in Egy%t. 'oney being s#ar#e and #o''er#ial dealings straitened. son o$ He%haesto%olis. $or a %erson in her #ondition( not. and. #ould not obtain . there was another. and %ur#hased with the 'oney a . she deter'ined to ha&e so'ething 'ade the like o$ whi#h was not to be $ound in any te'%le. grandson o$ the $or'er ad'on. o%%osite the san#tuary) 3au#ratis see's so'ehow to be the %la#e where su#h wo'en are 'ost attra#ti&e) First there was this Rhodo%is o$ who' we ha&e been s%eaking. by this) 4hen the 5el%hians. and was the sla&e o$ ad'on. a -ytilenaean. the $able7writer. notorious throughout Gree#e. the son o$ "#a'androny'us.us. and he will thereby learn that her ri#hes 'ust not be i'agined to ha&e been &ery wonder$ully great) 4ishing to lea&e a 'e'orial o$ hersel$ in Gree#e. returned to -ytilene. i$ he died without %aying the debt. gi&ing the lender authority o&er the entire se%ul#hre o$ the borrower.uantity o$ iron s%its.er#ise her trade. lying o$ a hea%. as she was &ery beauti$ul. whereo$ she 'ade a %resent to the ora#le) They are still to be seen there. in obedien#e to the #o''and o$ the ora#le.

. and is orna'ented with $igures #ut u%on the stone. #ubits high and well worthy o$ noti#e) The te'%le stands in the 'iddle o$ the #ity. and the 'ud whi#h #la&e thereto was gathered( and bri#ks were 'ade o$ the 'ud. en#o'%ass the building. their king) The blind *nysis $led away to the 'arsh7#ountry.ty $eet in height. si. and are thi#kly shaded with trees) The gateway is si. they said. but there is none so %leasant to the eye as this o$ Bubastis) The Bubastis o$ the Egy%tians is the sa'e as the *rte'is . one on either side o$ the te'%le. le$t as a 'onu'ent o$ his reign a %yra'id o$ bri#k) t bears an ins#ri%tion. none . think< was raised so 'u#h as the town #alled Bubastis. while the te'%le has been le$t untou#hed in its original #ondition. and 'ay ha&e #ost 'ore in the building. as 'u#h as 8o&e sur%asses the other gods) * %ole was %lunged into a lake. and inside there is a gro&e o$ beauti$ul tall trees growing round the shrine. by a blind 'an. whi#h %asses straight through the 'arket7%la#e with an easterly dire#tion. and the sa'e in breadth) The entran#e to it is by a road %a&ed with stone $or a distan#e o$ about three $urlongs. where there is a te'%le o$ the goddess Bubastis.5iana< o$ the Greeks) The $ollowing is a des#ri%tion o$ this edi$i#e07 E. the whole $or's an island) Two arti$i#ial #hannels $ro' the 3ile. his %lan was not to %unish hi' with death0 instead o$ so doing. whi#h well deser&es to be des#ribed) !ther te'%les 'ay be grander. lea&ing only a narrow %assage by whi#h it is a%%roa#hed) These #hannels are ea#h a hundred $eet wide. they had been raised by those who dug the #anals in his reign( this se#ond ele&ation o$ the soil under the Ethio%ian king ga&e the' a &ery lo$ty %osition) *'ong the 'any #ities whi#h thus attained to a great ele&ation.tent in the neighbourhood o$ the #ity to whi#h he belonged) Thus the #ities #a'e to be e&en 'ore ele&ated than they were be$ore) *s early as the ti'e o$ "esostris. and the Ethio%ian was lord o$ the land $or $i$ty years. whi#h runs thus07 95es%ise 'e not in #o'%arison with the stone %yra'ids( $or sur%ass the' all. whose own na'e also was *nysis) 6nder hi' Egy%t was in&aded by a &ast ar'y o$ Ethio%ians. a nati&e o$ *nysis. and is &isible on all sides as one walks round it( $or as the #ity has been raised u% by e'bank'ent. during whi#h his 'ode o$ rule was the $ollowing07 4hen an Egy%tian was guilty o$ an o$$en#e.#e%ting the entran#e. a##ording to the nature o$ his #ri'e. ha&ing $igures engra&ed u%on it. #ut in stone. or in any other. desirous o$ e#li%sing all his %rede#essors u%on the throne. led by "aba#os.burial either in his own an#estral to'b. and so was $or'ed)9 "u#h were the #hie$ a#tions o$ this %rin#e) He was su##eeded on the throne. he senten#ed hi'. nor #ould he during his li$eti'e bury in his own to'b any 'e'ber o$ his $a'ily) The sa'e king. to raise the ground to a greater or a less e. whi#h #ontains the i'age o$ the goddess) The en#losure is a $urlong in length. you look down u%on it wheresoe&er you are) * low wall runs round the en#losure.

as the ti'e during whi#h it was $ated that he should hold the #ountry had now . whi#h #ontinued unknown to the kings o$ Egy%t who %re#eded hi' on the throne $or the s%a#e o$ se&en hundred years and 'ore) The na'e whi#h it bears is Elbo) t is about ten $urlongs a#ross in ea#h dire#tion) The ne. no one was able to dis#o&er the site o$ this island. and 'arket %eo%le( and with these 'ar#hed to +elusiu'. and there %it#hed his #a'%) *s the . #olle#ted su#h o$ the Egy%tians as were willing to $ollow hi'. with the $ood. #alled "ethos) This 'onar#h des%ised and negle#ted the warrior #lass o$ the Egy%tians.uest. and go boldly $orth to 'eet the *rabian host. bidding hi' be o$ good #heer. and #ounselled hi' to gather together all the %riests o$ Egy%t and #ut e&ery one o$ the' asunder) !n this. whi#h #o''ands the entran#e into Egy%t.uantity o$ ashes) Be$ore *'yrtaeus. that he was to reign $i$ty years o&er Egy%t) The years were now $led.%ired) For be$ore he le$t Ethio%ia he had been told by the ora#les whi#h are &enerated there. he took $ro' the' the lands whi#h they had %ossessed under all the %re&ious kings. relying on the drea'. a##ording to the a##ount whi#h he hi'sel$ ga&e. king o$ the *rabians and *ssyrians.ture o$ earth and ashes) 4hile he re'ained. and. greatly distressed. #onsisting o$ twel&e a#res o$ #hoi#e land $or ea#h warrior) *$terwards. it #a'e into his 'ind that the gods intended hereby to lead hi' to #o''it an a#t o$ sa#rilege. and drea'ed that the god #a'e and stood at his side.traordinary height grow on ea#h side the road. who were none o$ the' warriors. entered into the inner san#tuary. the warriors one and all re$used to #o'e to his aid) !n this the 'onar#h. 'ar#hed his &ast ar'y into Egy%t. but traders. was told. as he hi'sel$ would send those who should hel% hi') "ethos. at his re. be$ore the i'age o$ the god. a #ertain . was a %riest o$ @ul#an. bewailed the $ate whi#h i'%ended o&er hi') *s he we%t he $ell aslee%. the blind king le$t the 'arshes. by a hasty $light under the $ollowing #ir#u'stan#es) He saw in his slee% a &ision07 a 'an stood by his side. whi#h would be sure to draw down u%on hi' so'e %unish'ent either at the hands o$ gods or 'en) "o he resol&ed not to do the deed suggested to hi'. artisans.he thought< e.and is about $our hundred $eet in width) Trees o$ an e.t king. there$ore. and resu'ed the go&ern'ent) He had li&ed in the 'arsh7region the whole ti'e. then. and the drea' had #o'e to trouble hi'( he there$ore o$ his own a##ord withdrew $ro' the land) *s soon as "aba#os was gone. whi#h #ondu#ts $ro' the te'%le o$ Bubastis to that o$ -er#ury) The Ethio%ian $inally . the nati&es had orders to bring hi' $ood unbeknown to the Ethio%ian. ea#h 'an had brought hi'. when "ana#harib. whi#h would do hi' no hurt.uitted Egy%t. but rather to retire $ro' Egy%t. as though he did not need their ser&i#es) *'ong other indignities whi#h he o$$ered the'. ha&ing $or'ed $or hi'sel$ an island there by a 'i. and latterly. the %riests said.

was a %eriod o$ three hundred and $orty7one generations( su#h. 'entioned a god as his si. and the nu'ber o$ the' was three hundred and $orty7$i&e( through the whole series +iro'is $ollowed +iro'is. with a 'ouse in his hand. dis#oursing o$ his genealogy. three generations $illing u% the #entury( and the re'aining $orty7one generations 'ake thirteen hundred and $orty years) Thus the whole nu'ber o$ years is ele&en thousand. a +iro'is.t 'orning they #o''en#ed their $ight.teenth an#estor. whi#h they #ounted u%. beginning with the re%resentation o$ the %riest last de#eased. re'ained the sa'e( nor was there anything unusual either in the diseases or the deaths) 4hen He#ataeus the historian was at Thebes.teenth an#estor. going through this list. they said. born o$ a +iro'is. tra#ed his des#ent to a god in the %erson o$ his si. and o$ their high7%riests. and learn to re&eren#e the gods)9 Thus $ar ha&e s%oken on the authority o$ the Egy%tians and their %riests) They de#lare that $ro' their $irst king to this last7'entioned 'onar#h. they say. the %riests o$ 8u%iter did to hi' e. a 'ultitude o$ $ield7'i#e. and re$using to allow that any 'an was e&er born o$ a god) Their #olossal $igures were ea#h. as they had no ar's with whi#h to de$end the'sel&es) There stands to this day in the te'%le o$ @ul#an. no god had e&er a%%eared in a hu'an $or'( nothing o$ this kind had ha%%ened either under the $or'er or under the later Egy%tian kings) The sun. and. they assured 'e that ea#h was the son o$ the one %re#eding hi'( and this they re%eated throughout the whole line.two ar'ies lay here o%%osite one another. and great 'ultitudes $ell. during this inter&al) 3ow three hundred generations o$ 'en 'ake ten thousand years. on $our se&eral o##asions. the %riests o%%osed their genealogy to his. and ate the thongs by whi#h they 'anaged their shields) 3e. the %riest o$ @ul#an. there #a'e in the night. had within this %eriod o$ ti'e. was the nu'ber both o$ their kings.a#t nu'ber they had said( the #usto' being $or e&ery high %riest during his li$eti'e to set u% his statue in the te'%le) *s they showed 'e the $igures and re#koned the' u%. and $ound to a'ount to the e.ui&ers and bowstrings o$ the ene'y. a stone statue o$ "ethos. whi#h de&oured all the . at least. they said.a#tly as they a$terwards did to 'e. though 'ade no boast o$ 'y $a'ily) They led 'e into the inner san#tuary. whi#h is a s%a#ious #ha'ber. in wood. and an ins#ri%tion to this e$$e#t7 9Look on 'e. and the line did not run u% either to a god or a hero) The word +iro'is 'ay be rendered 9gentle'an)9 . and twi#e setting where he now rises) Egy%t was in no degree a$$e#ted by these #hanges( the %rodu#tions o$ the land. 'o&ed $ro' his wonted #ourse. twi#e rising where he now sets. and #ontinuing till they had #o'%leted the series) 4hen He#ataeus. howe&er. and showed 'e a 'ultitude o$ #olossal statues. in gi&ing his genealogy. three hundred and $orty( in whi#h entire s%a#e. and o$ the ri&er.

and #arried o$$ to 3ysa. they do not e&en %ro$ess to know what ha%%ened to hi' a$ter his birth) To 'e. +an is e. son o$ *l#'ena. one being always su%re'e abo&e the rest) The last o$ these was Horus. and ruled o&er Egy%t as its last god7king) !siris is na'ed 5ionysus . the re%uted son o$ "e'ele. as they ha&e always ke%t #ount o$ the years. #alled by the Greeks *%ollo) He de%osed Ty%hon. is a shorter s%a#e than to the Tro2an war. who dwelt u%on the earth with 'en. the beings re%resented by these i'ages7 they were &ery $ar indeed $ro' being gods) Howe&er.isting deities) But Ba##hus. who is the youngest o$ the three. eight hundred years or thereabouts) t is o%en to all to re#ei&e whi#he&er he 'ay %re$er o$ these two traditions( 'y own o%inion about the' has been already de#lared) $ indeed these gods had been %ubli#ly known.Ba##hus< by the Greeks) The Greeks regard Her#ules.teen hundred years( to that o$ Her#ules. the son o$ !siris. is a %eriod o$ not 'ore than si. and . a##ording to the Greek tradition. who are known as 9the twel&e9( and Ba##hus belongs to the gods o$ the third order. and that they #ount their birth $ro' the ti'e when they $irst a#. who' the twel&e %rodu#ed) ha&e already 'entioned how 'any years inter&ened a##ording to the Egy%tians between the birth o$ Her#ules and the reign o$ *'asis) Fro' +an to this %eriod they #ount a still longer ti'e( and e&en $ro' Ba##hus. they re#kon $i$teen thousand years to the reign o$ that king) n these 'atters they say they #annot be 'istaken. they di&ided Egy%t into twel&e distri#ts. they said. Ba##hus.+an. and had grown old in Gree#e. daughter o$ Cad'us.9 who e. son o$ +enelo%e.!$ su#h a nature were. son o$ *'%hitryon. son o$ +enelo%e . and belongs to those who' they #all 9the eight gods. in Ethio%ia( and as to +an. #ontrariwise. Ba##hus.#eedingly an#ient. as was the #ase with Her#ules.uired a knowledge o$ the') Thus $ar 'y narrati&e rests on the a##ounts gi&en by the Egy%tians) n what $ollows ha&e the authority. a##ording to the Greeks. and +an.uite 'ani$est that the na'es o$ these gods be#a'e known to the Greeks a$ter those o$ their other deities. son o$ "e'ele. was her #hild by -er#ury<. it is . in the ti'es anterior to the' it was otherwise( then Egy%t had gods $or its rulers. and noted the' in their registers) But $ro' the %resent day to the ti'e o$ Ba##hus. there$ore. was no sooner born than he was sewn u% in 8u%iter1s thigh.isted be$ore the rest) Her#ules is one o$ the gods o$ the se#ond order. and +an as the youngest o$ the gods) 4ith the Egy%tians. abo&e Egy%t. it 'ight ha&e been said that the last7'entioned %ersonages were 'en who bore the na'es o$ #ertain %re&iously e. is about nine hundred( while to the ti'e o$ +an. not o$ the Egy%tians only. unable to #ontinue any while without a king. but o$ others also who agree with the') shall s%eak likewise in %art $ro' 'y own obser&ation) 4hen the Egy%tians regained their liberty a$ter the reign o$ the %riest o$ @ul#an.

ual. the latter built u%on the $or'er( the whole nu'ber o$ these #ha'bers is three thousand.%ense. and $ro' the #ha'bers into #olonnades. with gates e. with large $igures engra&ed on it. but the Labyrinth sur%asses the %yra'ids) t has twel&e #ourts.#ited in 'e in$inite ad'iration as %assed $ro' the #ourts into #ha'bers. and $ound it to sur%ass des#ri%tion( $or i$ all the walls and other great works o$ the Greeks #ould be %ut together in one. and si.. $i$teen hundred o$ ea#h kind) The u%%er #ha'bers 'ysel$ %assed through and saw. sin#e they #ontained . was be#ause at the &ery $irst establish'ent o$ the twel&e kingdo's an ora#le had de#lared7 9That he a'ong the' who should %our in @ul#an1s te'%le a libation $ro' a #u% o$ bron/e would be#o'e 'onar#h o$ the whole land o$ Egy%t)9 3ow the twel&e held their 'eetings at all the te'%les) To bind the'sel&es yet 'ore #losely together. like the walls( and the walls were #ar&ed all o&er with $igures( e&ery #ourt was surrounded with a #olonnade whi#h was built o$ white stones e.set twel&e kings o&er the') These twel&e kings. and are se&erally e. $orty $atho's high. but to dwell together in %er$e#t a'ity) 3ow the reason why they 'ade these sti%ulations.as they said< the se%ul#hres o$ the kings who built the Labyrinth. all o$ the' roo$ed. united together by inter'arriages. in the neighbourhood o$ the %la#e #alled the #ity o$ Cro#odiles) &isited this %la#e.uisitely $itted together) *t the #orner o$ the Labyrinth stands a %yra'id. and so is the te'%le o$ "a'os) The %yra'ids likewise sur%ass des#ri%tion. si. hal$ abo&e ground. whi#h is entered by a subterranean %assage) 4onder$ul as is the Labyrinth. ha&ing entered into engage'ents with one another not to de%ose any o$ their nu'ber. nor to ai' at any aggrandise'ent o$ one abo&e the rest. saw with 'y own eyes. ruled Egy%t in %ea#e. and $ro' the #olonnades into $resh houses. the work #alled the Lake o$ -oeris. either $or labour or e. and $ound the' to e. this Labyrinth( and yet the te'%le o$ E%hesus is a building worthy o$ note.#el all other hu'an %rodu#tions( $or the %assages through the houses.a#tly o%%osite one another. to the south) * single wall surrounds the entire building) There are two di$$erent sorts o$ #ha'bers throughout7 hal$ under ground. . looking to the north.ual to a nu'ber o$ the greatest works o$ the Greeks. and what say #on#erning the' is $ro' 'y own obser&ation( o$ the underground #ha'bers #an only s%eak $ro' re%ort0 $or the kee%ers o$ the building #ould not be got to show the'. howe&er. and again $ro' these into #ourts unseen be$ore) The roo$ was throughout o$ stone. they would not e. and also those o$ the sa#red #ro#odiles) Thus it is $ro' hearsay only that #an s%eak o$ the lower #ha'bers) The u%%er #ha'bers. and the &aried windings o$ the %aths a#ross the #ourts e. it see'ed good to the' to lea&e a #o''on 'onu'ent) n %ursuan#e o$ this resolution they 'ade the Labyrinth whi#h lies a little abo&e Lake -oeris. and guarded with #are against their in$ra#tion.

whi#h is here e.a#tly a $urlong . e. %ro#eeded to tunnel a %assage $ro' the house where they li&ed into the royal %ala#e. but is introdu#ed by a #anal $ro' the 3ile) The #urrent sets $or si.#e%t that they did it by day and not by night( $or as $ast as the earth was dug. and a $oot $our.. in bringing $orth the golden goblets $ro' whi#h they were wont to %our the libations.#essi&ely dry. and was #urious to know what had be#o'e o$ it.a#tly in the sa'e way that the Egy%tians dis%osed o$ the 'ould $ro' their e. is yet 'ore astonishing) The 'easure o$ its #ir#u'$eren#e is si. sin#e had heard o$ the sa'e thing being done at 3ine&eh o$ the *ssyrians) There. whi#h ran by 3ine&eh. and $or the ne. or three thousand si. on#e u%on a ti'e. whi#h they knew would dis%erse it $ar and wide) "u#h was the a##ount whi#h re#ei&ed o$ the $or'ation o$ this lake) The twel&e kings $or so'e ti'e dealt honourably by one another. $or nearly in the #entre there stand two %yra'ids. #ontinuing to get rid o$ it in this 'anner until they had a##o'%lished their %ur%ose) t was e. #al#ulating the distan#e and the dire#tion) *t night$all they took the earth $ro' the e.tending as $ar beneath.stadiu'< o$ si.t si. whi#h is the sa'e thing. 'onths into the lake $ro' the ri&er.#a&ation. whi#h is e. the 3ine&ite king. and in its dee%est %arts is o$ the de%th o$ $i$ty $atho's) t is 'ani$estly an arti$i#ial e. hundred $eet0 the $atho' being si. but at length it ha%%ened that on a #ertain o##asion. the high7%riest on the last day o$ the $esti&al. 'onths into the ri&er $ro' the lake) it runs outward it returns a talent o$ sil&er daily to the royal treasury $ro' the $ish that are taken. running westward into the interior by the hills abo&e -e'%his) *s #ould not anywhere see the earth whi#h had been taken out when the e. but when the #urrent is the other way the return sinks to one7third o$ that su') The nati&es told 'e that there was a subterranean %assage $ro' this lake to the Libyan "yrtis. 'istook the nu'ber and brought ele&en goblets only $or the twel&e %rin#es) +sa''eti#hus was . or $our #ubits.#a&ation. $eet in length.whi#h is #lose by the Labyrinth.ty s#hoenes. sin#e a #ubit 'easures si. #ertain thie&es.#a&ation and #arried it to the ri&er Tigris. hundred $urlongs. whi#h is e. and e.ual to the entire length o$ Egy%t along the sea7#oast) The lake stret#hes in its longest dire#tion $ro' north to south. #rowned ea#h o$ the' with a #olossal statue sitting u%on a throne) Thus these %yra'ids are one hundred $atho's high. %al's) The water o$ the lake does not #o'e out o$ the ground.#a&ation was 'ade. they #arried it to the 3ile. rising to the height o$ $i$ty $atho's abo&e the sur$a#e o$ the water. whi#h were laid u% in subterranean treasuries. when they had 'et to worshi% in the te'%le o$ @ul#an. ha&ing $or'ed a %lan to get into their %ossession the &ast treasures o$ "ardana%alus. asked the Egy%tians who li&e #losest to the lake where the earth had been %ut) The answer that they ga&e 'e readily a##e%ted as true.

$ro' o$$ his head. 'ade $riendly ad&an#es to the strangers. with their aid and that o$ the Egy%tians who es%oused his #ause. atta#ked the ele&en and &an. when they #a'e to #onsider what had been done. one o$ who' #arried the tidings to +sa''eti#hus. and ha&ing in. on a##ount o$ the libation whi#h he had %oured $ro' his hel'et( on this o##asion he $led to the 'arshes) Feeling that he was an in2ured 'an. and were seen by the nati&es.uen#e o$ his drea'. to stri% hi' o$ the #hie$ %art o$ his %ower and to banish hi' to the 'arshes. he took his hel'et. he was brought ba#k by the Egy%tians o$ the "aiti# #anton) 3ow it was his ill7$ortune to be banished a se#ond ti'e by the ele&en kings.ui%%ed in their bra/en ar'our. he re%orted that bra/en 'en had #o'e $ro' the sea and were %lundering the %lain) +sa''eti#hus. whi#h was o$ bron/e. howe&er. being le$t without a #u%. should %our a libation $ro' a #u% o$ bron/e.9 doubted at $irst i$ they should not %ut +sa''eti#hus to death) Finding. and. by s%lendid %ro'ises. he thought. o$ the twel&e. and engaged the'.uired #on#erning 'eans o$ &engean#e. %er#ei&ing at on#e that the ora#le was a##o'%lished. re#ei&ed $or answer that 9@engean#e would #o'e $ro' the sea. not long a$terwards #ertain Carians and onians who had le$t their #ountry on a &oyage o$ %lunder. $or ne&er. and bethought the' o$ the ora#le whi#h had de#lared 9that he who. would bra/en 'en arri&e to be his hel%ers) Howe&er. the sa'e would be king o$ the whole land o$ Egy%t. a$ter the retire'ent o$ the Ethio% in #onse. where there is an ora#le o$ Latona. howe&er. and all indeed wore the' at this &ery ti'e) 3or was there any #ra$ty design in the a#tion o$ +sa''eti#hus) The ele&en. and is surrounded with a #olonnade and adorned with a . that he had a#ted in the 'atter without any guilty intent. and also a #ourt $or *%is.standing last. all e. to enter into his ser&i#e) He then. and. $orbidding hi' to lea&e the' or to hold any #o''uni#ation with the rest o$ Egy%t) This was the se#ond ti'e that +sa''eti#hus had been dri&en into banish'ent) !n a $or'er o##asion he had $led $ro' "aba#os the Ethio%ian. in whi#h *%is is ke%t whene&er he 'akes his a%%earan#e in Egy%t) This #ourt is o%%osite the gateway o$ +sa''eti#hus.uor.a'ination. the 'ost &era#ious o$ all the ora#les o$ the Egy%tians.uished the') 4hen +sa''eti#hus had thus be#o'e sole 'onar#h o$ Egy%t. stret#hed it out to re#ei&e the li. u%on e. they did not think it would be 2ust to kill hi'( but deter'ined. who had %ut his $ather 3e#os to death( and had taken re$uge in "yria $ro' when#e. and designing to a&enge hi'sel$ u%on his %erse#utors. and so 'ade his libation) *ll the kings were a##usto'ed to wear hel'ets. he built the southern gateway o$ the te'%le o$ @ul#an in -e'%his. +sa''eti#hus sent to the #ity o$ Buto. were #arried by stress o$ weather to Egy%t where they dise'barked. instead. when bra/en 'en should a%%ear)9 Great was his in#redulity when this answer arri&ed. as he had ne&er be$ore seen 'en #lad in brass.

o$ all the things that were a#tually to be seen about the te'%le) The ne. one o$ *%ollo and one o$ 5iana) Latona1s te'%le. as ha&e said. a little below the #ity o$ Bubastis. the length and height o$ whi#h were the sa'e. he intrusted to their #are #ertain Egy%tian #hildren who' they were to tea#h the language o$ the Greeks) These #hildren. one on either side o$ the 3ile. is Buto( and in it are two other te'%les also. be#a'e the %arents o$ the entire #lass o$ inter%reters in Egy%t) The onians and Carians o##u%ied $or 'any years the %la#es assigned the' by +sa''eti#hus.tent o$ $our #ubits) This. was what astonished 'e the 'ost. and settled the' at -e'%his to guard hi' against the nati&e Egy%tians) Fro' the date o$ the original settle'ent o$ these %ersons in Egy%t. shall now %ro#eed to gi&e an a##ount o$ it 'ore at length) t is a te'%le o$ Latona. thus instru#ted. and. whi#h re#ei&ed the na'e o$ 9the Ca'%s)9 He also 'ade good all the s%lendid %ro'ises by whi#h he had gained their su%%ort( and $urther. the #olonnade rests u%on #olossal statues. as it well deser&es noti#e. and 'any other . twel&e #ubits in height) The Greek na'e $or *%is is E%a%hus) To the onians and Carians who had lent hi' their assistan#e +sa''eti#hus assigned as abodes two %la#es o%%osite to ea#h other. when they told 'e #on#erning it. on the +elusia# 'outh o$ the 3ile) ?ing *'asis long a$terwards re'o&ed the Greeks hen#e. in whi#h are three distin#t altars) +al' trees grow on it in great abundan#e.t greatest 'ar&el was the island #alled Che''is) This island lies in the 'iddle o$ a broad and dee% lake #lose by the te'%le. ea#h wall being $orty #ubits s. be$ore they were re'o&ed by *'asis) "u#h was the 'ode by whi#h +sa''eti#hus be#a'e 'aster o$ Egy%t) ha&e already 'ade 'ention 'ore than on#e o$ the Egy%tian ora#le. ha&e a#. whether there be really su#h a thing as a $loating island) t has a grand te'%le o$ *%ollo built u%on it. whi#h lay near the sea.uare. at so'e distan#e u% the ri&er $ro' the sea) The na'e o$ the #ity. and the nati&es de#lare that it $loats) For 'y own %art did not see it $loat. whi#h #ontains the ora#le.'ultitude o$ $igures) nstead o$ %illars. through our inter#ourse with the'. or e&en 'o&e( and wondered greatly. is a s%a#ious building with a gateway ten $atho's in height) The 'ost wonder$ul thing that was a#tually to be seen about this te'%le was a #ha%el in the en#losure 'ade o$ a single stone. and the whole a single blo#k> *nother blo#k o$ stone $or'ed the roo$ and %ro2e#ted at the ea&es to the e. situated in the 'idst o$ a great #ity on the "ebennyti# 'outh o$ the 3ile. $ro' the reign o$ +sa''eti#hus downwards( but be$ore his ti'e no $oreigners had e&er taken u% their residen#e in that land) The do#ks where their &essels were laid u% and the ruins o$ their habitations were still to be seen in 'y day at the %la#e where they dwelt originally.uired an a##urate knowledge o$ the se&eral e&ents in Egy%tian history. we Greeks. as ha&e be$ore obser&ed.

ui#kest %assage. e'%loyed u%on the work in the reign o$ 3e#os. Latona. Horus( Ceres they #all sis( 5iana. it 'ust ha&e been that *es#hylus. who su##eeded hi' u%on the throne) This %rin#e was the $irst to atte'%t the #onstru#tion o$ the #anal to the Red "ea7 a work #o'%leted a$terwards by 5arius the +ersian7 the length o$ whi#h is $our days1 2ourney. was $irst 'ade to $loat) "u#h at least is the a##ount whi#h the Egy%tians gi&e) +sa''eti#hus ruled Egy%t $or $i$ty7$our years.uen#e o$ an ora#le whi#h warned hi' 9that he was labouring $or the barbarian)9 The Egy%tians #all by the na'e o$ barbarians all su#h as s%eak a language di$$erent $ro' their own) .trees. where now she has her ora#le. so'e o$ whi#h bear $ruit. the *rabian town. to the Gul$ o$ *rabia. took the idea.#a&ation) He at length desisted $ro' his undertaking. the shortest and . in #onse. while others are barren) The Egy%tians tell the $ollowing story in #onne#tion with this island. one o$ the eight gods o$ the $irst order.ed and 'otionless. and in whi#h lie the great stone . whi#h the #anal lea&es a little abo&e the #ity o$ Bubastis. during twenty7nine o$ whi#h he %ressed the siege o$ */otus without inter'ission. o$ 'aking 5iana the daughter o$ Ceres)< The island.a#tly one thousand $urlongs) But the way by the #anal is &ery 'u#h longer on a##ount o$ the #rookedness o$ its #ourse) * hundred and twenty thousand o$ the Egy%tians. is a distan#e o$ e. trending southwards $ro' this %oint until it enters the *rabian Gul$) Fro' the northern sea to that whi#h is #alled the southern or Erythraean.uen#e o$ this e&ent. lost their li&es in 'aking the e. whi#h is $ro' -ount Casius.%lain the way in whi#h it $irst #a'e to $loat07 9 n $or'er ti'es. there$ore. Bubastis) Fro' this Egy%tian tradition. and sa&ed hi' by hiding hi' in what is now #alled the $loating island) Ty%hon 'eanwhile was sear#hing e&erywhere in ho%es o$ $inding the #hild o$ !siris)9 . who dwelt in the #ity o$ Buto.uarries( here it skirts the base o$ the hills running in a dire#tion $ro' west to east. and the width su#h as to ad'it o$ two trire'es being rowed along it abreast) The water is deri&ed $ro' the 3ile. the son o$ Eu%horion. the boundary between Egy%t and "yria.*##ording to the Egy%tians. to e. as $ar as the #hain o$ hills o%%osite -e'%his. and $ro' no other. in their language. near +atu'us. till $inally he took the %la#e) */otus is a great town in "yria) !$ all the #ities that we know. while Latona is their nurse and their %reser&er) They #all *%ollo. a$ter whi#h it turns and enters a narrow %ass. being #ontinued then#e until it 2oins the Red "ea) *t $irst it is #arried along the *rabian side o$ the Egy%tian %lain. when the isle was still $i. none e&er stood so long a siege) +sa''eti#hus le$t a son #alled 3e#os. re#ei&ed *%ollo as a sa#red #harge $ro' sis. in #onse. *%ollo and 5iana are the #hildren o$ Ba##hus and sis. whi#h is $ound in none o$ the earlier %oets. whereby the %lain is bounded.

and allow no nati&e o$ Elis to be a #andidate)9 "u#h was the ad&i#e whi#h the Egy%tians ga&e to the Eleans) +sa''is reigned only si. boasting that their arrange'ents $or the #ondu#t o$ the !ly'%i# Ga'es were the best and $airest that #ould be de&ised. his great7grand$ather. o$ 'ali#e %re%ense. years) He atta#ked Ethio%ia. turned all his thoughts to war. they de%arted $ro' 2usti#e &ery widely. 9 $ they allowed their own #iti/ens to enter the lists:9 The Eleans answered. only tou#hing it &ery brie$ly here) *n ar'y des%at#hed by *%ries to atta#k Cyrene.3e#os. and i$ this was the ob2e#t o$ their #o'ing to Egy%t. sin#e it was i'%ossible but that they would $a&our their own #ountry'en and deal un$airly by $oreigners) $ there$ore they really wished to 'anage the ga'es with $airness. 9That i$ this were so. 3e#os died. su##eeded hi' u%on the throne. when he ga&e u% the #onstru#tion o$ the #anal. and e. they ad&ised the' to #on$ine the #ontests to strangers.ueathed the throne to his son +sa''is) n the reign o$ +sa''is. the king su''oned an asse'bly o$ all the wisest o$ the Egy%tians) They 'et. while he also 'ade war by land u%on the "yrians and de$eated the' in a %it#hed battle at -agdolus. an o##asion arose whi#h shall des#ribe 'ore $ully in 'y Libyan history. and so'e $or the na&igation o$ the Erythraean) These last were built in the *rabian Gul$ where the dry do#ks in whi#h they lay are still &isible) These $leets he e'%loyed where&er he had o##asion. who sur%assed all other nations in wisdo'. 9That the lists were o%en to all Greeks.uiry. e.%lained the reason o$ their &isit. i'agining that he had. and $ought a battle with the king o$ Tyre by sea) 4hen at length the ti'e #a'e that was $ated to bring hi' woe. ha&ing 'et with a terrible re&erse. who. and died al'ost dire#tly a$terwards) *%ries. so'e intended $or ser&i#e in the northern sea. the Egy%tians laid the bla'e on hi'. was the 'ost %ros%erous o$ all the kings that e&er ruled o&er Egy%t) The length o$ his reign was twenty7$i&e years. #ould add anything to their %er$e#tion) 4hen these %ersons rea#hed Egy%t. a large #ity o$ "yria) The dress whi#h he wore on these o##asions he sent to Bran#hidae in -ilesia. and set to work to build a $leet o$ trire'es.teen years. as an o$$ering to *%ollo) *$ter ha&ing reigned in all si. and the Eleans ha&ing gi&en the' a $ull a##ount o$ all their rules and regulations with res%e#t to the #ontests said that they had #o'e to Egy%t $or the e. and in the #ourse o$ it he 'ar#hed an ar'y to atta#k "idon. a'bassadors $ro' Elis arri&ed in Egy%t. a$ter whi#h he 'ade hi'sel$ 'aster o$ Cadytis.%ress %ur%ose o$ learning whether the Egy%tians #ould i'%ro&e the $airness o$ their regulations in any %arti#ular) The Egy%tians #onsidered awhile and then 'ade in. and $an#ying that not e&en the Egy%tians.#e%ting +sa''eti#hus. sent the troo%s into the 2aws o$ destru#tion) They . and at his death be. whether they belonged to Elis or to any other state)9 Hereu%on the Egy%tians obser&ed. his son.

and the boat'en) Their titles indi#ate their o##u%ations) The warriors #onsist o$ Her'otybians and Calas#irians. well worthy o$ noti#e) The ar'y o$ *%ries 'ar#hed out to atta#k the host o$ the Egy%tians. as he was seek) ing to restrain the 'al#ontents by his e.horting *'asis to obey the su''ons o$ the king.ys' o$ rage.belie&ed he had wished a &ast nu'ber o$ the' to be slain in order that he hi'sel$ 'ight reign with 'ore se#urity o&er the rest o$ the Egy%tians) ndignant there$ore at this usage. sent +atarbe'is. to *'asis with orders to bring hi' ali&e into his %resen#e) +atarbe'is. that he thereby #rowned hi' king) *'asis was not altogether dis%leased at the a#tion. on learning these #ir#u'stan#es. as his #ondu#t soon 'ade 'ani$est( $or no sooner had the insurgents agreed to 'ake hi' a#tually their king than he %re%ared to 'ar#h with the' against *%ries) That 'onar#h.a#tly what he had long been intending to do( *%ries would ha&e no reason to #o'%lain o$ hi' on the s#ore o$ delay( he would shortly #o'e hi'sel$ to the king. one o$ the'. on arri&ing at the %la#e where *'asis was. in$or'ed o$ this new #ala'ity. the warriors. when he saw hi' a%%roa#hing without *'asis. sent *'asis to the rebels to a%%ease the tu'ult by %ersuasion) 6%on his arri&al. the whole o$ Egy%t . 9+rythee take that ba#k to thy 'aster)9 4hen the en&oy. and bring others with hi')9 +atarbe'is. without a 'o'ent1s hesitation went o&er to the rebels. and not gi&ing hi'sel$ ti'e $or re$le#tion. who #o'e $ro' di$$erent #antons. who had hitherto es%oused the #ause o$ *%ries. the swineherds. the soldiers who returned and the $riends o$ the slain broke instantly into re&olt) *%ries. wishing to in$or' the king with all s%eed o$ what was going on) *%ries. whereu%on *'asis broke a #oarse 2est. e. he 'ade answer 9that this was e. $ell into a %aro. de%arted hastily. on tidings o$ these e&ents rea#hing hi'. #o'%rehending the intention o$ *'asis. and said. the inter%reters. #o''anded the nose and ears o$ +atarbe'is to be #ut o$$) Then the rest o$ the Egy%tians.uest.hortations. nu'bering thirty thousand 'en. u%on this. notwithstanding this re%ly. where his %ala#e stood7 a &ast building. one o$ his #ourtiers. the #owherds. howe&er. #o'ing behind hi'. and %ut the'sel&es at the dis%osal o$ *'asis) *%ries. when they saw a 'an o$ su#h note a'ong the' so sha'e$ully outraged. %ersisted in his re. and led the' against the Egy%tians0 this was a body o$ Carians and onians. #alled on hi' to #o'e ba#k with hi' to the king. as he %ut it on. whi#h was now with hi' at "ays. the %riests. while that o$ *'asis went $orth to $ight the strangers( and now both ar'ies drew near the #ity o$ -o'e'%his and %re%ared $or the #o'ing $ight) The Egy%tians are di&ided into se&en distin#t #lasses7 these are. saying. %ut a hel'et on his head. %artly $ro' his re%lies and %artly $ro' the %re%arations whi#h he saw in %rogress. the trades'en. a 'an o$ high rank. ar'ed his 'er#enaries.

the +ersians. where he was lodged . an engage'ent %resently took %la#e) The $oreign troo%s $ought bra&ely. +harbaethus. and *'asis. re#ei&ed a daily %ortion o$ 'eat and drink. and the sa'e nu'ber o$ Her'otybians. %arti#ularly a'ong the La#edae'onians) Corinth is the %la#e where 'e#hani#s are least des%ised) The warrior #lass in Egy%t had #ertain s%e#ial %ri&ileges in whi#h none o$ the rest o$ the Egy%tians %arti#i%ated. "ebennytus. Bubastis. while they estee' as noble those who kee% aloo$ $ro' handi#ra$ts. like so 'any others.#e%t the %riests) n the $irst %la#e ea#h 'an had twel&e arurae o$ land assigned hi' $ree $ro' ta. ha&e a'ounted to two hundred and $i$ty thousand) Like the Her'otybians. but were o&er%owered by nu'bers. in #o''and o$ the whole nati&e $or#e o$ the Egy%tians. #onsisting o$ $i&e %ounds o$ baked bread. besides their arurae. when at their greatest nu'ber. and $our #u%s o$ wine) 4hen *%ries. Th'uis. and de&ote the'sel&es entirely to warlike e.uare o$ a hundred Egy%tian #ubits. at the head o$ his 'er#enaries. he $ell into the ene'y1s hands and was brought ba#k a %risoner to "ais. the Egy%tian #ubit being o$ the sa'e length as the "a'ian)< *ll the warriors en2oyed this %ri&ilege together. and their #hildren. *thribis. the son $ollowing the $ather1s #alling) 4hether the Greeks borrowed $ro' the Egy%tians their notions about trade.er#ises. -endes.ty thousand) 3one o$ the' e&er %ra#ti#es a trade. that o$ the island #alled +roso%itis. in less re%ute than the rest.The arura is a s. !nu%his. and es%e#ially honour su#h as are gi&en wholly to war) These ideas %re&ail throughout the whole o$ Gree#e. in whi#h they $ell &ery $ar short o$ their ad&ersaries) t is said that *%ries belie&ed that there was not a god who #ould #ast hi' down $ro' his e'inen#e. but there were other ad&antages whi#h #a'e to ea#h in rotation. $or'ed in alternate years the body7guard o$ the king( and during their year o$ ser&i#e these %ersons.) . Tanis. the sa'e 'an ne&er obtaining the' twi#e) * thousand Calas#irians. *%hthis. Che''is. they are $orbidden to %ursue any trade. e. the Lydians. so $ir'ly did he think that he had established hi'sel$ in his kingdo') But at this ti'e the battle went against hi'. "ais. and hal$ o$ 3atho) They nu'ber. en#ountered one another near the #ity o$ -o'e'%his.being %ar#elled out into distri#ts bearing this na'e) The $ollowing #antons $urnish the Her'otybians07 The #antons o$ Busiris. and -ye#%horis7 this last #anton #onsists o$ an island whi#h lies o&er against the town o$ Bubastis) The Calas#irians. but all are gi&en wholly to war) The #antons o$ the Calas#irians are di$$erent7 they in#lude the $ollowing07 The #antons o$ Thebes. a hundred and si. *nysis. the "#yths. and his ar'y being worsted. and al'ost all other barbarians. two %ounds o$ bee$. when 'ost nu'erous. +a%re'is. hold the #iti/ens who %ra#ti#e trades. #annot say $or #ertain) ha&e re'arked that the Thra#ians.

but shall not 'ention the'.#e%t so $ar as 'ay be done without i'%iety) The daughters o$ 5anaus brought these rites $ro' Egy%t. whi#h the Greeks ter' 9the Thes'o%horia. being a nati&e o$ the town #alled "iou%h) *t $irst his sub2e#ts looked down on hi' and held hi' in s'all estee'. *'asis reigned o&er Egy%t) He belonged to the #anton o$ "ais.in what had been his own house. and in si/e. and 'ade o$ the gold an i'age o$ one o$ the gods. to deal with as they #hose) Then the Egy%tians took hi' and strangled hi'. and there is a lake near the'. and ke%t hi' in the %ala#e $or a while( but $inding his #ondu#t bla'ed by the Egy%tians. who #harged hi' with a#ting un2ustly in %reser&ing a 'an who had shown hi'sel$ so bitter an ene'y both to the' and hi'.9 know the'. on the le$t hand as one enters) The "aites buried all the kings who belonged to their #anton inside this te'%le( and thus it e&en #ontains the to'b o$ *'asis. &ery near the san#tuary. behind whi#h lies the se%ul#hre o$ the king) Here too. as well as that o$ *%ries and his $a'ily) The latter is not so #lose to the san#tuary as the $or'er. whi#h it entirely #o&ers) There are also so'e large stone obelisks in the en#losure. as it see'ed to 'e. and o$ a house o$ no great distin#tion( but a$ter a ti'e *'asis su##eeded in re#on#iling the' to his rule. is the burial7%la#e o$ one who' think it not right to 'ention in su#h a #onne#tion) t stands behind the te'%le. but still it is within the te'%le) t stands in the #ourt.ual to the lake in 5elos #alled 9the Hoo%)9 !n this lake it is that the Egy%tians re%resent by night his su$$erings whose na'e re$rain $ro' 'entioning. and is a s%a#ious #loister built o$ stone and adorned with %illars #ar&ed so as to rese'ble %al' trees. but by #le&erness) *'ong his other s%lendour he had a golden $oot7%an. adorned with an edging o$ stone) n $or' it is #ir#ular. when the inhabitants o$ the %eninsula were dri&en $ro' their ho'es by the 5orians. where the nati&es re'ained and were not #o'%elled to 'igrate. their obser&an#e #ontinued) *$ter *%ries had been %ut to death in the way that ha&e des#ribed abo&e. in this sa'e %re#in#t o$ -iner&a at "ais. about e. but they shall not %ass 'y li%s) "o too. but ha&ing so done they buried hi' in the se%ul#hre o$ his $athers) This to'b is in the te'%le o$ -iner&a. and this re%resentation they #all their -ysteries) know well the whole #ourse o$ the %ro#eedings in these #ere'onies. the rites %erished) !nly in *r#adia. and taught the' to the +elasgi# wo'en o$ the +elo%onnese) *$terwards. not by se&erity. and with other su'%tuous orna'ents) 4ithin the #loister is a #ha'ber with $olding doors. against the ba#kwall. be#ause he had been a 'ere %ri&ate %erson. he ga&e *%ries o&er into the hands o$ his $or'er sub2e#ts. . in whi#h his guests and hi'sel$ were wont u%on o##asion to wash their $eet) This &essel he #aused to be broken in %ie#es. e. but was now the %ala#e o$ *'asis) *'asis treated hi' with kindness. with regard to the 'ysteries o$ Ceres.

uented the' $or sa#ri$i#e. there$ore. whi#h is an astonishing work.uit hi') 4hen a$terwards he #a'e to be king. he sedulously transa#ted all the business that was brought be$ore hi'( during the re'ainder o$ the day he drank and 2oked with his guests. yet now it was greatly re&eren#ed) 9*nd truly. he roa'ed about and robbed %eo%le) !n su#h o##asions the %ersons $ro' who' he had stolen would bring hi'. and whene&er his 'eans $ailed hi'. they lose their senses. and $ail the ar#her in ti'e o$ need) "o it is with 'en) $ they gi&e the'sel&es #onstantly to serious work. he negle#ted the te'%les o$ su#h gods as had de#lared that he was not a thie$. be$ore the nearest ora#le( so'eti'es the ora#le would %ronoun#e hi' guilty o$ the the$t.whi#h he set u% in the 'ost %ubli# %la#e in the whole #ity( u%on whi#h the Egy%tians $lo#ked to the i'age. and neither #ontributed to their adorn'ent nor $re. so'eti'es. $inding this was so. and these he honoured e. and o%ened the 'atter to the'. #alled an asse'bly. and was a&erse to engaging in any serious e'%loy'ent) He li&ed in #onstant $easts and re&elries. yet now he had #o'e to be their king) *nd so he bade the' honour and re&eren#e hi')9 "u#h was the 'ode in whi#h he won o&er the Egy%tians. had the sa'e tastes $or drinking and 2esting. thou dost but ill guard thy royal dignity whilst thou allowest thysel$ in su#h le&ities) Thou shouldest sit in state u%on a stately throne. di&ide 'y li$e between %asti'e and business)9 Thus he answered his $riends) t is said that *'asis. he built the gateway o$ the te'%le o$ -iner&a at "ais. e&en while he was a %ri&ate 'an. sin#e he regarded the' as utterly worthless and their ora#les as wholly $alse0 but the gods who had dete#ted his guilt he #onsidered to be true gods whose ora#les did not de#ei&e. and brought the' to be #ontent to do hi' ser&i#e) The $ollowing was the general habit o$ his li$e07 $ro' early dawn to the ti'e when the $oru' is wont to $ill. i$ he denied the #harge.%laining how the i'age had been 'ade o$ the $oot7%an. e. at other ti'es it would a#. and worshi%%ed it with the ut'ost re&eren#e) *'asis. and ne&er indulge awhile in %asti'e or s%ort. and thou wouldst be better s%oken o$) But now thou #ondu#test thysel$ in no kingly $ashion)9 *'asis answered the' thus07 9Bow'en bend their bows when they wish to shoot( unbra#e the' when the shooting is o&er) 4ere they ke%t always strung they would break. s#ar#e see'ly #on&ersation) t grie&ed his $riends that he should thus de'ean hi'sel$. and busy thysel$ with a$$airs the whole day long) "o would the Egy%tians $eel that a great 'an rules the'. and be#o'e 'ad or 'oody) ?nowing this. %assing the ti'e in witty and. $ar sur%assing all .9 he went on to say. 9it had gone with hi' as with the $oot7%an) $ he was a %ri&ate %erson $or'erly. saying to hi'7 9!h> king. and a##ordingly so'e o$ the' #hid hi' on the sub2e#t. wherein they had been wont $or'erly to wash their $eet and to %ut all 'anner o$ $ilth.#eedingly) First o$ all.

should be %ut to death) "olon the *thenian borrowed this law $ro' the Egy%tians.ths( the breadth. hea&ed a sigh.tent and height. $ailing to do so. a &ast stru#ture.other buildings o$ the sa'e kind both in e. and show his 'eans o$ li&ing( or.uarry to "ais( and in the #on&eyan#e were e'%loyed no $ewer than two thousand labourers. besides #ertain stones $or the re%airs. who were all $ro' the #lass o$ boat'en) The length o$ this #ha'ber on the outside is twenty7one #ubits. whi#h is se&enty7$i&e $eet long) Two other #olossal statues stand on the sa'e base. where it was le$t in #onse. eight) The 'easure'ents inside are the $ollowing07 the length.#ellent #usto') *'asis was %artial to the Greeks. and its height. and built with stones o$ rare si/e and e. twel&e #ubits( and the height. ga&e to su#h as liked to settle in Egy%t the #ity o$ 3au#ratis $or their residen#e) To those who only wished to trade . whi#h was . eighteen #ubits and $i&e7si. would not allow the #ha'ber to be 'o&ed $orward any $arther) "o'e.traordinary si/e) "o'e o$ these he got $ro' the .#ellen#y) n the ne. but the largest were brought $ro' Ele%hantine. and a'ong other $a&ours whi#h he granted the'. #onsidering the length o$ ti'e that the re'o&al had taken.es.uarried at Ele%hantine) t took three years to #on&ey this blo#k $ro' the .uarries o&er against -e'%his.uen#e o$ the $ollowing #ir#u'stan#e07 it ha%%ened that the ar#hite#t. its breadth $ourteen #ubits. $or instan#e. whi#h is twenty days1 &oyage $ro' "ais) !$ all these wonder$ul 'asses that whi#h 'ost ad'ire is a #ha'ber 'ade o$ a single stone. re#u'bent like that at -e'%his) *'asis $inally built the te'%le o$ sis at -e'%his. howe&er.7 the ri&er was 'ore liberal to the land. he ga&e the re#u'bent #olossus in $ront o$ the te'%le o$ @ul#an. and to %ro&e that he got an honest li&elihood. say that one o$ the work'en engaged at the le&ers was #rushed and killed by the 'ass. 2ust as the stone had rea#hed the s%ot where it now stands. and that this was the reason o$ its being le$t where it now stands) To the other te'%les o$ 'u#h note *'asis also 'ade 'agni$i#ent o$$erings7 at -e'%his. he %resented to the te'%le a nu'ber o$ large #olossal statues and se&eral %rodigious andro7s%hin. regarding it as an o'en. who ha&e obser&ed it e&er sin#e) t is indeed an e. o$ a 'ost e. and $eeling wearied with the hea&y toil) The sigh was heard by *'asis who. and i'%osed it on his #ountry'en. and the land brought $orth 'ore abundantly $or the ser&i#e o$ 'an than had e&er been known be$ore( while the nu'ber o$ inhabited #ities was not less than twenty thousand) t was this king *'asis who established the law that e&ery Egy%tian should a%%ear on#e a year be$ore the go&ernor o$ his #anton.t %la#e. #ar&ed in the stone o$ Ethio%ia. $i&e) t lies near the entran#e o$ the te'%le. ea#h twenty $eet high. one on either side o$ the te'%le) There is also a stone #olossus o$ the sa'e si/e at "ays. well worth seeing) t is said that the reign o$ *'asis was the 'ost %ros%erous ti'e that Egy%t e&er saw.

and a'ong their other wanderings #a'e to Egy%t and asked $or hel%) Fro' $ew other %la#es did they obtain so 'u#h7 *'asis ga&e the' a thousand talents o$ alu'. and so bring the' to 3au#ratis. or be#ause he had a $an#y to 'arry a Greek wo'an) Howe&er this 'ay be. and Ladi#e %er$or'ed her &ow) The statue whi#h she #aused to be 'ade. #onse#rated $or the'sel&es se%arate te'%les7 the Eginetans one to 8u%iter. and the -ilesians to *%ollo) n an#ient ti'es there was no $a#tory but 3au#ratis in the whole o$ Egy%t( and i$ a %erson entered one o$ the other 'ouths o$ the 3ile. . one o$ the #hie$ #iti/ens) 4hen the ti'e #a'e to #o'%lete the #ontra#t. he 'ust take his wares by boat all round the 5elta.u%on the #oast. and *eolians. he granted #ertain lands where they 'ight set u% altars and ere#t te'%les to the gods) !$ these te'%les the grandest and 'ost $a'ous. and +haselis o$ the 5orians( and -ytilene o$ the *eolians) These are the states to who' the te'%le belongs. he was obliged to swear that he had not #o'e there o$ his own $ree will) Ha&ing so done. that i$ he re#o&ered within the day . the king7 others.$or no longer ti'e was allowed her<. the $ollowing #ities taking %art in the work07 the onian states o$ Chios. *'asis was stru#k with weakness) *stonished hereat7 $or he was not wont to be so a$$li#ted7 the king thus addressed his bride0 94o'an. #ertain it is that he es%oused a lady o$ Cyrene. but in &ain( *'asis was not so$tened) Hereu%on she 'ade a &ow internally. o$ Battus or *r#esilaus. or were that i'%ossible owing to #ontrary winds. their abode in the #ountry. and sent to Cyrene #ontinued there to 'y day. whi#h had an e. howe&er. daughter. and Cla/o'enae( Rhodes. either as a sign o$ his $riendly $eeling. +ho#aea. she would %resent a statue to the te'%le o$ @enus at Cyrene) ''ediately she obtained her wish. by na'e Ladi#e. so'e say. 5orians. thou hast #ertainly bewit#hed 'e7 now there$ore be sure thou shalt %erish 'ore 'iserably than e&er wo'an %erished yet)9 Ladi#e %rotested her inno#en#e. Hali#arnassus. o$ whi#h su' one7$ourth was to be $urnished by the 5el%hians) 6nder these #ir#u'stan#es the 5el%hians went $ro' #ity to #ity begging #ontributions. and the king1s weakness disa%%eared) *'asis lo&ed her greatly e&er a$ter. and did not want to $i. is that #alled 9the Helleniu')9 t was built #on2ointly by the onians. and the Greek settlers twenty 'inae) * league was #on#luded by *'asis with the Cyrenaeans.#lusi&e %ri&ilege) t ha%%ened in the reign o$ *'asis that the te'%le o$ 5el%hi had been a##identally burnt. o$ Critobulus. he was bound to sail in his shi% to the Canobi# 'outh. and they ha&e the right o$ a%%ointing the go&ernors o$ the $a#tory( the other #ities whi#h #lai' a share in the building.uented. by whi#h Cyrene and Egy%t be#a'e #lose $riends and allies) He likewise took a wi$e $ro' that #ity. and the *'%hi#tyons had #ontra#ted to ha&e it rebuilt $or three hundred talents. Cnidus. the "a'ians to 8uno. Teos. whi#h is also the 'ost $re. #lai' what in no sense belongs to the') Three nations.

whi#h stood in the great te'%le to 'y day. it 'ight 'ake Ca'byses his ene'y) 4hen the 'essage #a'e. tri#king 'e out with gauds. ha%%ened to #all her by her $ather1s na'e. was greatly %er%le. $or no su#h reason. as he ga&e her an e'bra#e. the son o$ *ea#es0 Lindus. he knew $or #ertain) He there$ore #ast the 'atter in his 'ind. whi#h no 'an had e&er done be$ore. 9 see. and a linen #orslet well worth ins%e#tion) To the "a'ian 8uno he %resented two statues o$ hi'sel$. whereu%on she said to hi'. and built the te'%le o$ -iner&a) "u#h were the o$$erings o$ *'asis) He likewise took Cy%rus. who 'u#h dreaded the %ower o$ the +ersians. who was angry with *'asis $or ha&ing torn hi' $ro' his wi$e and #hildren and gi&en hi' o&er to the +ersians. and #o'%elled it to %ay hi' a tribute) The Third Book. sent her ba#k unhar'ed to her #ountry) Besides the 'arks o$ $a&our already 'entioned. and his reason $or urging Ca'byses to ask the hand o$ the king1s daughter was. when Cyrus had re. a tall and beauti$ul wo'an. when Ca'byses #on. Ca'byses. na'ed 3itetis. and. who' *'asis. behind the doors) "a'os was honoured with these gi$ts on a##ount o$ the bond o$ $riendshi% subsisting between *'asis and +oly#rates. but would only re#ei&e her as his #on#ubine.uered Egy%t. *'asis. it 'ight #ause hi' annoyan#e( i$ he re$used. son o$ Cyrus. sent 'e to thee as his own .%edition( and with hi' went an ar'y #o'%osed o$ the 'any nations under his rule. singled out as the best $ro' the whole nu'ber) There$ore the Egy%tian bore *'asis a grudge. and $inally resol&ed what he would do) There was a daughter o$ the late king *%ries. and a %ainted likeness o$ hi'sel$) To the -iner&a o$ Lindus he ga&e two statues in stone. Entitled TH*L * The abo&e7'entioned *'asis was the Egy%tian king against who' Ca'byses. 'ade in wood. thou knowest not how thou has been #heated by *'asis( who took 'e. and de#king her out with gold and #ostly gar'ents. a'ong the' being in#luded both oni# and *eoli# Greeks) The reason o$ the in&asion was the $ollowing) Ca'byses. that i$ he #o'%lied.uested that he would send hi' the 'ost skil$ul o$ all the Egy%tian eye7do#tors. by the ad&i#e o$ a #ertain Egy%tian. had sent a herald to *'asis to ask his daughter in 'arriage) His ad&iser was a %hysi#ian. sent her to +ersia as i$ she had been his own #hild) "o'e ti'e a$terwards. the last sur&i&or o$ that royal house) *'asis took this wo'an. but be#ause o$ the tradition that the daughters o$ 5anaus tou#hed there in their $light $ro' the sons o$ *egy%tus. su$$ered no wrong( $or Ca'byses. on learning o$ her who she was. *'asis also enri#hed with o$$erings 'any o$ the Greek te'%les) He sent to Cyrene a statue o$ -iner&a #o&ered with %lates o$ gold.ed whether to gi&e his daughter or no( $or that Ca'byses did not intend to 'ake her his wi$e. 'ade his e. ! king.standing with its $a#e looking outwards $ro' the #ity) Ladi#e hersel$.

ious to re#o&er hi'. and not Ca'byses. $irst. answered. but ad&ised hi' also how the desert 'ight be #rossed) He #ounselled hi' to send an a'bassador to the king o$ the *rabs.%edition) !ne o$ the 'er#enaries o$ *'asis. the daughter o$ +harnas%es. wishing to get s%ee#h with hi') *s he was a %erson o$ no s'all a##ount a'ong the 'er#enaries.%ress her &e.uite distin#t. 9Though su#h the #hildren ha&e borne hi'. *'asis.#lai'ed. until he rebelled against hi'. #lai' Ca'byses as belonging to the'. the eldest o$ her boys. and the #ause o$ . howe&er. dissatis$ied $or so'e reason or other with his 'aster. when a' a 'an. who sent to *'asis $or his daughter) But here they 'is7state the truth) *#.a#t intelligen#e about Egy%t. $led to Ca'byses. they say. a Hali#arnassian. then standing by. they say. an *#hae'enian. yet Cyrus slights 'e and gi&es all his regard to the new7#o'er $ro' Egy%t)9 Thus did she e. a 'an o$ good 2udg'ent. will turn Egy%t u%side down $or you)9 He was but ten years old. whi#h roused the anger o$ Ca'byses. and not only told hi' all the se#rets o$ *'asis. de#laring that he was the son o$ this 3itetis) t was Cyrus. when +hanes arri&ed. that it is not the +ersian wont to allow a bastard to reign when there is a legiti'ate heir( and ne. together with the rest o$ the Egy%tians. whi#h hel%ed to bring about the e.%edition against Egy%t) There was another 'atter. and ad'ired the' e. who was his lord and 'aster.uest o$ the Hali#arnassian in a &essel o$ war) The eunu#h #aught hi' in Ly#ia. whi#h do not at all belie&e0 that a +ersian lady #a'e to &isit the wi&es o$ Cyrus. and astonished all the wo'en. +hanes by na'e. and doubting how he 'ight best %ass the desert. and seeing how tall and beauti$ul were the #hildren o$ Cassandane. and ask . 9-other. ordered that he should be %ursued) He ga&e the 'atter in #harge to one o$ the 'ost trusty o$ the eunu#hs.ation on a##ount o$ 3itetis0 whereu%on Ca'byses. who went in . an.#eedingly) But Cassandane. they #annot but be well aware.uainted as they are beyond all other 'en with the laws and #usto's o$ the +ersians. when he #a'e to be a 'an. and 'ounted the throne. and one who #ould gi&e &ery e. that Ca'byses was the son o$ Cassandane.uarrel it dis#losed. but did not #ontri&e to bring hi' ba#k to Egy%t. and a bra&e warrior. he 'ade his e. broke out into loud %raise o$ the'. as the tale runs. son o$ Cyrus. wi$e o$ Cyrus.t. yet he ne&er $orgot it a$terwards( and on this a##ount.daughter) But a' in truth the #hild o$ *%ries. when he said this. and %ut hi' to death)9 t was this s%ee#h. . and then es#a%ing into +ersia) 3ow it ha%%ened that Ca'byses was 'editating his atta#k on Egy%t. e. and brought his ar's u%on Egy%t) "u#h is the +ersian story) The Egy%tians. and taking shi%. deserted the ser&i#e. $or +hanes outwitted hi' by 'aking his guards drunk. and not o$ this Egy%tian) But the $a#t is that they %er&ert history in order to #lai' relationshi% with the house o$ Cyrus) "u#h is the truth o$ this 'atter) ha&e also heard another a##ount.

is a dry desert without a dro% o$ water) shall now 'ention a thing o$ whi#h $ew o$ those who sail to Egy%t are aware) Twi#e a year wine is brought into Egy%t $ro' e&ery %art o$ Gree#e. and e. and are there %ut u% to sale. where the tale goes that Ty%hon hid hi'sel$. taking a %ie#e $ro' their dress. Ca'byses took the ad&i#e o$ his Hali#arnassian guest. at the ti'e o$ whi#h we s%eak the tra#t had not yet been so su%%lied. howe&er. to wit. in earthen 2ars( and yet in the whole #ountry you will nowhere see. and this is no s'all s%a#e. the 'an who 'akes the %ledge #o''ends the stranger . di%s it in the blood o$ ea#h. was begun by the +ersians so soon as they be#a'e 'asters o$ that #ountry) *s. whi#h it a%%ears to 'e is a #ity al'ost as large as "ardis. too. and Lake "erbonis and -ount Casius on the other. near the %la#e where -ount Casius 2uts out into the sea) *t Lake "erbonis. where they are all $illed with water by the -e'%hians. whither all the old 2ars ha&e gone be$ore the') This way o$ kee%ing the %assage into Egy%t $it $or use by storing water there. Egy%t begins) 3ow the whole tra#t between 8enysus on the one side. and 'oistens therewith se&en stones lying in the 'idst. e&ery one will ask. who then #on&ey the' to this desert tra#t o$ "yria) *nd so it #o'es to %ass that all the 2ars whi#h enter Egy%t year by year. be#o'es o$ the 2ars: This. as well as $ro' +hoeni#ia. being as 'u#h as three days1 2ourney. away $ro' the te'%les) Ba##hus they #all in their language !rotal. i$ #iti/en he be< to all his $riends. and sent 'essengers to the *rabian to beg a sa$e7#ondu#t through the region) The *rabian granted his %rayer. and to #arry the' to -e'%his.or the #iti/en. will #lear u%) The burgo'aster o$ ea#h town has to #olle#t the wine72ars within his distri#t. a single 2ar) 4hat then. and 6rania. they stand on ea#h side o$ a third0 he with a shar% stone 'akes a #ut on the inside o$ the hand o$ ea#h near the 'iddle $inger. as 'ay say. $ind their way into "yria. Ba##hus and 6rania( and they say that in their 'ode o$ #utting the hair. the 'arts u%on the #oast till you rea#h 8enysus are the *rabian king1s( a$ter 8enysus the "yrians again #o'e in. *lilat) 4hen there$ore the *rabian had %ledged his $aith to the 'essengers . and ea#h %ledged $aith to the other) The *rabs kee% su#h %ledges 'ore religiously than al'ost any other %eo%le) They %light $aith with the $or's $ollowing) 4hen two 'en would swear a $riendshi%. and. and they dee' the'sel&es bound to stand to the engage'ent) They ha&e but these two gods.hi' $or sa$e7#ondu#t through the region) 3ow the only entran#e into Egy%t is by this desert0 the #ountry $ro' +hoeni#ia to the borders o$ the #ity Cadytis belongs to the %eo%le #alled the +alaestine "yrians( $ro' Cadytis. they $ollow Ba##hus) 3ow their %ra#ti#e is to #ut it in a ring. #alling the while on Ba##hus and 6rania) *$ter this.tend to Lake "erbonis.

to the &essel. and. he straightway #ontri&ed as $ollows07 he $illed a nu'ber o$ #a'els1 skins with water. e&en with a %ebble. when he went u% against Egy%t. but. rain $ell at Thebes in s'all dro%s) The +ersians #rossed the desert. was brought through three di$$erent %i%es to three se%arate %la#es) +sa''enitus. and so they went to the battle) "tubborn was the $ight whi#h $ollowed. rea#hing $ro' this ri&er all the way to the desert. $ull o$ anger against +hanes $or ha&ing brought a $oreign ar'y u%on Egy%t. %la#ing it in the s%a#e between the two hosts. and awaited the #o'ing o$ the ar'y) This is the 'ore likely o$ the two tales that are told) The other is an i'%robable story. and loading therewith all the li&e #a'els that he %ossessed. and all the soldiers tasted o$ the blood. whi#h e'%ties itsel$ into the Erythraean sea) The *rabian king.o$ Ca'byses. a strange %rodigy o##urred in Egy%t7 rain $ell at Egy%tian Thebes. and whi#h. those o$ the +ersians in one %la#e by the'sel&es. you strike the +ersian skulls. bethought the'sel&es o$ a 'ode whereby they 'ight be re&enged on hi') +hanes had le$t sons in Egy%t) The 'er#enaries took these. dro&e the' into the desert. his body was e'bal'ed. they led the sons o$ +hanes. lay en#a'%ed at the 'outh o$ the) 3ile. water and wine were %oured into the bowl. and leading the' to the #a'%. during all whi#h ti'e no great 'is$ortune had be$allen hi') 4hen he died. 'ade ready $or battle) Hereu%on the 'er#enaries in the %ay o$ +sa''enitus. and. $ound *'asis no longer in li$e0 he had died a$ter ruling Egy%t $orty and $our years. that you break a hole in the'( but the Egy%tian skulls are so strong. one by one. that the Egy%tians turned and $led) !n the $ield where this battle was $ought saw a &ery wonder$ul thing whi#h the nati&es %ointed out to 'e) The bones o$ the slain lie s#attered u%on the $ield in two lots. who were Greeks and Carians. as the bodies lay at the $irst7 those o$ the Egy%tians in another %la#e a%art $ro' the') $.en and other beasts. as the Thebans the'sel&es testi$y) n 6%%er Egy%t it does not usually rain at all( but on this o##asion. has ne&er ha%%ened again. they are so weak. as it is related. and slew the' o&er it) 4hen the last was dead. dis%layed the' be$ore the eyes o$ their $ather( a$ter whi#h they brought out a bowl. %it#hing their #a'% #lose to the Egy%tians. #alled the Corys. that you 'ay . 'ade a %i%e o$ the skins o$ o. awaiting Ca'byses) For Ca'byses. and buried in the to'b whi#h he had hi'sel$ #aused to be 'ade in the te'%le) *$ter his son +sa''enitus had 'ounted the throne. then. think that ought not to %ass it by) There is a great ri&er in *rabia. they say. #alled the +elusia#. a thing whi#h ne&er ha%%ened be$ore. to the %resent ti'e. they say. son o$ *'asis. and so brought the water to #ertain #isterns whi#h he had dug in the desert to re#ei&e it) t is a twel&e days1 2ourney $ro' the ri&er to this desert tra#t) *nd the water. and it was not till &ast nu'bers had been slain u%on both sides.

the son o$ 5arius. so bore the' into the $ortress) *$ter this -e'%his was besieged.they said< $ro' early #hildhood ha&e the head sha&ed. by narus the Libyan) The Egy%tians who $ought in the battle. Ca'byses resol&ed to try the s%irit o$ +sa''enitus. all but +sa''enitus. when they saw the &essel entering the town. tearing the #rew li'b $ro' li'b. and in&ite the Egy%tians to a surrender) They. who was to sail u% the 3ile to -e'%his. and two thousand Egy%tians o$ the sa'e age with hi'7 all o$ the' ha&ing ro%es round their ne#ks and bridles in their 'ouths7 and they too %assed by on their way to su$$er death $or the 'urder o$ the -ytilenaeans who were destroyed. and with his own hands s#attered it a'ong his soldiers) Ten days a$ter the $ort had $allen. and there sub2e#ted hi' to insult) First o$ all he sent his daughter out $ro' the #ity. o$ sil&er. where you see $ewer bald 'en than in any other land) "u#h. and 'any other Egy%tians with hi'. ga&e the'sel&es u% to Ca'byses without a battle. and $orthwith sent hi' gi$ts) The Cyrenaeans too. on the other hand. destroyed the shi%. ha&e $eeble skulls. 'onths) He there$ore had hi' set in one o$ the suburbs. where they shut the'sel&es u% within the walls) Hereu%on Ca'byses sent a -ytilenaean &essel. is the reason why the skulls o$ the Egy%tians are so strong) The +ersians. whi#h Ca'byses. shedding tears and uttering #ries o$ woe. thought too little) He there$ore snat#hed the 'oney $ro' the'. and obser&ed also the like at +a%re'is. the daughters o$ the #hie$ nobles. then. 'ade an agree'ent to %ay tribute to hi'. wearing turbans u%on their heads) 4hat ha&e here 'entioned saw with 'y own eyes. with a +ersian herald on board. and in due ti'e surrendered) Hereon the Libyans who bordered u%on Egy%t. i''ediately did the like) Ca'byses re#ei&ed the Libyan %resents &ery gra#iously. grie&ing to see their #hildren in so sad a %light( but he. but not so the gi$ts o$ the Cyrenaeans) They had sent no 'ore than $i&e hundred 'in. in the #ase o$ the +ersians who were killed with *#haea'enes. and. and the Bar#aeans. than they $led away in #o'%lete disorder to -e'%his. a##o'%anied her. and so by the a#tion o$ the sun the skull be#o'es thi#k and hard) The sa'e #ause %re&ents baldness in Egy%t. howe&er. whi#h see'ed to 'e likely enough07 The Egy%tians . #lothed in the garb o$ a sla&e.s'ite the' with a stone and you will s#ar#ely break the' in) They ga&e 'e the $ollowing reason $or this di$$eren#e. wearing the sa'e dress) 4hen the da'sels #a'e o%%osite the %la#e where their $athers sate. ha&ing the sa'e $ear as the Libyans. i'agine. whose whole reign had been but si. bent his head towards the ground) n this way %assed by the water7#arriers) 3e. be#ause they kee% the'sel&es shaded $ro' the $irst. with a %it#her to draw water) -any &irgins. we%t and wailed in return. no sooner turned their ba#ks u%on the ene'y. %oured $orth in #rowds $ro' the #astle. the Egy%tian king.t to the' #a'e +sa''enitus1 son. with . when he had looked and seen. the $athers. $earing the $ate o$ that #ountry.

and the rest o$ the Egy%tians were. and s'ote hi'sel$ on the head) 3ow there were so'e who had been set to wat#h +sa''enitus and see what he would do as ea#h train went by( so these %ersons went and told Ca'byses o$ his beha&iour) Then he. and re#ei&ed his reward a##ordingly) He was dis#o&ered to be stirring u% re&olt in Egy%t. likewise. and ga&e hi' no 'ore harsh treat'ent( nay. he 'ight ha&e re#o&ered Egy%t. and . in -e'%his) For so had the royal 2udges gi&en their senten#e $or ea#h -ytilenaean ten o$ the noblest Egy%tians 'ust $or$eit li$e)9 ?ing +sa''enitus saw the train %ass on. and e&en to gi&e their $athers1 kingdo's to the #hildren o$ su#h as re&olt $ro' the') There are 'any #ases $ro' whi#h one 'ay #olle#t that this is the +ersian rule. he showed no $urther sign than when he saw his daughter) *nd now.their &essel. 9+sa''enitus. who had been stri%%ed o$ all that he had and was a beggar.uestioned hi'. 'y own 'is$ortunes were too great $or tears( but the woe o$ 'y $riend deser&ed the') 4hen a 'an $alls $ro' s%lendour and %lenty into beggary at the threshold o$ old age. and knew his son was being led to death. #alled his $riend by his na'e. and thy son on his way to death. as was also +ausiris. who is. a stranger to thy ra#e. while to a beggar. who had been #ut in %ie#es the $irst o$ all( but they took +sa''enitus hi'sel$ and brought hi' be$ore the king) Ca'byses allowed hi' to li&e with hi'. and he $orthwith ga&e an order that the son o$ +sa''enitus should be s%ared $ro' the nu'ber o$ those a%%ointed to die. one 'ay well wee% $or hi')9 4hen the 'essenger brought ba#k this answer. #ould he ha&e ke%t $ro' inter'eddling with a$$airs. thou ga&est those 'arks o$ honour)9 To this . burst into tears7 $or he too had #o'e into Egy%t with Ca'byses7 and the +ersians who were %resent we%t) E&en Ca'byses hi'sel$ was tou#hed with %ity. Ca'byses owned it was 2ust( Croesus. and was allowed to su##eed his $ather. #a'e where +sa''enitus. where$ore Ca'byses. he hears. a 'an ad&an#ed in years. sent a 'essenger to +sa''enitus.uestion +sa''enitus 'ade answer. astonished at what was done. the Egy%tians say. it #han#ed that one o$ his $or'er boon7#o'%anions. saying. when his guilt #learly a%%eared. 9! son o$ Cyrus. and wee%ing out aloud. when thou sawest thy daughter brought to sha'e. and es%e#ially those o$ +ausiris and Thannyras) Thannyras was son o$ narus the Libyan. when they too were gone. son o$ *'asis. and +sa''enitus hi'sel$ brought $ro' the suburb into his %resen#e) The 'essengers were too late to sa&e the li$e o$ +sa''enitus1 son. and ruled it as go&ernor) For the +ersian wont is to treat the sons o$ kings with honour. son o$ *'yrtaeus( yet #ertainly no two %ersons e&er did the +ersians 'ore da'age than *'yrtaeus and narus) n this #ase +sa''enitus %lotted e&il. thou didst neither utter #ry nor shed tear. thy lord Ca'byses asketh thee why. asking al's $ro' the soldiers) *t this sight the king burst into tears. but while the other Egy%tians who sate around hi' we%t and were sorely troubled. #o'%elled hi' to drink .

dies with the 'atter whi#h it $eeds u%on) 3ow to gi&e a 'an1s body to be de&oured by beasts is in no wise agreeable to their #usto's. wishing to do that whi#h he a#tually did on his arri&al there) He entered the %ala#e o$ *'asis. and es%e#ially to obser&e whether there was really what is #alled 9the table o$ the "un9 in Ethio%ia) 3ow the table o$ the "un a##ording to the a##ounts gi&en o$ it 'ay be thus des#ribed07 t is a 'eadow in the skirts o$ their #ity $ull o$ . but another o$ their nation who was o$ about the sa'e height) The +ersians. it was not *'asis who was thus treated. glutted with the $ood. #o''anding his son to bury hi'. in the $urthest re#ess o$ the sa'e se%ul#hre) For 'y own %art do not belie&e that these orders were e&er gi&en by *'asis( the Egy%tians. $alsely assert it.bull1s blood. whi#h eats whate&er it #an sei/e. was warned by an ora#le o$ what would ha%%en to hi' a$ter his death0 in order.%editions) !ne was against the Carthaginians. and re$used to #o'e a%art. be#ause they belie&e $ire to be a li&e ani'al. whi#h %resently #aused his death) "u#h was the end o$ +sa''enitus) *$ter this Ca'byses le$t -e'%his. howe&er. he $urther bade the' s#ourge the body. inside his own to'b near the entran#e. abused it in the $ashion des#ribed abo&e) *'asis. who dwelt in that %art o$ Libya whi#h borders u%on the southern sea) He 2udged it best to des%at#h his $leet against Carthage and to send so'e %ortion o$ his land ar'y to a#t against the *''onians. he buried the body. and indeed this is the &ery reason why they e'bal' their dead( na'ely. to %re&ent the' $ro' being eaten in the gra&e by wor's) Thus Ca'byses #o''anded what both nations a##ounted unlaw$ul) *##ording to the Egy%tians. to sa&e their own dignity) *$ter this Ca'byses took #ounsel with hi'sel$. when he died. under the %reten#e o$ #arrying %resents to the king. there$ore. and hea% u%on it all 'anner o$ insults) The body. but in reality to take note o$ all they saw. and then. they say. and straightway #o''anded that the body o$ the king should be brought $orth $ro' the se%ul#hre) 4hen the attendants did a##ording to his #o''and'ent. while his s%ies went into Ethio%ia. and ne&er by any #han#e burn their dead) ndeed this %ra#ti#e is unlaw$ul. $or the +ersians hold $ire to be a god. another against the *''onians. and %lanned three e. sin#e they dee' it wrong to gi&e the #or%se o$ a 'an to a god( and with the Egy%tians. and %lu#k the hair $ro' it. to %re&ent the i'%ending $ate. and %ri#k it with goads. and a third against the long7li&ed Ethio%ians. both with the' and with the Egy%tians7 with the' $or the reason abo&e 'entioned. belie&ing this 'an1s body to be the king1s. and went to "ais. resisted. ha&ing been e'bal'ed. as it see's to 'e. whi#h a$terwards re#ei&ed the blows. do what they would to it( so the attendants grew weary o$ their work( whereu%on Ca'byses bade the' take the #or%se and burn it) This was truly an i'%ious #o''and to gi&e.

who knew they #a'e as s%ies. an. has sent us to hold #on&erse with thee. and sin#e besides it would be wi#ked in the' to 'ake war on their own #hildren) 3ow when the +hoeni#ians re$used. and were not ensla&ed by the +ersians) Ca'byses thought it not right to $or#e the war u%on the +hoeni#ians. and took %art with the' in the e. and a #ask o$ %al' wine) The Ethio%ians to who' this e'bassy was sent are said to be the tallest and handso'est 'en in the whole world) n their #usto's they di$$er greatly $ro' the rest o$ 'ankind. Ca'byses.ual to the undertaking( and so it was that the Carthaginians es#a%ed. while they were being $et#hed. $orthwith des%at#hed the' into Ethio%ia with these $ollowing gi$ts0 to wit. and o$ strength e. issued orders to his $leet to sail against Carthage) But the +hoeni#ians said they would not go. a %ur%le robe.the boiled $lesh o$ all 'anner o$ beasts. ha&ing told the' what they were to say. and %arti#ularly in the way they #hoose their kings( $or they $ind out the 'an who is the tallest o$ all the #iti/ens.ious to be#o'e thy ally and sworn $riend. be#ause they had yielded the'sel&es to the +ersians. and to bear thee the gi$ts thou seest. whi#h are the things wherein he hi'sel$ delights the 'ost)9 Hereon the Ethio%ian. and a%%oint hi' to rule o&er the') The #thyo%hagi on rea#hing this %eo%le. a gold #hain $or the ne#k. an alabaster bo.ual to his height. let hi' thank the gods that they ha&e not %ut it into the heart o$ the sons o$ the Ethio%s to #o&et #ountries whi#h do not belong to the')1 . then let hi' #o'e with an ar'y o$ su%erior strength against the long7li&ed Ethio%ians7 till then. and say7 1The king o$ the Ethio%s thus ad&ises the king o$ the +ersians when the +ersians #an %ull a bow o$ this strength thus easily. nor brought sla&ery on a %eo%le who ne&er did hi' any wrong) Bear hi' this bow. he had not #o&eted a land whi#h is not his own.%edition against Egy%t) *s soon as the #thyo%hagi arri&ed $ro' Ele%hantine. sin#e they were bound to the Carthaginians by sole'n oaths. the rest o$ the $leet was une. $or ye are #o'e to sear#h out 'y kingdo') *lso your king is not a 2ust 'an7 $or were he so. whi#h the 'agistrates are #are$ul to store with 'eat e&ery night. king o$ the +ersians. and s%oke as $ollows07 9Ca'byses. deli&ered the gi$ts to the king o$ the #ountry. and where whoe&er likes 'ay #o'e and eat during the day) The %eo%le o$ the land say that the earth itsel$ brings $orth the $ood) "u#h is the des#ri%tion whi#h is gi&en o$ this table) 4hen Ca'byses had 'ade u% his 'ind that the s%ies should go. and be#ause u%on the +hoeni#ians all his sea7ser&i#e de%ended) The Cy%rians had also 2oined the +ersians o$ their own a##ord. 'ade answer07 9The king o$ the +ersians sent you not with these gi$ts be#ause he 'u#h desired to be#o'e 'y sworn $riend7 nor is the a##ount whi#h ye gi&e o$ yoursel&es true. ar'lets.uainted with the Ethio%ian tongue( and. o$ 'yrrh. he $orthwith sent to Ele%hantine $or #ertain o$ the #thyo%hagi who were a#.

uired about the 'yrrh.a##ording to re%ort< o$ #rystal."o s%eaking. and ha&ing learnt their way o$ 'aking it. he asked the' what it was. it would be their #onstant use o$ the water $ro' it whi#h 'akes the' so long7li&ed) 4hen they . as i$ they had bathed in oil7 and a s#ent #a'e $ro' the s%ring like that o$ &iolets) The water was so weak. and had $or their drink nothing but 'ilk) 4hen the #thyo%hagi showed wonder at the nu'ber o$ the years.#e%t $or the re$resh'ent they got $ro' that drink . and adorn it with %ainting until it is as like the li&ing 'an as %ossible) Then they %la#e the body in a #rystal %illar whi#h has been hollowed out to re#ei&e it. 9the Ethio%ians had 'u#h stronger ones)9 Thirdly. and to what age the longest7li&ed o$ the +ersians had been known to attain) They told hi' that the king ate bread. and ga&e it into the hands o$ the 'essengers) Then.'eaning the wine<.uestioned the king #on#erning the ter' o$ li$e. that they died so soon( indeed he was sure they ne&er would ha&e li&ed so long as eighty years. taking the %ur%le robe. and asked about the') "o the #thyo%hagi e. wherein he #on$essed the +ersians sur%assed the Ethio%ians)9 The #thyo%hagi then in their turn . nor any lighter substan#e. telling hi' #on#erning the %ur%le. wherein when they had washed. and des#ribed the nature o$ wheat7 adding that eighty years was the longest ter' o$ 'an1s li$e a'ong the +ersians) Hereat he re'arked. last o$ all. a$ter the $ollowing $ashion07 4hen the dead body has been dried. or in so'e other 'anner. and how it had been 'ade) They answered truly. neither wood. and $an#ying they were $etters.uitted the $ountain the king led the' to a %rison. they $ound their $lesh all glossy and sleek. they were allowed to behold the #o$$ins o$ the Ethio%ians.t he took the ne#k7#hain and the ar'lets. they were likewise shown what is #alled 9the table o$ the "un)9 *lso. whi#h greatly delighted hi'( whereu%on he asked what the +ersian king was wont to eat. they said. he said the sa'e as he had said about the robe) Last o$ all he #a'e to the wine. he drank a draught. and the art o$ the dyer7 whereat he obser&ed 9that the 'en were de#eit$ul. and their gar'ents also)9 3e. and were told that 'ost o$ the' li&ed to be a hundred and twenty years old.%lained their use as orna'ents) Then the king laughed. said. but all went to the botto') $ the a##ount o$ this $ountain be true. they #o&er the whole with gy%su'. either in the Egy%tian. and diet o$ his %eo%le. he led the' to a $ountain. while so'e e&en went beyond that age7 they ate boiled $lesh. e. 9 t did not sur%rise hi'. and when they told hi' how it was 'ade and rubbed u%on the li'bs. he in. #rystal being dug u% in great . that nothing would $loat in it. he unstrung the bow. i$ they $ed on dirt. where the %risoners were all o$ the' bound with $etters o$ gold) *'ong these Ethio%ians #o%%er is o$ all 'etals the 'ost s#ar#e and &aluable) *$ter they had seen the %rison. whi#h are 'ade .

seeing what was ha%%ening.t o$ kin kee% the #rystal %illar in their houses $or a $ull year $ro' the ti'e o$ the death. or re$le#ted that he was about to wage war in the utter'ost %arts o$ the earth) Like a senseless 'ad'an as he was. nor is it in any res%e#t unsee'ly( yet there is no %art that is not as %lainly &isible as i$ the body were bare) The ne. and led his ar'y ba#k. all that the ar'y had in the way o$ %ro&isions $ailed( whereu%on the 'en began to eat the su'%ter beasts. he ga&e u% his atta#k on Ethio%ia. rea#hed Thebes. but #ontinued to 'ar#h $orwards) "o long as the earth ga&e the' anything. he took no 'anner o$ heed.abundan#e in their #ountry. and retreating by the way he had #o'e. a$ter he had lost &ast nu'bers o$ his soldiers) Fro' Thebes he 'ar#hed down to -e'%his. started $ro' Thebes. alar'ed at su#h #annibalis'. and burn the ora#le o$ 8u%iter) -eanwhile he hi'sel$ went on with the rest o$ his $or#es against the Ethio%ians) Be$ore. had #on$essed hi'sel$ in the wrong.#e%t what the *''onians. where he dis'issed the Greeks. whi#h shortly $ailed also) $ then. a %ortion o$ the' were guilty o$ a horrid deed0 by tens they #ast lots $or a 'an. and set it u% near the town) 4hen the s%ies had now seen e&erything. whi#h is inhabited by "a'ians. and honour it with sa#ri$i#e) *$ter the year is out they bear the %illar $orth.%edition against Ethio%ia) The 'en sent to atta#k the *''onians. and o$ a kind &ery easy to work) =ou 'ay see the #or%se through the %illar within whi#h it lies( and it neither gi&es out any un%leasant odour. they returned ba#k to Egy%t. re%ort) t is #ertain they neither rea#hed the *''onians. and those who get their knowledge $ro' the'. the soldiers sustained li$e by eating the grass and herbs( but when they #a'e to the bare sand. and 'ay be #learly tra#ed as $ar as the #ity !asis. and sent the' against the *''onians with orders to #arry the %eo%le into #a%ti&ity. e. nor e&en #a'e ba#k to Egy%t) . said to be o$ the tribe *es#hrionia) The %la#e is distant $ro' Thebes se&en days1 2ourney a#ross the sand. he deta#hed $ro' his 'ain body so'e $i$ty thousand 'en. Ca'byses. he would ha&e done the wisest thing that he #ould a$ter the 'istake 'ade at the outset( but as it was. who was slain to be the $ood o$ the others) 4hen Ca'byses heard o$ these doings. and is #alled in our tongue 9the sland o$ the Blessed)9 Thus $ar the ar'y is known to ha&e 'ade its way( but then#e$orth nothing is to be heard o$ the'. bidding the Greeks who were with his ar'y re'ain where they were. he had a##o'%lished one7$i$th %art o$ the distan#e. and taking only his land $or#e with hi') *t Thebes. and 'ade re%ort to Ca'byses. howe&er. whi#h he %assed through on his way. no sooner did he re#ei&e the re%ort o$ the #thyo%hagi than he began his 'ar#h. at this ti'e. allowing the' to sail ho'e) *nd so ended the e. who was stirred to anger by their words) Forthwith he set out on his 'ar#h against the Ethio%ians without ha&ing 'ade any %ro&ision $or the sustenan#e o$ his ar'y. ha&ing guides with the'. and gi&e it the $irst $ruits #ontinually.

and think ye that gods be#o'e like this. straightway all the Egy%tians arrayed the'sel&es in their gayest gar'ents. the Egy%tians had done nothing o$ this kind. and there is a beetle u%on his tongue) 4hen the %riests returned bringing *%is with the'. drew his dagger. and de'anded o$ the'7 94hy. whi#h thereu%on #on#ei&es *%is) The #al$ whi#h is so #alled has the $ollowing 'arks07 He is bla#k. and stabbed hi' in the thigh) Then he laughed. lay so'e ti'e %ining in the . when he was in -e'%his be$ore. without another word. or E%a%hus. is the #al$ o$ a #ow whi#h is ne&er a$terwards able to bear young) The Egy%tians say that $ire #o'es down $ro' hea&en u%on the #ow. strong and deadly. and had rea#hed about hal$ way between that %la#e and the'sel&es when. 9That one o$ their gods had a%%eared to the'. and $ell to $easting and 2ollity0 whi#h when Ca'byses saw. as they were at their 'idday 'eal. like the harebrained %erson that he was.uestioning the' re#ei&ed the sa'e answer( whereu%on he obser&ed. a god who at long inter&als o$ ti'e had been a##usto'ed to show hi'sel$ in Egy%t7 and that always on his a%%earan#e the whole o$ Egy%t $easted and ke%t 2ubilee)9 4hen Ca'byses heard this. 'aking sure that these re2oi#ings were on a##ount o$ his own ill su##ess. and on his ba#k the $igure o$ an eagle( the hairs in his tail are double. he bade the' bring *%is to hi') "o they went out $ro' his %resen#e to $et#h the god) 3ow this *%is. and sensible to steel: * $it god indeed $or Egy%tians. bringing with it &ast #olu'ns o$ whirling sand. and ai'ed at the belly o$ the ani'al. wounded in the thigh. the *''onians relate as $ollows07 That the +ersians set $orth $ro' !asis a#ross the sand. o$ $lesh and blood. and said thus to the %riests07 9!h> blo#kheads. Ca'byses. he #alled the %riests to his %resen#e. he told the' that they lied. he ordered those whose business it was to s#ourge the %riests. and i$ they $ound any o$ the Egy%tians kee%ing $esti&al to %ut the' to death) Thus was the $east sto%%ed throughout the land o$ Egy%t. whi#h entirely #o&ered u% the troo%s and #aused the' wholly to disa%%ear) Thus.uare s%ot o$ white u%on his $orehead. *%is a%%eared to the Egy%tians) 3ow *%is is the god who' the Greeks #all E%a%hus) *s soon as he a%%eared. 9That he would soon know whether a ta'e god had really #o'e to dwell in Egy%t97 and straightway. a##ording to the *''onians. did it $are with this ar'y) *bout the ti'e when Ca'byses arri&ed at -e'%his. and as liars he #onde'ned the' all to su$$er death) 4hen they were dead. su#h an one> But it shall #ost you dear that you ha&e 'ade 'e your laughing7sto#k)9 4hen he had so s%oken. but waited until now. he #alled be$ore hi' the o$$i#ers who had #harge o$ -e'%his. but 'issed his 'ark. with a s. and . and the %riests su$$ered %unish'ent) *%is. a wind arose $ro' the south. when he had returned with the loss o$ so 'any o$ his troo%s:9 The o$$i#ers 'ade answer.Further than this.

9allowing a brother to take his sister to wi$e. and there drowned hi') This. but Ca'byses. Ca'byses sent into +ersia +re. and thinking it likely that his brother would kill hi' and rule in his stead.uite in his right 'ind. i$ he wished. bidding hi' %ut "'erdis to death) "o this +re. there$ore. 'arried the ob2e#t o$ his lo&e. Ca'byses had a &ision in his slee%7 he thought a 'essenger $ro' +ersia #a'e to hi' with tidings that "'erdis sat u%on the royal throne and with his head tou#hed the hea&ens) Fearing there$ore $or hi'sel$. all dis%utes being re$erred to their de#ision) 4hen Ca'byses. as #on#erning that o$ "'erdis.te'%le( at last he died o$ his wound.9 they said. who hold their o$$i#e $or li$e. it is said. be#ause he drew the bow brought $ro' the Ethio%ians by the #thyo%hagi . #alled together the royal 2udges. his $ull brother. and there su$$ered death at his hands) Con#erning the 'anner o$ her death. though she was his $ull sister. the daughter both o$ his $ather and his 'other) The way wherein he had 'ade her his wi$e was the $ollowing07 t was not the #usto' o$ the +ersians. %ut his . to 'arry their sisters. that the king o$ the +ersians 'ight do whate&er he %leased)9 *nd so they neither war%ed the law through $ear o$ Ca'byses. nor ruined the'sel&es by o&er sti$$ly 'aintaining the law( but they brought another . as the Egy%tians say.whi#h none o$ the other +ersians were able to bend< the distan#e o$ two $ingers1 breadth) 4hen "'erdis was de%arted into +ersia. who' he had sent ba#k to +ersia $ro' Egy%t out o$ en&y. 9whether there was any law whi#h allowed a brother. who' he trusted beyond all the other +ersians.as%es went u% to "usa and slew "'erdis) "o'e say he killed hi' as they hunted together. who e&en be$ore had not been . and %ut it to the'. who had a##o'%anied hi' into Egy%t. and li&ed with hi' as his wi$e. and no long ti'e a$terwards he took to wi$e another sister) t was the younger o$ these who went with hi' into Egy%t. was $orthwith. and they are the inter%reters o$ the old laws. to 'arry his sister:9 3ow the royal 2udges are #ertain %i#ked 'en a'ong the +ersians. others. two di$$erent a##ounts are gi&en) The story whi#h the Greeks tell is that Ca'byses had set a young dog to $ight the #ub o$ a lioness7 his . or until they are $ound guilty o$ so'e 'is#ondu#t) By the' 2usti#e is ad'inistered in +ersia. and the %riests buried hi' se#retly without the knowledge o$ Ca'byses) *nd now Ca'byses. that he took hi' down to the Erythraean "ea. they ga&e hi' an answer whi#h was at on#e true and sa$e7 9they did not $ind any law. but they $ound a law. be$ore his ti'e.uestion to these 2udges. ha%%ening to $all in lo&e with one o$ his and wishing to take her to wi$e. s'itten with 'adness $or this #ri'e) The $irst o$ his outrages was the slaying o$ "'erdis.uite distin#t law to the king1s hel%. there$ore. was the $irst outrage whi#h Ca'byses #o''itted) The se#ond was the slaying o$ his sister.as%es. as he knew that it was an un#o''on thing. whi#h allowed hi' to ha&e his wish) Ca'byses.

seeing that his body laboured under so sore a 'alady) He was 'ad also u%on others besides his kindred( a'ong the rest. who was standing near. the Greeks say. and 'ade bare the house o$ Cyrus)9 Then Ca'byses was wroth. the disorder whi#h so'e #all 9the sa#red si#kness)9 t would be by no 'eans strange. when the sister took a lettu#e. and %raised the 2udg'ent o$ Croesus) Re#olle#ting these answers. or $ro' so'e other a'ong the 'any #auses $ro' whi#h #ala'ities are wont to arise) They say that $ro' his birth he was a$$li#ted with a dread$ul disease. when a %u% o$ the sa'e litter broke his #hain. and #a'e to his brother1s aid7 then the two dogs together $ought the lion. s%oke thus to Ca'byses0 9 n 'y 2udg'ent. 9That he sur%assed his $ather.9 she re2oined. he had asked the'.as%es. $ull o$ rage. 'ade answer. and #on. 94hat sort o$ 'an they thought hi' #o'%ared to his $ather Cyrus:9 Hereon they had answered. though she was with #hild at the ti'e) *nd so it #a'e to %ass that she 'is#arried and died) Thus 'ad was Ca'byses u%on his own kindred. 94hen the lea&es were on)9 9But thou. who #arried his 'essages. do the +ersians think 'e: 4hat do they say o$ 'e:9 +re. who' there was none to hel%) For this s%ee#h.uered hi') The thing greatly %leased Ca'byses. $or he was lord o$ all that his $ather e&er ruled. and whose son held the o$$i#e7 an honour o$ no s'all a##ount in +ersia7 o$ his #u%bearer) Hi' Ca'byses is said to ha&e on#e addressed as $ollows07 94hat sort o$ 'an.as%es answered.as%es told hi' was the 2udg'ent o$ the +ersians( whereu%on Ca'byses. and a' gone out o$ 'y 'ind> Then their $or'er s%ee#hes about 'e were untrue)9 For on#e. or now that it was stri%%ed:9 He answered. that seeing the young dog #o'e to his brother1s aid 'ade her think o$ "'erdis.ual to thy $ather. and $urther had 'ade hi'sel$ 'aster o$ Egy%t. asked her brother 9when he thought the lettu#e looked the %rettiest7 when it had all its lea&es on. u%on +re. $or thou hast not yet le$t behind thee su#h a son as he)9 Ca'byses was delighted when he heard this re%ly.wi$e looking on at the ti'e) 3ow the dog was getting the worse. ! son o$ Cyrus. i$ his 'ind were a$$e#ted in so'e degree.as%es. when the +ersians were sitting with hi'. Ca'byses %ut her to death) But the Egy%tians tell the story thus07 The two were sitting at table. and the sea)9 Then Croesus. there$ore. 9hast done as did to the lettu#e. and stri%%ing the lea&es o$$. the 'an who' he estee'ed beyond all the rest o$ the +ersians. he asked her why she we%t0 whereon she told hi'. Ca'byses s%oke $ier#ely to . thou art not e. and this either $ro' his usage o$ *%is. but his sister who was sitting by shed tears) 4hen Ca'byses saw this. 94hat: they say now that drink too 'u#h wine. and s%rang $ier#ely u%on her. and Croesus was by. and 'isliked the #o'%arison. and so ha&e lost 'y senses. 9!h> sire. they %raise thee greatly in all things but one7 they say thou art too 'u#h gi&en to lo&e o$ wine)9 "u#h +re. +re.

slayest the'7 thou e&en %uttest #hildren to death7 bethink thee now. and that a' out o$ 'y 'ind)9 "o s%eaking he drew his bow to the $ull. that it is not who a' 'ad. who straightway $ell down dead) Then Ca'byses ordered the body to be o%ened. and stru#k the boy. but the +ersians who ha&e lost their senses) %ray thee tell 'e. he bade his ser&ants sei/e hi'. and the wound e. the king was .+re. re%lied.as%es. howe&er. it will be %lain the +ersians ha&e no grounds $or what they say0 i$ 'iss hi'. and get a reward $or ha&ing sa&ed his li$e7 i$. and es#a%ed) "o when Ca'byses $ound that he #ould not kill hi' with his bow. without bringing any #harge worthy o$ death against the'.as%es. 98udge now thysel$. will not the +ersians rise in re&olt against thee: t is by thy $ather1s wish that o$$er thee ad&i#e( he #harged 'e stri#tly to gi&e thee su#h #ounsel as 'ight see to be 'ost $or thy good)9 n thus ad&ising Ca'byses. seeing that the king was not in his right 'ind. they 'ight bring hi' out. saying. and in $orethought is true wisdo') Thou layest hold o$ 'en.terously)9 "u#h was the outrage whi#h Ca'byses #o''itted at this ti'e0 at another. sawest thou e&er 'ortal 'an send an arrow with a better ai':9 +re. 95ost thou %resu'e to o$$er 'e ad&i#e: Right well thou ruledst thy own #ountry when thou wert a king. thought it best to hide Croesus( that so. who knew their 'aster1s hu'our. and $earing $or hi'sel$. and asked $or hi'.uen#es. and %ut hi' to death) The ser&ants. without #ause o$ #o'%laint. $or ha&e long been seeking to $ind so'e o##asion against thee)9 *s he thus s%oke. and the heat o$ thy te'%er. 9!h> 'y lord. thou broughtest ruin u%on Cyrus. he did not . or whether it is not they who are 'ad $or s%eaking as they do) Look there now at thy son standing in the &estibule7 i$ shoot and hit hi' right in the 'iddle o$ the heart. who are thy $ellow7#iti/ens. Ca'byses took u% his bow to shoot at Croesus( but Croesus ran hastily out. +re.es and $ight the -assagetae in their own land. whi#h he $ollowed. and said to the $ather with a laugh. then allow that the +ersians are right. whi#h he did in these words $ollowing07 9!h> king. 93ow thou seest %lainly. whether the +ersians tell the truth. and. i$ thou shalt o$ten do things like these. bidding hi' #ross the *ra. do not think that God hi'sel$ #ould shoot so de. on the other hand. buried the' all u% to the ne#k) Hereu%on Croesus the Lydian thought it right to ad'onish Ca'byses. 'y $ather) But thou shalt not es#a%e %unish'ent now. when they were willing to ha&e %assed o&er into ours) By thy 'isdire#tion o$ thine own a$$airs thou broughtest ruin u%on thysel$. but #he#k and #ontrol thysel$) t is well to look to #onse. Croesus 'eant nothing but what was $riendly) But Ca'byses answered hi'.as%es.a'ined( and when the arrow was $ound to ha&e entered the heart.uite o&er2oyed. i$ Ca'byses relented.as%es. +re. and. and by thy bad #ounsel. allow not thysel$ to gi&e way entirely to thy youth. he took twel&e o$ the noblest +ersians. and right sage ad&i#e thou ga&est 'y $ather Cyrus.

that Ca'byses was ra&ing 'ad( he would not else ha&e set hi'sel$ to 'ake a 'o#k o$ holy rites and long7established usages) For i$ one were to o$$er 'en to #hoose out o$ all the #usto's in the world su#h as see'ed to the' the best. but as $or you who sa&ed hi'. that there was no su' that would te'%t the' to do su#h a thing) He then sent $or #ertain ndians. and e. when he said. #alled into his %resen#e #ertain Greeks who were at hand.a'ine the whole nu'ber. by a great &ariety o$ %roo$s. he held the whole island) Hereu%on he 'ade a . a$ter he had got the kingdo'. the son o$ *ea#es. both u%on the +ersians and the allies. %er#ei&ing it. 9Law is the king o1er all)9 4hile Ca'byses was #arrying on this war in Egy%t.a'ined the bodies that were buried in the') He likewise went into the te'%le o$ @ul#an. will e. who is said to ha&e been their $ather) Thus it a%%ears #ertain to 'e. ye shall not es#a%e 'y &engean#e. and asked7 94hat he should %ay the' to eat the bodies o$ their $athers when they died:9 To whi#h they answered. and bade hi' $orbear su#h language) "u#h is 'en1s wont herein( and +indar was right. they 'ight then des%at#h hi') 3ot long a$terwards. 9that Croesus li&es. there$ore. and not only 'ade s%ort o$ the i'ages. and shared the kingdo' with his brothers. and knew by the hel% o$ an inter%reter all that was said 7 94hat he should gi&e the' to burn the bodies o$ their $athers at their de#ease:9 The ndians e.#lai'ed aloud. and end by %re$erring their own( so #on&in#ed are they that their own usages $ar sur%ass those o$ all others) 6nless. it is not likely that he would 'ake s%ort o$ su#h 'atters) That %eo%le ha&e this $eeling about their laws 'ay be seen by &ery 'any %roo$s0 a'ong others. and 'ade great s%ort o$ the i'age) For the i'age o$ @ul#an is &ery like the +atae#i o$ the +hoeni#ians. while he still stayed at -e'%his( a'ong the rest he o%ened the an#ient se%ul#hres. +antagnotus and "yloson( but later. wherewith they orna'ent the %rows o$ their shi%s o$ war) $ %ersons ha&e not seen these. or regret the loss. 'en who eat their $athers. Ca'byses did in $a#t regret the loss o$ Croesus. ha&ing killed the $or'er and banished the latter. who was the younger o$ the two. but e&en burnt the') They are 'ade like the statue o$ @ul#an. by the $ollowing) 5arius. and asked the'. a 'an was 'ad.%lain in a di$$erent way7 it is a $igure rese'bling that o$ a %ig'y) He went also into the te'%le o$ the Cabiri. let hi' know that he was still ali&e) 9 a' glad. whi#h it is unlaw$ul $or any one to enter e. they would e. in 'y 2udg'ent. who had by insurre#tion 'ade hi'sel$ 'aster o$ that island) *t the outset he di&ided the state into three %arts.9 said he. o$ the ra#e #alled Callatians. the La#edae'onians likewise sent a $or#e to "a'os against +oly#rates.relent. and the ser&ants. while the Greeks stood by.#e%t the %riests. but shall all o$ you be %ut to death)9 *nd he did e&en as he had said) -any other wild outrages o$ this sort did Ca'byses #o''it.

and bow'en to the nu'ber o$ a thousand) Herewith he %lundered all. sa&e thysel$ $ro' har' by again doing as ha&e #ounselled)9 4hen +oly#rates read this letter. laden with $etters. than i$ you s%ared hi' at the $irst) He #a%tured 'any o$ the islands. the work'anshi% o$ Theodore. su##ess waited on hi') He had a $leet o$ a hundred %ente#onters. he #onsidered #are$ully with hi'sel$ whi#h o$ the treasures that he had in store it would grie&e hi' 'ost to lose) *$ter 'u#h thought he 'ade u% his 'ind that it was a signet7ring whi#h he was wont to wear. i$ thy good $ortune be not then#e$orth #he. $lung it into the dee%) This done. a "a'ian) "o he deter'ined to throw this away( and. an e'erald set in gold. rather than with %er%etual good $ortune) For ne&er yet did hear tell o$ any one su##eeding in all his undertakings. and ga&e &ent to his sorrow) 3ow it ha%%ened $i&e or si. who did not 'eet with #ala'ity at last. and. but thy e. *'asis wrote hi' the $ollowing letter.uered with ill. days a$terwards that a $isher'an #aught a $ish so large and beauti$ul that he thought it well deser&ed to be 'ade a %resent o$ to the king) "o he took it with hi' . and 'ade a nu'ber o$ the' %risoners) These %ersons. whatsoe&er it be. $oras'u#h as know that the gods are en&ious) -y wish $or 'ysel$ and $or those who' lo&e is to be now su##ess$ul. who was 'u#h disturbed thereat) 4hen there$ore his su##esses #ontinued in#reasing. dug the 'oat whi#h surrounds the #astle at "a'os) The e. and throw it away. there$ore. and se&eral towns u%on the 'ainland) *'ong his other doings he o&er#a'e the Lesbians in a sea7$ight. and sent it to "a'os) 9*'asis to +oly#rates thus sayeth0 t is a %leasure to hear o$ a $riend and ally %ros%ering. and 'eet thy good lu#k in this way0 bethink thee whi#h o$ all thy treasures thou &aluest 'ost and #anst least bear to %art with( take it. son o$ Tele#les. and #o'e to utter ruin) 3ow. and re#ei&ing $ro' hi' others in return) n a little while his %ower so greatly in#reased. when they #a'e with all their $or#es to the hel% o$ -iletus.#eeding %ros%erity does not #ause 'e 2oy. 'anning a %ente#onter.#eeding good $ortune o$ +oly#rates did not es#a%e the noti#e o$ *'asis. without distin#tion o$ $riend or $oe( $or he argued that a $riend was better %leased i$ you ga&e hi' ba#k what you had taken $ro' hi'. so that it 'ay be sure ne&er to #o'e any 'ore into the sight o$ 'an) Then.#ontra#t o$ $riendshi% with *'asis the Egy%tian king. sending hi' gi$ts. in the sight o$ all those who were on board. and now to 'eet with a #he#k( thus %assing through li$e a'id alternate good and ill. gi&e ear to 'y words. and bade the sailors %ut out into the o%en sea) 4hen he was now a long way $ro' the island. that the $a'e o$ it went abroad throughout onia and the rest o$ Gree#e) 4here&er he turned his ar's. he went on board. and %er#ei&ed that the ad&i#e o$ *'asis was good. he returned ho'e. he took the ring $ro' his $inger.

and the $isher'an ga&e hi' the $ish with these words $ollowing7 9"ir king. so $ortunate in e&ery undertaking. and 'anned with the' $orty trire'es. and. had earnestly intreated their hel%) For +oly#rates. had sent to beg hi' not to o'it to ask aid $ro' "a'os( whereu%on Ca'byses with 'u#h readiness des%at#hed a 'essenger to the island. he 'ight es#a%e the grie$ whi#h he would ha&e $elt i$ the su$$erer had been his bond7$riend) t was with this +oly#rates.to the gate o$ the %ala#e. and a' doubly indebted. and 'ade re.iles( a$ter whi#h they dise'barked u%on the island and engaged the land $or#es o$ . both $or the gi$t. what he had hi'sel$ done. deserted. was gathering together an ar'a'ent against Egy%t. e&en $inding what he had thrown away) "o he sent a herald to "a'os. that when the great and hea&y 'is$ortune #a'e. as he %ros%ered in e&erything. and told hi' in what way it had been $ound) The king. though a' a %oor 'an who li&e by 'y trade) said to 'ysel$. and su% with 'e)9 "o the $isher'an went ho'e. and dissol&ed the #ontra#t o$ $riendshi%) This he did. estee'ing it a high honour that he had been asked to su% with the king) -eanwhile the ser&ants. who thus s%oke in re%ly07 9Thou didst right well.uest that +oly#rates would gi&e so'e shi%s to the na&al $or#e whi#h he was #olle#ting against Egy%t) +oly#rates straightway %i#ked out $ro' a'ong the #iti/ens su#h as he thought 'ost likely to stir re&olt against hi'. when took this %ri/e. the sa'e who a$terwards $ounded the #ity o$ Cydonia in Crete. $orthwith wrote a letter to *'asis. who saw so'ething %ro&idential in the 'atter. whi#h he sent to Ca'byses. it is worthy o$ +oly#rates and his greatness( and so brought it here to gi&e it to you)9 The s%ee#h %leased the king. on #utting o%en the $ish. and $or the s%ee#h) Co'e now. and a battle was $ought and gained by the e. $ound the signet o$ their 'aster in its belly) 3o sooner did they see it than they sei/ed u%on it. telling hi' all that had ha%%ened. that the La#edae'onians now went to war) Certain "a'ians. bidding hi' kee% the 'en sa$e. and sailed ba#k to "a'os) There +oly#rates went out against the' with his $leet. and said that he wanted to see +oly#rates) Then +oly#rates allowed hi' to #o'e in. son o$ Cyrus. at the ti'e when Ca'byses. they took #ounsel together and resol&ed to sail no $urther) But others 'aintain that they did go to Egy%t. restored it to hi'. he %er#ei&ed that it does not belong to 'an to sa&e his $ellow7'an $ro' the $ate whi#h is in store $or hi'( likewise he $elt #ertain that +oly#rates would end ill. and what had been the u%shot7 and des%at#hed the letter to Egy%t) 4hen *'asis had read the letter o$ +oly#rates. $riend. $inding the'sel&es wat#hed. and ne&er allow the' to return ho'e) 3ow so'e a##ounts say that these "a'ians did not rea#h Egy%t( $or that when they were o$$ Car%athus. and hastening to +oly#rates with great 2oy. thought would not #arry it to 'arket.

as $ro' a desire to %unish the %eo%le who had sei/ed the bowl whi#h they sent to Croesus. and so sailed o$$ to La#edae'on) "o'e relate that the "a'ians $ro' Egy%t o&er#a'e +oly#rates. they had audien#e o$ the 'agistrates. and had a &ast nu'ber o$ $igures o$ ani'als inwo&en into its $abri#. i$ we 'ay belie&e the "a'ians. +oly#rates shut u% their wi&es and #hildren in the sheds built to shelter his shi%s. $irst %ro'%ted the' to take san#tuary at the te'%le o$ 5iana( and a$ter . to hinder the' $ro' betraying hi' and 2oining the e. they would not ha&e needed to #all in the aid o$ the La#edae'onians) *nd 'oreo&er. as was natural with %ersons greatly in want o$ aid) *##ordingly at this $irst sitting the "%artans answered the' that they had $orgotten the $irst hal$ o$ their s%ee#h. sent as a %resent to the') The "a'ians 'ade %ri/e o$ this #orselet the year be$ore they took the bowl7 it was o$ linen. it is not likely that a king who had in his %ay so large a body o$ $oreign 'er#enaries. and was likewise e'broidered with gold and tree7wool) 4hat is 'ost worthy o$ ad'iration in it is that ea#h o$ the twists.+oly#rates. showing a bag whi#h they had brought with the'.ture. #hildren o$ the #hie$ nobles a'ong the Cor#yraeans. ha&ing $ound out what was to be#o'e o$ the boys when they rea#hed that #ity. whereat they si'%ly said. son o$ Cy%selus. all o$ the' #learly &isible) The #orselet whi#h *'asis ga&e to the te'%le o$ -iner&a in Lindus is 2ust su#h another) The Corinthians likewise right willingly lent a hel%ing hand towards the e. but were de$eated. they too had su$$ered insult at the hands o$ the "a'ians) t ha%%ened that +eriander. would ha&e been worsted by an ar'y so s'all as that o$ the returned "a'ians) *s $or his own sub2e#ts. and sent the' to *lyattes $or eunu#hs( the 'en who had the' in #harge tou#hed at "a'os on their way to "ardis( whereu%on the "a'ians. although o$ $ine te. be$ore who' they 'ade a long s%ee#h.uer +oly#rates by the'sel&es. #ontains within it three hundred and si.%edition against "a'os( $or a generation earlier. about the ti'e o$ the sei/ure o$ the wine7bowl. $ro' a 'oti&e o$ gratitude. but it see's to 'e untruly( $or had the "a'ians been strong enough to #on. be#ause the "a'ians had on#e sent shi%s to their aid against the -essenians( but as the "%artans the'sel&es say. king o$ Egy%t. they resol&ed to gi&e the' aid) Then the La#edae'onians 'ade ready and set $orth to the atta#k o$ "a'os. and was ready to burn sheds and all in #ase o$ need) 4hen the banished "a'ians rea#hed "%arta. 9The bag wants $lour)9 The "%artans answered that they did not need to ha&e said 9the bag9( howe&er. and the #orselet whi#h *'asis. and 'aintained likewise su#h a $or#e o$ nati&e bow'en.ty threads. not so 'u#h $ro' any wish to assist the "a'ians who begged their hel%.iles. and #ould 'ake nothing o$ the re'ainder) *$terwards the "a'ians had another audien#e. had taken three hundred boys.

was sorely troubled at it7 so 'u#h so. when the Corinthians. till at last the lad re'e'bered the %arting s%ee#h and told it) +eriander. and so get enough to li&e u%on) *nd this went on $or so long. in&ented a $esti&al in their behal$. nor answer when s%oken to.uarrel and in2ured +eriander by an outrage o$ a horrid nature) *$ter +eriander had %ut to death his wi$e -elissa. a$ter the death o$ +eriander. as they were $orbidden to tear the su%%liants $ro' the holy %la#e. whose na'e was Ly#o%hron. #onsidering they were his own daughter1s #hildren) *t length.%edition against "a'os $or su#h a reason as this( but as.uestionings) "o +eriander at last. as night #losed in. whi#h they #elebrate to this day with the sel$sa'e rites) Ea#h e&ening. the other o$ eighteen years. he turned to the elder and asked hi'. when their 'other1s $ather. +ro#les. as he was sending the' on their way. he . +ro#les. a$ter he had . banished hi' $ro' his house) The younger son gone. 9?now you now. who it was that #aused your 'other1s death:9 The elder son took no a##ount o$ this s%ee#h.uite $orgot to 'ention it) +eriander insisted that it was not %ossible this should be all7 their grand$ather 'ust ha&e gi&en the' so'e hint or other7 and he went on %ressing hi'. e&er sin#e the $irst settle'ent o$ the island. been ene'ies to one another. u%on whi#h the "a'ians #on&eyed the' ba#k to Cor#yra) $ now. said. when the ti'e $or %arting #a'e. and the Corinthians bore the "a'ians a grudge $or it) +eriander had #hosen the youths $ro' a'ong the $irst $a'ilies in Cor#yra. this outrage was re'e'bered. nor utter a word in re%ly to all his . the two %eo%le ha&e always. sought to #ut o$$ $ro' the' all su%%lies o$ $ood. 9what it was that their grand$ather had said to the':9 Then he related in how kind and $riendly a $ashion he had re#ei&ed the'( but. it #han#ed that on this $irst a$$li#tion a se#ond $ollowed o$ a di$$erent kind) His wi$e had borne hi' two sons. asked the' to his #ourt) They went. and one o$ the' had now rea#hed the age o$ se&enteen. to a&enge a wrong whi#h he had re#ei&ed) For it was the Cor#yraeans who began the . 'y #hildren. it is not to be i'agined that the $or'er would e&er ha&e taken %art in the e. #arrying in their hands #akes 'ade o$ sesa'e and honey. tyrant o$ E%idaurus. that at last the Corinthians who had #harge o$ the boys ga&e the' u%.this. that when he got ba#k to Corinth. in order that the Cor#yraean boys 'ight snat#h the #akes. and took their de%arture. looking u%on his $ather as his 'other1s 'urderer. he would neither s%eak to hi'. growing $urious at su#h beha&iour. but the younger. in $a#t. and sent the' a %resent to *lyattes. the Corinthians and Cor#yraeans had been good $riends. not ha&ing taken any noti#e o$ the s%ee#h whi#h +ro#les had uttered at %arting. as was natural. during the whole ti'e that the boys #ontinued there. #hoirs o$ youths and &irgins were %la#ed about the te'%le. and +ro#les treated the' with 'u#h kindness.

and a' the greatest su$$erer. now. se#ing how wret#hed his son was. abiding by his resol&e. sent a 'essenger to the %ersons who had o%ened their houses to his out#ast son. and #o''anded the' to shut their doors against hi') "till. although in no s'all alar'. bethink thee that too $eel it. in his eldest son no 'anner o$ ability.ual to the o&ersight and 'anage'ent o$ a$$airs) "eeing. $elt 'o&ed with #o'%assion towards hi'( where$ore.uestion) But +eriander1s heart was set . thou hast brought thysel$ to a beggar1s li$e. he 'ade his lodging in the %ubli# %orti#os) 4hen $our days had %assed in this way. e. he sent to Cor#yra and re#alled Ly#o%hron to take the kingdo') Ly#o%hron. #o'e ba#k with 'e to thy ho'e)9 4ith su#h words as these did +eriander #hide his son( but the son 'ade no re%ly. be#ause thou 'ust resist and treat with anger hi' who' it least beho&es thee to o%%ose) $ there has been a #ala'ity. and $elt unwilling to gi&e way at all. though 'y own #hild. that he neither washed nor took any $ood.turned the whole 'atter o&er in his thoughts.#e%t to re'ind his $ather that he was indebted to the god in the %enalty $or #o'ing and holding #on&erse with hi') Then +eriander knew that there was no #ure $or the youth1s 'alady. yet ga&e hi' shelter. should $or$eit a #ertain su' o$ 'oney to *%ollo) !n hearing this no one any longer liked to take hi' in. there$ore. did not e&en deign to ask the bearer o$ this 'essage a . and +eriander #a'e to be old. and not only 'ade hi'sel$ 'aster o$ his kingdo' E%idaurus. but also took +ro#les hi'sel$. when he was #hased $ro' one $riend.uaintan#e. in as 'u#h as it was by 'e that the deed was done) For thysel$. +eriander. oh> 'y son. and was re#ei&ed by the in'ates( $or his a#. or e&en to hold #on&erse with hi'. and lord o$ this wealthy Corinth. now that thou knowest how 'u#h better a thing it is to be en&ied than %itied. whi#h island at that ti'e belonged to hi') *s $or +ro#les. regarding hi' as the true author o$ all his %resent troubles. and #arried hi' into #a%ti&ity) *s ti'e went on. nor 'eans o$ o&er#o'ing it( so he %re%ared a shi% and sent hi' away out o$ his sight to Cor#yra. and $orbade the' to harbour hi') Then the boy. to $are as now thou $arest. sought re$uge with another. $oregoing his anger. +eriander. 94hi#h is better. and how dangerous it is to indulge anger against %arents and su%eriors. and he hi'sel$ did not think it right to seek to do what was $orbidden( so. as he was +eriander1s son) *t last +eriander 'ade %ro#la'ation that whoe&er harboured his son or e&en s%oke to hi'. howe&er. but knowing hi' to be dull and blo#kish. he a%%roa#hed hi'. he $ound hi'sel$ no longer e. on the one #ondition o$ sub'itting thysel$ to thy $ather: "ee. and thou bearest 'e ill will on that a##ount. or to re#ei&e 'y #rown and all the good things that %ossess. who 'ena#ed all those that took hi' in. but was dri&en $ro' shelter to shelter by the threats o$ his $ather. and said. as $ast as he was $or#ed to lea&e one house he went to another. went to war with hi' as soon as his son was gone.

he thought. 'ade a sally( but a$ter they had withstood the La#edae'onians a short ti'e. two o$ the La#edae'onians. both 'er#enaries and "a'ians. this obstina#y) 4hy seek to #ure e&il by e&il: -er#y. a 'an na'ed *r#hias like his grandsire. to whi#h #anton he belonged) He res%e#ted the "a'ians beyond all other $oreigners. being all alone. and let his son take his %la#e at Corinth as heir to his kingdo') To these ter's Ly#o%hron agreed( and +eriander was 'aking ready to %ass into Cor#yra and his son to return to Corinth. the besieged. %ut the young 'an to death) For this reason it was that +eriander took &engean#e on the Cor#yraeans) The La#edae'onians arri&ed be$ore "a'os with a 'ighty ar'a'ent. and that the reason why he res%e#ted the "a'ians so greatly was that his grandsire was buried with %ubli# honours by the "a'ian %eo%le) The La#edae'onians besieged "a'os during $orty days. rather than thysel$ return to en2oy it: Co'e ba#k ho'e with 'e. who' 'et at +itana.u%on the youth. slew nu'bers) $ now all who were %resent had beha&ed that day like *r#hias and Ly#o%as. be#ause his grand$ather *r#hias died in "a'os so gloriously. but not 'aking any %rogress be$ore the %la#e. also. he would ne&er go ba#k to Corinth)9 4hen the sister brought +eriander this re%ly. and. $ollowing hard u%on the $lying "a'ians. and he told 'e that his $ather was #alled "a'ius. and our $ather1s wealth to be 'ade a %rey. and #ease to %unish thysel$) t is s#ant gain. while %ushing their 'other1s #lai's ha&e $or$eited their $ather1s $ortune) +ower is a sli%%ery thing7 it has 'any suitors( and he is old and stri#ken in years7 let not thy own inheritan#e go to another)9 Thus did the sister. who would. were slain within the walls o$ the %la#e) 'ysel$ on#e $ell in with the grandson o$ this *r#hias. they $or#ed their way to the to% o$ the tower whi#h stands by the sea on the side where the suburb is. who had been tutored by +eriander what to say. is by 'any set abo&e 2usti#e) -any. ha&e 'ore %ower to %ersuade hi' than any other %erson) Then she. to %ass into strange hands. %ressing u%on the'. they raised the siege at the end . they $led ba#kwards. so he sent again to hi'. re'e'ber. brother. this ti'e by his own daughter. and said he would #o'e hi'sel$ to Cor#yra. to kee% +eriander away. and the son o$ "a'ius. but +oly#rates #a'e in %erson to the res#ue with a strong $or#e. he sent his son a third ti'e by a herald. being in$or'ed o$ what was taking %la#e. and $orthwith laid siege to the %la#e) n one o$ the assaults u%on the walls. s%oke thus with her brother07 95ost thou wish the kingdo'. when the Cor#yraeans. urge all the argu'ents 'ost likely to ha&e weight with her brother) He howe&er 'ade answer. 9That so long as he knew his $ather to be still ali&e. "a'os 'ight ha&e been taken) For these two heroes. and beat the' ba#k) -eanwhile at the u%%er tower. entered the #ity along with the'. whi#h stood on the ridge o$ the hill. and their retreat #ut o$$. and the La#edae'onians. when she rea#hed Cor#yra. the sister o$ Ly#o%hron.

that $ro' a tithe o$ the ores the "i%hnians $urnished out a treasury at 5el%hi whi#h was on a %ar with the grandest there) 4hat the 'ines yielded was di&ided year by year a'ong the #iti/ens) *t the ti'e when they $or'ed the treasury. when they knew that the La#edae'onians were about to $orsake the'. and 'any o$ their nu'ber were #ut o$$ $ro' the #ity by the "a'ians. where they $lourished greatly $or $i&e years) t was they who built the . and this they ga&e in trust to the Troe/enians. ga&e it to the La#edae'onians. no islanders ha&ing so 'u#h wealth as they) There were 'ines o$ gold and sil&er in their #ountry. who straightway sallied $orth to sa&e their #ro%s( then a battle was $ought. were unable to understand the ora#le. to the #ity) *ll shi%s in these early ti'es were %ainted with &er'ilion( and this was what the +ythoness had 'eant when she told the' to beware o$ danger 9$ro' a wooden host. le$t "a'os the'sel&es. and o$ so ri#h a yield. and sailed to "i%hnos) They ha%%ened to be in want o$ 'oney( and the "i%hnians at that ti'e were at the height o$ their greatness. who on re#ei&ing it took their de%arture) This was the $irst e. #oating it with gold. or a$terwards on the arri&al o$ the "a'ians) For these last no sooner #a'e to an#hor o$$ the island than they sent one o$ their &essels. and $ounded the #ity o$ Cydonia) They had not 'eant. and. a$ter whi#h these latter $or#ed the "i%hnians to gi&e the' a hundred talents) 4ith this 'oney they bought o$ the Her'ionians the island o$ Hydrea. the "i%hnians #onsulted the ora#le. to settle there. 4hite7browed all the $oru'7need then o$ a true seer1s wisdo'7 5anger will threat $ro' a wooden host. but only to dri&e out the Ka#ynthians $ro' the island) Howe&er they rested at Cydonia. with an a'bassage on board.%edition into *sia o$ the La#edae'onian 5orians) The "a'ians who had $ought against +oly#rates. and returned ho'e to the +elo%onnese) There is a silly tale told that +oly#rates stru#k a . while they the'sel&es went on to Crete. whereu%on the "a'ians began to %lunder their lands) Tidings o$ this rea#hed the "i%hnians. and a herald in s#arlet) 3ow about this ti'e the $oru' o$ the "i%hnians and their townhall or %rytaneu' had been adorned with +arian 'arble) The "i%hnians.o$ that ti'e. howe&er. o$$ the #oast o$ the +elo%onnese. and a herald in s#arlet)9 "o the a'bassadors #a'e ashore and besought the "i%hnians to lend the' ten talents( but the "i%hnians re$used.uantity o$ the #oin o$ his #ountry in lead. and asked whether their good things would re'ain to the' 'any years) The +ythoness 'ade answer as $ollows07 4hen the +rytanies1seat shines white in the island o$ "i%hnos. to kee% $or the'. either at the ti'e when it was gi&en. in whi#h the "i%hnians su$$ered de$eat. when they set sail.

ha&ing %ersuaded hi' that he would #arry the whole business through. whereo$ Rhoe#us. brothers. with a 'outh at either end) The length o$ the #utting is se&en $urlongs7 the height and width are ea#h eight $eet) *long the whole #ourse there is a se#ond #utting. but he also bore the sel$sa'e na'e. the other -agus. redu#ed the' all to sla&ery) The beaks o$ their shi%s. 'u#h da'age also the'sel&es) "u#h was the reason whi#h 'o&ed the Eginetans to 'ake this atta#k) ha&e dwelt the longer on the a$$airs o$ the "a'ians. be#ause three o$ the greatest works in all Gree#e were 'ade by the') !ne is a tunnel. 'ade war on the' and done great har' to their island. two -agi. took hi' and 'ade hi' sit u%on the royal throne) Ha&ing so done. son o$ +hileus. son o$ Cyrus. and a'ong the' the $ane o$ 5i#tyna) But in the si. still lingered in Egy%t. a -egarian) "u#h is the $irst o$ their great works( the se#ond is a 'ole in the sea. and standing . whi#h goes all round the harbour. and that his death was hid and known to $ew o$ the +ersians. when *'%hi#rates was king o$ "a'os. to 'ake %ro#la'ation to the troo%s that hen#e$orth they were to obey "'erdis the son o$ Cyrus. and likewise the herald whose %la#e it was to %ro#eed into Egy%t) He. was $irst ar#hite#t) Be#ause o$ these works ha&e dwelt the longer on the a$$airs o$ "a'os) 4hile Ca'byses. near twenty $atho's dee%. su$$ering. a$ter losing his senses. and 'ade a bold stroke $or the #rown) He had a brother7 the sa'e o$ who' s%oke be$ore as his %artner in the re&olt7 who ha%%ened greatly to rese'ble "'erdis the son o$ Cyrus. while 'ost belie&ed that he was still ali&e. a "a'ian. went straight into the 'iddle o$ the host. son o$ 3austro%hus. twenty #ubits dee% and three $eet broad. he laid his %lan.&arious te'%les that 'ay still be seen at that %la#e. sin#e the "a'ians had $irst. and not Ca'byses) The other heralds there$ore 'ade %ro#la'ation as they were ordered. under a hill one hundred and $i$ty $atho's high. who' Ca'byses his brother had %ut to death) *nd not only was this brother o$ his like "'erdis in %erson. they sawed o$$. $inding Ca'byses and his ar'y there. whi#h #arried the $igure o$ a wild boar. whereby water is brought. to Egy%t and elsewhere. $ro' an abundant sour#e into the #ity) The ar#hite#t o$ this tunnel was Eu%alinus. howe&er. and. #arried entirely through the base o$ the hill. and in length abo&e two $urlongs) The third is a te'%le( the largest o$ all the te'%les known to us. through %i%es.th year they were atta#ked by the Eginetans. who beat the' in a sea7$ight. to wit "'erdis) +ati/eithes. re&olted against hi') !ne o$ the' had been le$t in +ersia by Ca'byses as #o'%troller o$ his household( and it was he who began the re&olt) *ware that "'erdis was dead. and laid the' u% in the te'%le o$ -iner&a in Egina) The Eginetans took %art against the "a'ians on a##ount o$ an an#ient grudge. when he rea#hed *gbatana in "yria. he sent heralds through all the land. with the hel% o$ the Cretans.

ation as he thought o$ all his ill lu#k.who.as%es said to hi'. 'y liege. 9"irrah. when one a%%eared to hi' in his slee% and told hi' that "'erdis sate u%on the royal throne. and the $ul$il'ent o$ his own drea'7 the drea'. or hadst thou the' $ro' one o$ his o$$i#ers:9 The herald answered. who was le$t #o'%troller o$ thy household. and with his head tou#hed the hea&ens) "o when he saw that he had needlessly slain his brother "'erdis. and go thy way s#athless) 5id "'erdis ha&e thee to his %resen#e and gi&e thee thy orders. +re. the herald was $orthwith %ursued. sin#e. and Ca'byses had a%%ro&ed his words. $ro' "'erdis. he s%rang hastily u%on his steed. 'y #ounsel is that we send in %ursuit o$ the herald. who is na'ed "'erdis)9 Ca'byses no sooner heard the na'e o$ "'erdis than he was stru#k with the truth o$ +re. great or s'all.uestion hi' who it was that #harged hi' to bid us obey king "'erdis)9 4hen +re. and re&olted $ro' 'e:9 9 think. there$ore. 'eaning to 'ar#h his ar'y with all haste to "usa against the -agus) *s he 'ade his s%ring. 9Truly ha&e not set eyes on "'erdis son o$ Cyrus. he we%t and bewailed his loss0 a$ter whi#h. as a right good 'an. 9there is no truth in the tidings that "'erdis thy brother has re&olted against thee. and brought ba#k to the king) Then +re. son o$ Cyrus) 3ow answer truly. that thou didst 'y errand:9 9!h> 'y liege. than belie&ing that what the herald said was true. +ati/eithes. +re. sin#e the day when king Ca'byses led the +ersians into Egy%t) The 'an who ga&e 'e 'y orders was the -agus that Ca'byses le$t in #harge o$ the household( but he said that "'erdis son o$ Cyrus sent you the 'essage)9 n all this the herald s%oke nothing but the stri#t truth) Then Ca'byses said thus to +re. 'ade the %ro#la'ation whi#h +ati/eithes the -agus had #o''anded) Ca'byses no sooner heard hi'.as%es. whi#h he had in $or'er days.a#tly where he had hi'sel$ on#e . 9 s this the way.as%es07 9Thou art $ree $ro' all bla'e. and said. nor hast thou to $ear in ti'e to #o'e any .9 answered the other. and his brother. wounding hi' e. 'ean. 9that a%%rehend the whole business) The 'en who ha&e risen in re&olt against thee are the two -agi. he su%%osed. thou bear1st us a 'essage.as%es . with that 'an) 4ith 'y own hands wrought thy will on hi'. and stri#tly . e.$orth be$ore the' all. then be sure no ill will e&er #o'e u%on thee $ro' this . s'arting with &e.as%es1 words.as%es.uarter) 3ow.uarrel. and the bared %oint entered his thigh.as%es. whi#h o$ the +ersians #an ha&e taken the na'e o$ "'erdis. thou hast not $ailed to do the thing whi#h #o''anded) But tell 'e now.9 he answered.as%es had so s%oken. had not %ut "'erdis to death when sent into +ersia $or that %ur%ose<. and i'agining that he had been betrayed by +re. sayst thou. he turned his eyes $ull u%on +re.%e#t *styages the -ede to rise and $ight against thee( but i$ the #ourse o$ nature be the sa'e as $or'erly. the button o$ his sword7sheath $ell o$$. and with 'y own hands buried hi') $ o$ a truth the dead #an lea&e their gra&es.

and $reedo' be your %ortion $or e&er0 but do it not7 'ake no bra&e struggle to regain the kingdo'7 and then 'y #urse be on you. 9*gbatana)9 3ow be$ore this it had been told hi' by the ora#le at Buto that he should end his days at *gbatana) He. i$ it is by $raud that they ha&e sei/ed on it( by $or#e. sent +re. $ro' the re&olt o$ the -agus and $ro' his wound. had understood the -edian *gbatana. alas> has %erished by a horrid $ate. and "'erdis his brother) There was one who would ha&e been bound beyond all others to a&enge the wrongs ha&e su$$ered $ro' these -agians. be sure is lost to you) The -agi ha&e the royal %ower7 +ati/eithes. in the na'e o$ the gods that wat#h o&er our royal house. and did what was 'ore hasty than wise) *h> truly. and addressed the' as $ollows07 9+ersians. whi#h would that had ne&er beheld> thought a 'essenger #a'e to 'e $ro' 'y ho'e. de%ri&ed o$ li$e by those nearest and dearest to hi') n his de$ault.uite 'istaken what was about to ha%%en. by $or#e or $raud( by $raud. and so slew 'y brother without any need. i$ $or#e has hel%ed the' in their enter%rise) 5o this. o$ whose rebellion God $orewarned 'e by the &ision) The deed is done. 9Here then Ca'byses. nothing now re'ains $or 'e but to tell you. who' le$t at "usa to o&erlook 'y household. howe&er. do what they 'ay. and your herds in#rease. in. that ye do not ta'ely allow the kingdo' to go ba#k to the -edes) Re#o&er it one way or another. howe&er. but he. ne&er i'agining that. the double sho#k that he had re#ei&ed. needs 'ust tell you now what hitherto ha&e stri&en with the greatest #are to kee% #on#ealed) 4hen was in Egy%t saw in 'y slee% a &ision.uired the na'e o$ the %la#e where he was. and your wi&es bear #hildren. and said. son o$ Cyrus. a$ter "'erdis was dead. son o$ Cyrus. in 'y $olly. $eeling that he had got his death7wound. and then li&ed without $ear. brought hi' ba#k to his senses) *nd he understood now the true 'eaning o$ the ora#le. what would wish to ha&e done a$ter ha&e breathed 'y last) There$ore.as%es to "usa to %ut 'y brother to death) "o this great woe was a##o'%lished. need dread re&olt $ro' any other) But herein had . and told 'e that "'erdis sate u%on the royal throne. and had thought that he should die there in a good old age( but the ora#le 'eant *gbatana in "yria) "o when Ca'byses heard the na'e o$ the %la#e. and ne&ertheless ha&e lost 'y #rown) For it was "'erdis the -agus. and 'ay the o%%osite o$ all these things ha%%en to you7 and . and was answered. and not "'erdis 'y brother. and "'erdis. where all his treasures were. is doo'ed to die)9 *t this ti'e he said no 'ore( but twenty days a$terwards he #alled to his %resen#e all the #hie$ +ersians who were with the ar'y. and then 'ay your land bring you $orth $ruit abundantly.wounded the Egy%tian god *%is) Then Ca'byses. and s%e#ially su#h o$ you as are *#hae'enids. ! +ersians. it is i'%ossible $or 'en to turn aside the #o'ing $ate) . and with his head tou#hed the hea&ens) Then $eared to be #ast $ro' 'y throne by "'erdis 'y brother. #harge you all.

and had in&ented the tale o$ his death to #ause the whole +ersian ra#e to rise u% in ar's against hi') Thus they were #on&in#ed that it was "'erdis the son o$ Cyrus who had rebelled and now sate on the throne) For +re. when he le$t s%eaking. seeing their king wee%. and said. and the li'b gangrened. and in.not only so. and ne&er #alling be$ore hi' any o$ the +ersian noble'en) *s soon. as the bone %resently grew #arious.ueen *tossa who it is with who' ye both li&e7 she #annot $ail to know her own brother)9 To this the daughter 'ade answer. by the -agus) To this daughter !tanes sent a 'essage. and uttered la'entable #ries( a$ter whi#h. and was taken to wi$e. Ca'byses. %ut no $aith in anything that he said #on#erning the -agi ha&ing the royal %ower( but belie&ed that he s%oke out o$ hatred towards "'erdis. the son o$ +harnas%es. a$ter Ca'byses was dead. together with the rest o$ Ca'byses1 wi&es.uired o$ her 9who it was whose bed she shared. or was it so'e other 'an:9 +haedi'a in re%ly de#lared she did not know7 "'erdis the son o$ Cyrus she had ne&er seen. as his sus%i#ions were aroused he ado%ted the $ollowing 'easures07 !ne o$ his daughters. died) He had reigned in all se&en years and $i&e 'onths. had been 'arried to Ca'byses. ask . re#ei&ed great bene$its $ro' hi'. sin#e it was not sa$e $or hi'. e. nor with any o$ the wo'en who lodge in the %ala#e) For no sooner did .ual to the greatest o$ the +ersians) This !tanes was the $irst to sus%e#t that the -agus was not "'erdis the son o$ Cyrus. and to sur'ise 'oreo&er who he really was) He was led to guess the truth by the king ne&er . 'ale or $e'ale) The +ersians who had heard his words. and granted the' $reedo' $ro' war7ser&i#e and $ro' ta. there$ore. inso'u#h that. rent the gar'ents that they had on. to allow that a son o$ Cyrus had 'et with death at his hands) Thus then Ca'byses died. who was #alled +haedi'a.as%es stoutly denied that he had slain "'erdis. while his reign lasted. 9 $ thou dost not know "'erdis son o$ Cyrus thysel$.#e%t only the +ersians) For no sooner did he #o'e to the throne than $orthwith he sent round to e&ery nation under his rule. son o$ Cyrus. and %assed hi'sel$ o$$ $or "'erdis the son o$ Cyrus) *nd so went by the se&en 'onths whi#h were wanting to #o'%lete the eighth year o$ Ca'byses) His sub2e#ts.uitting the #itadel.7 was it "'erdis the son o$ Cyrus.#eedingly. who $or rank and wealth was e. and so she #ould not tell whose bed she shared) 6%on this !tanes sent a se#ond ti'e. one and all.es $or the s%a#e o$ three years) n the eighth 'onth. howe&er. but 'ay you. 9 #an neither get s%ee#h with *tossa. and the -agus now reigned in se#urity. it was dis#o&ered who he was in the 'ode $ollowing) There was a 'an #alled !tanes. bewailed his whole 'is$ortune $ro' beginning to end) 4hereu%on the +ersians. %erish at the last by su#h a $ate as 'ine>9 Then Ca'byses. when he died. all the dwellers in *sia 'ourned his loss e. and le$t no issue behind hi'.

and she was taken to the bed o$ the -agus . obtain the kingdo'. the 'en. 9thou art the #hild o$ a bra&e $ather. she sent word to her $ather) Then !tanes took to hi' two o$ the #hie$ +ersians. waited till he was sound aslee%. *s%athines and Gobryas. than he %arted us $ro' one another. and *s%athines Hydarnes) *$ter the nu'ber had thus be#o'e si. he said as $ollows07 9-ethought no one but knew that "'erdis. know hi' $or "'erdis the -agian)9 +haedi'a returned $or answer.#hange oaths. !tanes1 daughter. and not to 'e only. she well knew he would 'ake away with her7 ne&ertheless she would &enture)9 "o !tanes got his daughter1s %ro'ise that she would do as he desired) 3ow "'erdis the -agian had had his ears #ut o$$ in the li$eti'e o$ Cyrus son o$ Ca'byses. to #o'%ass the death o$ the -agian) But as it see's the 'atter is known to you all. as soon as day dawned. 'et together to e. and lording it o&er the +ersians. his boldness in taking thee to be his wi$e. and told the' e&erything) 3ow they had already o$ the'sel&es sus%e#ted how the 'atter stood) 4hen !tanes there$ore laid his reasons be$ore the' they at on#e #a'e into his &iews( and it was agreed that ea#h o$ the three should take as #o'%anion in the work the +ersian in who' he %la#ed the greatest #on$iden#e) Then !tanes #hose nta%hernes. the son o$ Hystas%es. Gobryas -egaby/us. 'y 2udg'ent is that we should a#t at on#e. arri&ed at "usa $ro' +ersia. the son o$ Cyrus.t he %asses the night with thee.in +ersia a 'an1s wi&es slee% with hi' in their turns<. and ga&e us all se%arate #ha'bers)9 This 'ade the 'atter see' still 'ore %lain to !tanes) 3e&ertheless he sent a third 'essage to his daughter in these words $ollowing07 95aughter. was not now ali&e. then belie&e hi' to be "'erdis the son o$ Cyrus. to take hi' likewise into their #ounsels) *$ter this.ui#kly %er#ei&ed that he had no ears( and o$ this. 5arius.9 said he. and hold dis#ourse with one another) *nd when it #a'e to the turn o$ 5arius to s%eak his 'ind. 9 t would be a great risk) $ he was without ears.this 'an. and that "'erdis the -agian ruled o&er us( on this a##ount #a'e hither with s%eed. 'en who' it was 'ost ad&isable to trust in su#h a 'atter. but the 'an who' think hi' to be. thou art o$ noble blood7 thou wilt not shrink $ro' a risk whi#h thy $ather bids thee en#ounter) $ this $ellow be not "'erdis the son o$ Cyrus. and #aught her $eeling $or the'. be he who he 'ay. when her turn #a'e. whereo$ his $ather was go&ernor) !n his #o'ing it see'ed good to the si. 'ust not be allowed to %ass un%unished) 3ow there$ore do as #o''and7 when ne. and . but i$ he has none.. being now se&en in all. and then $elt $or his ears) "he . and then $eel $or his ears) $ thou $indest hi' to ha&e ears. wait till thou art sure he is $ast aslee%. and not any longer delay) For to do so were not well)9 !tanes s%oke u%on this07 9"on o$ Hystas%es. as a %unish'ent $or a #ri'e o$ no slight heinousness) +haedi'a there$ore. bent on a##o'%lishing what she had %ro'ised her $ather.

shall ha&e his guerdon so'e day or other( but woe to the 'an who resists us. ask thee:9 answered 5arius. be#ause they e.see'est likely to show thysel$ as bold a gallant as he) Beware. who has had his ears #ut o$$> "o'e o$ you were %resent when Ca'byses lay u%on his deathbed7 su#h. at least die in the atte'%t: Consider that we +ersians are go&erned by a -edian -agus. indeed. whi#h by s%ee#h it is hard to e. we %aid but little heed to what .%e#t to get so'ething by their true s%eaking. and ha&e o%ened the 'atter to 'e. your true7s%eaking 'an would tell untruths as 'u#h as your liar. i$ we are not strong enough. 9there are 'any things easy enough in a#t. it is with one and the sa'e ob2e#t) -en lie. be#ause they think to gain by de#ei&ing others( and s%eak the truth. re%lied. when will a $itter o##asion o$$er $or us to re#o&er the kingdo'. or say true. but no noble a#tion $ollows when the s%ee#h is done) *s $or these guards. and one. we will %ress in and go straight to our work)9 *$ter 5arius had thus said. i$ a single day be su$$ered to %ass by. though their #ondu#t is so o%%osite. be sure that will let no one betray 'e to the -agian) 'ysel$ will go to hi'. and to be trusted a$terwards in 'ore i'%ortant 'atters) Thus. %ray thee. when he saw 5arius so hot. so as to set u%on the') Guards are %la#ed e&erywhere. and so 'ade the &enture( but as ye ha&e #hosen to take others into your se#ret.%lain) There are also things #on#erning whi#h s%ee#h is easy. o$ rash haste in this 'atter( do not hurry so. and not allow a day1s delay. re'e'ber what #urses he #alled down u%on the +ersians i$ they 'ade no e$$ort to re#o&er the kingdo') Then.9 5arius re2oined( 9$or let all %resent be well assured that i$ the ad&i#e o$ !tanes guide our a#ts. howe&er. as thou thysel$ well knowest7 $or i$ thou hast not seen. at least thou hast heard tell o$ the') How are we to %ass these guards. too. ha&e the $airest %lea that #an be #on#ei&ed $or gaining ad'ission) #an say that ha&e 2ust #o'e $ro' +ersia. tell us. and %lainly denoun#e you all)9 !tanes. and your liar would tell the truth as 'u#h as your true7s%eaking 'an) The doorkee%er. and ha&e a 'essage to deli&er to the king $ro' 'y $ather) *n untruth 'ust be s%oken. ye know well that we shall not $ind it hard to 'ake our way through the') !ur rank alone would #ause the' to allow us to enter7 sha'e and $ear alike $orbidding the' to say us nay) But besides. the end o$ both is alike) $ there were no gain to be got. how we shall get entran#e into the %ala#e. where need re. he 'ust $orthwith be de#lared an ene'y) For#ing our way %ast hi'. or. Gobryas s%oke as $ollows07 95ear $riends. we shall %erish 'ost 'iserably) "o'e one will betray our %lot to the -agians $or lu#re1s sake) =e ought to ha&e ke%t the 'atter to yoursel&es. 9But i$ thou wilt $or#e us to a#tion. but %ro#eed with soberness) 4e 'ust add to our nu'ber ere we ad&enture to strike the blow)9 93ot so. who lets us in readily. doubtless. take 'y ad&i#e and 'ake the atte'%t today7 or i$ not.uires) For whether 'en lie.

'y &ote is that we do as 5arius has #ounselled7 'ar#h straight in a body to the %ala#e $ro' the %la#e where we now are. be#ause we thought he s%oke out o$ hatred to set us against his brother) 3ow. and none but he.uite ready to do their will in the 'atter( so the -agi asse'bled the %eo%le. and wreak &engean#e on the -agi. it so #han#ed that the $ollowing e&ents were ha%%ening07 The -agi had been thinking what they had best do. when he #a'e to that king. he re#ounted all the ser&i#es that had been rendered by hi' to the +ersians. went on to another %ro%osal.as%es was a 'an o$ great weight with his #ountry'en. and that he was the only %erson %ri&y to that %rin#e1s death( and they $urther $ound hi' to be held in the highest estee' by all the +ersians) "o they #alled hi' to the'. began with *#haea'enes. and bound hi' by a %ro'ise and by oaths to kee% silen#e about the $raud whi#h they were %ra#tising u%on the +ersians. $orgetting o$ set %ur%ose all that the -agi had intreated hi' to say.as%es) The news o$ his doings rea#hed the' u%on their way. he said. when they $ound that they had %ersuaded hi' so $ar. he had hi'sel$ taken the li$e o$ "'erdis. howe&er. ha&ing resol&ed that they would atta#k the -agi without 'ore delay.uite una#.uainted with what had been done by +re. and $orthwith set u%on the -agian)9 "o Gobryas s%ake. he threw hi'sel$ headlong $ro' the tower into the abyss below) "u#h was the end o$ +re.as%es agreed. and %la#ed +re.as%es u%on the to% o$ the tower.as%es said he was . who slew his son with an arrow( they were also aware that it was by his hand that "'erdis the son o$ Cyrus $ell. with 'any #urses u%on the +ersians i$ they did not re#o&er the kingdo'. and told hi' to 'ake his s%ee#h) Then this 'an. ruled the land) This they bade hi' do. and he should 'ount one o$ the towers and harangue the' $ro' it. be#ause it would not ha&e been sa$e $or hi' to 'ake it known. $ro' when#e he went on to de#lare the truth. and had o$ten de#lared in %ubli# that "'erdis the son o$ Cyrus was still ali&e. and the -agi. whi#h hitherto he had #on#ealed. and not dis#o&er it to any one( and they %ledged the'sel&es that in this #ase they would gi&e hi' thousands o$ gi$ts o$ e&ery sort and kind) "o +re. . and denied being his 'urderer) +re. and had resol&ed $or 'any reasons to 'ake a $riend o$ +re. . and said they would asse'ble the +ersians at the $oot o$ the %ala#e wall. 'ade hi' their $riend.as%es. but now ne#essity was laid on hi' to dis#lose the whole) Then he told how. assuring the' that "'erdis the son o$ Cyrus. and how that +ersia was now ruled by the -agi) Last o$ all. $irst o$$ered %rayers to the gods and then set o$$ $or the %ala#e. be#ause +re.he said. son o$ Cyrus. a 'an all his li$e o$ high re%ute a'ong the +ersians) *nd now the se&en +ersians.as%es) They knew how #ruelly he had been outraged by Ca'byses. and the others all a%%ro&ed) 4hile the se&en were thus taking #ounsel together. $or#ed to it by Ca'byses. and tra#ed down the des#ent o$ Cyrus( a$ter whi#h.

and not 'ake the atta#k when a$$airs were in su#h a $er'ent) 5arius. to see what was ha%%ening) nstantly %er#ei&ing their danger. while 5arius stood o&er the'. they ran out the'sel&es. drew their daggers. dro&e his dagger ho'e. and their loud #ries. intending to shut to the doors) But two o$ the se&en entered the roo' with hi'. while at the sa'e ti'e they threatened the doorkee%ers $or ha&ing let the' enter) The se&en sought to %ress on. $led into a #ha'ber whi#h o%ened out into the a%art'ent o$ the 'ales. and his $riends. though it be through both)9 5arius did as he desired. and held the #hie$ +ersians in 'u#h re&eren#e. when he $ound his bow o$ no a&ail. and he was a$raid that i$ he stru#k a blow he 'ight kill Gobryas) Then Gobyras. 5arius and Gobryas) Gobryas sei/ed the -agus and gra%%led with hi'. but the eunu#hs would not su$$er the') Then these 'en. asked hi'. who had no sus%i#ion that they #a'e $or any ill %ur%ose. on the other hand.when they had a##o'%lished about hal$ the distan#e) Hereu%on they turned aside out o$ the road. and stabbing those who stro&e to withstand the'.as%es) "o when they heard the stir a'ong the eunu#hs. were against any #hange o$ %lan.uestion) 4hen they were now in the great #ourt they $ell in with #ertain o$ the eunu#hs. let the' %ass without di$$i#ulty7 it see'ed as i$ they were under the s%e#ial %rote#tion o$ the gods7 none e&en asked the' any . who sto%%ed the' and asked what they wanted. 9why his hand was idle:9 9 $ear to hurt thee. with #heers en#ouraging one another. suddenly there #a'e in sight two %airs o$ &ultures. when he %er#ei&ed that 5arius stood doing nothing. and the hawks tore the &ultures both with their #laws and bills) *t this sight the se&en with one a##ord #a'e in to the o%inion o$ 5arius. and en#ouraged by the o'en hastened on towards the %ala#e) *t the gate they were re#ei&ed as 5arius had $oretold) The guards. holding #ounsel u%on the 'atter o$ +re. the other got hold o$ his lan#e( when straightway the $ight began) The one whose wea%on was the bow $ound it o$ no ser&i#e at all( the $oe was too near. not knowing what to do( $or it was dark. and se&en %airs o$ hawks. and nta%hernes in the eye) This wound did not kill nta%hernes. and by good ha% killed the -agus) Thus were the -agi slain( and the se&en. %ursuing the'. they both $lew to ar's( one had 2ust ti'e to sei/e his bow.9 said Gobryas( 9strike. and the #o'bat too #lose to allow o$ his using it) But the other 'ade a stout de$en#e with his lan#e. and not lose a 'o'ent) 3ow. and wished to go straight on. whose business it was to #arry the king1s 'essages. rushed $orward to the a%art'ent o$ the 'ales) 3ow both the -agi were at this ti'e within. and #onsulted together) !tanes and his %arty said they 'ust #ertainly %ut o$$ the business. as they stro&e together. but it #ost hi' the sight o$ that eye) The other -agus.9 he answered) 9Fear not. wounding two o$ the se&en. #utting o$$ both the . *s%athines in the leg.

showing the' the heads o$ the -agi. and kee% it 'ore stri#tly than any other in the whole year) t is then that they hold the great $esti&al. they killed the -agi where&er they #ould $ind any) "u#h was their $ury. and the hubbub had settled down. in the $irst %la#e. isono'y( and $urther it is $ree $ro' all those outrages whi#h a king is wont to #o''it) There. . be#ause . and he is o$$ended again. and lea&ing their own wounded in the %ala#e. and wish their death( while they take delight in the 'eanest and basest. and he is angry be#ause you do not show hi' 'ore %ro$ound res%e#t7 show hi' %ro$ound res%e#t. the #ons%irators 'et together to #onsult about the situation o$ a$$airs) *t this 'eeting s%ee#hes were 'ade. but they were 'ade ne&ertheless) !tanes re#o''ended that the 'anage'ent o$ %ubli# a$$airs should be entrusted to the whole nation) 9To 'e. 9it see's ad&isable. ought to be &oid o$ en&y( but the #ontrary is seen in their #ondu#t towards the #iti/ens) They are 2ealous o$ the 'ost &irtuous a'ong their sub2e#ts. to wit. shouting and 'aking an u%roar) They #alled out to all the +ersians who' they 'et.a'%le set the'. that he sets aside the laws o$ the land. the $airest o$ na'es. when it allows a 'an to do as he likes without being answerable: "u#h li#en#e is enough to stir strange and unwonted thoughts in the heart o$ the worthiest o$ 'en) Gi&e a %erson this %ower.%erien#ed) How indeed is it %ossible that 'onar#hy should be a well7ad2usted thing. unless night had #losed in. being e&er ready to listen to the tales o$ slanderers) * king. on the other hand. and. and understood the $raud o$ the -agi. %ossessing as they do all that heart #an desire. and told the' what had ha%%ened.as he says< you $awn on hi') But the worst o$ all is. while en&y is so natural to hu'an kind that it #annot but arise in hi') But %ride and en&y together in#lude all wi#kedness7 both o$ the' leading on to deeds o$ sa&age &iolen#e) True it is that kings. while at the sa'e ti'e they slew e&ery -agus who $ell in their way) Then the +ersians. and straightway his 'ani$old good things %u$$ hi' u% with %ride. thought it but 2ust to $ollow the e. besides. drawing their daggers. %uts 'en to death without trial. and %artly to guard the #itadel. to whi#h 'any o$ the Greeks gi&e no #reden#e. not a single -agus would ha&e been le$t ali&e) The +ersians obser&e this day with one a##ord. when they knew what the se&en had done. is beyond all other 'en in#onsistent with hi'sel$) +ay hi' #ourt in 'oderation. has. whi#h they #all the -ago%honia) 3o -agus 'ay show hi'sel$ abroad during the whole ti'e that the $east lasts( but all 'ust re'ain at ho'e the entire day) *nd now when $i&e days were gone. and sub2e#ts wo'en to &iolen#e) The rule o$ the 'any. that we should no longer ha&e a single 'an to rule o&er us7 the rule o$ one is neither good nor %leasant) =e #annot ha&e $orgotten to what lengths Ca'byses went in his haughty tyranny.heads.9 he said. and the haughtiness o$ the -agi ye ha&e yoursel&es e. %artly be#ause they were disabled. that. went $orth $ro' the gates with the heads in their hands.

o$ten ending in bloodshed) Then 'onar#hy is sure to $ollow( and this too shows how $ar that rule sur%asses all others) *gain. do not lead to en'ities. it is i'%ossible but that there will be 'al%ra#ti#es0 these 'al%ra#ti#es. but a 'ob is altogether de&oid o$ knowledge( $or how should there be any knowledge in a rabble. and #on$uses e&erything) Let the ene'ies o$ the +ersians be ruled by de'o#ra#ies( but let us #hoose out $ro' the #iti/ens a #ertain nu'ber o$ the worthiest. and %ower being entrusted to the best 'en. ea#h wishing to be leader. that we do away with 'onar#hy.%la#es are gi&en by lot. and to #arry his own 'easures( when#e &iolent . 9 $ully #on#ur( but his re#o''endation that we should #all the %eo%le to %ower see's to 'e not the best ad&i#e) For there is nothing so &oid o$ understanding. and %ut the go&ern'ent into their hands) For thus both we oursel&es shall be a'ong the go&ernors.9 he obser&ed. and with no natural sense o$ what is right and $it: t rushes wildly into state a$$airs with all the $ury o$ a strea' swollen in the winter. while seeking to es#a%e the wantonness o$ a tyrant. and $ro' being ad'ired soon #o'es to be . and raise the %eo%le to %ower) For the %eo%le are all in all)9 "u#h were the senti'ents o$ !tanes) -egaby/us s%oke ne. and %uts down the e&il7doers) "traightway the author o$ so great a ser&i#e is ad'ired by all.uarrels #o'e. in oligar#hies. howe&er. and ad&ised the setting u% o$ an oligar#hy07 9 n all that !tanes has said to %ersuade you to %ut down 'onar#hy. untaught. at least knows what is he about. oligar#hy. but to #lose $riendshi%s. think( but about oligar#hy he did not s%eak ad&isedly( $or take these three $or's o$ go&ern'ent7 de'o#ra#y. and so he go&erns the 'ass o$ the %eo%le to their heart1s #ontent( while at the sa'e ti'e his 'easures against e&il7doers are ke%t 'ore se#ret than in other states) Contrariwise. and s%oke as $ollows07 9*ll that -egaby/us said against de'o#ra#y was well said. 'aintain that 'onar#hy $ar sur%asses the other two) 4hat go&ern'ent #an %ossibly be better than that o$ the &ery best 'an in the whole state: The #ounsels o$ su#h a 'an are like hi'sel$. and 'easures rest with the #o''onalty) &ote. $ier#e en'ities are a%t to arise between 'an and 'an. as the unwieldy rabble) t were $olly not to be borne. and a$ter hi' 5arius #a'e $orward. in a de'o#ra#y. it is likely that the best #ounsels will %re&ail in the state)9 This was the ad&i#e whi#h -egaby/us ga&e. and 'onar#hy7 and let the' ea#h be at their best. there$ore. nothing so $ull o$ wantonness. where 'en &ie with ea#h other in the ser&i#e o$ the #o''onwealth. whi#h are $or'ed a'ong those engaged in the'. the 'agistrate is answerable $or what he does. in all his doings. who 'ust hold well together to #arry on their &illainies) *nd so things go on until a 'an stands $orth as #ha'%ion o$ the #o''onalty.t. whi#h lead to o%en stri$e. to gi&e the'sel&es u% to the wantonness o$ a rude unbridled 'ob) The tyrant. $or 'en.

a -edian robe. or a 'onar#h: *s a single 'an re#o&ered our $reedo' $or us. to enter the %ala#e unannoun#ed. to su' u% all in a word. we ought not to #hange the laws o$ our $ore$athers when they work $airly( $or to do so is not well)9 "u#h were the three o%inions brought $orward at this 'eeting( the $our other +ersians &oted in $a&our o$ the last) !tanes. unless the king were in the #o'%any o$ one o$ his wi&es( and the king was to be bound to 'arry into no $a'ily e. and said. agreed to these ter's.#e%ting those o$ the #ons%irators) Con#erning the a%%oint'ent o$ a king. this is the way in whi#h the king is to be #hosen7 we are to 'ount our horses.t 'orning into the skirts o$ the #ity. on one #ondition7 none o$ you shall #lai' to e.er#ise rule o&er 'e or 'y seed $or e&er)9 The si. when he $ound the de#ision against hi'. were assigned s%e#ially to !tanes) The $ollowing were 'ade #o''on to the' all07 t was to be $ree to ea#h. 'y senten#e is that we kee% to the rule o$ one) E&en a%art $ro' this. as ha&e neither a 'ind to rule nor to be ruled. and !tanes withdraw and stood aloo$ $ro' the #ontest) *nd still to this day the $a'ily o$ !tanes #ontinues to be the only $ree $a'ily in +ersia( those who belong to it sub'it to the rule o$ the king only so $ar as they the'sel&es #hoose( they are bound. a shar%7witted kna&e. that i$ any o$ their own nu'ber got the kingdo'. there$ore. whether we 'ake the #hoi#e by #asting lots $or the %ri/e. when#e. and he whose steed $irst neighed a$ter the sun was u% should ha&e the kingdo') 3ow 5arius had a groo'. the resol&e to whi#h they #a'e was the $ollowing07 They would ride out together ne. in or any other way) 3ow. and the 'an whose horse $irst neighs a$ter the sun is u% is to ha&e the kingdo') $ then you ha&e any #le&erness. howe&er. !tanes and his seed a$ter hi' should re#ei&e year by year. or by letting the %eo%le de#ide whi#h o$ us they will ha&e to rule o&er the'. 5arius sent $or hi'. took #ounsel together. to obser&e the laws o$ the land like the other +ersians) *$ter this the si. and not go to .a%%ointed king( so that here too it is %lain that 'onar#hy is the best go&ern'ent) Lastly. and who brought the se&en together) These %ri&ileges. and s%oke thus be$ore the asse'bly07 9Brother #ons%irators. whene&er he %leased. arose a se#ond ti'e. and all su#h other gi$ts as are a##ounted the 'ost honourable in +ersia) *nd these they resol&ed to gi&e hi'. shall not enter the lists with you in this 'atter) withdraw. 9!ebares. they resol&ed. who wished to gi&e his #ountry'en a de'o#ra#y. #alled !ebares) *$ter the 'eeting had broken u%. or oligar#hy. as a 'ark o$ s%e#ial honour. as to the $airest way o$ setting u% a king0 and $irst. was it that we got the $reedo' whi#h we en2oy:7 did de'o#ra#y gi&e it us. #ontri&e a %lan whereby the %ri/e 'ay $all to us. be#ause he was the 'an who $irst %lanned the outbreak. it is %lain that the king who is to be #hosen will be one o$ oursel&es. ask. howe&er. with res%e#t to !tanes.

when the 'orning broke.9 said 5arius. who had 'ade the dis#o&ery about the -agus) *nd now when his %ower was established $ir'ly throughout all the kingdo's. though the sky was #lear and bright. whi#h i''ediately snorted and neighed) Thus was 5arius. but had a league o$ $riendshi% with the' $ro' the ti'e when they brought Ca'byses on his way as he went into Egy%t( $or had they been un$riendly the +ersians #ould ne&er ha&e 'ade their in&asion) *nd now 5arius #ontra#ted 'arriages o$ the $irst rank. set thine heart at ease. 9i$ it de%ends on this whether thou shalt be king or no. *tossa and *rtystone( o$ who'. brought his 'aster1s horse to the %la#e( then. daughter o$ "'erdis. son o$ Hystas%es.9 !ebares answered. 'aster. $or the trial is to be to7'orrow)9 "o !ebares when he heard that. he ended by letting the' #o'e together) *nd now. with two daughters o$ Cyrus. 9and o$ his good groo' !ebares. and rode out to the suburb) *s they went along they neared the s%ot where the 'are was tethered the night be$ore. a##ording to agree'ent. had brought the' all under) The *rabians were ne&er sub2e#t as sla&es to the +ersians. a##ording to the notions o$ the +ersians0 to wit. by aid o$ his good horse9 . her brother. while the other. the $irst thing that he did was to set u% a #ar&ing in stone. on#e to Ca'byses. and $ear nothing0 ha&e a #har' whi#h is sure not to $ail)9 9 $ thou hast really aught o$ the kind. and hereby inaugurated hi' king0 so the $i&e other nobles lea%ed with one a##ord $ro' their steeds. when he suddenly drew his hand $orth and %ut it to the nostrils o$ his 'aster1s horse. did as $ollows07 4hen night #a'e. and bowed down be$ore hi' and owned hi' $or their king) This is the a##ount whi#h so'e o$ the +ersians ga&e o$ the #ontri&an#e o$ !ebares( but there are others who relate the 'atter di$$erently) They say that in the 'orning he stroked the 'are with his hand. $ollowed by a thunder#la%) t see'ed as i$ the hea&ens #ons%ired with 5arius. nearer and nearer at ea#h #ir#uit. 9hasten to get it ready) The 'atter does not brook delay. he took one o$ the 'ares. and a$ter hi' Ca'byses. and tethering it in the suburb. *rtystone. got hi'sel$ the . a%%ointed king( and. with an ins#ri%tion in these words $ollowing07 95arius. whi#h he then hid in his trousers until the sun rose and the horses were about to start. *tossa had been twi#e 'arried be$ore. e.#e%t the *rabians.another)9 9Truly. +ersians. the si. son o$ Hystas%es. whi#h showed a 'an 'ounted u%on a horse. a$ter leading hi' round and round the 'are se&eral ti'es. the #hie$ $a&ourite o$ the horse whi#h 5arius rode. there was a $lash o$ lightning. all they o$ *sia were sub2e#t to hi'( $or Cyrus. whereu%on the horse o$ 5arius s%rang $orward and neighed) 2ust at the sa'e ti'e. and on#e to the -agus.here $ollowed the horse1s na'e<. was a &irgin) He 'arried also +ar'ys. 'et together on horseba#k. son o$ Cyrus( and he likewise took to wi$e the daughter o$ !tanes.

the -agnesians o$ *sia. %aid a tribute o$ three hundred and $i$ty talents) *ll +hoeni#ia.uarter #alled the . whi#h was $i. assigning to ea#h its go&ernor. were herein #ontained) This was the $i$th satra%y) Fro' Egy%t. and Cyrus a $ather( $or 5arius looked to 'aking a gain in e&erything( Ca'byses was harsh and re#kless( while Cyrus was gentle. the +ersians say that 5arius was a hu#kster. son o$ *'%hiaraus.000 +ersians. the Carians. the tribute whi#h #a'e in was se&en hundred talents) These se&en hundred talents did not in#lude the %ro$its o$ the $isheries o$ Lake -oeris. and Cy%rus.ty were re#ei&ed by 5arius) This was the $ourth satra%y) The #ountry rea#hing $ro' the #ity o$ +osideiu' . Ca'byses a 'aster. %aid their tribute in a single su'. the *siati# Thra#ians.built by *'%hilo#hus. +alestine "yria. the Ly#ians. and the neighbouring %arts o$ Libya.ty white horses.#luding there$ro' a distri#t whi#h belonged to *rabia and was $ree $ro' ta.kingdo' o$ the +ersians)9 This he set u% in +ersia( and a$terwards he %ro#eeded to establish twenty go&ern'ents o$ the kind whi#h the +ersians #all satra%ies. e.ed tributes. nor the #orn $urnished to the troo%s at -e'%his) Corn was su%%lied to FG0. and $i&e hundred talents o$ sil&er) !$ this su' one hundred and $orty talents went to %ay the #a&alry whi#h guarded the #ountry.ed at $our hundred talents o$ sil&er) These $or'ed together the $irst satra%y) The -ysians. o$ the right #oast as one enters the straits. and %ro#ured the' all 'anner o$ goods) The onians. Cabalians. there were no $i. the *eolians. together with the towns o$ Cyrene and Bar#a.ty talents) This was the third satra%y) The Cili#ians ga&e three hundred and si. and o$ the yearly tribute whi#h they %aid to the king07 "u#h as brought their tribute in sil&er were ordered to %ay a##ording to the Babylonian talent( while the Euboi# was the standard 'easure $or su#h as brought gold) 3ow the Babylonian talent #ontains se&enty Euboi# 'inae) 5uring all the reign o$ Cyrus. who dwelt at -e'%his in the .ing the tribute whi#h was to be %aid hi' by the se&eral nations) *nd generally he 2oined together in one satra%y the nations that were neighbours. Lasonians. the +hrygians. but so'eti'es he %assed o&er the nearer tribes. and a$terwards when Ca'byses ruled. the -ariandynians1 and the "yrians %aid a tribute o$ three hundred and si. and Hygennians %aid the su' o$ $i&e hundred talents) This was the se#ond satra%y) The Helles%ontians.. on the #on$ines o$ "yria and Cili#ia< to the borders o$ Egy%t. and %ut in their stead those whi#h were 'ore re'ote) The $ollowing is an a##ount o$ these go&ern'ents. and $i. while the re'aining three hundred and si. Lydians. but the nations se&erally brought gi$ts to the king) !n a##ount o$ this and other like doings. one $or ea#h day in the year. the -ilyans. and the +a'%hylians. whi#h belonged to the Egy%tian satra%y. the +a%hlagonians.

and *rians. Tibareni. together with the inhabitants o$ the islands in the Erythraean sea. and 5aritae.ine. the Gandarians. where the king sends those who' he banishes. and the other %arts o$ Cissia. +ausi#ae.uainted. "arangians. Tha'anaeans. the ndian gold7dust will #o'e to $our thousand si. +anti'athi.ty talents o$ gold7dust) This was the twentieth satra%y) $ the Babylonian 'oney here s%oken o$ be redu#ed to the Euboi# s#ale. the su' drawn was $our hundred talents) This was the thirteenth satra%y) The "agartians. -a#rones. and the other %arts o$ -edia. %aid a tribute o$ a hundred and se&enty talents) This was the se&enth satra%y) "usa.#eeding that o$ e&ery other %eo%le. who are 'ore nu'erous than any other nation with whi#h we are a#. "as%eires. and -y#ians.teenth satra%y) The +ari#anians and Ethio%ians o$ *sia $urnished a tribute o$ $our hundred talents) This was the se&enteenth satra%y) The -atienians. %aid a tribute e. the 5adi#ae. Choras'ians.ty talents) This was the twel$th satra%y) Fro' +a#tyi#a. %aid in all $our hundred and $i$ty talents) This was the tenth satra%y) The Cas%ians. ga&e three hundred) This was the si. and *larodians were rated to %ay two hundred talents) This was the eighteenth satra%y) The -os#hi. and -ares had to %ay three hundred talents) This was the nineteenth satra%y) The ndians. it will 'ake nine thousand $i&e hundred and $orty su#h talents( and i$ the gold be re#koned at thirteen ti'es the worth o$ sil&er. and the #ountries rea#hing then#e to the Eu.4hite Castle. and $i&e hundred boy7eunu#hs) This was the ninth satra%y) *gbatana. were 2oined in one go&ern'ent. who were all re#koned together. hundred talents) This was the $ourteenth satra%y) The "a#ans and Cas%ians ga&e two hundred and $i$ty talents) This was the $i$teenth satra%y) The +arthians. and to a nu'ber o$ au.th satra%y) The "attagydians. 6tians. hundred and eighty talents) *dd these two a'ounts together and the whole re&enue whi#h #a'e in to 5arius year by year will be $ound to be in Euboi# 'oney . $urnished altogether a tribute o$ si. "ogdians. *r'enia. to wit. and the *%arytae. three hundred and si. were drawn a thousand talents o$ sil&er. %aid three hundred talents) This was the eighth satra%y) Fro' Babylonia. together with the +ari#anians and !rtho#orybantes. and %aid the su' o$ two hundred talents) This was the ele&enth satra%y) Fro' the Ba#trian tribes as $ar as the *egli the tribute re#ei&ed was three hundred and si. and the rest o$ *ssyria.iliaries) This was the si. -osynoe#i.

and twenty ele%hant tusks) The Col#hians. whi#h are a$terwards re'o&ed. 'an or wo'an. and o$ the nations o$ Euro%e as $ar as Thessaly) The Great ?ing stores away the tribute whi#h he re#ei&es a$ter this $ashion7 he 'elts it down. who were redu#ed by Ca'byses when he 'ade war on the long7li&ed Ethio%ians. but brought gi$ts to the king0 $irst. whi#h in 'y day was still brought e&ery $i$th year.t neighbours $eed is the sa'e as that used by the Calantian ndians) Their dwelling7houses are under ground) E&ery third year these two nations brought7 and they still bring to 'y day7 two #hoeni#es o$ &irgin gold. and the neighbouring tribes who dwell between the' and the Cau#asus7 $or so $ar the +ersian rule rea#hes.e'%t $ro' ta. lea&ing the 'etal in a solid 'ass) 4hen 'oney is wanted. and.ty talents.uid state. the Ethio%ians bordering u%on Egy%t. and the sa'e nu'ber o$ 'aidens) The *rabs brought e&ery year a thousand talents o$ $rankin#ense) "u#h were the gi$ts whi#h the king re#ei&ed o&er and abo&e the tribute7'oney) The way in whi#h the ndians get the %lenti$ul su%%ly o$ gold whi#h enables the' to $urnish year by year so &ast an a'ount o$ gold7dust to the kind is the $ollowing07 eastward o$ ndia lies a tra#t whi#h is entirely sand) ndeed o$ all the inhabitants o$ *sia.) The $ollowing %eo%les %aid no settled tribute. runs it into earthen &essels. ea#h $or'ed out o$ a single 2oint) These ndians wear a dress o$ sedge. and ha&e $esti&als in honour o$ Ba##hus) The grain on whi#h they and their ne. and the rising o$ the sun) Beyond the' the whole #ountry is desert on a##ount o$ the sand) The tribes o$ ndians are nu'erous. $i&e Ethio%ian boys. and wear it as we wear a breast7%late) Eastward o$ these ndians are another tribe. who are wanderers. and li&e on raw $lesh) This tribe is said to ha&e the $ollowing #usto's07 $ one o$ their nu'ber be ill. whi#h they #ut in the ri&er and bruise( a$terwards they wea&e it into 'ats. and who dwell about the sa#red #ity o$ 3ysa. #alled +adaeans. whi#h they take in boats 'ade o$ reeds. while it is in a li. .$ourteen thousand $i&e hundred and si. and do not all s%eak the sa'e language7 so'e are wandering tribes. others not) They who dwell in the 'arshes along the ri&er li&e on raw $ish. #on#erning who' anything #ertain is known. #onsisting o$ a hundred boys. be#ause the #ountry o$ the +ersians is altogether e. and su#h the a'ounts o$ tribute at whi#h they were assessed res%e#ti&ely) +ersia alone has not been re#koned a'ong the tributaries7 and $or this reason. not to 'ention %arts o$ a talent) "u#h was the re&enue whi#h 5arius deri&ed $ro' *sia and a s'all %art o$ Libya) Later in his reign the su' was in#reased by the tribute o$ the islands. he #oins as 'u#h o$ this bullion as the o##asion re. the ndians dwell the nearest to the east. two hundred logs o$ ebony. while north o$ the Cau#asus no one $ears the' any longer7 undertook to $urnish a gi$t.uires) "u#h then were the go&ern'ents.

and the #ountry o$ +a#tyi#a( these %eo%le dwell northward o$ all the rest o$ the ndians. there li&e a'id the sand great ants. take three #a'els and harness the' together. in a leading7rein) The rider sits on the $e'ale. who border on the #ity o$ Cas%atyrus.0 their wont is to gather this seed and ha&ing boiled it. whi#h a%%roa#hes that o$ the Ethio%ians) Their #ountry is a long way $ro' +ersia towards the south0 nor had king 5arius e&er any authority o&er the') Besides these. the 'en o$ his a#. to use it $or $ood) $ one o$ the' is atta#ked with si#kness. he goes $orth into the wilderness. there are ndians o$ another tribe. in a #aly. a $e'ale in the 'iddle and a 'ale on either side. notwithstanding. and they are %arti#ular to #hoose $or the %ur%ose one that has but 2ust dro%%ed her young( $or their $e'ale #a'els #an run as $ast as horses.es) The +ersian king has a nu'ber o$ the'. the wo'en. while they bear burthens &ery 'u#h better) *s the Greeks are well a#. they sow no #orn. and $ollow nearly the sa'e 'ode o$ li$e as the Ba#trians) They are 'ore warlike than any o$ the other tribes. then they o$$er hi' in sa#ri$i#e to their gods. and lies down to die( no one has the least #on#ern either $or the si#k or $or the dead) *ll the tribes whi#h ha&e 'entioned li&e together like the brute beasts0 they ha&e also all the sa'e tint o$ skin. they say. and ha&e no dwelling7houses) @egetables are their only $ood) There is a %lant whi#h grows wild in their #ountry.uainted with the sha%e o$ the #a'el. about whi#h there is seldo' any . shall not trouble to des#ribe it( but shall 'ention what see's to . in si/e so'ewhat less than dogs. in this desert. when they go into the desert to #olle#t this sand. whi#h ha&e been #aught by the hunters in the land whereo$ we are s%eaking) Those ants 'ake their dwellings under ground. and $east the'sel&es on his body) "o also i$ a wo'an be si#k. his $lesh would be s%oilt $or the' i$ he %ined and wasted away with si#kness) The 'an %rotests he is not ill in the least( but his $riends will not a##e%t his denial7 in s%ite o$ all he #an say. #o'es to be old. throw u% sand7hea%s as they burrow) 3ow the sand whi#h they throw u% is $ull o$ gold) The ndians. but bigger than $o.uaintan#e %ro#eed to %ut hi' to death. they kill hi'. and like the Greek ants. who are her $riends. and $ro' the' the 'en are sent $orth who go to %ro#ure the gold) For it is in this %art o$ ndia that the sandy desert lies) Here.they take the si#k %erson.uestion. be#ause. as #o''only be$ore that ti'e they ha&e had so'e disease or other. about the si/e o$ 'illet7seed. take her and do with her e.a#tly the sa'e as the 'en) $ one o$ the' rea#hes to old age. and so ha&e been %ut to death7 but i$ a 'an. and i$ he be a 'an. #aly. whi#h they &ery 'u#h rese'ble in sha%e. bearing seed. and a$terwards eat his $lesh) There is another set o$ ndians whose #usto's are &ery di$$erent) They re$use to %ut any li&e ani'al to death. and all.

not. at noonday( the greatest heat is $ro' the ti'e when he has rea#hed a #ertain height. they de#lare.#ellent %rodu#tions. the $ruit whereo$ is a wool e. 'yrrh. $irst one. as the +ersians say. there$ore. as obser&ed lately.#eeding in beauty and goodness that o$ shee%) The nati&es 'ake their #lothes o$ this tree7wool) *rabia is the last o$ inhabited lands towards the south. #assia. and ledanu') The *rabians do not get any o$ these. there are trees whi#h grow wild there. and begin to drag. and ride away at their best s%eed0 the ants. whi#h the Greeks obtain $ro' the +hoeni#ians( this they . a$ter whi#h. is the $urthest region o$ the inhabited world towards the east. so'e dug $ro' the earth. a##ording to the +ersians. that the ndians get a start while the ants are 'ustering.#e%t only the horses. and it is the only #ountry whi#h %rodu#es $rankin#ense.#ellently te'%ered than any other #ountry) n ndia. and then the other( but the $e'ales re#olle#t the young whi#h they ha&e le$t behind.uest o$ the gold. that there is nothing in the world like the'0 i$ it were not. so'e washed down by the ri&ers. all the $our7$ooted beasts and the birds are &ery 'u#h bigger than those $ound elsewhere.ha&e es#a%ed their noti#e) The #a'el has in its hind legs $our thigh7bones and $our knee72oints) 4hen the ndians there$ore ha&e thus e.. howe&er. 2ust in the sa'e way that Gree#e en2oys a #li'ate 'ore e. #al#ulating the ti'e so that they 'ay be engaged in sei/ing it during the 'ost sultry %art o$ the day. so that the 'en there are said at that ti'e to dren#h the'sel&es with water) *t noon his heat is 'u#h the sa'e in ndia as in other #ountries. until the hour at whi#h the 'arket #loses) 5uring this s%a#e he burns 'u#h 'ore $uriously than at 'idday in Gree#e. till about sunset it be#o'es &ery #old) 4hen the ndians rea#h the %la#e where the gold is. s#enting the'. as the day de#lines.#e%t the 'yrrh. whi#h are not so $leet as the $e'ales. rush $orth in %ursuit) 3ow these ani'als are. as elsewhere. whi#h are sur%assed by the -edian breed #alled the 3isaean) Gold too is %rodu#ed there in &ast abundan#e. they $ill their bags with the sand.ui%%ed the'sel&es they set o$$ in . the war'th is only e. but o$ this the su%%ly is 'ore s#anty) t see's as i$ the e. #inna'on. so swi$t.tre'e regions o$ the earth were blessed by nature with the 'ost e. so'e #arried o$$ in the 'ode whi#h ha&e but now des#ribed) *nd $urther. grow tired. is the 'anner in whi#h the ndians get the greater %art o$ their gold( so'e is dug out o$ the earth. when the ants hide the'sel&es to es#a%e the heat) The sun in those %arts shines $ier#est in the 'orning. e. not a single gold7gatherer #ould es#a%e) 5uring the $light the 'ale #a'els.ual to that o$ the 'orning sun elsewhere) Towards e&ening the #oolness in#reases. whi#h. and ne&er gi&e way or $lag) "u#h. e. without trouble) The $rankin#ense they %ro#ure by 'eans o$ the gu' styra.

and thus %rote#ted go in .#e%t in *rabia. i$ they were not ke%t in #he#k in the way in whi#h know that &i%ers are) !$ a truth 5i&ine +ro&iden#e does a%%ear to be. others . i$ they in#reased as $ast as their nature would allow. and he grows bigger. whi#h are shar%er than those o$ any other ani'al. and so 'ake their entran#e into the world) Contrariwise. then. a thing whi#h is true o$ no other ani'al) =ou $ind in a hare1s belly. whereo$ &ast nu'bers hang about e&ery tree) They are o$ the sa'e kind as the ser%ents that in&ade Egy%t( and there is nothing but the s'oke o$ the styra. he tears it e&er 'ore and 'ore( so that at last. the $e'ale sei/es the 'ale by the ne#k.ious #reatures are 'ade &ery un$ruit$ul) The hare. and hat#h a &ast nu'ber o$ young) @i%ers are $ound in all %arts o$ the world. breeds so abundantly as e&en to su%er$etate. is the way in whi#h the *rabians obtain their $rankin#ense( their 'anner o$ #olle#ting the #assia is the $ollowing07 They #o&er all their body and their $a#e with the hides o$ o. s'all in si/e.%e#t be$orehand. whi#h are har'less. brings $orth young but on#e in her li$eti'e. other snakes. as indeed one 'ight e. s#rat#h the wo'b( as the ti'e goes on. i'%ossible were it $or 'an to 'aintain hi'sel$ u%on the earth) *##ordingly it is $ound that when the 'ale and $e'ale #o'e together. while still unborn.burn. on the other hand. and thereby obtain the s%i#e) For the trees whi#h bear the $rankin#ense are guarded by winged ser%ents. so'e o$ the young all #o&ered with $ur. and ha&ing on#e $astened. and then through the belly o$ their 'other. there is not a 'orsel in the whole wo'b that is sound) 3ow with res%e#t to the &i%ers and the winged snakes o$ *rabia. and o$ &aried #olours. while the hare %erha%s has lately #on#ei&ed a$resh) The lioness. #annot be brought to lea&e go till she has bit the ne#k entirely through) *nd so the 'ale %erishes( but a$ter a while he is re&enged u%on the $e'ale by 'eans o$ the young. $or instan#e. lea&ing only holes $or the eyes. but the winged ser%ents are nowhere seen e. his #laws. whi#h will dri&e the' $ro' the trees) The *rabians say that the whole world would swar' with these ser%ents. and 'en. when the birth #o'es. at one and the sa'e ti'e. at the &ery 'o'ent o$ i'%regnation. whi#h is one o$ the strongest and boldest o$ brutes.en and other skins. sin#e she loses her wo'b at the sa'e ti'e that she dro%s her young) The reason o$ this is that as soon as the #ub begins to stir inside the da'. gnaw a %assage through the wo'b.uite naked. and then a single #ub( she #annot %ossibly #on#ei&e again. others again 2ust $ully $or'ed in the wo'b. a wise #ontri&er) For ti'id ani'als whi#h are a %rey to others are all 'ade to %rodu#e young abundantly. birds. whi#h. that so the s%e#ies 'ay not be entirely eaten u% and lost( while sa&age and no. whi#h is hunted alike by beasts. where they are all #ongregated together) This 'akes the' a%%ear so nu'erous) "u#h. lay eggs.

taking the word $ro' the +hoeni#ians. #all #inna'on. and what #ountry %rodu#es it. and longer li&ed than anywhere else) 3ow these are the $arthest regions o$ the world in *sia and Libya) !$ the e. handso'er.hales an odour 'ar&ellously sweet) There are also in *rabia two kinds o$ shee% worthy o$ ad'iration. and the tails are then tied down u%on the') The other kind has a broad tail. bring the sti#ks whi#h we Greeks. ea#h shee% ha&ing one to hi'sel$. whi#h the *rabs #all ladanu'. where no $oot o$ 'an is able to #li'b) "o the *rabians. whi#h they #arry with the' into those regions. huge ele%hants abound.sear#h o$ the #assia. break o$$ and $all to the ground) Hereu%on the *rabians return and #olle#t the #inna'on. whi#h is a$terwards #arried $ro' *rabia into other #ountries) Ledanu'. they #annot tell7 only so'e. would be bruised and $all into sores) *s it is. is %ro#ured in a yet stranger $ashion) Found in a 'ost inodorous %la#e. and +la#e near the nests0 then they withdraw to a distan#e. i$ they were allowed to trail on the ground. all the she%herds know enough o$ #ar%entering to 'ake little tru#ks $or their shee%1s tails) The tru#ks are %la#ed under the tails. and the old birds. relate that it #o'es $ro' the #ountry in whi#h Ba##hus was brought u%) Great birds. sei/e the %ie#es o$ 'eat and $ly with the' u% to their nests( whi#h.tre'e tra#ts o$ Euro%e towards the west #annot s%eak with . use the $ollowing arti$i#e) They #ut all the o. whi#h grows in a lake o$ no great de%th) *ll round the shores and in the lake itsel$ there dwell a nu'ber o$ winged ani'als. whi#h. the last inhabited land in that dire#tion) There gold is obtained in great %lenty. they say. the like o$ whi#h is nowhere else to be seen( the one kind has long tails. not less than three #ubits in length.en and asses and beasts o$ burthen that die in their land into large %ie#es. not being able to su%%ort the weight. where it is $ound sti#king like gu'. and is what the *rabs burn #hie$ly as in#ense) Con#erning the s%i#es o$ *rabia let no 'ore be said) The whole #ountry is s#ented with the'. whi#h is a #ubit a#ross so'eti'es) 4here the south de#lines towards the setting sun lies the #ountry #alled Ethio%ia. and ebony( and the 'en are taller. it is the sweetest7s#ented o$ all substan#es) t is gathered $ro' the beards o$ he7goats. and are &ery &aliant) These #reatures they 'ust kee% $ro' their eyes all the while that they gather the #assia) "till 'ore wonder$ul is the 'ode in whi#h they #olle#t the #inna'on) 4here the wood grows. to get the #inna'on. $ollowing %robability. swoo%ing down. whi#h s#ree#h horribly. and #arry the' u% into the air to 'ake their nests) These are $astened with a sort o$ 'ud to a sheer $a#e o$ ro#k. with wild trees o$ all sorts. and e. 'u#h rese'bling bats. ha&ing #o'e $ro' the bushes on whi#h they browse) t is used in 'any sorts o$ unguents.

ran through the $i&e o%enings in the hills. %rodu#e the things whi#h are the rarest. #alled the *#es. howe&er. it has been the %ro%erty o$ the Great ?ing) * 'ighty ri&er. and wail aloud) Then the king orders the $lood7gates to be o%ened towards the #ountry whose need is greatest. and then it went ill with the %eo%le o$ these lands) The Great ?ing blo#ked u% all the %assages between the hills with dykes and $lood gates. in&ented by so'e %oet or other( and se#ondly. . when#e the tin #o'es whi#h we use) For in the $irst %la#e the na'e Eridanus is 'ani$estly not a barbarian word at all. Hyr#anians. a$ter sowing their 'illet and their sesa'e. and the water #ould $ind no outlet) AFro' that ti'e the $i&e nations whi#h were wont $or'erly to ha&e the use o$ the strea'. ha&e been in great distress) n winter. 'en and wo'en alike.tre'e regions o$ the earth. and #on. and whi#h 'en re#kon the 'ost beauti$ul) There is a %lain in *sia whi#h is shut in on all sides by a 'ountain7range. tin and a'ber do #ertainly #o'e to us $ro' the ends o$ the earth) The northern %arts o$ Euro%e are &ery 'u#h ri#her in gold than any other region0 but how it is %ro#ured ha&e no #ertain knowledge) The story runs that the one7eyed *ri'as%i %urloin it $ro' the gri$$ins( but here too a' in#redulous. indeed.uered the region. whi#h surround and shut u% within the'sel&es all other #ountries. howe&er. $or'erly s%litting into $i&e #hannels. $lows $ro' the hills in#losing the %lain( and this strea'. and belonged $or'erly to the $irst7'entioned o$ those %eo%les) E&er sin#e the +ersians. "arangians.Tin slands<. $or the ri&er ke%t rising. though ha&e taken &ast %ains. and #annot %ersuade 'ysel$ that there is a ra#e o$ 'en born with one eye.any #ertainty( $or do not allow that there is any ri&er.as the tale goes< a'ber is %ro#ured( nor do know o$ any islands #alled the Cassiterides . and so %re&ented the water $ro' $lowing out) Then the %lain within the hills be#a'e a sea. but a Greek na'e. obtained the 'astery o$ *sia. but in su''er. they su$$er $ro' this want. who in all else rese'ble the rest o$ 'ankind) 3e&ertheless it see's to be true that the e. and others are un#losed $or the nation whi#h. and in this 'ountain7range are $i&e o%enings) The %lain lies on the #on$ines o$ the Choras'ians. they ha&e rain $ro' hea&en like the rest o$ the world. e'%tying itsel$ into the northern sea. losing their a##usto'ed su%%ly o$ water. to whi#h the barbarians gi&e the na'e o$ Eridanus. and Tha'anaeans. ha&e ne&er been able to get an assuran#e $ro' an eye7witness that there is any sea on the $urther side o$ Euro%e) 3e&ertheless. hastening to +ersia. when#e . they always stand in need o$ water $ro' the ri&er) 4hen. there$ore. and lets the soil drink until it has had enough( a$ter whi#h the gates on this side are shut. and watered the lands o$ the $i&e nations whi#h dwell around) The +ersian #a'e. +arthians. they take their station at the gate o$ the king1s %ala#e.

and told hi' how it had #o'e to %ass that they were thus treated) 5arius tre'bled lest it was by the #o''on #onsent o$ the si. seeing that she ne&er #eased to stand and wee%. and. #lai'ed it as his right to go in) The doorkee%er. 'ay ha&e another husband and other #hildren when these are gone) But as 'y $ather and 'y 'other are no 'ore. hanging the' on the bridle o$ his horse. %ut the bridle round their ne#ks. in the way ha&e des#ribed. and sounded the' to know i$ they a%%ro&ed the #ondu#t o$ nta%hernes) 4hen he $ound by their answers that there had been no #on#ert between hi' and the'. 9! king. he #ut o$$ their noses and their ears. &ery shortly a$ter the insurre#tion) . 9 $ the king grants 'e the li$e o$ one alone. besides the li$e that she had asked. 9Lady. and so let the' go) Then these two 'en went and showed the'sel&es to the king. and the #hie$ usher $orbade his entran#e. but. $or an a#t o$ insolen#e) He wished to enter the %ala#e and transa#t a #ertain business with the king) 3ow the law was that all those who had taken %art in the rising against the -agus 'ight enter unannoun#ed into the king1s %resen#e. be#ause he was greatly %leased with her) But he slew all the rest) Thus one o$ the se&en died. as 'ale$a#tors #onde'ned to death. and he ga&e her. nor so dear as thy husband)9 "he answered. unless he ha%%ened to be in %ri&ate with his wi$e) "o nta%hernes would not ha&e any one announ#e hi'. drawing his s#y'itar. i$ the gods will. when he heard the re%ly. and all his near kindred( strongly sus%e#ting that he and his $riends were about to raise a re&olt) 4hen all had been sei/ed and %ut in #hains. and bade a 'essenger go to her and say. they said. lost his li$e &ery shortly a$ter the outbreak. it is i'%ossible that should ha&e another brother) This was 'y thought when asked to ha&e 'y brother s%ared)9 Then it see'ed to 5arius that the lady s%oke well. howe&er. one. wee%ing and wailing sore) "o 5arius a$ter a while. and sent again. nta%hernes. that the deed had been done( he there$ore sent $or the' all in turn. the wi$e o$ nta%hernes #a'e and stood #ontinually at the %ala#e7gates. the king bids thee tell hi' why it is that thou %assest by thy husband and thy #hildren. was with his wi$e) But nta%hernes thought they told lies( so. sin#e the king. as he belonged to the se&en. was astonished. was tou#hed with %ity $or her. the li$e also o$ her eldest son. 'ake #hoi#e o$ 'y brother)9 5arius. saying. his #hildren. king 5arius gi&es thee as a boon the li$e o$ one o$ thy kins'en7 #hoose whi#h thou wilt o$ the %risoners)9 Then she %ondered awhile be$ore she answered. he laid hands on nta%hernes.o$ the re'ainder. needs it 'ost) t has been told 'e that the king ne&er gi&es the order to o%en the gates till the su%%liants ha&e %aid hi' a large su' o$ 'oney o&er and abo&e the tribute) !$ the se&en +ersians who rose u% against the -agus. and %re$errest to ha&e the li$e o$ thy brother s%ared) He is not so near to thee as thy #hildren. 9Lady.

arose $ro' what ha%%ened one day as he was sitting with another +ersian in the gate o$ the king1s %ala#e) The 'an1s na'e was -itrobates. the son o$ Gyges. took this re%roa#h greatly to heart( but. and learn how thou 'ayest at on#e ser&e thysel$ and %reser&e 'e) ?ing Ca'byses is bent on 'y destru#tion7 o$ this .*bout the ti'e o$ Ca'byses1 last si#kness. a##ording to the a##ount whi#h the 'ost %art gi&e. !roetes sent his 'essage. said : 4hy. 'astered the island. thou hast o'itted to bring it under the do'inion o$ the king: Easy to #on. was lying with his $a#e turned away towards the wall( and so he lay all the ti'e that the herald s%ake. or it 'ay be 'erely by #han#e. when. and when he ended. by na'e -yrsus.ual to thy a'bition) Listen then to 'y words. while residing at -agnesia on the -aeander. sin#e it was on +oly#rates1 a##ount that the re%roa#h had $allen on hi') *nother less #o''on &ersion o$ the story is that !roetes sent a herald to "a'os to 'ake a re. who' Cyrus had 'ade go&ernor o$ "ardis) This 'an #on#ei&ed a 'ost unholy wish) He had ne&er su$$ered wrong or had an ill word $ro' +oly#rates the "a'ian7 nay. instead o$ seeking to re&enge hi'sel$ on the 'an by who' it was uttered. and those . and as%ired to rule o&er onia and the islands) ?nowing then that +oly#rates was thus 'inded. whi#h ran as $ollows07 9!roetes to +oly#rates thus sayeth0 hear thou raisest thy thoughts high. a 'ere #o''on #iti/en. so $ar as we know. near as "a'os lies to thy go&ern'ent. the nature o$ whi#h is not stated( +oly#rates was at the ti'e re#lining in the a%art'ent o$ the 'ales.i$ there were any su#h< who had the 'astery o$ the Egaean at an earlier ti'e7 +oly#rates. 9*rt thou worthy to be #alled a 'an. +oly#rates. did not e&en &ou#hsa$e hi' a word) "u#h are the two reasons alleged $or the death o$ +oly#rates( it is o%en to all to belie&e whi#h they %lease) 4hat is #ertain is that !roetes. the $ollowing e&ents ha%%ened) There was a #ertain !roetes. he #on#ei&ed the desire o$ destroying +oly#rates.uest. and is still king o$ it)9 !roetes. unless it were -inos the Cnossian. but thy 'eans are not e.uarrelling and #o'%aring their 'erits( whereu%on -itrobates said to !roetes re%roa#h$ully. well knowing what that 'onar#h designed) For +oly#rates entertained a design whi#h no other Greek. notwithstanding. with a 'essage to +oly#rates at "a'os. sent a Lydian. he had not so 'u#h as seen hi' in all his li$e( yet. and *na#reon the Teian was with hi'( when there$ore the herald #a'e $orward to #on&erse. say. was the $irst o$ 'ere hu'an birth who #on#ei&ed the design o$ gaining the e'%ire o$ the sea. e&er $or'ed be$ore hi'. they say. he #on#ei&ed the wish to sei/e hi' and %ut hi' to death) This wish. with the hel% o$ $i$teen 'en7at7ar's. a +ersian. and he was ruler o$ the satra%y o$ 5as#yleiu') He and !roetes had been talking together.uer. and easy as it is to #on. either out o$ studied #onte'%t $or the %ower o$ !roetes. and $ro' talking they $ell to .uer.

in %art $ree $oreigners. an o$$ering well worth seeing) !roetes learning that one was #o'ing to &iew his treasures. #ontri&ed as $ollows07 he $illed eight great #hests al'ost bri'$ul o$ stones. not &ery long a$terwards. on his arri&al at -agnesia. bidding the' thank hi' that they were allowed their liberty( the rest. thou 'ayest 'ake thysel$ 'aster o$ the whole o$ Gree#e) But i$ thou doubtest o$ 'y wealth. and ha&ing seen it returned to "a'os) !n hearing his a##ount. was $ull o$ 2oy. the son o$ Calli%hon. set sail and went to !roetes) -any $riends a##o'%anied hi'( a'ong the rest. was washed by 8u%iter( and he was anointed by the sun. who were in %art sla&es.ha&e warning $ro' a sure hand) Co'e thou. and 'u#h dissuasion o$ his $riends. howe&er. notwithstanding 'any warnings gi&en hi' by the soothsayers. 'e and all 'y wealth7 share 'y wealth with 'e. and will show 'y treasures to hi')9 +oly#rates. he was shown this as !roetes1 treasure. so $ar as 'oney #an aid. in a way unworthy o$ his rank and o$ his lo$ty s#he'es) For.#e%t the "yra#usans. #orded the #hests. howe&er.uest) Then was the drea' o$ the daughter o$ +oly#rates $ul$illed( $or +oly#rates. he alike treated as his sla&es by #on. she used e&ery e$$ort to %re&ent her $ather $ro' going( e&en as he went on board his %ente#onter #rying a$ter hi' with words o$ e&il o'en) Then +oly#rates threatened her that. as 'oney was what he #hie$ly desired. washed by lo&e. and then hung his dead body u%on a #ross) His "a'ian $ollowers !roetes let go $ree. 'ade ready to go in %erson) E&en the drea' whi#h &isited his daughter $ailed to #he#k hi') "he had drea'ed that she saw her $ather hanging high in air. i$ he returned in sa$ety. and then #o&ering o&er the stones with gold. when he heard this 'essage. and so held the' in readiness) 4hen -aeandrius arri&ed. 5e'o#edes. a nati&e o$ Crotona. a "a'ian. 'ade an o$$ering at the te'%le o$ 8uno o$ all the $urniture whi#h had adorned the 'ale a%art'ents in the %ala#e o$ +oly#rates. %erished 'iserably. and the best skilled in his art o$ all 'en then li&ing) +oly#rates. to look into the 'atter) This was the 'an who. -aeandrius. and then. 9!h> that he 'ight %er$or' his threat( $ar better $or her to re'ain long un'arried than to be bere$t o$ her $ather>9 +oly#rates. and anointed by the sun) Ha&ing there$ore thus drea'ed. +oly#rates. and $et#h 'e away. slew hi' in a 'ode whi#h is not $it to be des#ribed. he would kee% her un'arried 'any years) "he answered. when his own 'oisture o&ers%read his body) *nd so the &ast good $ortune o$ +oly#rates #a'e at last to the end whi#h *'asis the Egy%tian king had %ro%hesied in days gone by) . there$ore. send the trustiest o$ thy $ollowers. and rain $ell on hi'. be$ore stirring in the business he sent his se#retary. son o$ -aeandrius. 'aking light o$ all the #ounsel o$$ered hi'. there has ne&er been one o$ the Greek tyrants who was to be #o'%ared with +oly#rates $or 'agni$i#en#e) !roetes. who was a %hysi#ian. and straightway a%%ro&ed the ter's( but. as he hung u%on the #ross. i$ we e.

be$ore he does the +ersians any greater hurt)9 Thus s%oke 5arius( and straightway thirty o$ those %resent #a'e $orward and o$$ered the'sel&es $or the work) *s they stro&e together. he has slain( and when 'essengers go to re#all hi'. as the whole kingdo' was still unsettled. who had #ast the re%roa#h u%on hi' in the 'atter o$ +oly#rates( and he slew also -itrobates1s son. and he too was but lately #o'e to the throne. there$ore. with an insolen#e whi#h is not to be endured. and e&en 'ore highly re&eren#ed their #ontents. and during all the ti'e that the -agus sat u%on the throne. and es%e#ially $or the 'urder o$ -itrobates and his son) To send an ar'ed $or#e o%enly against hi'. and brought no hel% to the +ersians. he %uts the' to death) 4e 'ust kill this 'an. ! +ersians. -itrobates and his son. then. will undertake to a##o'%lish 'e a 'atter by skill without $or#e or tu'ult: For#e is 'is%la#ed where the work wants skil$ul 'anage'ent) 4ho. who' the -edes had robbed o$ the so&ereignty) !n the #ontrary.t was not long be$ore retribution $or the 'urder o$ +oly#rates o&ertook !roetes) *$ter the death o$ Ca'byses. he ga&e the . and the task $ell to Bagaeus. 5arius inter$ered. son o$ *rtontes) Then Bagaeus #aused 'any letters to be written on di&ers 'atters. as he understood. howe&er. had a great %ower) n truth a thousand +ersians attended on hi' as a bodyguard. Lydia. and bade the' ha&e re#ourse to the lot) *##ordingly lots were #ast. and to see i$ they would be likely to $all away $ro' !roetes) 4hen there$ore he saw that they showed the letters all due res%e#t. will undertake to bring 'e !roetes ali&e. when he un#o&ered the letters one by one. and gi&ing the' to the king1s se#retary7 e&ery satra% has with hi' a king1s se#retary7 #o''anded hi' to read their #ontents) Herein his design was to try the $idelity o$ the bodyguard. !roetes re'ained in "ardis. and sealed the' all with the king1s signet( a$ter whi#h he took the letters with hi'. the satra% o$ 5as#yleiu'. o$ the $ollowing07 there was a #ourier sent to hi' by 5arius whose 'essage was not to his 'ind7 !roetes had hi' waylaid and 'urdered on his road ba#k to the king( the 'an and his horse both disa%%eared. and he has wrought us abundant in2ury) Two o$ our nu'ber. and he held the satra%ies o$ +hrygia. he did not think ad&isable. and onia) 5arius there$ore %ro#eeded by arti$i#e) He #alled together a 'eeting o$ all the #hie$ o$ the +ersians. Cranas%es7 both 'en o$ high re%ute a'ong the +ersians) He was likewise guilty o$ 'any other a#ts o$ insolen#e( a'ong the rest. or else to kill hi': He ne&er did the +ersians any good in his li$e. and thus addressed the'07 94ho a'ong you. and de%arted $or "ardis) !n his arri&al he was shown into the %resen#e o$ !roetes. while !roetes. a'id the troubles o$ this season. he slew -itrobates. e&en though they ha&e their 'andate $ro' 'e. and no tra#es were le$t o$ either) 5arius there$ore was no sooner settled u%on the throne than he longed to take &engean#e u%on !roetes $or all his 'isdoings.

9+ersians.uite lost the ho%e o$ e&er ha&ing the use o$ his $oot) Hereu%on the king %resented 5e'o#edes with two sets o$ $etters wrought in gold( so 5e'o#edes asked i$ he 'eant to double his su$$erings be#ause he had brought hi' ba#k to health: 5arius was %leased at the s%ee#h. and ga&e into the se#retary1s hands the last letter. there$ore. and bade the eunu#hs take 5e'o#edes to see his wi&es. took #ourage. and used su#h &iolen#e. . whi#h they did a##ordingly. they brought hi' 2ust as he was.#hanging the &iolent treat'ent o$ the Egy%tians $or 'ilder 'eans. and in this way had gained a slight s'attering o$ the art) Howe&er. 9?ing 5arius #o''ands the +ersians who are in "ardis to kill !roetes)9 Then the guards drew their swords and slew hi' u%on the s%ot) Thus did retribution $or the 'urder o$ +oly#rates the "a'ian o&ertake !roetes the +ersian) "oon a$ter the treasures o$ !roetes had been #on&eyed to "ardis it ha%%ened that king 5arius. $irst enabled hi' to get so'e slee%.se#retary a %a%er in whi#h was written. who #o''anded that he should be brought with all s%eed into his %resen#e) 4hen. $or the ankle7bone was $or#ed . and e. one who had heard be$ore lea&ing "ardis o$ the skill o$ 5e'o#edes the Crotoniat. they had $ound hi' a'ong the sla&es o$ !roetes. wherein it was written. howe&er. s%rained his $oot) The s%rain was one o$ no #o''on se&erity. %er#ei&ing that he dealt de#eit$ully.uite un#ared $or by any one. he had re#ourse( but they twisted the $oot so #lu'sily. so grie&ous was the %ain he su$$ered) !n the eighth day o$ his indis%osition. $inding that they obeyed this 'andate.uite out o$ the so#ket) 3ow 5arius already had at his #ourt #ertain Egy%tians who' he re#koned the best7skilled %hysi#ians in all the world( to their aid. who $ollowed hi'. telling the' all that this was the 'an who had sa&ed the king1s li$e) Then ea#h o$ the wi&es di%%ed with a sau#er into a #hest o$ gold. there$ore. that a sla&e na'ed "#iton. and really understood the art. and 5e'o#edes. be$ore the king) *s soon as he was entered into the %resen#e. and then in a &ery little ti'e restored hi' altogether. that he had no thorough knowledge o$ 'edi#ine7 he had but li&ed so'e ti'e with a %hysi#ian. as he lea%ed $ro' his horse during the #hase. king 5arius $orbids you to guard !roetes)9 The soldiers at these words laid aside their s%ears) "o Bagaeus. bade those who had brought hi' to the %resen#e go $et#h the s#ourges and the %ri#king7irons) 6%on this 5e'o#edes 'ade #on$ession. by using the re'edies #usto'ary a'ong the Greeks. and all #lothed in rags. 5arius asked hi' i$ he knew 'edi#ine7 to whi#h he answered 93o. #lanking his $etters. and . that they only 'ade the 'is#hie$ greater) For se&en days and se&en nights the king lay without slee%. and ga&e so bounti$ully to 5e'o#edes. told 5arius.9 $or he $eared that i$ he 'ade hi'sel$ known he would lose all #han#e o$ e&er again beholding Gree#e) 5arius. 5arius %ut hi'sel$ under his #are. a$ter he had . but at the sa'e ti'e said.

she hid it through sha'e and 'ade no 'ention o$ it to any one( but when it be#a'e worse. she sent at last $or 5e'o#edes. were thought to be the $irst 'usi#ians in Gree#e) *$ter 5e'o#edes had #ured 5arius at "usa. he su##eeded in res#uing an Elean soothsayer. nor ad&an#est the %ower o$ the +ersians) -ethinks that one who is so young.uest. had a boil $or' u%on her breast. 'y lord. with the 'ighty %ower whi#h is thine. about the sa'e ti'e. was a 'an o$ a sa&age te'%er. 5e'o#edes le$t his ho'e. thou sittest idle. when they were about to be i'%aled be#ause they had been sur%assed by a Greek( and $urther. whi#h. a$ter it burst. in all Gree#e) The *rgi&es. should %er$or' so'e noble . but she 'ust $irst %ro'ise hi' with an oath that i$ he #ured her she would grant hi' whate&er re.%i#ked u% the staters whi#h $ell $ro' the sau#ers. within a little while it ha%%ened that *tossa. when she had heard his re. who dwelt at Crotona. and had with hi' none o$ the a%%lian#es need$ul $or the %ra#ti#e o$ his art) n the se#ond year the state o$ Egina hired his ser&i#es at the %ri#e o$ a talent( in the third the *thenians engaged hi' at a hundred 'inae( and in the $ourth +oly#rates at two talents) "o he went to "a'os. he dwelt there in a large house. he sa&ed the li&es o$ the Egy%tian %hysi#ians who had had the #are o$ the king be$ore he #a'e. that. and was lying in utter negle#t a'ong his sla&es) n short there was no one who stood so high as 5e'o#edes in the $a&our o$ the king) -oreo&er. he #ould no longer bear su#h #onstant ill7usage.uest he 'ight %re$er( assuring her at the sa'e ti'e that it should be nothing whi#h she #ould blush to hear) !n these ter's 5e'o#edes a%%lied his art. who had $ollowed the $ortunes o$ +oly#rates. s%ake thus one night to 5arius07 9 t see'eth to 'e strange. e. and $easted daily at the king1s table. notwithstanding that he was without instru'ents. and sailed away to Egina) There he set u% in business. the daughter o$ Cyrus. and showed it to hi') 5e'o#edes said that he would 'ake her well.#e%ting liberty to return to his #ountry) By inter#eding $or the' with 5arius.uest. and su##eeded the $irst year in sur%assing all the best7skilled %hysi#ians o$ the %la#e. gathered together a great hea% o$ gold) This 5e'o#edes le$t his #ountry and be#a'e atta#hed to +oly#rates in the $ollowing way07 His $ather. and so ri#hly endowed with wealth. there$ore. and those o$ Cyrene the se#ond best. began to s%read and in#rease) 3ow so long as the sore was o$ no great si/e. and there took u% his abode) t was in no s'all 'easure $ro' his su##ess that the Crotoniats #a'e to be re#koned su#h good %hysi#ians( $or about this %eriod the %hysi#ians o$ Crotona had the na'e o$ being the best. and neither 'akest any #on. nor did he la#k anything that his heart desired. who was 'arried to 5arius. and soon #ured the abs#ess( and *tossa. and treated hi' #ruelly) 4hen.

howe&er. to send so'e +ersians to s%y out the land( they 'ay go in #o'%any with the 'an thou 'entionest. this war with "#ythia were best reser&ed awhile7 $or the "#ythians 'ay be #on. lead 'e thy host $irst into Gree#e) long to be ser&ed by so'e o$ those La#edae'onian 'aids o$ who' ha&e heard so 'u#h) want also *rgi&e.a#hie&e'ent to %ro&e to the +ersians that it is a 'an who go&erns the') *nother reason. thou hast uttered the &ery thoughts that o##u%y 'y brain) a' 'inded to #onstru#t a bridge whi#h shall 2oin our #ontinent with the other. should urge thee to atte'%t so'e enter%rise) 3ot only does it be$it thee to show the +ersians that a 'an rules the'. and bade the' take 5e'o#edes $or their guide. the 'ind1s %owers de#ay. took #are not to snat#h at the o$$ers with any haste( but said. it were best. %ut no long distan#e between the word and the deed. too. but as soon as day broke he su''oned to his %resen#e $i$teen +ersians o$ note. and who 'ight ser&e thee right well as guide( 'ean hi' who %er$or'ed the #ure on thy $oot)9 95ear lady. 5arius sent $or 5e'o#edes. as his #ontribution towards the %resents.%lore the sea7#oasts o$ Gree#e) *bo&e all. will begin the war)9 5arius. and Corinthian wo'en) There is now at the #ourt a 'an who #an tell thee better than any one else in the whole world whate&er thou wouldst know #on#erning Gree#e. a 'er#hantshi% laden with all 'anner o$ %re#ious things. too. and he should re#ei&e on his return a $ar 'ore abundant store) -oreo&er.9 5arius answered. all the &aluables he %ossessed as %resents to his $ather and his brothers. 9sin#e it is thy wish that we try $irst the &alour o$ the Greeks. had any guile in his heart0 5e'o#edes. 9he would lea&e his own goods behind to en2oy u%on .%loit( $or as the body grows in strength the 'ind too ri%ens. 'ethinks. ha&ing so s%oke. and when he had shown the' the whole o$ Gree#e to #o'e ba#k to +ersia) He should take. the king added. as 5e'o#edes had instru#ted her) 5arius answered07 95ear lady. thou 'ayest well a##o'%lish so'e e. and so #arry war into "#ythia) =et a brie$ s%a#e and all will be a##o'%lished as thou desirest)9 But *tossa re2oined07 9Look now. and besought hi' to ser&e as guide to the +ersians. ha&ing a 'ore %er$e#t knowledge o$ the'. whi#h should a##o'%any hi' on his &oyage) 3ow do not belie&e that 5arius. and as the body ages. but $or thy own %ea#e thou shouldest waste their strength in wars lest idleness breed re&olt against thy authority) 3ow.uered at any ti'e) +rithee. and *thenian. and e. whilst thou art still young. who sus%e#ted that the king s%oke to try hi'. and when they ha&e seen and learnt all. when he 'ade these %ro'ises. till at last it be#o'es dulled to e&erything)9 "o s%ake *tossa. and not su$$er hi' to run away and es#a%e) *$ter he had gi&en these orders. they #an bring us ba#k a $ull re%ort) Then. he said. he would gi&e hi'. be$ore 'ar#hing against the'. they were to be sure to bring 5e'o#edes ba#k with the'.

on their %art. whereu%on *risto%hilides released the +ersians $ro' %rison. that he 'ight bring trouble on Gree#e i$ a &ast ar'a'ent were . e&erything being now ready. and ga&e their rudders ba#k to the') The +ersians now . but. that 5e'o#edes hastened his 'arriage by the %ay'ent o$ a large su' o$ 'oney $or the %ur%ose o$ showing 5arius that he was a 'an o$ 'ark in his own #ountry) The +ersians weighed an#hor and le$t Crotona. beware what you do) t is the king1s runaway sla&e that you are res#uing) Think you 5arius will ta'ely sub'it to su#h an insult: Think you. and sailed to Crotona in %ursuit o$ 5e'o#edes( they $ound hi' in the 'arket7%la#e.his return7 the 'er#hant7shi% whi#h the king %ro%osed to grant hi' to #arry gi$ts to his brothers. taking notes o$ all that they saw( and in this way they e. and bere$t o$ their guide. they ke%t along the shore and e.uitted Tarentu'. that he would a##e%t at the king1s hands)9 "o when 5arius had laid his orders u%on 5e'o#edes. were willing to gi&e hi' u%( but others resisted. it will herea$ter go well with you: 4ill you not rather be the $irst %ersons on who' we shall 'ake war: 4ill not your #ity be the $irst we shall seek to lead away #a%ti&e:9 Thus they s%ake. that i$ you #arry o$$ the 'an $ro' us. 5e'o#edes sent to the' and begged they would in$or' 5arius that the daughter o$ -ilo was allian#ed to hi' as his bride) For the na'e o$ -ilo the wrestler was in high re%ute with the king) -y belie$ is. being wre#ked on the #oast o$ a%ygia. ke%t #rying out. and sei/ed also the trading7shi% whi#h the +ersians had brought with the' $ro' +hoeni#ia) Thus robbed. king o$ the Tarentines. were 'ade sla&es by the inhabitants) Fro' this #ondition they were res#ued by Gillus.%lored the greater %ortion o$ the #ountry. they set sail $or Gree#e) 4hen they had 'ade the land. the +ersians ga&e u% all ho%e o$ e. and took the' ba#k to 5arius) 5arius o$$ered to re%ay this ser&i#e by granting Gillus whate&er boon he #hose to ask( whereu%on Gillus told the king o$ his 'is$ortune. 9-en o$ Crotona. took the rudders o$$ the -edian shi%s. howe&er. and begged to be restored to his #ountry) Fearing. but the Crotoniats did not heed the'( they res#ued 5e'o#edes. his nati&e #ity. and set sail $or *sia) *s they were de%arting. the +hoeni#ian town. until at last they rea#hed Tarentu' in taly) There *risto%hilides. out o$ kindness to 5e'o#edes. and detained their #rews as s%ies) -eanwhile 5e'o#edes es#a%ed to Crotona.%loring the rest o$ Gree#e. where straightway they $itted out two trire'es and a trading7&essel. a banished Tarentine. who ranso'ed the' at his own #ost. he sent hi' and the +ersians away to the #oast) The 'en went down to +hoeni#ia. who greatly $eared the %ower o$ the +ersians. held 5e'o#edes $ast. whi#h they loaded with all 'anner o$ %re#ious 'er#handise( and. to "idon. and all the 'ost $a'ous regions.a'ined it. and e&en stru#k the +ersians with their walking7sti#ks) They. where they straightway laid &iolent hands on hi') "o'e o$ the Crotoniats.

and to who' he had $reely gi&en it) "o he 'ade his way to "usa. to ser&e in his ar'y( others again. not 'ore than one or two #ertainly. or to whi#h o$ the' do owe anything. sin#e #a'e to the throne) 3or do re'e'ber that a' in the debt o$ any Greek) Howe&er. Greek or Barbarian. bring hi' in. 'ar#hed against Egy%t. and taking a strong liking to the dress. at that ti'e an e. and brother o$ +oly#rates. and . saw hi'. and were too weak to atte'%t $or#e) "u#h then was the #ourse whi#h this 'atter took) These were the $irst +ersians who e&er #a'e $ro' *sia to Gree#e( and they were sent to s%y out the land $or the reason whi#h ha&e be$ore 'entioned) *$ter this. 'erely to see the land0 a'ong these last was "yloson. king 5arius besieged and took "a'os. i$ it 'ust needs be thine)9 5arius thanked hi'. that he #on. and by a lu#ky ins%iration answered0 9There is no %ri#e at whi#h would sell 'y #loak( but will gi&e it thee $or nothing. &ast nu'bers o$ Greeks $lo#ked thither( so'e.ious he was. when in the #ourse o$ years Ca'byses died. during his stay in Egy%t. whi#h was the $irst #ity. and the se&en +ersians rose in re&olt against the -agus.uered) The #ause o$ his 'aking war u%on "a'os was the $ollowing07 at the ti'e when Ca'byses. and #o''anded the Cnidians to restore Gillus) The Cnidians did as he wished. he added that it would #ontent hi' i$ the Cnidians undertook to obtain his re#all) 3ow the Cnidians were dose $riends o$ the Tarentines.sent to taly on his a##ount. ga&e out that he was a bene$a#tor o$ the king) Then the doorkee%er went and told 5arius) *'a/ed at what he heard. king said thus within hi'sel$07 94hat Greek #an ha&e been 'y bene$a#tor. and 5arius was the 'an #hosen out o$ the se&en to ha&e the kingdo'. but $ound the'sel&es unable to %ersuade the Tarentines. and not at that ti'e a 'an o$ any a##ount. and seating hi'sel$ at the %ortal o$ the royal %ala#e. and let 'e hear what he 'eans by his boast)9 "o the doorkee%er ushered "yloson into the %resen#e. son o$ *ea#es. as 'ight ha&e been looked $or.ile $ro' "a'os) This "yloson. and thus attired to go into the 'arket7%la#e at -e'%his. and a##e%ted the gar'ent) +oor "yloson $elt at the ti'e that he had $ooled away his #loak in a &ery si'%le 'anner( but a$terwards. to %ush their trade( others. and the inter%reters asked hi' who he was. when 5ariuss who was one o$ Ca'byses1 bodyguard. so lately as ha&e got the kingdo': "#ar#ely a 'an o$ the' all has been here. whi#h 'ade hi' think there was no likelier 'eans o$ %ro#uring his return) 5arius %ro'ised and %er$or'ed his %art( $or he sent 'essenger to Cnidus. 'et with a singular %ie#e o$ good $ortune) He ha%%ened one day to %ut on a s#arlet #loak. went u% and o$$ered to %ur#hase it) "yloson %er#ei&ed how an. and what he had done that he should #all hi'sel$ a bene$a#tor o$ the king) Then "yloson told the whole story o$ the #loak. son o$ Cyrus. "yloson learnt that the %erson to who' the #rown had #o'e was the &ery 'an who had #o&eted his #loak in Egy%t.

and %ro#lai' e. $riends. one o$ the leading #iti/ens) -aeandrius.9 re%lied "yloson. and as $ast as they #a'e arrested the' and %ut the' in irons) "o these 'en were bound( and -aeandrius within a short ti'e $ell si#k0 whereu%on Ly#aretus. $or 'ysel$ and 'y des#endants $or e&er) *llow 'e this. 9!h> thou 'ost generous o$ 'en. that the s#e%tre o$ +oly#rates. who. one o$ the se&en. but it was not allowed hi' to do so) !n re#ei&ing tidings o$ the death o$ +oly#rates. when had no %ower at all. 5arius sent o$$ an ar'y. be#a'e its 'aster) Gi&e 'e "a'os. one o$ the "a'ians rose u% and said. art thou indeed he who. ga&e u% the thought o$ relin.ual rights) *ll that #lai' in return is si. 9either sil&er or gold. there$ore. as the 'an by who' his te'%le has been built. 9*s i$ thou wert $it to rule us. he $orthwith raised an altar to lo&e the +rote#tor o$ Freedo'. under !tanes. and assigned it the %ie#e o$ ground whi#h 'ay still be seen in the suburb) This done. $eeling sure that i$ he laid down the so&ereign %ower so'e one else would be#o'e tyrant in his roo'.uishing it) 4ithdrawing to the #itadel. nor looked with $a&our on any o$ those who ha&e done the like) 3ow there$ore. and s%oke to the' as $ollows07 9=e know. under %reten#e o$ showing the' his a##ounts. beg( but gi&e it unhar'ed. one o$ his . ! king. 'y nati&e land. and all his %ower. i$ 'ay. a&oid 'ysel$) ne&er a%%ro&ed the a'bition o$ +oly#rates to lord it o&er 'en as good as hi'sel$. and i$ #hoose 'ay rule o&er you) But what #onde'n in another will. and let that be thy gi$t to 'e) t belongs now to a sla&e o$ ours. and by who' ye yoursel&es are now restored to liberty)9 *s soon as -aeandrius had ended.#lai'ed. he asse'bled all the #iti/ens. talents $ro' the treasures o$ +oly#rates. and the %riesthood o$ 8o&e the +rote#tor o$ Freedo'. with no bloodshed7 no leading into #a%ti&ity)9 4hen he heard this. when !roetes %ut 'y brother +oly#rates to death. he sent $or the #hie$ 'en one by one.said that it was he who had 'ade 5arius the %resent) Hereu%on 5arius e. ga&est 'e so'ething. lay down 'y o$$i#e. base7born and ras#al as thou art> Think rather o$ a##ounting $or the 'onies whi#h thou hast $ingered)9 The 'an who thus s%oke was a #ertain Telesar#hus. son o$ -aeandrius. son o$ Hystas%es) 9Gi&e 'e not. albeit little: Truly the $a&our is as great as a &ery grand %resent would be nowadays) will there$ore gi&e thee in return gold and sil&er without stint. that thou 'ayest ne&er re%ent o$ ha&ing rendered a ser&i#e to 5arius. has %assed into 'y hands. who' +oly#rates had a%%ointed as his de%uty) This %erson #on#ei&ed the wish to a#t like the 2ustest o$ 'en. but re#o&er 'e "a'os. sin#e he has $ul$illed his destiny. with orders to a##o'%lish all that "yloson had desired) *nd !tanes went down to the #oast and 'ade ready to #ross o&er) The go&ern'ent o$ "a'os was held at this ti'e by -aeandrius.

brothers.uietly an unhar'ed #ity) He desired there$ore to rouse the anger o$ the +ersians against "a'os. and these ter's were agreed to by !tanes) *$ter the treaty was 'ade. the 'ost distinguished o$ the +ersians had their thrones brought.uit the island u%on #ertain ter's. and -aeandrius ga&e #onsent( not . while he hi'sel$ $elt se#ure o$ a retreat at any ti'e that he liked. and wishing to 'ake his own a##ession to the throne the easier. the general. but be#ause he was 2ealous o$ "yloson. #hained in a dungeon. threw o%en the gates. howe&er. ha&ing ar'ed all the 'er#enaries. and $ell u%on the +ersians. and %eering through his bars. when he saw the great #ala'ity whi#h had .#lai'ed aloud. and hast not the heart to seek re&enge. de$eated the 'er#enaries. howe&er.%ressed the'sel&es willing to . not a 'an was $ound to li$t u% his hand against the') -aeandrius and his %artisans e. thou lookest on. were slain by the 'er#enaries( the rest o$ the ar'y. #a'e to the res#ue. and stro&e to %ersuade hi' to atta#k the +ersians) 9Thou 'eanest7s%irited o$ 'en.9 he said. and will 'ake the' %ay dearly $or their #o'ing here) engage too to send thee $irst sa$e out o$ the island)9 "o s%ake Charilaus. whereu%on he e. sin#e they su%%osed that the whole 'atter had been arranged by treaty) *t the $irst onslaught there$ore all the +ersians o$ 'ost note. and said he 'ust s%eak with -aeandrius) 4hen this was re%orted to hi'. art a$raid. sin#e he had a se#ret %assage under ground leading $ro' the #itadel to the sea) -aeandrius a##ordingly took shi% and sailed away $ro' "a'os( and Charilaus. 'en who were in the habit o$ using litters. saw the +ersians sitting %ea#e$ully u%on their seats. lend 'e thy soldiers. though they 'ight so easily be subdued) $ thou. notwithstanding that ha&e done nothing worthy o$ bonds( but when the +ersians #o'e and dri&e thee $orth a houseless wanderer $ro' thy nati&e land. -aeandrius ga&e orders that Charilaus should be released $ro' %rison and brought into his %resen#e) 3o sooner did he arri&e than he began re&iling and abusing his brother. thinking that he was going to die. that so he 'ight deli&er it u% to "yloson with its %ower at the lowest %ossible ebb( $or he knew well that i$ the +ersians 'et with a disaster they would be $urious against the "a'ians. and did not wish hi' to get so . who looked $or nothing less. and seated the'sel&es o&er against the #itadel) 3ow the king -aeandrius had a lightheaded brother7 Charilaus by na'e7 who' $or so'e o$$en#e or other he had shut u% in %rison0 this 'an heard what was going on. slew all the %risoners) t see'ed that the "a'ians did not #hoose to be a $ree %eo%le) 4hen the +ersians whose business it was to restore "yloson rea#hed "a'os. thy brother. belie&e< that he was so &oid o$ sense as to i'agine that his own $or#es #ould o&er#o'e those o$ the king. 9thou #anst kee% 'e. and dro&e the' ba#k into the #itadel) Then !tanes.

and thinking that i$ -aeandrius 'ade the sa'e o$$ers to others he would get the aid he sought. they insulted and 2eered at 5arius and his 'ighty host) !ne e&en shouted to the' and said. he hi'sel$ went and entered into #on&ersation with Cleo'enes. ea#h 'an #hose besides out o$ his whole household one wo'an.andridas. stri%%ed o$ all its 'en) *$ter so'e ti'e. who'soe&er he %leased( these alone were allowed to li&e. and let -aeandrius know by a herald that he 'ust lea&e the #ity) -eanwhile the +ersians netted "a'os. son o$ *na. the "%artan king went straight to the e%hors and told the' 9it would be best $or "%arta that the "a'ian stranger should be sent away $ro' the +elo%onnese( $or otherwise he 'ight %er#han#e %ersuade hi'sel$ or so'e other "%artan to be base)9 The e%hors took his ad&i#e.be$allen the +ersians. and as they talked brought hi' along to his house) There Cleo'enes. while others began the 'assa#re. the Babylonians re&olted. 'ade u% his 'ind to $orget the orders whi#h 5arius had gi&en hi'. a$ter whi#h he a#ted as $ollows) Ha&ing %la#ed u%on his board all the gold and sil&er &essels that he had. was $illed with wonder and astonish'ent( whereon the other begged that he would #arry ho'e with hi' any o$ the &essels that he liked) -aeandrius said this two or three ti'es( but Cleo'enes here dis%layed sur%assing honesty) He re$used the gi$t. and bade his ser&ants e'%loy the'sel&es in #leaning the'. howe&er. and #on&eyed thither all the ri#hes whi#h he had brought away $ro' the island. they did as $ollows07 ha&ing $irst set a%art their 'others. and laying siege to the %la#e) The Babylonians. and began the war by 'ar#hing straight u%on Babylon. but to deli&er u% the island unhar'ed to "yloson. so'e inside the te'%les) -aeandrius $led $ro' "a'os to La#edae'on. they had %ro$ited by the troubles. and deli&ered it u% to "yloson. 94hy sit ye there. where&er they #ould $ind the') 6%on this so'e o$ his troo%s laid siege to the #itadel. killing all they 'et. and had 'ade the'sel&es ready against a siege) *nd it ha%%ened so'ehow or other that no one %er#ei&ed what they were doing) *t last when the ti'e #a'e $or rebelling o%enly. +ersians: why do .9 and ga&e the word to his ar'y that they should slay the "a'ians. he drew together all his %ower. seeing the %late. and while the se&en were #ons%iring. ha&ing 'ade e&ery %re%aration $or de$en#e) 5uring all the ti'e that the -agus was king. this sa'e general !tanes was indu#ed to re%eo%le it by a drea' whi#h he had. while all the rest were brought to one %la#e and strangled) The wo'en #hosen were ke%t to 'ake bread $or the 'en( while the others were strangled that they 'ight not #onsu'e the stores) 4hen tidings rea#hed 5arius o$ what had ha%%ened. and a loathso'e disease that sei/ed on hi') *$ter the ar'a'ent o$ !tanes had set sail $or "a'os. so'e outside. 9not to kill or ensla&e a single "a'ian. king o$ "%arta. both 'en and boys. howe&er. #ared not a whit $or his siege) -ounting u%on the battle'ents that #rowned their walls.

not thinking that it #ould be true. and yet the king #ould not %re&ail7 not e&en when he tried the 'eans by whi#h Cyrus 'ade hi'sel$ 'aster o$ the %la#e) The Babylonians were e&er u%on the wat#h. he #a'e in this %light be$ore 5arius) 4rath stirred within the king at the sight o$ a 'an o$ his lo$ty rank in su#h a #ondition( lea%ing down $ro' his throne. and he $ound no way o$ #on. #li%%ing his hair #lose and $logging hi'sel$ with a s#ourge.uite wearied out. 5arius and his ar'y were . but $ound none by whi#h he #ould ho%e to %re&ail. but thou. while he hi'sel$ %ondered the 'atter) Calling to 'ind then the words o$ the Babylonian at the beginning o$ the siege. but 'y own only) 'ai'ed 'ysel$ #ould not endure that the *ssyrians should laugh at the +ersians)9 94ret#hed 'an.uest) 4hen he $ound that 5arius did indeed &alue it highly.9 said 5arius. indu#e the ene'y to yield one day the sooner: "urely thou hadst gone out o$ thy 'ind when thou didst so 'isuse thysel$)9 9Had told thee.uering the') *t last. unless he 'ai'ed hi'sel$ and then went o&er to the ene'y) To do this see'ing to hi' a light 'atter. 9There is not a 'an in the world. 9thou #o&erest the $oulest deed with the $airest %ossible na'e. $inding that they #ould not anyhow take the #ity) *ll stratage's and all arts had been used. and asked Ko%yrus who it was that had dis$igured hi'. that Babylon 'ight now be taken) For it see'ed to hi' that there was a 5i&ine +ro&iden#e in the 'an ha&ing used the %hrase. and then his 'ule ha&ing $oaled) *s soon there$ore as he $elt within hi'sel$ that Babylon was $ated to be taken. and what he had done to be so treated) Ko%yrus answered.ye not go ba#k to your ho'es: Till 'ules $oal ye will not take our #ity)9 This was by a Babylonian who thought that a 'ule would ne&er $oal) 3ow when a year and se&en 'onths had %assed. he went to 5arius and asked hi' i$ he set a &ery high &alue on its #on. son o$ the -egaby/us who was a'ong the se&en 'en that o&erthrew the -agus) !ne o$ his su'%ter7'ules ga&e birth to a $oal) Ko%yrus. in the twentieth 'onth.#lai'ed aloud. 9what was . ! king. a 'ar&ellous thing ha%%ened to Ko%yrus. he e. thou si'%leton. he 'utilated hi'sel$ in a way that was utterly without re'edy) For he #ut o$$ his own nose and ears.%loits in +ersia are e&er highly honoured and bring their authors to greatness) He there$ore re&iewed all ways o$ bringing the #ity under. that #ould redu#e 'e to su#h a %light7 no stranger1s hands ha&e wrought this work on 'e. went and saw the #olt with his own eyes( a$ter whi#h he #o''anded his ser&ants to tell no one what had #o'e to %ass. when thou sayest thy 'ai'ing is to hel% our siege $orward) How will thy dis$igure'ent. and then.9 re2oined the other. 9Till 'ules $oal ye shall not take our #ity97 he thought. when they told hi'. as he re$le#ted on this s%ee#h. he #onsidered $urther with hi'sel$ how he 'ight 'ake the deed his own. and be the 'an to take Babylon) 3oble e.

to gi&e hi'sel$ the air o$ a deserter) The 'en u%on the towers. to grant hi' anything that he asked( and on his suing $or a #o''and. ke%t 'y own #ounsel. one at the Belian. seeing a +ersian o$ su#h e. and when get into their #ity will tell the' that it is by thee ha&e been thus treated) think they will belie&e 'y words. on thy %art. Babylonians. his body red with 'arks o$ s#ourging and with blood.bent on doing. and %ost 'e another deta#h'ent. 9'y #o'ing to you.%e#t. o$ten looking ba#k. bid thy whole ar'y atta#k the #ity on e&ery side. at the 3ine&eh gates( then let twenty days %ass. will %ro&e the greatest gain that you #ould %ossibly re#ei&e.alted rank in so grie&ous a %light. who' 5arius a##ording to agree'ent . and on what errand he had #o'e) He re%lied that he was Ko%yrus. a$ter that. when they heard this. with the hel% o$ whi#h he %ro#eeded to do as he had arranged with 5arius) !n the tenth day a$ter his $light he led out his deta#h'ent. he began to bewail his 'is$ortunes. whose business it was to kee% a lookout.9 he went on to say. on a##ount o$ 'y su##esses. they entrusted to hi' a body o$ troo%s. that. and so a##o'%lished 'y %lans) 3ow. two thousand strong. and %ut 'e two bodies o$ +ersians. and surrounding the thousand 'en. obser&ing hi'. we shall take Babylon) will desert to the ene'y as a'. hastened down. sin#e there see'ed no ho%e o$ taking the #ity) 9*nd now. e&en the keys o$ their gates. troo%s $or whose loss thou wilt #are little. . a thousand 'en) 4ait. his nose and ears #ut o$$. there$ore. and had deserted to the' $ro' the +ersians) Then the doorkee%ers. 'ust wait till the tenth day a$ter a' entered within the town. and entrust 'e with a #o''and o$ troo%s) Thou. the other at the Cissian gates( $or e. had no sus%i#ion but that he s%oke the truth. to 'e) Then it will be $or 'e and 'y +ersians to do the rest)9 Ha&ing le$t these instru#tions. only be#ause he had gi&en ad&i#e that the siege should be raised. the Babylonians will entrust e&erything. telling the' that 5arius had 'altreated hi' in the way they #ould see. and at the end o$ that ti'e station near the Chaldaean gates a body o$ $our thousand) Let neither these nor the $or'er troo%s be ar'ed with any wea%ons but their swords7 those thou 'ayest lea&e the') *$ter the twenty days are o&er. and was really #o'e to be their $riend and hel%er) They were ready. i$ there be no $ailure on thy %art. #arried hi' at on#e be$ore the -agistrates) ntrodu#ed into the asse'bly.uestioned hi' who he was. and setting one o$ the gates slightly a2ar. while to 5arius and the +ersians it will be the se&erest loss) @erily he by who' ha&e been so 'utilated shall not es#a%e un%unished) *nd truly all the %aths o$ his #ounsels are known to 'e)9 Thus did Ko%yrus s%eak) The Babylonians. se&en days. and then %la#e near to the gates o$ "e'ira'is a deta#h'ent o$ thy ar'y. Ko%yrus $led towards the gates o$ the town. thou wouldest not ha&e su$$ered it( as it is. there$ore.

as e. whether o$ $or'er or o$ later ti'es. that in all there were #olle#ted no $ewer than $i$ty thousand) t is $ro' these wo'en that the Babylonians o$ our ti'es are s%rung) *s $or Ko%yrus. whereu%on Ko%yrus %layed out the re'ainder o$ his stratage') 4hile the Babylonians. ke%t at their %osts. in the greatness o$ his a#hie&e'ents. and set no bounds to their trust) He waited. he waited till the inter&al a%%ointed had gone by. who did not see it. and tore down all the gates( $or Cyrus had done neither the one nor the other when he took Babylon) He then #hose out near three thousand o$ the leading #iti/ens. all other +ersians. were beyond 'easure %leased. and slaughtered the two thousand) *$ter this se#ond e. #rowding to the walls. Entitled . would o$ten say that 9he had rather Ko%yrus were un'ai'ed. again with a band o$ %i#ked 'en he sallied $orth.%loit. seeing that his deeds were as bra&e as his words. $ree $ro' tribute( and he also granted hi' 'any other $a&ours) -egaby/us. was a son o$ this Ko%yrus) *nd Ko%yrus. took re$uge in the te'%le o$ 8u%iter Belus( the rest.#e%t only Cyrus7 with who' no +ersian e&er yet thought hi'sel$ worthy to #o'%are) 5arius. he $ell u%on the' and slew the' all) Then the Babylonians.tin#t. and #aused the' to be #ru#i$ied. wishing to %re&ent the ra#e o$ the Babylonians $ro' be#o'ing e. howe&er. still kee%ing to the %lan agreed u%on. while he allowed the re'ainder still to inhabit the #ity) Further. as the story goes. and when the ne.uired to send so large a nu'ber to Babylon. who were ea#h re. e. his %raise was in all 'ouths) !n#e 'ore. who $led $ro' +ersia to *thens. he threw o%en the Cissian and the Belian gates.had sent $irst. he %ut the' also to the sword) This last &i#tory ga&e the $inishing stroke to his %ower. he was #onsidered by 5arius to ha&e sur%assed. and ad'itted the ene'y) "u#h o$ the Babylonians as witnessed the trea#hery.%lained be$ore< they strangled. destroyed the wall. and 'ade hi' all in all with the Babylonians0 a##ordingly they #o''itted to hi' the #o''and o$ their whole ar'y. and then leading the troo%s to the %la#e where the $our thousand were. till at last they too learnt that they were betrayed) Thus was Babylon taken $or the se#ond ti'e) 5arius ha&ing be#o'e 'aster o$ the %la#e.t %eriod agreed on had ela%sed. was a son o$ this -egaby/us) The Fourth Book. howe&er. than be 'aster o$ twenty 'ore Babylons)9 *nd he honoured Ko%yrus greatly( year by year he %resented hi' with all the gi$ts whi#h are held in 'ost estee' a'ong the +ersians( he ga&e hi' likewise the go&ern'ent o$ Babylon $or his li$e. and %ut the keys o$ their #ity into his hands) 5arius now. to sa&e their stores) These he le&ied $ro' the nations bordering on Babylonia. who held the #o''and in Egy%t against the *thenians and their allies. he %ro&ided wi&es $or the' in the roo' o$ those who' . atta#ked the walls on e&ery side. did their best to resist the +ersian assault.

de$eated those who 'et the' in the $ield. they #ut o$$ a tra#t o$ #ountry $ro' the rest o$ "#ythia by digging a broad dyke $ro' the Tauri# 'ountains to the &ast lake o$ the -aeotis) *$terwards. an e. who had on#e in days gone by in&aded -edia. they 'ar#hed out and engaged the') -any battles were $ought. the udder is $or#ed down) The 'ilk thus obtained is %oured into dee% wooden #asks. and the sla&es were so astounded. they resol&ed to o%%ose the ar'y whi#h was returning $ro' -edia) *nd. and so begun the . and then the 'ilk is stirred round) That whi#h rises to the to% is drawn o$$. not unlike our 'usi#al %i%es. and let ea#h 'an $et#h his horsewhi%.uals in birth and bra&ery( but let the' behold us with no other wea%on but the whi%. and $lee be$ore us)9 The "#ythians $ollowed this #ounsel. who till they #a'e %ossessed the so&ereignty) !n their return to their ho'es a$ter the long absen#e o$ twenty7eight years. "#ythians: 4e are $ighting our sla&es. but a %astoral ra#e) 4hen there$ore the #hildren s%rung $ro' these sla&es and the "#ythian wo'en grew to 'anhood. and they will $eel that they are our sla&es. u% the &ul&a o$ the 'are. and then to blow into the tubes with their 'ouths. and go boldly u% to the') "o long as they see us with ar's in our hands. $irst o$ all. when they saw that ti'e went on. di'inishing our own nu'ber when we $all. and understood the #ir#u'stan#es o$ their birth. and the nu'ber o$ those that belong to us when they $all by our hands) Take 'y ad&i#e7 lay s%ear and bow aside.a#t &engean#e $ro' the "#yths. to use the' in %re%aring their 'ilk) The %lan they $ollow is to thrust tubes 'ade o$ bone.%edition was led by 5arius into "#ythia) *sia abounding in 'en. and the "#ythians gained no ad&antage. and &ast su's $lowing into the treasury.uarrel) 5uring the s%a#e o$ eight7and7twenty years. and o&erthrew the e'%ire o$ the -edes. a task awaited the' little less troubleso'e than their struggle with the -edes) They $ound an ar'y o$ no s'all si/e %re%ared to o%%ose their entran#e) For the "#ythian wo'en. and #onsidered the best %art( the under %ortion is o$ less a##ount) "u#h is the reason why the "#ythians blind all those who' they take in war( it arises $ro' their not being tillers o$ the ground. so'e 'ilking while the others blow) They say that they do this be#ause when the &eins o$ the ani'al are $ull o$ air. the "#yths #ontinued lords o$ the whole o$ 6%%er *sia) They entered *sia in %ursuit o$ the Ci''erians. had inter'arried with their sla&es) 3ow the "#ythians blind all their sla&es. when the "#ythians tried to $or#e an entran#e. the desire sei/ed hi' to e. about whi#h the blind sla&es are %la#ed. and their husbands did not #o'e ba#k. they i'agine the'sel&es our e. and i''ediately ran away) "u#h . until at last one o$ the' thus addressed the re'ainder0 94hat are we doing. that they $orgot to $ight. as ha&e be$ore 'entioned.-EL+!-E3E *$ter the taking o$ Babylon.

ious to a&enge. a$ter one o$ their kings0 the Greeks. to the northward o$ the $arthest dwellers in "#ythia. and a%%roa#hed to %i#k the' u%( when lo> as he #a'e near. and Cola.was the 'ode in whi#h the "#ythians. and 'ade the whole kingdo' o&er to the youngest born) Fro' Lei%o. and bla/ed) He there$ore went his way. he is sure . and su#h was the %ur%ose $or whi#h he was now #olle#ting an ar'y to in&ade the') *##ording to the a##ount whi#h the "#ythians the'sel&es gi&e.e.uit it by the -edes. the Royal "#ythians. and being $or#ed to . their $irst king. a yoke. the #ountry is said to be #on#ealed $ro' sight and 'ade i'%assable by reason o$ the $eathers whi#h are shed abroad abundantly) The earth and air are alike $ull o$ the'. to the in&asion o$ their #ountry by 5arius. begat three sons. the youngest. #all the' "#ythians) "u#h is the a##ount whi#h the "#ythians gi&e o$ their origin) They add that $ro' the ti'e o$ Targitaus. whi#h be$ore his ti'e was a desert without inhabitants) He was a #hild7 do not belie&e the tale. Cola.the "#ythians say< not to outli&e the year) His %ay there$ore is as 'u#h land as he #an ride round on horseba#k in a day) *s the e.ais. the 'iddle brother. neither less nor 'ore) The Royal "#ythians guard the sa#red gold with 'ost es%e#ial #are. and i''ediately the $la'es were e. there $ell $ro' the sky $our i'%le'ents. Lei%o.ais s%rang the "#ythians o$ the ra#e #alled *u#hatae( $ro' *r%o. or +aralatae) *ll together they are na'ed "#oloti. a$ter being $or a ti'e the lords o$ *sia. all o$ gold7 a %lough. but it is told ne&ertheless7 o$ 8o&e and a daughter o$ the Borysthenes) Targitaus. thus des#ended. who was the youngest born o$ the three) 4hile they still ruled the land. *r%o. and o$ the #ountry whi#h lies abo&e the') The Greeks who dwell about the . a battle7a. the gold took $ire. is a %eriod o$ one thousand years. one o$ whi#h was o$ a'%ler si/e than the other two0 in this the gold was %reser&ed) *bo&e. and this it is whi#h %re&ents the eye $ro' obtaining any &iew o$ the region) "u#h is the a##ount whi#h the "#ythians gi&e o$ the'sel&es. but the sa'e thing ha%%ened again) The gold re2e#ted both the eldest and the se#ond brother) Last o$ all the youngest brother a%%roa#hed. returned and settled in their own #ountry) This inroad o$ theirs it was that 5arius was an.ais ga&e ea#h o$ his three sons a se%arate kingdo'. and year by year o$$er great sa#ri$i#es in its honour) *t this $east.ais. howe&er.tent o$ "#ythia is &ery great. and #arried it to his ho'e) Then the two elder agreed together. they are the youngest o$ all nations) Their tradition is as $ollows) * #ertain Targitaus was the $irst 'an who e&er li&ed in their #ountry. and a drinking7#u%) The eldest o$ the brothers %er#ei&ed the' $irst. i$ the 'an who has the #ustody o$ the gold should $all aslee% in the o%en air.ais.ais.tinguished( so he %i#ked u% the gold.ais. and the se#ond #o'ing $orward 'ade the atte'%t. those known as the Catiari and Tras%ians( $ro' Cola.

who was the youngest. she said to hi'. when her #hildren grew to 'anhood. $irst ga&e the' se&erally their na'es) !ne she #alled *gathyrsus. it was who sa&ed the' $or thee0 now thou hast %aid their sal&age( $or lo> bear in 'y wo'b three sons o$ thine) Tell 'e there$ore when thy sons grow u%. in obedien#e to his orders. while all below was like a snake) He looked at her wonderingly( but ne&ertheless in. but whi#h was then a desert) Geryon li&ed outside the +ontus.uestioned. in an island #alled by the Greeks Erytheia. and. and when thou seest one o$ the' bend this bow as now bend it.uired. and $ell $ast aslee%) 4hile he sle%t. one Gelonus. and the other. #a'e at last to the distri#t #alled 9the 4oodland. and they were now in her kee%ing( but ne&er would she #onsent to gi&e the' ba#k. arri&ed in the region whi#h is now inhabited by the "#yths. %ro&ing une. whose $or' $ro' the waist u%wards was like that o$ a wo'an. #hoose hi' to re'ain in the land) Those who $ail in the trial. the youngest. she %ut her sons to the test) Two o$ the'. 9=es.+ontus tell a di$$erent story) *##ording to Her#ules. their 'other sent the' out o$ the land( "#ythes. he went his way( and the wo'an. and. what 'ust do with the': 4ouldst thou wish that should settle the' here in this land. on the other hand. *gathyrsus and Gelonus. whereo$ a' 'istress. by so'e wonder$ul #han#e disa%%eared) !n waking. and runs the whole way round the world( but they gi&e no %roo$ that this is really so) Her#ules #a'e $ro' then#e into the region now #alled "#ythia. a$ter wandering o&er the whole #ountry. agreed( but a$terwards she %ut hi' o$$ and delayed restoring the 'ares. the son o$ Her#ules. was only an. whether she had #han#ed to see his strayed 'ares anywhere) "he answered hi'. near Gades. whi#h is beyond the +illars o$ Her#ules u%on the !#ean) 3ow so'e say that the !#ean begins in the east. his 'ares. being o&ertaken by stor' and $rost. between a 'aiden and a ser%ent. were . 94hen thy 'ares strayed hither.9 where he $ound in a #a&e a strange being. he went in . to get his 'ares ba#k. do thus. when she ga&e the' u%. 94hen the lads ha&e grown to 'anhood.uest o$ the'.ual to the task en2oined. su##eeded. or shall send the' to thee:9 Thus . "#ythes) Then she re'e'bered the instru#tions she had re#ei&ed $ro' Her#ules. they say. unless he took her $or his 'istress)9 "o Her#ules. and so he was allowed to re'ain) Fro' "#ythes. when he was #arrying o$$ the #ows o$ Geryon. and. Her#ules answered. and gird hi'sel$ with this girdle thus. whi#h he had loosed $ro' his #hariot to gra/e.ious to se#ure the' and to get away) *t last. drew his lion1s skin about hi'. and assuredly thou wilt not err) 4at#h the'. send away) Thus wilt thou at on#e %lease thysel$ and obey 'e)9 Hereu%on he strung one o$ his bows7 u% to that ti'e he had #arried two7 and showed her how to $asten the belt) Then he ga&e both bow and belt into her hands) 3ow the belt had a golden goblet atta#hed to its #las%) "o a$ter he had gi&en the' to her. sin#e she wished to kee% hi' with her as long as %ossible) He.

and $alling u%on -edia) This a##ount is one whi#h is #o''on both to Greeks and barbarians) *risteas also. %oured into -edia) For the Ci''erians ke%t the line whi#h led along the sea7shore. now to be related. and 'issing their road. took %ossession o$ a deserted land) "#ythia still retains tra#es o$ the Ci''erians( there are Ci''erian #astles. re'e'bering the good things whi#h they had en2oyed in their ho'es. and the "#ythians.uitted their ho'es.es. 'en with one eye( still $urther. and a&oid a #ontest with so &ast a host( but the Royal tribe ad&ised re'aining and $ighting $or the soil to the last) *s neither %arty #hose to gi&e way. and $ought together) *ll o$ the Royal tribe were slain. resol&ed not to $lee. and a Ci''erian Bos%horus) t a%%ears likewise that the Ci''erians. who heard how nu'erous the in&ading ar'y was. a nati&e o$ +ro#onnesus. and entered the land o$ Ci''eria) For the land whi#h is now inhabited by the "#yths was $or'erly the #ountry o$ the Ci''erians) !n their #o'ing. but with ill su##ess( they there$ore . the one deter'ined to retire without a blow and yield their lands to the in&aders( but the other. it is %lain.tended to the sea) E. and both %arties sti$$ly 'aintained their own &iew( but the #ounsel o$ the Royal tribe was the bra&er) For the others urged that the best thing to be done was to lea&e the #ountry. in whi#h a' 'ore in#lined to %ut $aith than in any other) t is that the wandering "#ythians on#e dwelt in *sia. all these nations. the nati&es. the one as nu'erous as the other. held a #oun#il) *t this 'eeting o%inion was di&ided. the Hy%erboreans. the "#ythians to this day wear goblets at their girdles) This was the only thing whi#h the 'other o$ "#ythes did $or hi') "u#h is the tale told by the Greeks who dwell around the +ontus) There is also another di$$erent story. on their #o'ing. but rather to die and at least be buried in their $atherland) Ha&ing thus de#ided. #rossed the *ra. who e.#e%t the Hy%erboreans. 'ade a settle'ent in the %eninsula where the Greek #ity o$ "ino%e was a$terwards built) The "#yths. where their gra&e is still to be seen) Then the rest o$ the Ci''erians de%arted. beginning with the *ri'as%i. and a Ci''erian $erry. and %i#turing to the'sel&es the e&ils whi#h they had to e. and the %eo%le buried the' near the ri&er Tyras.%e#t i$ they ga&e the' u%. the gold7guarding gri$$ins( and beyond these. thus %ro#eeding inland. they drew a%art in two bodies. when they $led into *sia to es#a%e the "#yths. were #ontinually . and there warred with the -assagetae.des#ended the a$ter kings o$ "#ythia( and $ro' the #ir#u'stan#e o$ the goblet whi#h hung $ro' the belt. but the "#yths in their %ursuit held the Cau#asus u%on their right. %ursued the'. also a tra#t #alled Ci''eria. says in the #ourse o$ his %oe' that wra%t in Ba##hi# $ury he went as $ar as the ssedones) *bo&e the' dwelt the *ri'as%i. son o$ Caystrobius.

9 he told the'. and had s%oken with hi') This 'an. he &anished) Then the -eta%ontines. intending to #arry the body away) But on the sho% being o%ened. they did as they had been dire#ted0 and there is now a statue bearing the na'e o$ *risteas.a#t knowledge) 3ot a single %erson #an $ind who %ro$esses to be a#. as #olle#t by #o'%aring the a##ounts gi&en 'e at +ro#onnesus and -eta%ontu') *risteas then. #lose by the i'age o$ *%ollo in the 'arket7%la#e o$ -eta%ontu'. and to %la#e near it a statue to be #alled that o$ *risteas the +ro#onnesian) 9*%ollo.uired o$ the god in what light they were to regard the a%%earan#e o$ this ghost o$ a 'an) The +ythoness. 9had #o'e to their #ountry on#e. strenuously denied the ru'our( the relations. they told 'e. with bay7trees standing around it) But enough has been said #on#erning *risteas) 4ith regard to the regions whi#h lie abo&e the #ountry whereo$ this %ortion o$ 'y history treats. though he had &isited no other taliots( and he had been with *%ollo at the ti'e. there is no one who %ossesses any e. howe&er. the tra&eller o$ who' lately s%oke. a$$ir'ing that he had 'et *risteas on his road to Cy/i#us. a%%eared to the' in their own #ountry. 9$or so it would go best with the')9 Thus ad&ised. but in the sha%e o$ a #row)9 Ha&ing said so 'u#h. in re%ly. when he suddenly dro%t down dead) Hereu%on the $uller shut u% his sho%. when a #ertain Cy/i#enian. no *risteas was $ound. and wrote the %oe' #alled by the Greeks The *ri'as%eia. either dead or ali&e) "e&en years a$terwards he rea%%eared. the %oet who sung o$ these things.en#roa#hing u%on their neighbours) Hen#e it #a'e to %ass that the *ri'as%i dro&e the ssedonians $ro' their #ountry. sent to 5el%hi. they said. ha&e already 'entioned) will now relate a tale whi#h heard #on#erning hi' both at +ro#onnesus and at Cy/i#us) *risteas. a$ter whi#h he disa%%eared a se#ond ti'e) This is the tale #urrent in the two #ities abo&e7'entioned) 4hat $ollows know to ha&e ha%%ened to the -eta%ontines o$ taly. had entered one day into a $uller1s sho%. not howe&er in his %resent $or'. %ressing u%on the Ci''erians. lately arri&ed $ro' *rta#a. bade the' attend to what the s%e#tre said.uainted with the' by a#tual obser&ation) E&en *risteas. and ordered the' to set u% an altar in honour o$ *%ollo. in +ro#onnesus. and in. does not #lai'7 and he is writing . as the -eta%ontines a$$ir'. $or#ed the' to lea&e their land) Thus e&en *risteas does not agree in his a##ount o$ this region with the "#ythians) The birth%la#e o$ *risteas. there$ore. while the ssedonians dis%ossessed the "#yths( and the "#yths. three hundred and $orty years a$ter the se#ond disa%%earan#e o$ *risteas. and went to tell *risteas1 kindred what had ha%%ened) The re%ort o$ the death had 2ust s%read through the town. as they relate. who belonged to one o$ the noblest $a'ilies in the island. %ro#eeded to the $uller1s sho% with all things ne#essary $or the $uneral. #ontradi#ted the ru'our. who dwelt on the shores o$ the "outhern "ea.

the Cli$$s<. we #o'e u%on the wandering "#ythians. whi#h looks u%on all the other tribes in the light o$ sla&es) ts #ountry rea#hes on the south to Tauri#a. is . so $ar as we know. inhabits it) Crossing the +anti#a%es. so $ar as our knowledge rea#hes) 4hen one #rosses the Tanais. #alled Cre'ni .a#t in. and 'illet) Beyond the *la/onians reside "#ythian #ulti&ators. who are a %eo%le a%art.uiries whi#h ha&e been able to 'ake #on#erning the') *bo&e the 'art o$ the Borysthenites. o##u%ying a tra#t whi#h rea#hes to the ri&er Gerrhus) !n the o%%osite side o$ the Gerrhus is the Royal distri#t. and %ro#eeding eastward o$ the Husband'en. shall %ro#eed to 'ention all that ha&e learnt o$ these %arts by the 'ost e. as you go inland. who neither %lough nor sow) Their #ountry.uite a di$$erent ra#e $ro' the "#ythians) Beyond the' lie 'arshes and a region without inhabitants. beginning . e. and the whole o$ this region. also onions.uite bare o$ trees) They e. a %eo%le o$ . as $ar as it is known to us. 'ere hearsay.Bla#k7Robes<. on the east to the tren#h dug by the sons o$ the blind sla&es. garli#. while northward the #ountry is theirs $or ele&en days1 sail u% the #ourse o$ the Borysthenes) Further inland there is a &ast tra#t whi#h is uninhabited) *bo&e this desolate region dwell the Cannibals. while they #all the'sel&es !lbio%olites) These Husband'en e. not $or their own use.t to the'.the 4oodland<) *bo&e this dwell the "#ythian Husband'en. lentils. whi#h is situated in the &ery #entre o$ the whole sea7#oast o$ "#ythia. who' the Greeks li&ing near the Hy%anis #all Borysthenites. is uninhabited) These are the nations along the #ourse o$ the ri&er Hy%anis. he #on$esses. as it is #alled0 here dwells the largest and bra&est o$ the "#ythian tribes.tend eastward a distan#e o$ three days1 2ourney to a ri&er bearing the na'e o$ +anti#a%es. one is no longer in "#ythia( the $irst region on #rossing is that o$ the "auro'atae. but $or sale) "till higher u% are the 3euri) 3orthwards o$ the 3euri the #ontinent.tend towards the east a distan#e o$ $ourteen1 days1 2ourney. west o$ the Borysthenes) *#ross the Borysthenes. being the a##ount whi#h the ssedonians ga&e hi' o$ those #ountries) Howe&er. but sow and eat #orn.#e%t Hylaea.%oetry7 to ha&e rea#hed any $arther than the ssedonians) 4hat he relates #on#erning the regions beyond is. the $irst #ountry a$ter you lea&e the #oast is Hylaea . and in %art to the ri&er Tanais) 3orth o$ the #ountry o$ the Royal "#ythians are the -elan#haeni . the $irst %eo%le who inhabit the land are the Calli%edae. who grow #orn. the 'art u%on the +alus -aeotis. a Gre#o7"#ythi# ra#e) 3e. dwell the %eo%le #alled the *la/onians) These two nations in other res%e#ts rese'ble the "#ythians in their usages. who. 'u#h unlike the "#ythians) *bo&e the' the #ountry be#o'es an utter desert( not a single tribe.

are the %eo%le who bear the na'e o$ yr#ae( they also su%%ort the'sel&es by hunting.uiry 'ay easily be 'ade. and the soil dee%( beyond you enter on a region whi#h is rugged and stony) +assing o&er a great e. and $ro' . whi#h are solid.uarrel( and when one $lies to the' $or re$uge. and all the nations between the #oast and the bald7headed 'en are well known to us) For so'e o$ the "#ythians are a##usto'ed to %enetrate as $ar. and also 'i. o$ who' in.) the dress whi#h they wear is the sa'e as the "#ythian) They li&e on the $ruit o$ a #ertain tree. $irst there is a desert. and within the li'its o$ the sa'e region. whether wild or #ulti&ated) *bo&e the'. the tra#t o$ land whereo$ ha&e been s%eaking is all a s'ooth %lain.ual to our $ig7tree. and eat the' instead o$ 'eat( $or they ha&e but $ew shee% in their #ountry. lets $ly an arrow( then 'ounting his horse. trained to lie down u%on its belly. a nu'erous nation .tent o$ this rough #ountry. and they #o&er the tree in winter with a #loth o$ thi#k white $elt.at the u%%er end o$ the +alus -aeotis. whi#h they %ra#tise in the $ollowing 'anner) The hunter #li'bs a tree. it with 'ilk $or a drink( while they 'ake the lees.%lored. and is #alled by the nati&es 9as#hy)9 They la% this u% with their tongues. you #o'e to a %eo%le dwelling at the $oot o$ lo$ty 'ountains. and &ery long #hins) These %eo%le s%eak a language o$ their own. dwell the Budini. a little to the east. the whole #ountry abounding in wood. his dog $ollowing hard all the while) Beyond these %eo%le. se&en days1 2ourney a#ross( a$ter whi#h. they strain it through #loths( the 2ui#e whi#h runs o$$ is bla#k and thi#k. i$ one in#lines so'ewhat to the east. and it bears a $ruit like a bean. who re&olted on#e $ro' the Royal "#ythians. and a horse. but take o$$ the #o&ering in the su''er7ti'e) 3o one har's these %eo%le. they 'ake u% the . inhabiting a #ountry whi#h is entirely bare o$ trees. and li&ing by the #hase) *d2oining the'. and Greeks also go there $ro' the 'art on the Borysthenes. into #akes. to ha&e $lat noses. and thus 'ake itsel$ low( the hunter kee%s wat#h. with a stone inside) 4hen the $ruit is ri%e. %ossessing the se#ond region. and there sets hi'sel$ in a'bush( he has a dog at hand. the Thyssagetae are rea#hed. $or they are looked u%on as sa#red7 they do not e&en %ossess any warlike wea%ons) 4hen their neighbours $all out. whose territory is thi#kly wooded with trees o$ e&ery kind) Beyond the Budini. in whi#h there is no good %asturage) Ea#h o$ the' dwells under a tree.uite distin#t $ro' any other. dwells a distin#t tribe o$ "#yths. the na'e o$ whi#h is +onti#u'( in si/e it is about e. and 'igrated into these %arts) *s $ar as their #ountry. he is sa$e $ro' all hurt) They are #alled the *rgi%%aeans) 6% to this %oint the territory o$ whi#h we are s%eaking is &ery #o'%letely e. stret#h northward a distan#e o$ $i$teen days1 2ourney. he gi&es the beast #hase. and when he sees his ga'e. as one goes northward. who are said to be all7 both 'en and wo'en7 bald $ro' their birth.

%editions u%on the i#e.ed together. who slee% during one hal$ o$ the year) This latter state'ent a%%ears to 'e . and e&en dri&e their waggons a#ross to the #ountry o$ the "indians) "u#h is the intensity o$ the #old during eight 'onths out o$ the twel&e( and e&en in the re'aining $our the #li'ate is still #ool) The #hara#ter o$ the winter likewise is unlike that o$ the sa'e season in any other #ountry( $or at that ti'e. but i$ a $ire be lighted on it 'ud is %rodu#ed) The sea $ree/es. e. and the Ci''erian Bos%horus is $ro/en o&er) *t that season the "#ythians who dwell inside the tren#h 'ake warlike e.uite unworthy o$ #redit) The region east o$ the bald7headed 'en is well known to be inhabited by the ssedonians.tends as $ar as this nation) The regions beyond are known only $ro' the a##ounts o$ the ssedonians. there$ore. 2ust as the Greeks kee% their Genesia) n other res%e#ts the ssedonians are re%uted to be obser&ers o$ 2usti#e0 and it is to be re'arked that their wo'en ha&e e. and their $lesh #ut in %ie#es. by who' the stories are told o$ the one7eyed ra#e o$ 'en and the gold7guarding gri$$ins) These stories are re#ei&ed by the "#ythians $ro' the ssedonians. and is brought out year by year at the great $esti&al whi#h sons kee% in honour o$ their $athers1 death. while in su''er it . whi#h are ne&er #rossed. that the %eo%le who li&e in these 'ountains ha&e $eet like goats( and that a$ter %assing the' you $ind another ra#e o$ 'en.#eeding rigour) 5uring eight 'onths the $rost is so intense that water %oured u%on the ground does not $or' 'ud. bar $urther %rogress) The bald 'en say.#e%t by the a##ounts whi#h they gi&e o$ it) The ssedonians are said to ha&e the $ollowing #usto's) 4hen a 'an1s $ather dies. there is s#ar#ely any rain worth 'entioning. the land is known( but beyond the bald7headed 'en lies a region o$ whi#h no one #an gi&e any e. and set in gold) t then be#o'es an orna'ent on whi#h they %ride the'sel&es.the other 'arts along the Eu. when the rains ought to $all in "#ythia. #leansed. but the tra#t that lies to the north o$ these two nations is entirely unknown.9 and 9s%u9 $or 9the eye)9 The whole distri#t whereo$ we ha&e here dis#oursed has winters o$ e.ine) The "#ythians who 'ake this 2ourney #o''uni#ate with the inhabitants by 'eans o$ se&en inter%reters and se&en languages) Thus $ar.a#t a##ount) Lo$ty and %re#i%itous 'ountains.ual authority with the 'en) Thus our knowledge e. and the whole is ser&ed u% at a ban.uet) The head o$ the dead 'an is treated di$$erently0 it is stri%%ed bare. while at the sa'e ti'e the dead body undergoes the like treat'ent) The two sorts o$ $lesh are a$terwards 'i. and by the' %assed on to us Greeks0 when#e it arises that we gi&e the one7eyed ra#e the "#ythian na'e o$ *ri'as%i. but it does not see' to 'e #redible. 9ari'a9 being the "#ythi# word $or 9one. all the near relati&es bring shee% to the house( whi#h are sa#ri$i#ed.

are $rost7bitten) To 'e it see's that the #old 'ay likewise be the #ause whi#h %re&ents the o. think.uent then. e&en the ssedonians are silent #on#erning the'( otherwise the "#ythians would ha&e re%eated their state'ents.uite true. i$ they stand still. 'ules are ne&er %rodu#ed) The Eleans say it is in #onse. when they bring the' ba#k again into Elis) 4ith res%e#t to the $eathers whi#h are said by the "#ythians to $ill the air.ui#k on the $oreheads o$ la'bkins) He 'eans to say what is . whi#h elsewhere is $re. #all the snow7$lakes $eathers be#ause. where the #old is not re'arkable. unless it be the ssedonians) But in 'y o%inion. and to %re&ent %ersons $ro' %enetrating into the re'oter %arts o$ the #ontinent. and Ho'er also in the E%igoni. 'entions the'. with their neighbours. while horses. howe&er. when it is &ery hea&y) Thunder in the winter7ti'e is there a##ounted a %rodigy( as also are earth.en in "#ythia $ro' ha&ing horns) There is a line o$ Ho'er1s in the !dyssey whi#h gi&es a su%%ort to 'y o%inion07 Libya too.uite unable to bear it( whereas in other #ountries 'ules and asses are $ound to endure the #old.uakes. but 'ules and asses are . or grow the' with di$$i#ulty7 the #old being the #ause in this instan#e) Here 'ust e. that in war' #ountries the horns #o'e early) "o too in #ountries where the #old is se&ere ani'als either ha&e no horns. in the su''er than in the winterti'e) 3ow snow when it $alls looks like $eathers. when the breeding7ti'e #o'es. i$ that be really a work o$ his) But the %ersons who ha&e by $ar the 'ost to say on this sub2e#t are the 5elians) They de#lare that #ertain o$$erings. as e&ery one is aware who has seen it #o'e down #lose to hi') These northern regions. as they do those #on#erning the one7eyed 'en) Hesiod. 'y o%inion is that in the #ountries abo&e "#ythia it always snows7 less. are uninhabitable by reason o$ the se&erity o$ the winter( and the "#ythians. in "#ythia is unknown in that %art o$ the year. e&en ha&ing any &iew o$ those regions. and there kee% the' till they are in $oal. o$ #ourse. %a#ked in .ne&er gi&es o&er raining( and thunder. and there is nothing else to a##ount $or it. to take their 'ares into one o$ the ad2oining #ountries. o$ the likeness whi#h they bear to the') ha&e now related what is said o$ the 'ost distant %arts o$ this #ontinent whereo$ any a##ount is gi&en) !$ the Hy%erboreans nothing is said either by the "#ythians or by any o$ the other dwellers in these regions. there$ore. #old as it is. whether they ha%%en in winter or su''er) Horses bear the winter well.%ress 'y wonder7 additions being what 'y work always $ro' the &ery $irst a$$e#ted7 that in Elis. #o'ing only in su''er. where horns hud .uen#e o$ a #urse( and their habit is.

lay it u%on the gra&e o$ the strangers) This gra&e is on the le$t as one enters the %re#in#t o$ 5iana. na'ed Hy%ero#he and Laodi#e. ha&e been taught by the 5elians to do the like) This !len. #o'%osed $or the'( and the rest o$ the islanders. who #a'e $ro' Ly#ia. whose na'es were *rge and !%is) Hy%ero#he and Laodi#e #a'e to bring to lithyia the o$$ering whi#h they had laid u%on the'sel&es. and. were brought $ro' the #ountry o$ the Hy%erboreans into "#ythia. ado%ted the $ollowing %lan07 they wra%%ed their o$$erings in the wheaten straw.9 and to who' great honours are %aid at 5elos) *$terwards the Hy%erboreans. in a#knowledg'ent o$ their . a Ly#ian. and that the "#ythians re#ei&ed the' and %assed the' on to their neighbours u%on the west. were re#ei&ed $irst o$ all by the 5odonaeans) Then#e they des#ended to the -alia# Gul$.wheaten straw. $ro' whi#h they were #arried a#ross into Euboea. they say. whi#h was done a##ordingly. be$ore their 'arriage7day. who #ontinued to %ass the' on until at last they rea#hed the *driati#) Fro' hen#e they were sent southward. there #a'e to 5elos by the sa'e road as Hy%ero#he and Laodi#e. and when they #a'e to Gree#e. #ut o$$ a #url. and bearing the' to their borders. 'ade the other old hy'ns also whi#h are sung in 5elos) The 5elians add that the ashes $ro' the thigh7bones burnt . on#e be$ore. and has an oli&e7tree growing on it) The youths wind so'e o$ their hair round a kind o$ grass. where the %eo%le handed the' on $ro' #ity to #ity. and e&en the onians. whi#h obtains with the wo'en o$ Thra#e and +aeonia) They in their sa#ri$i#es to the . #harged their neighbours to send the' $orward $ro' one nation to another. and in&oke the' in the hy'n whi#h !len.ueenly 5iana bring wheaten straw always with their o$$erings) !$ 'y own knowledge #an testi$y that this is so) The da'sels sent by the Hy%erboreans died in 5elos( and in their honour all the 5elian girls and youths are wont to #ut o$$ their hair) The girls.1 and are honoured by the 5elians in a di$$erent way) For the 5elian wo'en 'ake #olle#tions in these 'aidens1 na'es. when they $ound that their 'essengers did not return. %la#e it u%on the to'b) "u#h are the honours %aid to these da'sels by the 5elians) They add that. thinking it would be a grie&ous thing always to be liable to lose the en&oys they should send. brought the $irst o$$erings $ro' the Hy%erboreans( and with the' the Hy%erboreans sent $i&e 'en to kee% the' $ro' all har' by the way( these are the %ersons who' the 5elians #all 9+er%herees. was the road by whi#h the o$$erings rea#hed the 5elians) Two da'sels. and in this way the o$$erings rea#hed 5elos) 'ysel$ know o$ a %ra#ti#e like this.ui#k labours( but *rge and !%is #a'e at the sa'e ti'e as the gods o$ 5elos. like the girls. till they #a'e at length to Carystus) The Carystians took the' o&er to Tenos. and twining it round a dista$$. a##ording to their own a##ount. two other &irgins $ro' the Hy%erboreans. without sto%%ing at *ndros( and the Tenians brought the' $inally to 5elos) "u#h.

at the *rabian gul$7 the gul$ whereinto 5arius #ondu#ted the #anal whi#h he 'ade $ro' the 3ile) Between +ersia and +hoeni#ia lies a broad and a'%le tra#t o$ #ountry. the Col#hians. whi#h ad2oins +hoeni#ia. *rabia) t ends.es. then *ssyria. $a#ing the east. and no 'ore. rea#hing to the northern sea. and stret#hes into the Erythraean sea. $or it ad2oins on Egy%t) n Egy%t the tra#t is at $irst a narrow ne#k. stret#hing $ro' +hoeni#ia along the #oast o$ +alestine7"yria till it #o'es to Egy%t. into whi#h the +hasis e'%ties itsel$) These $our nations $ill the whole s%a#e $ro' one sea to the other) 4est o$ these nations there %ro2e#t into the sea two tra#ts whi#h will now des#ribe( one. with Euro%e and *sia 2ust o$ the sa'e si/e) The truth in this 'atter will now %ro#eed to e. a$ter whi#h the region a' des#ribing skirts our sea. #annot but laugh when see nu'bers o$ %ersons drawing 'a%s o$ the world without ha&ing any reason to guide the'( 'aking. stret#hes along the Eu. #on#erning the Hy%erboreans) *s $or the tale o$ *baris. 'aking it #lear what the real si/e o$ ea#h region is. it is #onsidered to end. the "as%irians( beyond the'. is #lear0 i$ there are Hy%erboreans. and on the north by the Cas%ian and the ri&er *ra. and to ha&e gone with his arrow all round the world without on#e eating. howe&er. though it does not really #o'e to a ter'ination.a#t #ir#le. and is inhabited by thirty di$$erent nations) The other starts $ro' the #ountry o$ the +ersians. and no one #an say what sort o$ region it is) "u#h then is the sha%e. towards the east and the region o$ the sunrise. and the earth itsel$ to be an e. and Col#hians. as i$ des#ribed by a %air o$ #o'%asses.ueting7hall o$ the Ceians) Thus 'u#h then. there 'ust also be Hy%ernotians) For 'y %art. where it ter'inates) This entire tra#t #ontains but three nations) The whole o$ *sia west o$ the #ountry o$ the +ersians is #o'%rised in these two regions) Beyond the tra#t o##u%ied by the +ersians. who is said to ha&e been a Hy%erborean.u%on the altar are s#attered o&er the to'b o$ !%is and *rge) Their to'b lies behind the te'%le o$ 5iana. -edes. to the north. beginning at the ri&er +hasis on the north. "as%irians. the distan#e . are the -edes( beyond the -edes.ine and the Helles%ont to "igeu' in the Troas( while on the south it rea#hes $ro' the -yriandrian gul$. near the ban. #ontaining $irst +ersia. and what sha%e should be gi&en the') The +ersians inhabit a #ountry u%on the southern or Erythraean sea( abo&e the'. and a$ter *ssyria. shall %ass it by in silen#e) Thus 'u#h. and su#h the si/e o$ *sia) Libya belongs to one o$ the abo&e7'entioned tra#ts. *sia is bounded on the south by the Erythraean sea. whi#h $lows towards the rising sun) Till you rea#h ndia the #ountry is %eo%led( but $urther east it is &oid o$ inhabitants. the o#ean7strea' to run all round the earth.%lain in a &ery $ew words. as they do. to the Trio%i# %ro'ontory) This is one o$ the tra#ts. that is to say.

$ro' our sea to the Erythraean not e.t to these +hoeni#ians the Carthaginians.#eeding a hundred thousand $atho's. with orders to 'ake $or the +illars o$ Her#ules. and 'ade good their &oyage ho'e) !n their return. le$t their towns and $led away to . the daughter o$ Ko%yrus. the #oast was o##u%ied by a dwar$ish ra#e. $or they are e. son o$ -egaby/us.as think< bear to be #o'%ared to the') *s $or Libya. we know it to be washed on all sides by the sea.es was about to i'%ale hi' $or the o$$en#e. that at the $arthest %oint to whi#h he had rea#hed.es. he %ut about. the Egy%tian king. whene&er he landed.#eedingly une. and Euro%e as they ha&e.tent o$ Libya $irst dis#o&ered) 3e. did not #ir#u'na&igate Libya. with whi#h he set sail $or the +illars o$ Her#ules) Ha&ing %assed the "traits. sent to sea a nu'ber o$ shi%s 'anned by +hoeni#ians. he turned ba#k and le$t una##o'%lished the task whi#h had been set hi' by his 'other) This 'an had used &iolen#e towards a 'aiden. to sail round Libya and return to Egy%t by the *rabian gul$) Ber. *sia. $earing the length and desolateness o$ the 2ourney. who wore a dress 'ade $ro' the %al' tree) These %eo%le. and ha&ing sown a tra#t o$ land with #orn. they went ashore. who on desisting $ro' the #anal whi#h he had begun between the 3ile and the *rabian gul$. and $inding that 'ore water than he had #rossed still lay e&er be$ore hi'. and ?ing Ber. and $or breadth will not e&en . and it was not till the third year that they doubled the +illars o$ Her#ules. and #a'e ba#k to Egy%t) Then#e %ro#eeding to the #ourt. where&er they 'ight ha%%en to be. she said. son o$ Teas%es the *#hae'enian.es ga&e his #onsent( and "atas%es went down to Egy%t. and by the -editerranean) The +hoeni#ians took their de%arture $ro' Egy%t by way o$ the Erythraean sea. begged hi' o$$. and return to Egy%t through the'. waited until the grain was $it to #ut) Ha&ing rea%ed it. but %erha%s others 'ay7 that in sailing round Libya they had the sun u%on their right hand) n this way was the e. undertaking to %unish his #ri'e 'ore hea&ily than the king hi'sel$ had designed) "he would $or#e hi'. e. they de#lared7 $or 'y %art do not belie&e the'.ual) Euro%e e. he doubled the Libyan headland.tends the entire length o$ the other two. a##ording to their own a##ounts. and there got a shi% and #rew. 'ade the &oyage) For "atas%es. and so sailed into the southern o#ean) 4hen autu'n #a'e.#e%t where it is atta#hed to *sia) This dis#o&ery was $irst 'ade by 3e#os. though he was sent to do so( but. who was a sister o$ 5arius. and %ro#eeded southward) Following this #ourse $or 'any 'onths o&er a &ast stret#h o$ sea. the tra#t whi#h bears the na'e o$ Libya is o$ &ery great breadth) For 'y %art a' astonished that 'en should e&er ha&e di&ided Libya. known as Ca%e "oloeis. he 'ade re%ort to Ber. in other words. when his 'other. a thousand $urlongs( but $ro' the %oint where the ne#k ends. they again set sail( and thus it #a'e to %ass that two whole years went by.

o$ who' s%oke abo&e. a nati&e wo'an.or a##ording to others the -aeoti# Tanais and Ci''erian $erry< should ha&e been $i.ed u%on $or the boundary lines( nor #an e&en say who ga&e the three tra#ts their na'es. rea#hed the %la#e $ro' whi#h the Egy%tian king. o$ Caryanda.uite round Libya was. and rea#hed "a'os. has been $ound to be si'ilarly #ir#u'stan#ed with Libya) But the boundaries o$ Euro%e are . and 'ade use o$ the sea in those %arts) Thus all *sia. on hearing o$ his death. only entering into their #ities and taking so'e o$ their #attle) The reason why he had not sailed . Libya was so #alled a$ter a #ertain Libya. but shall willingly $orget it here) !$ the greater %art o$ *sia 5arius was the dis#o&erer) 4ishing to know where the ndus . ran away with a great %ortion o$ his wealth. on whose truth$ulness he #ould rely. to sail down the ri&er) They started $ro' the #ity o$ Cas%atyrus. a$ter a &oyage o$ thirty 'onths. no one #an say whether it is surrounded by the sea or not. and a'ong the' "#yla. while in length it undoubtedly e. was i'%aled by the king1s orders in a##ordan#e with the $or'er senten#e) !ne o$ his eunu#hs. and grandson o$ -anes.uered the ndians.tends as $ar as both the other two) For 'y %art #annot #on#ei&e why three na'es. sent the +hoeni#ians to sail round Libya) *$ter this &oyage was #o'%leted. whi#h. and would no go any $urther) Ber. be#ause the shi% sto%%ed. nor who ga&e it na'e. the son o$ Cotys. howe&er. howe&er. nor why the Egy%tian 3ile and the Col#hian +hasis .the 'ountains( his 'en. he sent a nu'ber o$ 'en.uite unknown. as he had $ailed to a##o'%lish the task set hi'. and there is not a 'an who #an say whether any sea girds it round either on the north or on the east. who also ga&e na'e to the tribe *sias at "ardis) *s $or Euro%e. they de#lare. and sailed down the strea' in an easterly dire#tion to the sea) Here they turned westward. and $ro' Crete to Ly#ia) Howe&er let us . and *sia a$ter the wi$e o$ +ro'etheus) The Lydians. and ne&er e&en set $oot on the land whi#h the Greeks now #all Euro%e. he said.whi#h is the only ri&er sa&e one that %rodu#es #ro#odiles< e'%tied itsel$ into the sea.es. was not deri&ed $ro' *sia the wi$e o$ +ro'etheus. where a #ertain "a'ian sei/ed the whole) know the 'an1s na'e well. or when#e they took the e%ithets) *##ording to the Greeks in general. e.uit these 'atters) 4e shall oursel&es #ontinue to use the na'es whi#h #usto' san#tions) . %ut in a #lai' to the latter na'e. only sailing $ro' +hoeni#ia to Crete. but $ro' *sies. in the region #alled +a#tyi#a. did the' no wrong. like the other di&isions) But it is #ertain that Euro%e was an *siati#. unless we say that Euro%e was so #alled a$ter the Tyrian Euro%e. did not a##e%t this a##ount $or true( and so "atas%es.#e%t the eastern %ortion. and be$ore her ti'e was na'eless. 5arius #on. howe&er. and wo'en1s na'es es%e#ially. and. neither is it known when#e the na'e o$ Euro%e was deri&ed. should e&er ha&e been gi&en to a tra#t whi#h is in reality one.

and is the eastern'ost o$ the tributaries) The Tiarantus is o$ less &olu'e.uerable. and the *rtanes. one and all o$ the'. shown the'sel&es wiser than any nation u%on the $a#e o$ the earth) Their #usto's otherwise are not su#h as ad'ire) The one thing o$ whi#h s%eak is the #ontri&an#e whereby they 'ake it i'%ossible $or the ene'y who in&ades the' to es#a%e destru#tion. with the one e. and the ri&ers by whi#h it is interse#ted. the +anti#a%es. their waggons the only houses that they %ossess. the ster. the Hy%anis. setting aside *na#harsis and the "#ythian %eo%le. the 3a%aris. the *rarus. the Borysthenes. and the reason o$ its being the greatest is that it re#ei&es the water o$ se&eral tributaries) 3ow the tributaries whi#h swell its $lood are the $ollowing0 $irst. or whi#h has %rodu#ed a single %erson o$ any high re%ute) The "#ythians indeed ha&e in one res%e#t. unless it %lease the' to engage with hi') Ha&ing neither #ities nor $orts. the *uras. the -aris. and !rdessus $all into the ster between these two) *ll the abo&e 'entioned are genuine "#ythian ri&ers. there is not within this region a single nation whi#h #an be %ut $orward as ha&ing any #lai's to wisdo'. whi#h has $i&e 'ouths( the Tyras. the *thrys.ine sea. greatly $a&our this 'ode o$ resisting atta#ks) For the land is le&el. whi#h e'%ties itsel$ into the sa'e( and $ro' the heights o$ Hae'us des#end with a northern #ourse three 'ighty strea's. how #an they $ail o$ being un#on.The Eu. and #arrying their dwellings with the' where&er they go( a##usto'ed. and unassailable e&en: The nature o$ their #ountry.#e%tion o$ the "#ythians. has nations dwelling around it. the Gerrhus. and go to swell the #urrent o$ the ster) Fro' the #ountry o$ the *gathyrsi #o'es down another ri&er. to shoot $ro' horseba#k( and li&ing not by husbandry but on their #attle. and 'ore to the west) The *rarus. the Hy%a#yris.uainted the 'ightiest) t ne&er &aries in height. 'ore un%olished than those o$ any other region that we know o$) For. 3a%aris. and by the Greeks +yretus. while they the'sel&es are entirely out o$ his rea#h. well watered. but #ontinues at the sa'e le&el su''er and winter) Counting $ro' the west it is the $irst o$ the "#ythian ri&ers. and %our their waters into it) Thra#e gi&es it three tributaries. where 5arius now went to war. and the !rdessus) The $irst 'entioned is a great strea'. the 3oes. and abounding in %asture( while the ri&ers whi#h tra&erse it are al'ost e. and the Tibisis. whi#h all %ass through the #ountry o$ the Croby/ian Thra#ians) *nother . these $i&e7 the strea' #alled by the "#ythians +orata. and that the &ery 'ost i'%ortant o$ all those that $all under 'an1s #ontrol.ual in nu'ber to the #anals o$ Egy%t) !$ these shall only 'ention the 'ost $a'ous and su#h as are na&igable to so'e distan#e $ro' the sea) They are. on the side o$ "#ythia. the Tiarantus. 'oreo&er. the *tlas. and the Tanais) The #ourses o$ these strea's shall now %ro#eed to des#ribe) The ster is o$ all the ri&ers with whi#h we are a#.

#eedingly bitter) This #hange is #aused by its re#ei&ing into it at that %oint a brook the waters o$ whi#h are so bitter that. two ri&ers running in a northerly dire#tion $ro' the #ountry abo&e the 6'brians) For the ster $lows through the whole e. whereo$ it washes the $lanks) *ll these strea's. around whi#h wild white horses gra/e) The lake is #alled. and then#e running a#ross the #ontinent till it rea#hes "#ythia.the 'ost westerly o$ all the nations o$ Euro%e. and the e$$e#t is to %rodu#e a balan#e. but #onstant snow) 4hen su''er #o'es. we 'ust gi&e the %re$eren#e to the 3ile.#e%ting the Cynetians<. the "#ius( this ri&er.t to it is the Tyras. whi#h are hea&y and $re. it ne&ertheless taints the entire Hy%anis. rising in the #ountry o$ the Celts . not only by this #ause but also by the rains. whi#h $alls into the ster) "o the ster is aug'ented by these two strea's.tent o$ Euro%e. and the water sweet and %ure( then#e. this snow. whi#h is a large strea' a'ong those o$ the se#ond order) The sour#e o$ this bitter s%ring is on the borders o$ . whi#h has a #ourse $ro' south to north. whi#h is a distan#e o$ $our days. $or#es its way through the #hain o$ Hae'us. whi#h rises $ro' a great lake se%arating "#ythia $ro' the land o$ the 3euri. whereby the ster re'ains always at the sa'e le&el) This. add their waters to swell the $lood o$ the ster. to the sea.tributary is $urnished by +aeonia. and a$ter watering the Triballian %lain. and has its sour#e in another &ast lake. the -other o$ the Hy%anis) The Hy%anis. and 2ust so 'u#h higher as the sun1s %ower and attra#tion are greater( so that these two #auses #ountera#t ea#h other. it is e. whi#h is swelled at that season. nor e&en ri&ulet. during the distan#e o$ $i&e days1 na&igation is a shallow strea'. begins to 'elt. who are #alled Tyritae) The third ri&er is the Hy%anis) This strea' rises within the li'its o$ "#ythia. na'ely. then. o$ whi#h no tributary ri&er. e. is one o$ the great "#ythian ri&ers( the ne. then. be#ause in those #ountries there is s#ar#ely any rain in winter. and so rea#hes the ster) Fro' llyria #o'es another strea'. the ster re#ei&es also the waters o$ the Car%is and the *l%is. howe&er. the *ngrus. whi#h thus in#reased be#o'es the 'ightiest o$ ri&ers( $or undoubtedly i$ we #o'%are the strea' o$ the 3ile with the single strea' o$ the ster. both #onsiderable) Besides all these. whi#h is o$ great de%th. $alls into the Brongus. and 'any others. as belie&e) 5uring the winter it runs at its natural height.uent at that %art o$ the year) Thus the &arious strea's whi#h go to $or' the ster are higher in su''er than in winter. rising near -ount Rhodo%e. aug'ents the &olu'e) The ster re'ains at the sa'e le&el both su''er and winter7 owing to the $ollowing reasons. or a &ery little higher. %ro%erly enough. and runs with a southerly #ourse to the sea) Greeks dwell at the 'outh o$ the ri&er. rising here. and $lows into the ster. although it is but a tiny ri&ulet.

the "#ythian Husband'en, where they ad2oin u%on the *la/onians( and the %la#e where it rises is #alled in the "#ythi# tongue E.a'%aeus, whi#h 'eans in our language, 9The "a#red 4ays)9 The s%ring itsel$ bears the sa'e na'e) The Tyras and the Hy%anis a%%roa#h ea#h other in the #ountry o$ the *la/onians, but a$terwards se%arate, and lea&e a wide s%a#e between their strea's) The $ourth o$ the "#ythian ri&ers is the Borysthenes) 3e.t to the ster, it is the greatest o$ the' all( and, in 'y 2udg'ent, it is the 'ost %rodu#ti&e ri&er, not 'erely in "#ythia, but in the whole world, e.#e%ting only the 3ile, with whi#h no strea' #an %ossibly #o'%are) t has u%on its banks the lo&eliest and 'ost e.#ellent %asturages $or #attle( it #ontains abundan#e o$ the 'ost deli#ious $ish( its water is 'ost %leasant to the taste( its strea' is li'%id, while all the other ri&ers near it are 'uddy( the ri#hest har&ests s%ring u% along its #ourse, and where the ground is not sown, the hea&iest #ro%s o$ grass( while salt $or's in great %lenty about its 'outh without hu'an aid, and large $ish are taken in it o$ the sort #alled *nta#aei, without any %ri#kly bones, and good $or %i#kling) 3or are these the whole o$ its 'ar&els) *s $ar inland as the %la#e na'ed Gerrhus, whi#h is distant $orty days1 &oyage $ro' the sea, its #ourse is known, and its dire#tion is $ro' north to south( but abo&e this no one has tra#ed it, so as to say through what #ountries it $lows) t enters the territory o$ the "#ythian Husband'en a$ter running $or so'e ti'e a#ross a desert region, and #ontinues $or ten days1 na&igation to %ass through the land whi#h they inhabit) t is the only ri&er besides the 3ile the sour#es o$ whi#h are unknown to 'e, as they are also ; belie&e< to all the other Greeks) 3ot long be$ore it rea#hes the sea, the Borysthenes is 2oined by the Hy%anis, whi#h %ours its waters into the sa'e lake) The land that lies between the', a narrow %oint like the beak o$ a shi%, is #alled Ca%e Hi%%olaus) Here is a te'%le dedi#ated to Ceres, and o%%osite the te'%le u%on the Hy%anis is the dwelling7%la#e o$ the Borysthenites) But enough has been said o$ these strea's) 3e.t in su##ession #o'es the $i$th ri&er, #alled the +anti#a%es, whi#h has, like the Borysthenes, a #ourse $ro' north to south, and rises $ro' a lake) The s%a#e between this ri&er and the Borysthenes is o##u%ied by the "#ythians who are engaged in husbandry) *$ter watering their #ountry, the +anti#a%es $lows through Hylaea, and e'%ties itsel$ into the Borysthenes) The si.th strea' is the Hy%a#yris, a ri&er rising $ro' a lake, and running dire#tly through the 'iddle o$ the 3o'adi# "#ythians) t $alls into the sea near the #ity o$ Car#initis, lea&ing Hylaea and the #ourse o$ *#hilles to the right) The se&enth ri&er is the Gerrhus, whi#h is a bran#h thrown out by the Borysthenes at the %oint where the #ourse o$ that strea' $irst begins to be known, to wit, the region #alled by the sa'e na'e

as the strea' itsel$, &i/) Gerrhus) This ri&er on its %assage towards the sea di&ides the #ountry o$ the 3o'adi# $ro' that o$ the Royal "#yths) t runs into the Hy%a#yris) The eighth ri&er is the Tanais, a strea' whi#h has its sour#e, $ar u% the #ountry, in a lake o$ &ast si/e, and whi#h e'%ties itsel$ into another still larger lake, the +alus -aeotis, whereby the #ountry o$ the Royal "#ythians is di&ided $ro' that o$ the "auro'atae) The Tanais re#ei&es the waters o$ a tributary strea', #alled the Hyrgis) "u#h then are the ri&ers o$ #hie$ note in "#ythia) The grass whi#h the land %rodu#es is 'ore a%t to generate gall in the beasts that $eed on it than any other grass whi#h is known to us, as %lainly a%%ears on the o%ening o$ their #ar#ases) Thus abundantly are the "#ythians %ro&ided with the 'ost i'%ortant ne#essaries) Their 'anners and #usto's #o'e now to be des#ribed) They worshi% only the $ollowing gods, na'ely, @esta, who' they re&eren#e beyond all the rest, 8u%iter, and Tellus, who' they #onsider to be the wi$e o$ 8u%iter( and a$ter these *%ollo, Celestial @enus, Her#ules, and -ars) These gods are worshi%%ed by the whole nation0 the Royal "#ythians o$$er sa#ri$i#e likewise to 3e%tune) n the "#ythi# tongue @esta is #alled Tabiti, 8u%iter ;&ery %ro%erly, in 'y 2udg'ent< +a%aeus, Tellus *%ia, *%ollo !etosyrus, Celestial @enus *rti'%asa, and 3e%tune Tha'i'asadas) They use no i'ages, altars, or te'%les, e.#e%t in the worshi% o$ -ars( but in his worshi% they do use the') The 'anner o$ their sa#ri$i#es is e&erywhere and in e&ery #ase the sa'e( the &i#ti' stands with its two $ore7$eet bound together by a #ord, and the %erson who is about to o$$er, taking his station behind the &i#ti', gi&es the ro%e a %ull, and thereby throws the ani'al down( as it $alls he in&okes the god to who' he is o$$ering( a$ter whi#h he %uts a noose round the ani'al1s ne#k, and, inserting a s'all sti#k, twists it round, and so strangles hi') 3o $ire is lighted, there is no #onse#ration, and no %ouring out o$ drink7o$$erings( but dire#tly that the beast is strangled the sa#ri$i#er $lays hi', and then sets to work to boil the $lesh) *s "#ythia, howe&er, is utterly barren o$ $irewood, a %lan has had to be #ontri&ed $or boiling the $lesh, whi#h is the $ollowing) *$ter $laying the beasts, they take out all the bones, and ;i$ they %ossess su#h gear< %ut the $lesh into boilers 'ade in the #ountry, whi#h are &ery like the #auldrons o$ the Lesbians, e.#e%t that they are o$ a 'u#h larger si/e( then %la#ing the bones o$ the ani'als beneath the #auldron, they set the' alight, and so boil the 'eat) $ they do not ha%%en to %ossess a #auldron, they 'ake the ani'al1s %aun#h hold the $lesh, and %ouring in at the sa'e ti'e a little water, lay the bones under and light the') The bones burn beauti$ully( and the %aun#h easily #ontains all the $lesh when it is stri%t $ro' the bones, so that by this %lan your o. is 'ade to boil hi'sel$, and other &i#ti's also to do the like) 4hen the 'eat is all #ooked, the

sa#ri$i#er o$$ers a %ortion o$ the $lesh and o$ the entrails, by #asting it on the ground be$ore hi') They sa#ri$i#e all sorts o$ #attle, but 'ost #o''only horses) "u#h are the &i#ti's o$$ered to the other gods, and su#h is the 'ode in whi#h they are sa#ri$i#ed( but the rites %aid to -ars are di$$erent) n e&ery distri#t, at the seat o$ go&ern'ent, there stands a te'%le o$ this god, whereo$ the $ollowing is a des#ri%tion) t is a %ile o$ brushwood, 'ade o$ a &ast ,uantity o$ $agots, in length and breadth three $urlongs( in height so'ewhat less, ha&ing a s,uare %lat$or' u%on the to%, three sides o$ whi#h are %re#i%itous, while the $ourth slo%es so that 'en 'ay walk u% it) Ea#h year a hundred and $i$ty waggon7loads o$ brushwood are added to the %ile, whi#h sinks #ontinually by reason o$ the rains) *n anti,ue iron sword is %lanted on the to% o$ e&ery su#h 'ound, and ser&es as the i'age o$ -ars0 yearly sa#ri$i#es o$ #attle and o$ horses are 'ade to it, and 'ore &i#ti's are o$$ered thus than to all the rest o$ their gods) 4hen %risoners are taken in war, out o$ e&ery hundred 'en they sa#ri$i#e one, not howe&er with the sa'e rites as the #attle, but with di$$erent) Libations o$ wine are $irst %oured u%on their heads, a$ter whi#h they are slaughtered o&er a &essel( the &essel is then #arried u% to the to% o$ the %ile, and the blood %oured u%on the s#y'itar) 4hile this takes %la#e at the to% o$ the 'ound, below, by the side o$ the te'%le, the right hands and ar's o$ the slaughtered %risoners are #ut o$$, and tossed on high into the air) Then the other &i#ti's are slain, and those who ha&e o$$ered the sa#ri$i#e de%art, lea&ing the hands and ar's where they 'ay #han#e to ha&e $allen, and the bodies also, se%arate) "u#h are the obser&an#es o$ the "#ythians with res%e#t to sa#ri$i#e) They ne&er use swine $or the %ur%ose, nor indeed is it their wont to breed the' in any %art o$ their #ountry) n what #on#erns war, their #usto's are the $ollowing) The "#ythian soldier drinks the blood o$ the $irst 'an he o&erthrows in battle) 4hate&er nu'ber he slays, he #uts o$$ all their heads, and #arries the' to the king( sin#e he is thus entitled to a share o$ the booty, whereto he $or$eits all #lai' i$ he does not %rodu#e a head) n order to stri% the skull o$ its #o&ering, he 'akes a #ut round the head abo&e the ears, and, laying hold o$ the s#al%, shakes the skull out( then with the rib o$ an o. he s#ra%es the s#al% #lean o$ $lesh, and so$tening it by rubbing between the hands, uses it then#e$orth as a na%kin) The "#yth is %roud o$ these s#al%s, and hangs the' $ro' his bridle7rein( the greater the nu'ber o$ su#h na%kins that a 'an #an show, the 'ore highly is he estee'ed a'ong the') -any 'ake the'sel&es #loaks, like the #a%otes o$ our %easants, by sewing a ,uantity o$ these s#al%s together) !thers $lay the right ar's o$ their dead ene'ies, and 'ake o$ the skin, whi#h stri%%ed o$$ with the nails hanging to it, a #o&ering $or their ,ui&ers) 3ow the skin o$ a

'an is thi#k and glossy, and would in whiteness sur%ass al'ost all other hides) "o'e e&en $lay the entire body o$ their ene'y, and stret#hing it u%on a $ra'e #arry it about with the' where&er they ride) "u#h are the "#ythian #usto's with res%e#t to s#al%s and skins) The skulls o$ their ene'ies, not indeed o$ all, but o$ those who' they 'ost detest, they treat as $ollows) Ha&ing sawn o$$ the %ortion below the eyebrows, and #leaned out the inside, they #o&er the outside with leather) 4hen a 'an is %oor, this is all that he does( but i$ he is ri#h, he also lines the inside with gold0 in either #ase the skull is used as a drinking7#u%) They do the sa'e with the skulls o$ their own kith and kin i$ they ha&e been at $eud with the', and ha&e &an,uished the' in the %resen#e o$ the king) 4hen strangers who' they dee' o$ any a##ount #o'e to &isit the', these skulls are handed round, and the host tells how that these were his relations who 'ade war u%on hi', and how that he got the better o$ the'( all this being looked u%on as %roo$ o$ bra&ery) !n#e a year the go&ernor o$ ea#h distri#t, at a set %la#e in his own %ro&in#e, 'ingles a bowl o$ wine, o$ whi#h all "#ythians ha&e a right to drink by who' $oes ha&e been slain( while they who ha&e slain no ene'y are not allowed to taste o$ the bowl, but sit aloo$ in disgra#e) 3o greater sha'e than this #an ha%%en to the') "u#h as ha&e slain a &ery large nu'ber o$ $oes, ha&e two #u%s instead o$ one, and drink $ro' both) "#ythia has an abundan#e o$ soothsayers, who $oretell the $uture by 'eans o$ a nu'ber o$ willow wands) * large bundle o$ these wands is brought and laid on the ground) The soothsayer unties the bundle, and %la#es ea#h wand by itsel$, at the sa'e ti'e uttering his %ro%he#y0 then, while he is still s%eaking, he gathers the rods together again, and 'akes the' u% on#e 'ore into a bundle) This 'ode o$ di&ination is o$ ho'e growth in "#ythia) The Enarees, or wo'an7like 'en, ha&e another 'ethod, whi#h they say @enus taught the') t is done with the inner bark o$ the linden7tree) They take a %ie#e o$ this bark, and, s%litting it into three stri%s, kee% twining the stri%s about their $ingers, and untwining the', while they %ro%hesy) 4hene&er the "#ythian king $alls si#k, he sends $or the three soothsayers o$ 'ost renown at the ti'e, who #o'e and 'ake trial o$ their art in the 'ode abo&e des#ribed) Generally they say that the king is ill be#ause su#h or su#h a %erson, 'entioning his na'e, has sworn $alsely by the royal hearth) This is the usual oath a'ong the "#ythians, when they wish to swear with &ery great sole'nity) Then the 'an a##used o$ ha&ing $oresworn hi'sel$ is arrested and brought be$ore the king) The soothsayers tell hi' that by their art it is #lear he has sworn a $alse oath by the royal hearth, and so #aused the illness o$ the king7 he denies the #harge, %rotests that he has sworn no $alse oath, and loudly #o'%lains o$ the wrong done to hi') 6%on this the king sends $or si. new soothsayers, who try the 'atter

by soothsaying) $ they too $ind the 'an guilty o$ the o$$en#e, straightway he is beheaded by those who $irst a##used hi', and his goods are %arted a'ong the'0 i$, on the #ontrary, they a#,uit hi', other soothsayers, and again others, are sent $or, to try the #ase) "hould the greater nu'ber de#ide in $a&our o$ the 'an1s inno#en#e, then they who $irst a##used hi' $or$eit their li&es) The 'ode o$ their e.e#ution is the $ollowing0 a waggon is loaded with brushwood, and o.en are harnessed to it( the soothsayers, with their $eet tied together, their hands bound behind their ba#ks, and their 'ouths gagged, are thrust into the 'idst o$ the brushwood( $inally the wood is set alight, and the o.en, being startled, are 'ade to rush o$$ with the waggon) t o$ten ha%%ens that the o.en and the soothsayers are both #onsu'ed together, but so'eti'es the %ole o$ the waggon is burnt through, and the o.en es#a%e with a s#or#hing) 5i&iners7 lying di&iners, they #all the'7 are burnt in the way des#ribed, $or other #auses besides the one here s%oken o$) 4hen the king %uts one o$ the' to death, he takes #are not to let any o$ his sons sur&i&e0 all the 'ale o$$s%ring are slain with the $ather, only the $e'ales being allowed to li&e) !aths a'ong the "#yths are a##o'%anied with the $ollowing #ere'onies0 a large earthern bowl is $illed with wine, and the %arties to the oath, wounding the'sel&es slightly with a kni$e or an awl, dro% so'e o$ their blood into the wine( then they %lunge into the 'i.ture a s#y'itar, so'e arrows, a battle7a.e, and a 2a&elin, all the while re%eating %rayers( lastly the two #ontra#ting %arties drink ea#h a draught $ro' the bowl, as do also the #hie$ 'en a'ong their $ollowers) The to'bs o$ their kings are in the land o$ the Gerrhi, who dwell at the %oint where the Borysthenes is $irst na&igable) Here, when the king dies, they dig a gra&e, whi#h is s,uare in sha%e, and o$ great si/e) 4hen it is ready, they take the king1s #or%se, and, ha&ing o%ened the belly, and #leaned out the inside, $ill the #a&ity with a %re%aration o$ #ho%%ed #y%ress, $rankin#ense, %arsley7seed, and anise7seed, a$ter whi#h they sew u% the o%ening, en#lose the body in wa., and, %la#ing it on a waggon, #arry it about through all the di$$erent tribes) !n this %ro#ession ea#h tribe, when it re#ei&es the #or%se, i'itates the e.a'%le whi#h is $irst set by the Royal "#ythians( e&ery 'an #ho%s o$$ a %ie#e o$ his ear, #ro%s his hair #lose, and 'akes a #ut all round his ar', la#erates his $orehead and his nose, and thrusts an arrow through his le$t hand) Then they who ha&e the #are o$ the #or%se #arry it with the' to another o$ the tribes whi#h are under the "#ythian rule, $ollowed by those who' they $irst &isited) !n #o'%leting the #ir#uit o$ all the tribes under their sway, they $ind the'sel&es in the #ountry o$ the Gerrhi, who are the 'ost re'ote o$ all, and so they #o'e to the to'bs o$ the kings) There the body o$ the dead king is laid in the gra&e %re%ared $or it, stret#hed u%on a 'attress( s%ears are $i.ed in the ground on

either side o$ the #or%se, and bea's stret#hed a#ross abo&e it to $or' a roo$, whi#h is #o&ered with a that#hing o$ osier twigs) n the o%en s%a#e around the body o$ the king they bury one o$ his #on#ubines, $irst killing her by strangling, and also his #u%7bearer, his #ook, his groo', his la#,uey, his 'essenger, so'e o$ his horses, $irstlings o$ all his other %ossessions, and so'e golden #u%s( $or they use neither sil&er nor brass) *$ter this they set to work, and raise a &ast 'ound abo&e the gra&e, all o$ the' &ying with ea#h other and seeking to 'ake it as tall as %ossible) 4hen a year is gone by, $urther #ere'onies take %la#e) Fi$ty o$ the best o$ the late king1s attendants are taken, all nati&e "#ythians7 $or, as bought sla&es are unknown in the #ountry, the "#ythian kings #hoose any o$ their sub2e#ts that they like, to wait on the'7 $i$ty o$ these are taken and strangled, with $i$ty o$ the 'ost beauti$ul horses) 4hen they are dead, their bowels are taken out, and the #a&ity #leaned, $illed $ull o$ #ha$$, and straightway sewn u% again) This done, a nu'ber o$ %osts are dri&en into the ground, in sets o$ two %airs ea#h, and on e&ery %air hal$ the $elly o$ a wheel is %la#ed ar#hwise( then strong stakes are run lengthways through the bodies o$ the horses $ro' tail to ne#k, and they are 'ounted u% u%on the $ellies, so that the $elly in $ront su%%orts the shoulders o$ the horse, while that behind sustains the belly and ,uarters, the legs dangling in 'id7air( ea#h horse is $urnished with a bit and bridle, whi#h latter is stret#hed out in $ront o$ the horse, and $astened to a %eg) The $i$ty strangled youths are then 'ounted se&erally on the $i$ty horses) To e$$e#t this, a se#ond stake is %assed through their bodies along the #ourse o$ the s%ine to the ne#k( the lower end o$ whi#h %ro2e#ts $ro' the body, and is $i.ed into a so#ket, 'ade in the stake that runs lengthwise down the horse) The $i$ty riders are thus ranged in a #ir#le round the to'b, and so le$t) "u#h, then, is the 'ode in whi#h the kings are buried0 as $or the %eo%le, when any one dies, his nearest o$ kin lay hi' u%on a waggon and take hi' round to all his $riends in su##ession0 ea#h re#ei&es the' in turn and entertains the' with a ban,uet, whereat the dead 'an is ser&ed with a %ortion o$ all that is set be$ore the others( this is done $or $orty days, at the end o$ whi#h ti'e the burial takes %la#e) *$ter the burial, those engaged in it ha&e to %uri$y the'sel&es, whi#h they do in the $ollowing way) First they well soa% and wash their heads( then, in order to #leanse their bodies, they a#t as $ollows0 they 'ake a booth by $i.ing in the ground three sti#ks in#lined towards one another, and stret#hing around the' woollen $elts, whi#h they arrange so as to $it as #lose as %ossible0 inside the booth a dish is %la#ed u%on the ground, into whi#h they %ut a nu'ber o$ red7hot stones, and then add so'e he'%7seed) He'% grows in "#ythia0 it is &ery like $la.( only that it is a 'u#h #oarser and taller %lant0 so'e grows wild about the #ountry, so'e

is %rodu#ed by #ulti&ation0 the Thra#ians 'ake gar'ents o$ it whi#h #losely rese'ble linen( so 'u#h so, indeed, that i$ a %erson has ne&er seen he'% he is sure to think they are linen, and i$ he has, unless he is &ery e.%erien#ed in su#h 'atters, he will not know o$ whi#h 'aterial they are) The "#ythians, as said, take so'e o$ this he'%7seed, and, #ree%ing under the $elt #o&erings, throw it u%on the red7hot stones( i''ediately it s'okes, and gi&es out su#h a &a%our as no Gre#ian &a%our7bath #an e.#eed( the "#yths, delighted, shout $or 2oy, and this &a%our ser&es the' instead o$ a water7bath( $or they ne&er by any #han#e wash their bodies with water) Their wo'en 'ake a 'i.ture o$ #y%ress, #edar, and $rankin#ense wood, whi#h they %ound into a %aste u%on a rough %ie#e o$ stone, adding a little water to it) 4ith this substan#e, whi#h is o$ a thi#k #onsisten#y, they %laster their $a#es all o&er, and indeed their whole bodies) * sweet odour is thereby i'%arted to the', and when they take o$$ the %laster on the day $ollowing, their skin is #lean and glossy) The "#ythians ha&e an e.tre'e hatred o$ all $oreign #usto's, %arti#ularly o$ those in use a'ong the Greeks, as the instan#es o$ *na#harsis, and, 'ore lately, o$ "#ylas, ha&e $ully shown) The $or'er, a$ter he had tra&elled o&er a great %ortion o$ the world, and dis%layed where&er he went 'any %roo$s o$ wisdo', as he sailed through the Helles%ont on his return to "#ythia tou#hed at Cy/i#us) There he $ound the inhabitants #elebrating with 'u#h %o'% and 'agni$i#en#e a $esti&al to the -other o$ the Gods, and was hi'sel$ indu#ed to 'ake a &ow to the goddess, whereby he engaged, i$ he got ba#k sa$e and sound to his ho'e, that he would gi&e her a $esti&al and a night7%ro#ession in all res%e#ts like those whi#h he had seen in Cy/i#us) 4hen, there$ore, he arri&ed in "#ythia, he betook hi'sel$ to the distri#t #alled the 4oodland, whi#h lies o%%osite the #ourse o$ *#hilles, and is #o&ered with trees o$ all 'anner o$ di$$erent kinds, and there went through all the sa#red rites with the tabour in his hand, and the i'ages tied to hi') 4hile thus e'%loyed, he was noti#ed by one o$ the "#ythians, who went and told king "aulius what he had seen) Then king "aulius #a'e in %erson, and when he %er#ei&ed what *na#harsis was about, he shot at hi' with an arrow and killed hi') To this day, i$ you ask the "#yths about *na#harsis, they %retend ignoran#e o$ hi', be#ause o$ his Gre#ian tra&els and ado%tion o$ the #usto's o$ $oreigners) learnt, howe&er, $ro' Ti'nes, the steward o$ *ria%ithes, that *na#harsis was %aternal un#le to the "#ythian king danthyrsus, being the son o$ Gnurus, who was the son o$ Ly#us and the grandson o$ "%arga%ithes) $ *na#harsis were really o$ this house, it 'ust ha&e been by his own brother that he was slain, $or danthyrsus was a son o$ the "aulius who %ut *na#harsis to death) ha&e heard, howe&er, another tale, &ery di$$erent $ro' this, whi#h is told by the +elo%onnesians0 they say, that *na#harsis was

sent by the king o$ the "#yths to 'ake a#,uaintan#e with Gree#e7 that he went, and on his return ho'e re%orted that the Greeks were all o##u%ied in the %ursuit o$ e&ery kind o$ knowledge, e.#e%t the La#edae'onians( who, howe&er, alone knew how to #on&erse sensibly) * silly tale this, whi#h the Greeks ha&e in&ented $or their a'use'ent> There is no doubt that *na#harsis su$$ered death in the 'ode already related, on a##ount o$ his atta#h'ent to $oreign #usto's, and the inter#ourse whi#h he held with the Greeks) "#ylas, likewise, the son o$ *ria%ithes, 'any years later, 'et with al'ost the &ery sa'e $ate) *ria%ithes, the "#ythian king, had se&eral sons, a'ong the' this "#ylas, who was the #hild, not o$ a nati&e "#yth, but o$ a wo'an o$ stria) Bred u% by her, "#ylas gained an a#,uaintan#e with the Greek language and letters) "o'e ti'e a$terwards, *ria%ithes was trea#herously slain by "%arga%ithes, king o$ the *gathyrsi( whereu%on "#ylas su##eeded to the throne, and 'arried one o$ his $ather1s wi&es, a wo'an na'ed !%oea) This !%oea was a "#ythian by birth, and had brought *ria%ithes a son #alled !ri#us) 3ow when "#ylas $ound hi'sel$ king o$ "#ythia, as he disliked the "#ythi# 'ode o$ li$e, and was atta#hed, by his bringing u%, to the 'anners o$ the Greeks, he 'ade it his usual %ra#ti#e, whene&er he #a'e with his ar'y to the town o$ the Borysthenites, who, a##ording to their own a##ount, are #olonists o$ the -ilesians7 he 'ade it his %ra#ti#e, say, to lea&e the ar'y be$ore the #ity, and, ha&ing entered within the walls by hi'sel$, and #are$ully #losed the gates, to e.#hange his "#ythian dress $or Gre#ian gar'ents, and in this attire to walk about the $oru', without guards or retinue) The Borysthenites ke%t wat#h at the gates, that no "#ythian 'ight see the king thus a%%arelled) "#ylas, 'eanwhile, li&ed e.a#tly as the Greeks, and e&en o$$ered sa#ri$i#es to the gods a##ording to the Gre#ian rites) n this way he would %ass a 'onth, or 'ore, with the Borysthenites, a$ter whi#h he would #lothe hi'sel$ again in his "#ythian dress, and so take his de%arture) This he did re%eatedly, and e&en built hi'sel$ a house in Borysthenes, and 'arried a wi$e there who was a nati&e o$ the %la#e) But when the ti'e #a'e that was ordained to bring hi' woe, the o##asion o$ his ruin was the $ollowing) He wanted to be initiated in the Ba##hi# 'ysteries, and was on the %oint o$ obtaining ad'ission to the rites, when a 'ost strange %rodigy o##urred to hi') The house whi#h he %ossessed, as 'entioned a short ti'e ba#k, in the #ity o$ the Borysthenites, a building o$ great e.tent and ere#ted at a &ast #ost, round whi#h there stood a nu'ber o$ s%hin.es and gri$$ins #ar&ed in white 'arble, was stru#k by lightning $ro' on high, and burnt to the ground) "#ylas, ne&ertheless, went on and re#ei&ed the initiation) 3ow the "#ythians are wont to re%roa#h the Greeks with their Ba##hanal rage, and to say that it is not reasonable to i'agine there is a god who i'%els 'en to 'adness) 3o sooner, there$ore, was "#ylas

initiated in the Ba##hi# 'ysteries than one o$ the Borysthenites went and #arried the news to the "#ythians 9=ou "#yths laugh at us9 he said, 9be#ause we ra&e when the god sei/es us) But now our god has sei/ed u%on your king, who ra&es like us, and is 'addened by the in$luen#e) $ you think do not tell you true, #o'e with 'e, and will show hi' to you)9 The #hie$s o$ the "#ythians went with the 'an a##ordingly, and the Borysthenite, #ondu#ting the' into the #ity, %la#ed the' se#retly on one o$ the towers) +resently "#ylas %assed by with the band o$ re&ellers, ra&ing like the rest, and was seen by the wat#hers) Regarding the 'atter as a &ery great 'is$ortune they instantly de%arted, and #a'e and told the ar'y what they had witnessed) 4hen, there$ore, "#ylas, a$ter lea&ing Borysthenes, was about returning ho'e, the "#ythians broke out into re&olt) They %ut at their head !#ta'asadas, grandson ;on the 'other1s side< o$ Teres) Then "#ylas, when he learned the danger with whi#h he was threatened, and the reason o$ the disturban#e, 'ade his es#a%e to Thra#e) !#ta'asadas, dis#o&ering whither he had $led, 'ar#hed a$ter hi', and had rea#hed the ster, when he was 'et by the $or#es o$ the Thra#ians) The two ar'ies were about to engage, but be$ore they 2oined battle, "ital#es sent a 'essage to !#ta'asadas to this e$$e#t7 94hy should there be trial o$ ar's betwi.t thee and 'e: Thou art 'y own sister1s son, and thou hast in thy kee%ing 'y brother) "urrender hi' into 'y hands, and will gi&e thy "#ylas ba#k to thee) "o neither thou nor will risk our ar'ies)9 "ital#es sent this 'essage to !#ta'asadas, by a herald, and !#ta'asadas, with who' a brother o$ "ital#es had $or'erly taken re$uge, a##e%ted the ter's) He surrendered his own un#le to "ital#es, and obtained in e.#hange his brother "#ylas) "ital#es took his brother with hi' and withdrew( but !#ta'asadas beheaded "#ylas u%on the s%ot) Thus rigidly do the "#ythians 'aintain their own #usto's, and thus se&erely do they %unish su#h as ado%t $oreign usages) 4hat the %o%ulation o$ "#ythia is was not able to learn with #ertainty( the a##ounts whi#h re#ei&ed &aried $ro' one another) heard $ro' so'e that they were &ery nu'erous indeed( others 'ade their nu'bers but s#anty $or su#h a nation as the "#yths) Thus 'u#h, howe&er, witnessed with 'y own eyes) There is a tra#t #alled E.a'%aeus between the Borysthenes and the Hy%anis) 'ade so'e 'ention o$ it in a $or'er %la#e, where s%oke o$ the bitter strea' whi#h rising there $lows into the Hy%anis, and renders the water o$ that ri&er undrinkable) Here then stands a bra/en bowl, si. ti'es as big as that at the entran#e o$ the Eu.ine, whi#h +ausanias, the son o$ Cleo'brotus, set u%) "u#h as ha&e ne&er seen that &essel 'ay understand 'e better i$ say that the "#ythian bowl holds with ease si. hundred a'%horae, and is o$ the thi#kness o$ si. $ingers1 breadth) The nati&es ga&e 'e the $ollowing a##ount o$ the 'anner in whi#h it

on his 'ar#h $ro' "usa. in sha%e like the %rint o$ a 'an1s $oot. is a hundred and twenty $urlongs in length. rea#hing $ro' the Eu. whi#h he resol&ed to $or' into a 'e'orial that 'ight go down to %osterity) *##ordingly he 'ade o$ the' this bowl. wishing to know the nu'ber o$ his sub2e#ts.ine to the . #alled the Bos%horus. when his %re%arations were #o'%lete. bade his attendants take the three sons o$ !eoba/us and $orthwith %ut the' to death) Thus they were all le$t behind. son o$ Hystas%es and brother o$ 5arius. and the &astness o$ the great %lain. but two #ubits in length) t is in the neighbourhood o$ the Tyras) Ha&ing des#ribed this.tends in length ele&en thousand one hundred $urlongs. and dedi#ated it at E. as the ad&i#e o$ *rtabanus was.a'%aeus) This was all that #ould learn #on#erning the nu'ber o$ the "#ythians) The #ountry has no 'ar&els e. where the bridge had been 'ade. others again to bridge the Thra#ian Bos%horus. entreated the king to desist $ro' his e. a##ording to the Greeks.%edition. others to su%%ly shi%s. howe&er. howe&er. the $ather o$ three sons.#e%t its ri&ers. 'essengers had been des%at#hed on all sides with the king1s #o''ands. on %ain o$ death.%e#ting that all his #hildren would be e. are worthy o$ note. whi#h a' about to 'ention) They show a $oot'ark o$ Her#ules. 9that he would allow the' all to re'ain)9 !eoba/us was o&er2oyed. return to the sub2e#t on whi#h originally %ro%osed to dis#ourse) The %re%arations o$ 5arius against the "#ythians had begun. it $ailed to %ersuade 5arius) He there$ore #eased his reasonings( and 5arius. on#e $loated) He took his seat also in the te'%le and sur&eyed the +ontus. by na'e !eoba/us. by na'e *riantas. he took shi% and sailed then#e to the Cyanean islands. i'%ressed on a ro#k. all o$ who' were to a##o'%any the ar'y. urging on hi' the great di$$i#ulty o$ atta#king "#ythia) Good.was 'ade) !ne o$ their kings. so'e being re. and a#ross whi#h the bridge o$ 5arius had been thrown. as i$ he regarded hi' in the light o$ a $riend who had urged a 'oderate re. whi#h is indeed well worthy o$ #onsideration) There is not in the world any other sea so wonder$ul0 it e. and one thing besides. at the widest %art. whi#h are larger and 'ore nu'erous than those o$ any other land) These. is three thousand three hundred) The 'outh is but $our $urlongs wide( and this strait. e.uired to $urnish troo%s. whi#h. led his ar'y $orth $ro' "usa) t was then that a #ertain +ersian.#used $ro' ser&ing( the king. the %oint o$$ one o$ their arrows) They obeyed( and he #olle#ted thereby a &ast hea% o$ arrow7heads. but not till they had been de%ri&ed o$ li$e) 4hen 5arius. ordered the' all to bring hi'. rea#hed the territory o$ Chal#edon on the shores o$ the Bos%horus. and its breadth. #a'e and %rayed the king that he would allow one o$ his sons to re'ain with hi') 5arius 'ade answer.uest. when *rtabanus.

and $ourteen hundred long) ts waters $low into the Helles%ont. and ere#ted u%on its shores two %illars o$ white 'arble. #aused a %i#ture to be %ainted whi#h showed the whole o$ the bridge. hal$7way between the #ity o$ By/antiu' and the te'%le at the 'outh o$ the strait) 5arius was so %leased with the bridge thrown a#ross the strait by the "a'ain -andro#les. or ele&en thousand one hundred $urlongs) *gain. and his ar'y engaged in the %assage) This %ainting he dedi#ated in the te'%le o$ 8uno at "a'os. $ro' "indi#a. whi#h had been #onstru#ted $or hi' by -andro#les a "a'ian) He likewise sur&eyed the Bos%horus. atta#hing to it the ins#ri%tion $ollowing07 The $ish7$raught Bos%horus bridged. to The'is#yra on the ri&er Ther'odon. whi#h 'akes the distan#e one 'illion one hundred and ten thousand $atho's. and the Helles%ont. and used the' $or an altar whi#h they ere#ted to !rthosian 5iana) !ne blo#k re'ained behind0 it lay near the te'%le o$ Ba##hus at By/antiu'. on the other in *ssyrian #hara#ters) 3ow his ar'y was drawn $ro' all the nations under his sway( and the whole a'ount. whereu%on he ins#ribed the na'es o$ all the nations whi#h $or'ed his ar'y7 on the one %illar in Greek. hundred shi%s) "o'e ti'e a$terwards the By/antines re'o&ed these %illars to their own #ity. without re#koning the na&al $or#es. by the way o$ o$$ering $irst7$ruits $ro' these %resents. is a &oyage o$ nine days and eight nights. in#luding #a&alry) The $leet #onsisted o$ si. is a sail o$ three days and two nights( whi#h 'akes three hundred and thirty thousand $atho's. whi#h is the e. but s%eak only $ro' #on2e#ture. and su#h is the a##ount whi#h ha&e to gi&e o$ the') The +ontus has also a lake belonging to it. think. but ga&e hi' ten o$ e&ery kind) -andro#les. that he not only bestowed u%on hi' all the #usto'ary %resents. a$ter he had $inished his sur&ey. with ?ing 5arius sitting in a seat o$ honour. and was #o&ered with *ssyrian writing) The s%ot where 5arius bridged the Bos%horus was. or three thousand three hundred $urlongs) "u#h is the %lan on whi#h ha&e 'easured the +ontus. was se&en hundred thousand 'en. and the width no 'ore than se&en) The Helles%ont o%ens into the wide sea #alled the Egean) The 'ode in whi#h these distan#es ha&e been 'easured is the $ollowing) n a long day a &essel generally a##o'%lishes about se&enty thousand $atho's.tre'e length o$ this sea. in the night si. where the +ontus is wider than at any other %la#e. the Bos%horus. and also the -other o$ the +ontus) 5arius.+ro%ontis) The +ro%ontis is $i&e hundred $urlongs a#ross. sailed ba#k to the bridge. the length o$ whi#h is $our hundred $urlongs. to 8uno1s $ane .ty thousand) 3ow $ro' the 'outh o$ the +ontus to the ri&er +hasis. not &ery 'u#h in$erior to itsel$ in si/e) The waters o$ this lake run into the +ontus0 it is #alled the -aeotis.

a two days1 2ourney $ro' ea#h) This ri&er.ed u%on a #ertain s%ot. with an ins#ri%tion to the $ollowing e$$e#t0 9The $ountains o$ the Tearus a$$ord the best and 'ost beauti$ul water o$ all ri&ers0 they were &isited.5id -andro#les this %roud 'e'orial bring( 4hen $or hi'sel$ a #rown he1d skill to gain. and. and that into the Hebrus) The Hebrus e'%ties itsel$ into the sea near the #ity o$ *enus) Here then. #alled the *rtis#us. are in %art #old. the Tearus. %ro#eeded straight to the ster. to be the 'ost health$ul o$ all strea's. were $orthwith ensla&ed. a$ter rewarding -andro#les. lea&ing behind hi' great hills $or'ed o$ the stones #ast by his troo%s) Be$ore arri&ing at the ster. . 5arius. as they are #alled7 ga&e the'sel&es u% to 5arius without a struggle( but the Getae obstinately de$ending the'sel&es. 5arius sto%%ed and %it#hed his #a'%) The ri&er #har'ed hi' so. who belie&e in their i''ortality) The Thra#ians o$ "al'ydessus. 5arius #ontinued his 'ar#h. and o$ the whole #ontinent)9 "u#h was the ins#ri%tion whi#h he set u% at this %la#e) -ar#hing then#e. who had #rossed the Bos%horus by the bridge o&er it. 'ar#hed through Thra#e( and ha%%ening u%on the sour#es o$ the Tearus. he #a'e to a se#ond ri&er. and *%ollonia on the Eu. whi#h are eight and thirty in nu'ber.ual distan#e $ro' the town o$ Heraeu' near +erinthus. %assed into Euro%e. in %art hot) They lie at an e. *eolians. and sail to the 'outh o$ the ster) There he bade the' throw a bridge a#ross the strea' and await his #o'ing) The onians. For "a'os %raise. king o$ the +ersians. yoked the ne#k o$ the strea') -eanti'e 5arius. %it#hed his #a'% and 'ade a stay o$ three days) 3ow the Tearus is said by those who dwell near it. the s#ab either in 'an or beast) ts sour#es. #ontenting the Great ?ing) "u#h was the 'e'orial o$ his work whi#h was le$t by the ar#hite#t o$ the bridge) 5arius. threading the Cyanean sles. and those who dwelt abo&e the #ities o$ *%ollonia and -ese'bria7 the "#yr'iadae and 3i%saeans. while he ordered the onians to enter the +ontus. that he #aused a %illar to be ere#ted in this %la#e also. on the banks o$ the Tearus. 'ounting the ri&er to the %oint where its #hannels se%arate. all $lowing $ro' the sa'e ro#k. and Helles%ontians were the nations whi#h $urnished the #hie$ strength o$ his na&y) "o the $leet.ine. where e&ery one o$ his soldiers should throw a stone as he %assed by) 4hen his orders were obeyed. son o$ Hystas%es. the $irst %eo%le who' he subdued were the Getae. on his 'ar#h into "#ythia. a distan#e o$ two days1 &oyage $ro' the sea. by the best and 'ost beauti$ul o$ 'en. whi#h runs into the *grianes. and to #ure. a'ong other diseases. whi#h $lows through the #ountry o$ the !drysians) Here he $i. is a tributary o$ the Contadesdus.

they say< is a wi#ked 'an0 and so they #hoose another to send away) The 'essages are gi&en while the 'an is still ali&e) This sa'e %eo%le. who is #hosen by lot out o$ the whole nation. and were a %oor ignorant ra#e( Kal'o. in whi#h $ro' ti'e to ti'e he re#ei&ed and $easted all the %rin#i%al Thra#ians. he withdrew. but that they would all go to a %la#e where they would li&e $or aye in the en2oy'ent o$ e&ery #on#ei&able good) 4hile he was a#ting in this way.uests) Their 'ode o$ sending hi' is this) * nu'ber o$ the' stand in order. who were thus brought to belie&e in the truth o$ what he had taught the') "u#h is the a##ount o$ the Greeks) $or 'y %art neither %ut entire $aith in this story o$ Kal'o. +ythagoras to wit. and #harged to bear hi' their se&eral re. when it lightens and thunders. that he li&ed at "a'os. and showed hi'sel$ on#e 'ore to his #ountry'en.is. returned to his own #ountry) The Thra#ians at that ti'e li&ed in a wret#hed way. who by his #o''er#e with the Greeks. and swinging hi' by his hands and $eet. &anishing suddenly $ro' the eyes o$ the Thra#ians. and while there was the sla&e o$ +ythagoras son o$ -nesar#hus) *$ter obtaining his $reedo' he grew ri#h. who greatly regretted his loss. a$ter whi#h he #a'e $orth $ro' his #on#eal'ent. who is #alled also Gebelei/is by so'e a'ong the') To this god e&ery $i&e years they send a 'essenger.is.notwithstanding that they are the noblest as well as the 'ost 2ust o$ all the Thra#ian tribes) The belie$ o$ the Getae in res%e#t o$ i''ortality is the $ollowing) They think that they do not really die. and 'ourned o&er hi' as one dead) He 'eanwhile abode in his se#ret #ha'ber three $ull years. nor do altogether dis#redit it0 but belie&e Kal'o. there$ore. toss hi' into the air so that he $alls u%on the %oints o$ the wea%ons) $ he is %ier#ed and dies.is was in reality a 'an. was a#. nor any o$ their %osterity would e&er %erish. and es%e#ially with one who was by no 'eans their 'ost #onte'%tible %hiloso%her. uttering threats against the god( and they do not belie&e that there is any god but their own) a' told by the Greeks who dwell on the shores o$ the Helles%ont and the +ontus. who . but that when they de%art this li$e they go to Kal'o. they think that the god is %ro%itious to the'( but i$ not. that this Kal'o.uainted with the oni# 'ode o$ li$e and with 'anners 'ore re$ined than those #urrent a'ong his #ountry'en. he was #onstru#ting an a%art'ent underground.is. his boon #o'%anions. into whi#h. when it was #o'%leted.is and his underground #ha'ber. or whether Kal'o. and holding this kind o$ dis#ourse.is . had a #ha'ber built. ai' their arrows at the sky. ea#h holding in his hand three darts( others take the 'an who is to be sent to Kal'o. they lay the $ault on the 'essenger.is to ha&e li&ed long be$ore the ti'e o$ +ythagoras) 4hether there was e&er really a 'an o$ the na'e. using the o##asion to tea#h the' that neither he. nor they. and lea&ing "a'os.

ander. #alled together the onian tyrants. and #ontinues as $ar as the #ity #alled Car#initis. now bid hi' $arewell) *s $or the Getae the'sel&es. Coes son o$ Er. but 'y dread is lest we be unable to dis#o&er the'. it will be said. untie e&ery day one o$ the knots) $ do not return be$ore the last day to whi#h the knots will hold out. $ronting towards the south wind and the 'id7day) Here u%on the sa'e sea. then lea&e your station. and $ollow hi' with the whole na&al $or#e in his land 'ar#h) They were about to obey his #o''and. ha&ing $irst asked whether it was agreeable to the king to listen to one who wished to s%eak his 'ind. when the general o$ the -ytilenaeans. and sail to your se&eral ho'es) -eanwhile. and a$ter all were gone o&er ga&e orders to the onians to break the bridge. 'ayha%. there lies a . when a' sa$e ho'e again in 'y %ala#e. with his land $or#es. they were now redu#ed by the +ersians. rea#hed the ster. addressed hi' in the words $ollowing07 9Thou art about.is nothing but a nati&e god o$ the Getae. lies Thra#e) The land here 'akes a swee%. ad&ise thee thus in the ho%e o$ being 'ysel$ allowed to re'ain behind( but in truth ha&e no other design than to re#o''end the #ourse whi#h see's to 'e the best( nor will #onsent to be a'ong those le$t behind. 'y $or'er #o''ands to you #on#erning the bridge are now withdrawn) "ee. the %eo%le who obser&e the %ra#ti#es des#ribed abo&e. the king took a leathern thong. and obser&e 'y bidding with res%e#t to it) Fro' the ti'e that lea&e you to 'ar#h $orward into "#ythia. but 'y resol&e is. to atta#k a #ountry no %art o$ whi#h is #ulti&ated. to $ollow thee)9 The ad&i#e o$ Coes %leased 5arius highly. and wat#h o&er its sa$ety and %reser&ation) By so doing ye will oblige 'e greatly)9 4hen 5arius had thus s%oken. as it is. who thus re%lied to hi'07 95ear Lesbian. and with good deeds will re#o'%ense thy good words o$ to7day)9 Ha&ing so said. he 'ade his troo%s #ross the strea'. here is a thong0 take it. he set out on his 'ar#h with all s%eed) Be$ore you #o'e to "#ythia. the ster $alling into the sea at this %oint with its 'outh $a#ing the east) "tarting $ro' the ster shall now des#ribe the 'easure'ents o$ the seashore o$ "#ythia) ''ediately that the ster is #rossed. and s%oke thus to the'07 9-en o$ onia. our retreat will still be se#ure) For ha&e no $ear lest the "#ythians de$eat us in battle. and that you are to guard the bridge with all #are. understand that 'y resol&e is #hanged. then. and a##o'%anied the ar'y o$ 5arius) 4hen 5arius. !ld "#ythia begins. be sure thou #o'e to 'e. in any #ase. and wherein there is not a single inhabited #ity) ?ee% this bridge. and su$$er loss while we wander about their territory) *nd now. and then "#ythia begins. and tying si.ty knots in it. and lea&e those who built it to wat#h o&er it) "o i$ we #o'e u% with the "#ythians and su##eed against the' as we #ould wish. on the sea #oast. "ire. we 'ay return by this route( or i$ we $ail o$ $inding the'.

whi#h e'%ties itsel$ into that lake at its u%%er end) *s $or the inland boundaries o$ "#ythia. will illustrate in another way) t is as i$ in a%ygia a line were drawn $ro' +ort Brundusiu' to Tarentu'. and has two o$ its sides rea#hing down to the sea. is the Tauri# territory) For the sake o$ those who 'ay not ha&e 'ade the &oyage round these %arts o$ *tti#a. as is also the #ase with *tti#a) *nd the Tauri o##u%y a %osition in "#ythia like that whi#h a %eo%le would hold in *tti#a. i$ we start $ro' the ster. the Budini. the *ndro%hagi. whi#h is s. %er#ei&ed that they were not strong enough by the'sel&es to #ontend with the ar'y o$ 5arius in o%en $ight) They.tend on two sides to two di$$erent seas. and the "auro'atae) The Tauri ha&e the $ollowing #usto's) They o$$er in sa#ri$i#e to the @irgin all shi%wre#ked %ersons. whi#h runs out into the sea u%on the east) For the boundaries o$ "#ythia e.'ountainous tra#t %ro2e#ting into the +ontus. we $ind the "#ythians again in %ossession o$ the #ountry abo&e the Tauri and the %arts bordering on the eastern sea. and the trans&erse sides at right angles to these are also o$ the sa'e length. $irst the *gathyrsi. there$ore. the -elan#haeni) "#ythia then. being $oreigners and not *thenians. and the other towards the east. and a %eo%le di$$erent $ro' the a%ygians inhabited the %ro'ontory) These two instan#es 'ay suggest a nu'ber o$ others where the sha%e o$ the land #losely rese'bles that o$ Tauri#a) Beyond this tra#t. who dwell abo&e "#ythia. and all Greeks #o'%elled to %ut into their %orts by stress o$ weather) The 'ode o$ sa#ri$i#e is . whose kings had already 'et. should inhabit the high land o$ "uniu'. is a 2ourney o$ twenty days) re#kon the day1s 2ourney at two hundred $urlongs) Thus the two sides whi#h run straight inland are $our thousand $urlongs ea#h. e. one u%on the south. $ro' Thori#us to the townshi% o$ *na%hlystus. as $ar as what is #alled the Rugged Chersonese. we $ind it en#losed by the $ollowing tribes. and ten 'ore $ro' the Borysthenes to the +alus -aeotis. the Geloni. i$ this tra#t %ro2e#ted into the sea so'ewhat $urther than it does) "u#h. the *gathyrsi. and last o$ all. the 3euri. and were in #onsultation u%on the ad&an#e o$ so &ast a host) 3ow they who had #o'e together were the kings o$ the Tauri.uare in sha%e. as $ar as the ri&er Tanais. and is e. whi#h is inhabited by the Tauri.ual e&ery way) For it is a ten days1 2ourney $ro' the ster to the Borysthenes. who. as also o$ the whole distri#t lying west o$ the Ci''erian Bos%horus and the +alus -aeotis. ne. re$le#ting on their situation. whi#h gi&es the $ull si/e o$ "#ythia) The "#ythians.tends inland to the sa'e distan#e that it stret#hes along the #oast. the -elan#haeni. to #o'%are great things with s'all. sent en&oys to the neighbouring nations. while the distan#e $ro' the #oast inland to the #ountry o$ the -elan#haeni. then the *ndro%hagi.t the 3euri.

and their dress is "#ythian( but the language whi#h they s%eak is %e#uliar to the'sel&es) 6nlike any other nation in these %arts.this) *$ter the %re%aratory #ere'onies. and. and &ery $ond o$ wearing gold on their %ersons) They ha&e wi&es in #o''on. while others. by any laws) They are no'ads. altars. and took re$uge with the Budini) t see's that these %eo%le are #on2urers0 $or both the "#ythians and the Greeks who dwell in "#ythia say that e&ery 3eurian on#e a year be#o'es a wol$ $or a $ew days. all o$ the'. at whi#h the nati&es . whi#h is surrounded with a lo$ty wall. thirty $urlongs ea#h way. and #arrying it to his ho'e. #alled Gelonus. and adorned a$ter the Greek $ashion with i'ages. whi#h he ele&ates abo&e his house.it is said< in order that the whole house 'ay be under their %rote#tion) These %eo%le li&e entirely by war and %lundering) The *gathyrsi are a ra#e o$ 'en &ery lu. 'ay neither en&y nor hate one another) n other res%e#ts their #usto's a%%roa#h nearly to those o$ the Thra#ians) The 3eurian #usto's are like the "#ythian) !ne generation be$ore the atta#k o$ 5arius they were dri&en $ro' their land by a huge 'ultitude o$ ser%ents whi#h in&aded the') !$ these so'e were %rodu#ed in their own #ountry. they say. it is buried) The goddess to who' these sa#ri$i#es are o$$ered the Tauri the'sel&es de#lare to be %higenia the daughter o$ *ga'e'non) 4hen they take %risoners in war they treat the' in the $ollowing way) The 'an who has taken a #a%ti&e #uts o$$ his head. as 'e'bers o$ one $a'ily.urious. but deny that the body is thrown down the #li$$7 on the #ontrary.uitted their ho'es.es it u%on a tall %ole. and shrines. and are e&en ready to ba#k their assertion with an oath) The 'anners o$ the *ndro%hagi are 'ore sa&age than those o$ any other ra#e) They neither obser&e 2usti#e. 'ost #o''only o&er the #hi'ney) The reason that the heads are set u% so high. and those by $ar the greater nu'ber. they hurl the trunk $ro' the %re#i%i#e whereon the te'%le stands. they strike the &i#ti' on the head with a #lub) Then. and nail the head to a #ross) !thers grant that the head is treated in this way. that so they 'ay be all brothers. a##ording to so'e a##ounts. they are #annibals) The -elan#haeni wear. #a'e in $ro' the deserts on the north) "u$$ering grie&ously beneath this s#ourge. is . bla#k #loaks. but they #onstantly a$$ir' it to be true. built entirely o$ wood) *ll the houses in the %la#e and all the te'%les are o$ the sa'e 'aterial) Here are te'%les built in honour o$ the Gre#ian gods. at the end o$ whi#h ti'e he is restored to his %ro%er sha%e) 3ot that belie&e this. held e&ery third year in honour o$ Ba##hus. all in wood) There is e&en a $esti&al. nor are go&erned. they . and bright red hair) There is a #ity in their territory. $i. and $ro' this deri&e the na'e whi#h they bear) Their #usto's are "#ythi#) The Budini are a large and %ower$ul nation0 they ha&e all dee% blue eyes.

uite strange to shi%s. are tillers o$ the soil. they eat li#e) The Geloni on the #ontrary.9 and %ata $or 9to slay97 t is re%orted. and a&oid a $ight7 when they halted. whi#h is o$ &irtue in diseases o$ the wo'b) t is re%orted o$ the "auro'atae. or oars. and did not know how to use either rudder. that they were all 'en o$ about the sa'e age. that the Greeks a$ter gaining the battle o$ the Ther'odon. surrounded by 'arshy ground with reeds growing on it) Here otters are #aught. and bea&ers. $ell to %lundering the "#ythian territory) The "#yths #ould not tell what to 'ake o$ the atta#k u%on the'7 the dress. they went out against the'. was a 'ar&el) 'agining. being dri&en out o$ the $a#tories along the #oast. say. hal$ "#ythian) The Budini. and are no'ads( unlike any o$ the neighbouring ra#es. $led to the Budini and took u% their abode with the') They still s%eak a language hal$ Greek. eat bread. but to send against the' a deta#h'ent o$ their youngest 'en. and 'assa#red the' to a 'an) *s howe&er they were . who' the "#ythians #all !ior7%ata or 9'an7slayers. howe&er. and 'ounting u%on their ba#ks. the language. and do as they saw the' do7 when the *'a/ons ad&an#ed against the'.9 whi#h is in the #ountry o$ the $ree "#ythians) Here they went ashore. ha&e gardens.ual to the wo'en in nu'ber. and $ought a battle) "o'e o$ the bodies o$ the slain $ell into their hands. the young 'en were to a%%roa#h and %it#h their #a'% near the #a'% o$ the ene'y) *ll this they did on a##ount o$ their strong desire to obtain #hildren . a$ter the death o$ the 'en. and 'ade a resol&e to kill no 'ore o$ the'. they were #arried. sails. and %ro#eeded by land towards the inhabited regions( the $irst herd o$ horses whi#h they $ell in with they sei/ed. that when the Greeks $ought with the *'a/ons. as near as they #ould guess e. taking with the' on board three o$ their &essels all the *'a/ons who' they had 'ade %risoners( and that these wo'en u%on the &oyage rose u% against the #rews.uite di$$erent $ro' the Budini) The Greeks notwithstanding #all these latter Geloni( but it is a 'istake to gi&e the' the na'e) Their #ountry is thi#kly %lanted with trees o$ all 'anner o$ kinds) n the &ery woodiest %art is a broad dee% lake. with another sort o$ ani'al whi#h has a s. !ior being "#ythi# $or 9'an.9 as it 'ay be rendered. who. howe&er.$all into the Ba##hi# $ury) For the $a#t is that the Geloni were an#iently Greeks. they were to retire. with orders to en#a'% in their neighbourhood.uare $a#e) 4ith the skins o$ this last the nati&es border their #a%otes0 and they also get $ro' the' a re'edy. %ut to sea. whereby they dis#o&ered the truth) Hereu%on they deliberated. and both in sha%e and #o'%le.ion are . nor is their 'ode o$ li$e the sa'e) They are the aboriginal %eo%le o$ the #ountry. were alike unknown when#e the ene'y had #o'e e&en. where the winds and the wa&es listed) *t last they rea#hed the shores o$ the +alus -aeotis and #a'e to a %la#e #alled Cre'ni or 9the Cli$$s. the nation itsel$. do not s%eak the sa'e language as the Geloni.

neither ha&ing anything but their ar's and horses. and the wo'an ke%t her word) 4hen the rest o$ the youths heard what had taken %la#e. and would #ondu#t yoursel&es with stri#t 2usti#e towards us. who bade hi' by signs . but we ha&e done great da'age to "#ythia by our ra&ages) *s you like us $or wi&es. go you ho'e to your %arents.$or they did not understand ea#h other1s language< to bring a $riend the ne. the "#ythians li&ing with the *'a/ons as their wi&es( and the 'en were unable to learn the tongue o$ the wo'en. and re2oined their wi&es. let us there$ore gi&e u% this 'ode o$ li$e. but the wo'en soon #aught u% the tongue o$ the 'en) 4hen they #ould thus understand one another. and we %ro'ise you to ha&e no others)9 But the *'a/ons said7 94e #ould not li&e with your wo'en7 our #usto's are . do none o$ these things( but stay at ho'e in their waggons. and li&e with the') =ou shall be our wi&es there no less than here. and obeyed the orders whi#h had been gi&en the') The *'a/ons soon $ound out that they had not #o'e to do the' any har'( and so they on their %art #eased to o$$er the "#ythians any 'olestation) *nd now day a$ter day the #a'%s a%%roa#hed nearer to one another( both %arties led the sa'e li$e. engaged in wo'anish tasks. and return to our nation. and go and dwell beyond the Tanais)9 *gain the youths #o'%lied) Crossing the Tanais they 2ourneyed eastward a distan#e o$ three days1 'ar#h $ro' that strea'. bid the' gi&e you your inheritan#e. they also sought and gained the $a&our o$ the other *'a/ons) The two #a'%s were then 2oined in one. and ne&er go out to hunt. to hurl the 2a&elin. and took u% their abode in it) The . and %ro%erties.uest we 'ake o$ you) Let us lea&e this #ountry together. and $ollowed it) They went and got the %ortion o$ goods whi#h $ell to the'. to bestride the horse. and a$raid to li&e in the #ountry where we now are) 3ot only ha&e we stolen you $ro' your $athers. or to do anything) 4e should ne&er agree together) But i$ you truly wish to kee% us as your wi&es. the "#yths addressed the *'a/ons in these words7 94e ha&e %arents. these are our arts o$ wo'anly e'%loy'ents we know nothing) =our wo'en.$ro' so notable a ra#e) "o the youths de%arted.t day to the s%ot where they had 'et7 %ro'ising on her %art to bring with her another wo'an) He did so. on the #ontrary. who then addressed the' in these words $ollowing07 94e are asha'ed. and then #o'e ba#k to us. and let us and you li&e together by oursel&es)9 The youths a%%ro&ed o$ the ad&i#e.uite di$$erent $ro' theirs) To draw the bow. and again northward a distan#e o$ three days1 'ar#h $ro' the +alus -aeotis) Here they #a'e to the #ountry where they now li&e. returned with it. grant the re. so that they were $or#ed to su%%ort the'sel&es by hunting and %illage) *t last an in#ident brought two o$ the' together7 the 'an easily gained the good gra#es o$ the wo'an.

uit our #ountry. where he had redu#ed the Thra#ians. or 'ake ter's with the in&aders) For what else is le$t $or us to do. and begin the war. i$ your aid be withheld $ro' us: The blow. deliberated) *t the end o%inion was di&ided7 the kings o$ the Geloni.t neighbours. who were asse'bled to deliberate. be sure. his ai' being to bring under his sway all Euro%e also) 9"tand ye not aloo$ then $ro' this #ontest.uered. and to war on us only. a$ter hearing all that the "#ythians had to say. be#ause the *'a/ons learnt it i'%er$e#tly at the $irst) Their 'arriage7law lays it down that no girl shall wed till she has killed a 'an in battle) "o'eti'es it ha%%ens that a wo'an dies un'arried at an ad&an#ed age. the Getae)9 The asse'bled %rin#es o$ the nations. ha&ing ne&er been able in her whole li$eti'e to $ul$il the #ondition) The en&oys o$ the "#ythians. a$ter we are #on. inde%endently o$ us. what has his #ondu#t been: Fro' the 'o'ent o$ his entran#e into Euro%e. and either .uently hunting on horseba#k with their husbands. and 2oined our ar's with yours) 3ow. we should ha&e thought the re. but ha&e ne&er talked it #orre#tly. and together let us 'eet the ene'y) $ ye re$use. without 'olesting any nation by the way) Then it would ha&e been %lain to all that "#ythia alone was ai'ed at) But now. and %ledged the'sel&es to gi&e assistan#e to the "#ythians( but the *gathyrsian and 3eurian %rin#es. a$ter subduing the whole o$ the other #ontinent. and "auro'atae were o$ a##ord.9 they went on to say.#e%tion e&ery nation that lay in his %ath) *ll the tribes o$ the Thra#ians ha&e been brought under his sway. to lea&e you in %ea#e) 4e #an bring strong %roo$ o$ what we here ad&an#e) Had the +ersian leader indeed #o'e to a&enge the wrongs whi#h he su$$ered at our hands when we ensla&ed his %eo%le. Budini. 'ade it known to the' that the +ersian. he would ha&e been bound to 'ar#h straight u%on "#ythia. and #rossed into the #ontinent o$ Euro%e. the #ase stands thus7 you. and was now 'aking a bridge o&er the ster. he has sub2ugated without e. and the Tauri. and so long as God ga&e you the . in&aded the land o$ the +ersians. together with the so&ereigns o$ the *ndro%hagi. howe&er. re%lied to their re. the -elan#haeni. $re. had thrown a bridge o&er the strait o$ the Bos%horus. 9look not on ta'ely while we are %erishing7 but 'ake #o''on #ause with us. on being introdu#ed into the %resen#e o$ the kings o$ these nations.uest as $ollows07 9 $ you had not been the $irst to wrong the +ersians.wo'en o$ the "auro'atae ha&e #ontinued $ro' that day to the %resent to obser&e their an#ient #usto's. and a'ong the' e&en our ne. we 'ust yield to the %ressure. will not light on you 'ore gently u%on this a##ount) The +ersian #o'es against you no less than against us0 and will not be #ontent.uest you 'ake 2ust(7 we should then ha&e #o'%lied with your wishes. so'eti'es e&en una##o'%anied( in war taking the $ield( and wearing the &ery sa'e dress as the 'en) The "auro'atae s%eak the language o$ "#ythia.

and i$ the +ersians ad&an#ed in the dire#tion o$ the Tanais.%edient. sending on in $ront as s#outs the $leetest o$ their horse'en) Their waggons wherein their wo'en and their #hildren li&ed. till we see this #o'e to %ass. that #o''anded by "#o%asis. like the others. they 'ight by these 'eans be $or#ed into it) *$terwards. o$ whi#h Ta. and all their #attle. while the ene'y retired be$ore the') The %ursuit o$ the +ersians was dire#ted towards the single di&ision o$ the "#ythian ar'y. we will not su$$er the'( but. dri&ing o$$ their herds. and i''ediately took the lead o$ the' at the distan#e o$ a day1s 'ar#h. we will re'ain at ho'e) For we belie&e that the +ersians are not #o'e to atta#k us. without #hange o$ #ourse. with orders to kee% 'ar#hing. whi#h they ke%t with the'. 2oined by the deta#h'ents o$ the Geloni and Budini. they are #o'e to do to you the like) 4e. e. as the neighbouring nations re$used their allian#e. still in %ursuit) in this way they %assed through the #ountry o$ the "auro'atae. the "#ythians went out to 'eet the ar'y o$ 5arius. did no wrong to these 'en in the $or'er war. were. $alling ba#k as they ad&an#ed. and doing the sa'e as the others) *nd $irst. it was agreed should be 2oined by the "auro'atae. 2oin battle with the ene'y) 4hen these 'easures had been deter'ined on. na'ely. they were to take the dire#tion o$ the nations whi#h had re$used to 2oin the allian#e. one o$ whi#h. and were to draw the war u%on the'0 that so. and the third. were to unite in one. that they would not o%enly &enture on any %it#hed battle with the ene'y. it was agreed that they should retire into their own land. #hoking u% all the wells and s%rings as they retreated. should retreat along the shores o$ the +alus -aeotis and 'ake $or that ri&er( while i$ the +ersians retired. and. were 'ade to %re#ede the' in their retreat. but to %unish those who are guilty o$ $irst in2uring the')9 4hen this re%ly rea#hed the "#ythians. to the north) The s#outs o$ the "#ythians $ound the +ersian host ad&an#ed three days1 'ar#h $ro' the ster. should it on deliberation a%%ear to the' e. and entered that o$ . lorded it o&er the'0 raised u% now by the sa'e God. en#a'%ing $ro' ti'e to ti'e. they resol&ed. i$ they would not o$ their own $ree will engage in the #ontest. and thus their line o$ 'ar#h was eastward toward the Tanais) The "#yths #rossed the ri&er and the +ersians a$ter the'. they should at on#e %ursue and harass the') The two other di&isions. on our %art. and destroying all that grow on the ground) The +ersians no sooner #aught sight o$ the "#ythian horse than they %ursued u%on their tra#k. and lea&ing the whole #ountry bare o$ $orage) They di&ided the'sel&es into three bands.%ower. and will not be the $irst to #o''it wrong now) $ they in&ade our land. the %rin#i%al one under the #o''and o$ danthyrsus.#e%t su#h a nu'ber as was wanted $or $ood.a#is was king. and de%arted. to kee% at the distan#e o$ a day1s 'ar#h $ro' the +ersians. but would retire be$ore the'. and begin aggressions u%on us. and.

he still $ollowing the' hotly. the !arus.ui#kened his 'ar#h. the land being waste and barren( but on entering the territories o$ the Budini. and halted his ar'y u%on the !arus) Here he built eight large $orts. there was nothing whi#h they #ould da'age. the *ndro%hagi. and entering "#ythia. where their #o'ing likewise s%read dis'ay a'ong the inhabitants) "till retreating they a%%roa#hed the *gathyrsi( but this %eo%le. as had been %re&iously settled. the "#ythians who' he had been $ollowing 'ade a #ir#uit by the higher regions. the -elan#haeni. ha&ing harassed the' a$ter this sort. and the 3euri. whi#h had witnessed the $light and terror o$ their neighbours.ual distan#e $ro' one another. did not wait $or the "#yths to in&ade the'. at an e. and then o$ the +ersians) "o. and $all into the +alus -aeotis) Their na'es are the Ly#us. the Tanais. and $irst o$ all into the #ountry o$ the -elan#haeni) Great disturban#e was #aused a'ong this %eo%le by the in&asion o$ the "#yths $irst.the Budini) *s long as the 'ar#h o$ the +ersian ar'y lay through the #ountries o$ the "#ythians and "auro'atae. and that they had $led in that dire#tion) He now . and the "yrgis) 4hen 5arius rea#hed the desert. it would be resisted by $or#e o$ ar's) The *gathyrsi then %ro#eeded to the $rontier. they rea#hed the desert. with the sa'e result as be$ore( and then#e %assed onwards into 3euris. to de$end their #ountry against the in&aders) *s $or the other nations. when the "#yths and +ersians o&erran their lands. that.tends a distan#e o$ se&en days1 2ourney abo&e the Budinian territory) Beyond this desert dwell the Thyssagetae. they #a'e u%on the wooden $ortress abo&e 'entioned. whi#h has no inhabitants. seeing nothing 'ore o$ the'. and returned towards the west) He i'agined that the "#ythians who' he had seen were the entire nation. they led hi'. the ruins o$ whi#h were still re'aining in 'y day) 5uring the ti'e that he was so o##u%ied.uite e'%ty o$ e&erything) This %la#e they burnt to the ground( and ha&ing so done. si. again %ressed $orward on the tra#k o$ the retreating "#ythians. ha&ing %assed through the entire #ountry o$ the Budini. 5arius. out o$ whose land $our great strea's $low) These ri&ers all tra&erse the #ountry o$ the -aeotians. $ell in with the two #o'bined di&isions o$ the "#ythian ar'y. they $orgot their threats and $led away in #on$usion to the . instead o$ de$ending the'sel&es. into the territories o$ the nations that had re$used to be#o'e their allies. and to $orewarn the'. he %aused $ro' his %ursuit. le$t his $orts hal$ $inished. whi#h was deserted by its inhabitants and le$t . the "#ythians led the way into the land o$ the *ndro%hagi. till. and instantly ga&e the' #hase) They ke%t to their %lan o$ retreating be$ore hi' at the distan#e o$ a day1s 'ar#h( and. i$ they 'ade the atte'%t.ty $urlongs a%art or thereabouts. and e. and re7entered "#ythia) !n their #o'%lete disa%%earan#e. but sent a herald to $orbid the' to #ross their borders.

re$rained( and led the +ersians ba#k $ro' the 3eurian distri#t into their own land) This had gone on so long. the tribute thou askedst. when routed. $or $ear o$ the $oot) By night too the "#ythians 'ade 'any si'ilar atta#ks) There was one &ery strange thing whi#h greatly ad&antaged the +ersians. and to #o'e at on#e to a #on$eren#e)9 To this 'essage danthyrsus. nor do now $ly $ro' thee) There is nothing new or strange in what do( only $ollow 'y #o''on 'ode o$ li$e in %ea#e$ul years) 3ow will tell thee why do not at on#e 2oin battle with thee) 4e "#ythians ha&e neither towns nor #ulti&ated lands. in return $or thy #alling thysel$ 'y lord. re%lied07 9This is 'y way.deserts lying towards the north) The "#ythians. but to $all u%on the' whene&er they should be at their 'eals) "o they waited till su#h ti'es. you 'ust needs #o'e to blows with us s%eedily. 1Go wee%)19 . when there are two things thou 'ightest do so easily: $ thou dee'est thysel$ able to resist 'y ar's. and des%at#hed the di&ision under "#o%asis to whi#h the "auro'atae were 2oined. +ersian) ne&er $ear 'en or $ly $ro' the') ha&e not done so in ti'es %ast. who ne&er $ailed to a$$ord the' su%%ort( while the "#ythians. in these assaults . as soon as they had dri&en the horse in.ueen) Earth and water. say to thee. and see'ed so inter'inable. why dost thou kee% on $lying be$ore 'e. be sure we shall not 2oin battle. but thou shalt soon re#ei&e 'ore suitable gi$ts) Last o$ all. who had been le$t at the ster to guard the bridge) -eanwhile the "#ythians who re'ained behind resol&ed no longer to lead the +ersians hither and thither about their #ountry. howe&er. and atte'%t to 'eddle with the'7 then ye shall see whether or no we will $ight with you) Till ye do this.This is what 'en 'ean by the "#ythian 'ode o$ s%ee#h)< "o the herald de%arted. unless it %leases us) This is 'y answer to the #hallenge to $ight) *s $or lords. $ell ba#k u%on their $oot. #ease thy wanderings and #o'e. there are our $athers1 to'bs7 seek the' out. when the *gathyrsi $orbade the' to enter their #ountry. howe&er. do not send. whi#h 'ight indu#e us. with orders that they should seek a #on$eren#e with the onians. the "#ythian king. the "#ythian king. and then did as they had deter'ined) n these #o'bats the "#ythian horse always %ut to $light the horse o$ the ene'y( these last. that 5arius at last sent a horse'an to danthyrsus. the "#ythian . let us engage in battle) !r i$ thou art #ons#ious that 'y strength is greater than thine7 e&en so thou shouldest #ease to run away7 thou hast but to bring thy lord earth and water. bearing this 'essage to 5arius) 4hen the "#ythian kings heard the na'e o$ sla&ery they were $illed with rage. and @esta. a#knowledge only 8o&e 'y an#estor. retired again. look you now. on their side.ual disser&i#e to the "#yths. with the $ollowing 'essage07 9Thou strange 'an. through $ear o$ their being taken or ra&aged. to be in any hurry to $ight with you) $. and was o$ e.

+ersians. whi#h in the early %art o$ the war had been a%%ointed to kee% guard about the +alus -aeotis. a bird. a 'ouse. %ri#king u% their ears. when their su%%lies should altogether $ail) To e$$e#t this. while the $rog %asses his li$e in the water( the bird bears a great rese'blan#e to the horse. and #ontains no single s%e#i'en o$ either ani'al. they would lea&e so'e o$ their #attle e. Gobryas. whereu%on they would be highly elated) This they did se&eral ti'es. in the ho%e. until at last 5arius was at his wits1 end( hereon the "#ythian %rin#es. en2oined you to kee% your guard here at this bridge 2ust si. and take re$uge in the $ens. ye will ne&er 'ake es#a%e $ro' this land.%lanation o$ 5arius. and the arrows 'ight signi$y the surrender o$ all their %ower) To the e. as obser&ed be$ore. o$ the ani'al be$ore0 and it was not without so'e little in$luen#e on the %rogress o$ the war) The "#ythians. you were to return .%osed with the herds'en. he added. when they %er#ei&ed signs that the +ersians were be#o'ing alar'ed. we understand. when the asses brayed. one o$ the se&en #ons%irators against the -agus. addressed the'. ye #an turn into birds and $ly u% into the sky. or be#o'e 'i#e and burrow under the ground.#e%t to deli&er the'. into his hands) This he #on#ei&ed to be the 'eaning o$ the gi$ts. while they the'sel&es 'o&ed away to a distan#e0 the +ersians would 'ake a $oray. be#ause the 'ouse is an inhabitant o$ the earth. and had now been sent to get s%ee#h o$ the onians stationed at the ster. o%%osed another whi#h was as $ollows07 96nless. and showing astonish'ent) This was owing to their ha&ing ne&er heard the noise. they $rightened the "#ythian #a&alry( and o$ten. and take the beasts. the land o$ the "#ythians %rodu#es neither ass nor 'ule. would take $right and wheel round. and eats the sa'e $ood as 'an. des%at#hed a herald to the +ersian #a'% with %resents $or the king0 these were. the horses. understanding how 'atters stood. a $rog.on the +ersian #a'%) This was the braying o$ the asses and the a%%earan#e o$ the 'ules) For. they held a #oun#il to #onsider the 'atter) 5arius ga&e it as his o%inion that the "#yths intended a surrender o$ the'sel&es and their #ountry. o$ in$li#ting on the' the greater in2ury. both land and water.uit "#ythia. or 'ake yoursel&es $rogs. and $i&e arrows) The +ersians asked the bearer to tell the' what these gi$ts 'ight 'ean. i$ they stayed. on rea#hing the bridge. they would $ind out the 'eaning $or the'sel&es) "o when they heard this. and return again with all s%eed) $ the +ersians were wise. i$ he did not a%%ear. in the 'iddle o$ a #harge. but he 'ade answer that he had no orders e. but die %ier#ed by our arrows) "u#h were 'eanings whi#h the +ersians assigned to the gi$ts) The single di&ision o$ the "#yths. in these words7 9-en o$ onia. we bring you $reedo'. took ste%s to indu#e the' not to . i$ ye will only do as we re#o''end) 5arius. hearing the noise 'ade by the asses. by reason o$ the #old) "o. or seen the $or'.ty days( then.

'ar#hed away) The asses were le$t that their noise 'ight be heard0 the 'en. drew out in battle array horse and $oot against the +ersians. than they . retreat $ro' "#ythia. and that they 'eanwhile were to guard his #a'% $or hi') Ha&ing thus de#lared his %lans to the 'en who' he was deserting. rushed o$$ in %ursuit. it #han#ed that a hare started u% between the' and the +ersians. and both %ortions o$ the "#ythian ar'y7 alike that whi#h #onsisted o$ a single di&ision. hearing the noise. 9 was well nigh sure. a#t so as to be $ree $ro' bla'e. and set to running( when i''ediately all the "#yths who saw it. and at the end go your ways)9 Ha&ing said this. and ha&ing #aused the $ires to be lighted. and was told that the "#ythians were all engaged in hunting a hare) !n this he turned to those with who' he was wont to #on&erse. and s%oke as) be$itted their situation) The ene'y no sooner heard. entertained no doubt o$ the +ersians being still in the sa'e %la#e) 4hen day dawned. with great #on$usion and loud #ries and shouts) 5arius. the %art o$ the "#ythian ar'y whi#h had not 'ar#hed to the ster. with the asses also tethered about the #a'%.ho'e) 3ow.9 Gobryas re2oined. there$ore. really be#ause they were si#k and useless. hearing the sound. and in ours) Tarry here the a%%ointed ti'e. and re#ei&ed a %ro'ise $ro' the onians to do as they desired. %er#ei&ing that they were betrayed by 5arius. stret#hed out their hands towards the "#ythians. ere #a'e here. taking #are also to lea&e our asses tethered. in.uired the #ause o$ it. 5arius set $orth.ui#kly 2oined all their troo%s in one. brayed louder than e&er( and the "#ythians. that this was an i'%ra#ti#able ra#e7 sin#e our #o'ing a' yet 'ore #on&in#ed o$ it. but under the %reten#e that he was about to $all u%on the "#ythians with the $lower o$ his troo%s.ual to hardshi%.t that %ortion o$ our ar'y whi#h is weak and une. his o%inion is now 'ine likewise. the 'en who had been le$t behind. it is ti'e we $or' so'e wise %lan whereby we 'ay se#ure oursel&es a sa$e return to our ho'es)9 9*h> sire. aware o$ the de%arture o$ the host. or the onians #o'e to any resolution whi#h 'ay lead to our ruin)9 "o Gobryas ad&ised( and when night #a'e. 5arius $ollowed his #ounsel. and lea&ing behind us on so'e %rete. and said07 9These 'en do indeed des%ise us utterly0 and now see that Gobryas was right about the "#ythian gi$ts) *s. and lea&ing his si#k soldiers. there$ore. and those whose loss would be o$ least a##ount. and that 'ade u% o$ two7 a##o'%anied by all their . there$ore. and 'ar#hed hastily towards the ster) The asses. that. be$ore our $oes 'ar#h $orward to the ster and destroy the bridge. we light our $ires as we are wont to do at other ti'es. the "#ythians hastened ba#k with all %ossible s%eed) *$ter the sending o$ the gi$ts to 5arius. alike in his sight. when night $alls. es%e#ially now that see the' 'aking ga'e o$ us) -y ad&i#e is. and see'ed about to #o'e to an engage'ent) But as they stood in battle array.

you 'ay sa$ely break the bridge. and Histiaeus o$ -iletus. whi#h are not #ut out in "#ythia( while the "#yths were all horse'en and well a#. when in $a#t they were doing nothing o$ #onse.uen#e. the 'an who had o%%osed -iltiades) !nly one *eolian o$ note was %resent. the Budini. and the Geloni. Hero%hantus o$ +ariu'. howe&er. re2oi#ing that you are $ree. *ristagoras o$ Cy'e) Ha&ing resol&ed to $ollow the ad&i#e o$ Histiaeus. and the "#ythians. who were aboard their shi%s. Laoda'as o$ +ho#aea. #a'e $irst to the bridge) Finding that the +ersians were not yet arri&ed. *ristagoras o$ Cy/i#us. "#ythians. and thanking $or it the gods and the "#ythians) =our $or'er lord and 'aster we undertake so to handle. and had no knowledge o$ the routes. the +ersian ar'y was #hie$ly $oot.9 he said. to the distan#e o$ a bowshot $ro' the ri&er bank( and to assure the "#ythians. who. the "auro'atae. the nu'ber o$ your days is out. they addressed the onians. and ye do wrong to re'ain) Fear doubtless has ke%t you here hitherto0 now. till Histiaeus s%oke. to wit. and de#lared in $a&our o$ the last s%eaker) The $ollowing were the &oters on this o##asion7 all o$ the' 'en who stood high in the estee' o$ the +ersian king0 the tyrants o$ the Helles%ont7 5a%hnis o$ *bydos. and hasten ba#k to your ho'es. the Greek leaders $urther deter'ined to s%eak and a#t as $ollows) n order to a%%ear to the "#ythians to be doing so'ething. that he will ne&er again 'ake war u%on any one)9 The onians now held a #oun#il) -iltiades the *thenian.uainted with the shortest way( it so ha%%ened that the two ar'ies 'issed one another. were about to &ote with -iltiades. nor ye o$ your #ities) For there is not one o$ the' whi#h will not %re$er de'o#ra#y to kingly rule)9 Then the other #a%tains. getting $ar ahead o$ their ad&ersaries. -etrodorus o$ +ro#onnesus. Hi%%o#lus o$ La'%sa#us. and their #o''ander at the ster. #hanged their 'inds. set o$$ in %ursuit. and well ha&e ye done to #o'e here with su#h s%eed) =our e$$orts ha&e now %ut us into . #annot #ontinue lord o$ -iletus. and likewise to %re&ent the' $ro' $or#ing a %assage a#ross the ster by the bridge. and restore $reedo' to onia) But Histiaeus the -ilesian o%%osed this ad&i#e) 9 t is through 5arius. who was king o$ the Chersonesites u%on the Helles%ont. while the de'olition was %ro#eeding. 9that we en2oy our thrones in our se&eral states) $ his %ower be o&erturned. in these words07 9-en o$ onia.allies. they resol&ed to break u% the %art o$ the bridge whi#h abutted on "#ythia. and 'ade straight $or the ster) *s. *ea#es o$ "a'os. that there was nothing whi#h they would not do to %leasure the') "u#h were the additions 'ade to the resolution o$ Histiaeus( and then Histiaeus hi'sel$ stood $orth and 'ade answer to the "#yths in the na'e o$ all the Greeks)7 9Good is the ad&i#e whi#h ye ha&e brought us. howe&er. and *riston o$ By/antiu'( the onian %rin#es7 "trattis o$ Chios. re#o''ended the other generals to do as the "#ythians wished.

to &isit the' with the &engean#e whi#h they so well deser&e)9 *gain the "#yths %ut $aith in the %ro'ises o$ the onian #hie$s. the 'easures whi#h see'ed to the' so wisely %lanned were e. brought the $leet to assist in #on&eying the ar'y a#ross. when#e he #rossed by the hel% o$ his $leet into *sia. ho%ing to $all in with the +ersians) They 'issed. it would %lease 'e better than to be lord o$ Gree#e)9 "u#h was the #o'%li'ent wherewith 5arius honoured the general to who' at this ti'e he ga&e the #o''and . and the 'ost $ondly at) to their lords) 5arius. #o''ander on the Euro%ean side) This was the 'an on who' 5arius on#e #on$erred s%e#ial honour by a #o'%li'ent whi#h he %aid hi' be$ore all the +ersians) was about to eat so'e %o'egranates. and #all Histiaeus the -ilesian) The $ellow did as he was bid( and Histiaeus. $or our sakes. lea&ing a +ersian. ke%t stri#tly to the line o$ their $or'er 'ar#h. howe&er. the ene'y1s whole line o$ 'ar#h( their own $or'er a#ts being to bla'e $or it) Had they not ra&aged all the %asturages o$ that region. howe&er. and. and had o%ened the $irst. ha&ing %assed through Thra#e. na'ed -egaba/us.%e#ting that they too would retreat through regions where these things were to be obtained) The +ersians. who had a louder &oi#e than any other 'an in the world) This %erson was bid by 5arius to stand at the water1s edge. rea#hed "estos in the Chersonese. was great( $or they thought that %erha%s the onians had deserted the') 3ow there was in the ar'y o$ 5arius a #ertain 'an. as well as your own. be it your business to seek the' out. e. and their terror.the right %ath( and our e$$orts shall not be wanting to ad&an#e your #ause) =our own eyes see that we are engaged in breaking the bridge( and. as it turned out. while we labour here at our task. we will work /ealously to %ro#ure our own $reedo') -eanti'e. and on#e 'ore 'ade good the bridge) By these 'eans the +ersians es#a%ed $ro' "#ythia. i$ they be looked u%on as $ree'en. they are the basest and 'ost dastardly o$ all 'ankind7 but i$ they be #onsidered as under ser&itude. again 'issing their tra#k) *nd hen#e the "#ythians are a##usto'ed to say o$ the onians. and $illed in all the wells. that. and retra#ed their ste%s. when $ound. hearing hi' at the &ery $irst su''ons. they would ha&e easily $ound the +ersians whene&er they #hose) But. and on this tra#k sought their ad&ersaries. when they $ound the bridge broken u%. when his brother *rtabanus asked hi' 9what he would like to ha&e in as great %lenty as the seeds o$ the %o'egranate:9 5arius answered7 9Had as 'any 'en like -egaba/us as there are seeds here. belie&e us. an Egy%tian. ne&er $or a 'o'ent de%arting $ro' it( and e&en so gained the bridge with di$$i#ulty) t was night when they arri&ed. while the "#yths sought $or the' in &ain. by way o$ re%roa#h. they are the $aith$ullest o$ sla&es.a#tly what #aused their $ailure) They took a route where water was to be $ound and $odder #ould be got $or their horses.

o$ the troo%s le$t in Euro%e. where. entreated to be allowed to enter the %rison. the -inyae began to wa. and asked 9what was their ob2e#t in #o'ing to La#edae'on. and $ro' what region they had #o'e9( whereu%on they 'ade answer. while he was staying at By/antiu'. and enrol the' in their tribes) 4hat #hie$ly 'o&ed the' to this was the #onsideration that the sons o$ Tyndarus had sailed on board the *rgo) The -inyae. dri&en out o$ Le'nos by the +elasgi who #arried o$$ the *thenian wo'en $ro' Brauron. ha&ing been a%%ointed to take the #o''and u%on the Helles%ont. they would ne&er ha&e #hosen one so greatly in$erior)9 -egaba/us now. e'%loyed hi'sel$ in the redu#tion o$ all those states whi#h had not o$ their own a##ord 2oined the -edes) *bout this &ery ti'e another great e. not e. %artake their %ri&ileges. by a #ertain s%ee#h whi#h he 'ade) t #a'e to his knowledge. when so $ar 'ore e. sei/ing the'. and there kindling their $ires:9 They answered.9 said he. dri&en $ro' their own land by the +elasgi.#ellent a site was o%en to the'. de'anded to share the throne. and obtain allot'ents o$ land) t see'ed good to the La#edae'onians to re#ei&e the -inyae a'ong the' on their own ter's( to assign the' lands. on their %art.%e#ting any $raud $ro' su#h a . their wi&es. but always at night) 4hen the -inyae. a##ordingly. the La#edae'onians sent to the' a se#ond ti'e. $orthwith 'arried "%artan wi&es. and. seating the'sel&es on -ount Taygetu'.uire o$ the' 9who they were. and ha&e so'e talk with their lords( and the "%artans. took shi% and went to La#edae'on. that the Chal#edonians 'ade their settle'ent se&enteen years earlier than the By/antines) 9Then. wanton. be$ore 'u#h ti'e had ela%sed.uest) The wo'en entered the %rison) ga&e their own #lothes to their husbands. to "%artan husbands) Howe&er. and re#ei&ed theirs in . sent a herald to in. who' they had 'arried in Le'nos.%edition was undertaken against Libya. granted their re. were about to su$$er. they %ro#eeded to kindle their $ires) The La#edae'onians. to their $athers( and their wish was to dwell with the' in their #ountry. #ast the' into %rison) 3ow the La#edae'onians ne&er %ut #ri'inals to death in the dayti'e. they had #o'e. and #o''itted other i'%ieties0 whereu%on the La#edae'onians %assed on the' senten#e o$ death. and ga&e the wi&es. 9that they were -inyae. seeing this. on a %rete. who were not only #iti/ens. sons o$ the heroes by who' the shi% *rgo was 'anned( $or these %ersons had stayed awhile in Le'nos. 9that.uarter. 9the Chal#edonians 'ust at that ti'e ha&e been labouring under blindness7 otherwise. and had there be#o'e their %rogenitors)9 !n hearing this a##ount o$ their des#ent. but daughters o$ the #hie$ 'en a'ong the "%artans. a'ounting in all to so'e eighty thousand 'en) This sa'e -egaba/us got hi'sel$ an undying re'e'bran#e a'ong the Helles%ontians. as was 'ost reasonable.t whi#h will relate when ha&e %re'ised #ertain %arti#ulars) The des#endants o$ the *rgonauts in the third generation.

e.#hange0 a$ter whi#h the -inyae, dressed in their wi&es1 gar'ents, and thus %assing $or wo'en, went $orth) Ha&ing e$$e#ted their es#a%e in this 'anner, they seated the'sel&es on#e 'ore u%on Taygetu')own land t ha%%ened that at this &ery ti'e Theras, son o$ *utesion ;whose $ather Tisa'enus was the son o$ Thersander, and grandson o$ +olyni#es<, was about to lead out a #olony $ro' La#edae'on This Theras, by birth a Cad'eian, was un#le on the 'other1s side to the two sons o$ *ristode'us, +ro#les and Eurysthenes, and, during their in$an#y, ad'inistered in their right the royal %ower) 4hen his ne%hews, howe&er, on attaining to 'an1s estate, took the go&ern'ent, Theras, who #ould not bear to be under the authority o$ others a$ter he had wielded authority so long hi'sel$, resol&ed to lea&e "%arta and #ross the sea to 2oin his kindred) There were in the island now #alled Thera, but at that ti'e Calliste, #ertain des#endants o$ -e'bliarus, the son o$ +oe#iles, a +hoeni#ian) ;For Cad'us, the son o$ *genor, when he was sailing in sear#h o$ Euro%e, 'ade a landing on this island( and, either be#ause the #ountry %leased hi', or be#ause he had a %ur%ose in so doing, le$t there a nu'ber o$ +hoeni#ians, and with the' his own kins'an -e'bliarus) Calliste had been inhabited by this ra#e $or eight generations o$ 'en, be$ore the arri&al o$ Theras $ro' La#edae'on)< Theras now, ha&ing with hi' a #ertain nu'ber o$ 'en $ro' ea#h o$ the tribes, was setting $orth on his e.%edition hitherward) Far $ro' intending to dri&e out the $or'er inhabitants, he regarded the' as his near kin, and 'eant to settle a'ong the') t ha%%ened that 2ust at this ti'e the -inyae, ha&ing es#a%ed $ro' their %rison, had taken u% their station u%on -ount Taygetu'( and the La#edae'onians, wishing to destroy the', were #onsidering what was best to be done, when Theras begged their li&es, undertaking to re'o&e the' $ro' the territory) His %rayer being granted, he took shi%, and sailed, with three tria#onters, to 2oin the des#endants o$ -e'bliarus) He was not, howe&er, a##o'%anied by all the -inyae, but only by so'e $ew o$ the') The greater nu'ber $led to the land o$ the +aroreats and Cau#ons, who' they dro&e out, the'sel&es o##u%ying the region in si. bodies, by whi#h were a$terwards built the towns o$ Le%reu', -a#istus, +hry.ae, +yrgus, E%iu', and 3udiu'( whereo$ the greater %art were in 'y day de'olished by the Eleans) The island was #alled Thera a$ter the na'e o$ its $ounder) This sa'e Theras had a son, who re$used to #ross the sea with hi'( Theras there$ore le$t hi' behind, 9a shee%,9 as he said, 9a'ong wol&es)9 Fro' this s%ee#h his son #a'e to be #alled !eoly#us, a na'e whi#h a$terwards grew to be the only one by whi#h he was known) This !eoly#us was the $ather o$ *egeus, $ro' who' s%rang the *egidae, a great tribe in "%arta) The 'en o$ this tribe lost at one ti'e all their #hildren, whereu%on they were bidden by an ora#le to build a

te'%le to the $uries o$ Laius and !edi%us( they #o'%lied, and the 'ortality #eased) The sa'e thing ha%%ened in Thera to the des#endants o$ these 'en) Thus $ar the history is deli&ered without &ariation both by the Theraeans and the La#edae'onians( but $ro' this %oint we ha&e only the Theraean narrati&e) Grinus ;they say<, the son o$ *esanius, a des#endant o$ Theras, and king o$ the island o$ Thera, went to 5el%hi to o$$er a he#ato'b on behal$ o$ his nati&e #ity) He was a##o'%anied by a large nu'ber o$ the #iti/ens, and a'ong the rest by Battus, the son o$ +oly'nestus, who belonged to the -inyan $a'ily o$ the Eu%he'idae) !n Grinus #onsulting the ora#le about sundry 'atters, the +ythoness ga&e hi' $or answer, 9that he should $ound a #ity in Libya)9 Grinus re%lied to this0 9 , ! king> a' too $ar ad&an#ed in years, and too ina#ti&e, $or su#h a work) Bid one o$ these youngsters undertake it)9 *s he s%oke, he %ointed towards Battus( and thus the 'atter rested $or that ti'e) 4hen the e'bassy returned to Thera, s'all a##ount was taken o$ the ora#le by the Theraeans, as they were ,uite ignorant where Libya was, and were not so &entureso'e as to send out a #olony in the dark) "e&en years %assed $ro' the utteran#e o$ the ora#le, and not a dro% o$ rain $ell in Thera0 all the trees in the island, e.#e%t one, were killed with the drought) The Theraeans u%on this sent to 5el%hi, and were re'inded re%roa#h$ully that they had ne&er #olonised Libya) "o, as there was no hel% $or it, they sent 'essengers to Crete, to in,uire whether any o$ the Cretans, or o$ the strangers so2ourning a'ong the', had e&er tra&elled as $ar as Libya0 and these 'essengers o$ theirs, in their wanderings about the island, a'ong other %la#es &isited tanus, where they $ell in with a 'an, whose na'e was Corobius, a dealer in %ur%le) n answer to their in,uiries, he told the' that #ontrary winds had on#e #arried hi' to Libya, where he had gone ashore on a #ertain island whi#h was na'ed +latea) "o they hired this 'an1s ser&i#es, and took hi' ba#k with the' to Thera) * $ew %ersons then sailed $ro' Thera to re#onnoitre) Guided by Corobius to the island o$ +latea, they le$t hi' there with %ro&isions $or a #ertain nu'ber o$ 'onths, and returned ho'e with all s%eed to gi&e their #ountry'en an a##ount o$ the island) 5uring their absen#e, whi#h was %rolonged beyond the ti'e that had been agreed u%on, Corobius %ro&isions $ailed hi') He was relie&ed, howe&er, a$ter a while by a "a'ian &essel, under the #o''and o$ a 'an na'ed Colaeus, whi#h, on its way to Egy%t, was $or#ed to %ut in at +latea) The #rew, in$or'ed by Corobius o$ all the #ir#u'stan#es, le$t hi' su$$i#ient $ood $or a year) They the'sel&es ,uitted the island( and, an.ious to rea#h Egy%t, 'ade sail in that dire#tion, but were #arried out o$ their #ourse by a gale o$ wind $ro' the east) The stor' not abating, they were dri&en %ast the +illars o$ Her#ules, and at last, by so'e s%e#ial guiding %ro&iden#e, rea#hed

Tartessus) This trading town was in those days a &irgin %ort, un$re,uented by the 'er#hants) The "a'ians, in #onse,uen#e, 'ade by the return &oyage a %ro$it greater than any Greeks be$ore their day, e.#e%ting "ostratus, son o$ Laoda'as, an Eginetan, with who' no one else #an #o'%are) Fro' the tenth %art o$ their gains, a'ounting to si. talents, the "a'ians 'ade a bra/en &essel, in sha%e like an *rgi&e wine7bowl, adorned with the heads o$ gri$$ins standing out in high relie$) This bowl, su%%orted by three kneeling #olossal $igures in bron/e, o$ the height o$ se&en #ubits, was %la#ed as an o$$ering in the te'%le o$ 8uno at "a'os) The aid gi&en to Corobius was the original #ause o$ that #lose $riendshi% whi#h a$terwards united the Cyrenaeans and Theraeans with the "a'ians) The Theraeans who had le$t Corobius at +latea, when they rea#hed Thera, told their #ountry'en that they had #olonised an island on the #oast o$ Libya) They o$ Thera, u%on this, resol&ed that 'en should be sent to 2oin the #olony $ro' ea#h o$ their se&en distri#ts, and that the brothers in e&ery $a'ily should draw lots to deter'ine who were to go) Battus was #hosen to be king and leader o$ the #olony) "o these 'en de%arted $or +latea on board o$ two %ente#onters) "u#h is the a##ount whi#h the Theraeans gi&e) n the se,uel o$ the history their a##ounts tally with those o$ the %eo%le o$ Cyrene( but in what they relate o$ Battus these two nations di$$er 'ost widely) The $ollowing is the Cyrenai# story) There was on#e a king na'ed Etear#hus, who ruled o&er *.us, a #ity in Crete, and had a daughter na'ed +hroni'a) This girl1s 'other ha&ing died, Etear#hus 'arried a se#ond wi$e( who no sooner took u% her abode in his house than she %ro&ed a true ste%7'other to %oor +hroni'a, always &e.ing her, and #ontri&ing against her e&ery sort o$ 'is#hie$) *t last she ta.ed her with light #ondu#t( and Etear#hus, %ersuaded by his wi$e that the #harge was true, bethought hi'sel$ o$ a 'ost barbarous 'ode o$ %unish'ent) There was a #ertain Theraean, na'ed The'ison, a 'er#hant, li&ing at *.us) This 'an Etear#hus in&ited to be his $riend and guest, and then indu#ed hi' to swear that he would do hi' any ser&i#e he 'ight re,uire) 3o sooner had he gi&en the %ro'ise, than the king $et#hed +hroni'a, and, deli&ering her into his hands, told hi' to #arry her away and throw her into the sea) Hereu%on The'ison, $ull o$ indignation at the $raud whereby his oath had been %ro#ured, dissol&ed $orthwith the $riendshi%, and, taking the girl with hi', sailed away $ro' Crete) Ha&ing rea#hed the o%en 'ain, to a#,uit hi'sel$ o$ the obligation under whi#h he was laid by his oath to Etear#hus, he $astened ro%es about the da'sel, and, letting her down into the sea, drew her u% again, and so 'ade sail $or Thera) *t Thera, +oly'nestus, one o$ the #hie$ #iti/ens o$ the %la#e, took +hroni'a to be his #on#ubine) The $ruit o$ this union was a son, who sta''ered and had a lis% in his s%ee#h) *##ording to the Cyrenaeans and Theraeans the na'e gi&en to the boy was Battus0 in 'y

o%inion, howe&er, he was #alled at the $irst so'ething else, and only got the na'e o$ Battus a$ter his arri&al in Libya, assu'ing it either in #onse,uen#e o$ the words addressed to hi' by the 5el%hian ora#le, or on a##ount o$ the o$$i#e whi#h he held) For, in the Libyan tongue, the word 9Battus9 'eans 9a king)9 *nd this, think, was the reason the +ythoness addressed hi' as she did0 she he was to be a king in Libya, and so she used the Libyan word in s%eaking to hi') For a$ter he had grown to 'an1s estate, he 'ade a 2ourney to 5el%hi, to #onsult the ora#le about his &oi#e( when, u%on his %utting his ,uestion, the +ythoness thus re%lied to hi'07 Battus, thou #a'est to ask o$ thy &oi#e( but +hoebus *%ollo Bids thee establish a #ity in Libya, abounding in $lee#es( whi#h was as i$ she had said in her own tongue, 9?ing, thou #a'est to ask o$ thy &oi#e)9 Then he re%lied, 9-ighty lord, did indeed #o'e hither to #onsult thee about 'y &oi#e, but thou s%eakest to 'e o$ ,uite other 'atters, bidding 'e #olonise Libya7 an i'%ossible thing> what %ower ha&e : what $ollowers:9 Thus he s%ake, but he did not %ersuade the +ythoness to gi&e hi' any other res%onse( so, when he $ound that she %ersisted in her $or'er answer, he le$t her s%eaking, and set out on his return to Thera) *$ter a while, e&erything began to go wrong both with Battus and with the rest o$ the Theraeans, whereu%on these last, ignorant o$ the #ause o$ their su$$erings, sent to 5el%hi to in,uire $or what reason they were a$$li#ted) The +ythoness in re%ly told the' 9that i$ they and Battus would 'ake a settle'ent at Cyrene in Libya, things would go better with the')9 6%on this the Theraeans sent out Battus with two %ente#onters, and with these he %ro#eeded to Libya, but within a little ti'e, not knowing what else to do, the 'en returned and arri&ed o$$ Thera) The Theraeans, when they saw the &essels a%%roa#hing, re#ei&ed the' with showers o$ 'issiles, would not allow the' to #o'e near the shore, and ordered the 'en to sail ba#k $ro' when#e they #a'e) Thus #o'%elled to return, they settled on an island near the Libyan #oast, whi#h ;as ha&e already said< was #alled +latea) n si/e it is re%orted to ha&e been about e,ual to the #ity o$ Cyrene, as it now stands) n this %la#e they #ontinued two years, but at the end o$ that ti'e, as their ill lu#k still $ollowed the', they le$t the island to the #are o$ one o$ their nu'ber, and went in a body to 5el%hi, where they 'ade #o'%laint at the shrine to the e$$e#t that, notwithstanding they had #olonised Libya, they %ros%ered as %oorly as be$ore) Hereon the +ythoness 'ade the' the $ollowing answer07 ?nowest thou better than , $air Libya abounding in $lee#es: Better the stranger than he who has trod it: !h> #le&er

Theraeans> Battus and his $riends, when they heard this, sailed ba#k to +latea0 it was %lain the god would not hold the' a#,uitted o$ the #olony till they were absolutely in Libya) "o, taking with the' the 'an who' they had le$t u%on the island, they 'ade a settle'ent on the 'ainland dire#tly o%%osite +latea, $i.ing the'sel&es at a %la#e #alled */iris, whi#h is #losed in on both sides by the 'ost beauti$ul hills, and on one side is washed by a ri&er) Here they re'ained si. years, at the end o$ whi#h ti'e the Libyans indu#ed the' to 'o&e, %ro'ising that they would lead the' to a better situation) "o the Greeks le$t */iris and were #ondu#ted by the Libyans towards the west, their 2ourney being so arranged, by the #al#ulation o$ their guides, that they %assed in the night the 'ost beauti$ul distri#t o$ that whole #ountry, whi#h is the region #alled rasa) The Libyans brought the' to a s%ring, whi#h goes by the na'e o$ *%ollo1s $ountain, and told the'7 9Here, Gre#ians, is the %ro%er %la#e $or you to settle( $or here the sky leaks)9 5uring the li$eti'e o$ Battus, the $ounder o$ the #olony, who reigned $orty years, and during that o$ his son *r#esilaus, who reigned si.teen, the Cyrenaeans #ontinued at the sa'e le&el, neither 'ore nor $ewer in nu'ber than they were at the $irst) But in the reign o$ the third king, Battus, surna'ed the Ha%%y, the ad&i#e o$ the +ythoness brought Greeks $ro' e&ery ,uarter into Libya, to 2oin the settle'ent) The Cyrenaeans had o$$ered to all #o'ers a share in their lands( and the ora#le had s%oken as $ollows07 He that is ba#kward to share in the %leasant Libyan a#res, "ooner or later, warn hi', will $eel regret at his $olly) Thus a great 'ultitude were #olle#ted together to Cyrene, and the Libyans o$ the neighbourhood $ound the'sel&es stri%%ed o$ large %ortions o$ their lands) "o they, and their king *di#ran, being robbed and insulted by the Cyrenaeans, sent 'essengers to Egy%t, and %ut the'sel&es under the rule o$ *%ries, the Egy%tian 'onar#h( who, u%on this, le&ied a &ast ar'y o$ Egy%tians, and sent the' against Cyrene) The inhabitants o$ that %la#e le$t their walls and 'ar#hed out in $or#e to the distri#t o$ rasa, where, near the s%ring #alled Theste, they engaged the Egy%tian host, and de$eated it) The Egy%tians, who had ne&er be$ore 'ade trial o$ the %rowess o$ the Greeks, and so thought but 'eanly o$ the', were routed with su#h slaughter that but a &ery $ew o$ the' e&er got ba#k ho'e) For this reason, the sub2e#ts o$ *%ries, who laid the bla'e o$ the de$eat on hi', re&olted $ro' his authority) This Battus le$t a son #alled *r#esilaus, who, when he #a'e to the throne, had dissensions with his brothers, whi#h ended in their

,uitting hi' and de%arting to another region o$ Libya, where, a$ter #onsulting a'ong the'sel&es, they $ounded the #ity, whi#h is still #alled by the na'e then gi&en to it, Bar#a) *t the sa'e ti'e they endea&oured to indu#e the Libyans to re&olt $ro' Cyrene) 3ot long a$terwards *r#esilaus 'ade an e.%edition against the Libyans who had re#ei&ed his brothers and been %re&ailed u%on to re&olt( and they, $earing his %ower, $led to their #ountry'en who dwelt towards the east) *r#esilaus %ursued, and #hased the' to a %la#e #alled Leu#on, whi#h is in Libya, where the Libyans resol&ed to risk a battle) *##ordingly they engaged the Cyrenaeans, and de$eated the' so entirely that as 'any as se&en thousand o$ their hea&y7ar'ed were slain in the $ight) *r#esilaus, a$ter this blow, $ell si#k, and, whilst he was under the in$luen#e o$ a draught whi#h he had taken, was strangled by Lear#hus, one o$ his brothers) This Lear#hus was a$terwards entra%%ed by Ery.o, the widow o$ *r#esilaus, and %ut to death) Battus, *r#esilaus1 son, su##eeded to the kingdo', a la'e 'an, who li'%ed in his walk) Their late #ala'ities now indu#ed the Cyrenaeans to send to 5el%hi and in,uire o$ the god what $or' o$ go&ern'ent they had best set u% to se#ure the'sel&es %ros%erity) The +ythoness answered by re#o''ending the' to $et#h an arbitrator $ro' -antinea in *r#adia) *##ordingly they sent( and the -antineans ga&e the' a 'an na'ed 5e'ona., a %erson o$ high re%ute a'ong the #iti/ens( who, on his arri&al at Cyrene, ha&ing $irst 'ade hi'sel$ a#,uainted with all the #ir#u'stan#es, %ro#eeded to enrol the %eo%le in three tribes) !ne he 'ade to #onsist o$ the Theraeans and their &assals( another o$ the +elo%onnesians and Cretans( and a third o$ the &arious islanders) Besides this, he de%ri&ed the king Battus o$ his $or'er %ri&ileges, only reser&ing $or hi' #ertain sa#red lands and o$$i#es( while, with res%e#t to the %owers whi#h had hitherto been e.er#ised by the king, he ga&e the' all into the hands o$ the %eo%le) Thus 'atters rested during the li$eti'e o$ this Battus, but when his son *r#esilaus #a'e to the throne, great disturban#e arose about the %ri&ileges) For *r#esilaus, son o$ Battus the la'e and +hereti'a, re$used to sub'it to the arrange'ents o$ 5e'ona. the -antinean, and #lai'ed all the %owers o$ his $ore$athers) n the #ontention whi#h $ollowed *r#esilaus was worsted, whereu%on he $led to "a'os, while his 'other took re$uge at "ala'is in the island o$ Cy%rus) "ala'is was at that ti'e ruled by E&elthon, the sa'e who o$$ered at 5el%hi the #enser whi#h is in the treasury o$ the Corinthians, a work deser&ing o$ ad'iration) !$ hi' +hereti'a 'ade re,uest that he would gi&e her an ar'y whereby she and her son 'ight regain Cyrene) But E&elthon, %re$erring to gi&e her anything rather than an ar'y, 'ade her &arious %resents) +hereti'a a##e%ted the' all, saying, as she took the'0 9Good is this too, ! king> but better were it to gi&e 'e the ar'y whi#h #ra&e at thy hands)9 Finding that she re%eated these words ea#h ti'e that he %resented her with a

gi$t, E&elthon at last sent her a golden s%indle and dista$$, with the wool ready $or s%inning) *gain she uttered the sa'e s%ee#h as be$ore, whereu%on E&elthon re2oined79These are the gi$ts %resent to wo'en, not ar'ies)9 *t "a'os, 'eanwhile, *r#esilaus was #olle#ting troo%s by the %ro'ise o$ granting the' lands) Ha&ing in this way drawn together a &ast host, he sent to 5el%hi to #onsult the ora#le about his restoration) The answer o$ the +ythoness was this0 9Lo.ias grants thy ra#e to rule o&er Cyrene, till $our kings Battus, $our *r#esilaus by na'e, ha&e %assed away) Beyond this ter' o$ eight generations o$ 'en, he warns you not to seek to e.tend your reign) Thou, $or thy %art, be gentle, when thou art restored) $ thou $indest the o&en $ull o$ 2ars, bake not the 2ars( but be sure to s%eed the' on their way) $, howe&er, thou heatest the o&en, then a&oid the island else thou wilt die thysel$, and with thee the 'ost beauti$ul bull)9 "o s%ake the +ythoness) *r#esilaus u%on this returned to Cyrene, taking with hi' the troo%s whi#h he had raised in "a'os) There he obtained %ossession o$ the su%re'e %ower( whereu%on, $orget$ul o$ the ora#le, he took %ro#eedings against those who had dri&en hi' into banish'ent) "o'e o$ the' $led $ro' hi' and ,uitted the #ountry $or good( others $ell into his hands and were sent to su$$er death in Cy%rus) These last ha%%ening on their %assage to %ut in through stress o$ weather at Cnidus, the Cnidians res#ued the', and sent the' o$$ to Thera) *nother body $ound a re$uge in the great tower o$ *glo'a#hus, a %ri&ate edi$i#e, and were there destroyed by *r#esilaus, who hea%ed wood around the %la#e, and burnt the' to death) *ware, a$ter the deed was done, that this was what the +ythoness 'eant when she warned hi', i$ he $ound the 2ars in the o&en, not to bake the', he withdrew hi'sel$ o$ his own a##ord $ro' the #ity o$ Cyrene, belie&ing that to be the island o$ the ora#le, and $earing to die as had been %ro%hesied) Being 'arried to a relation o$ his own, a daughter o$ *la/ir, at that ti'e king o$ the Bar#aeans, he took u% his abode with hi') *t Bar#a, howe&er, #ertain o$ the #iti/ens, together with a nu'ber o$ Cyrenaean e.iles, re#ognising hi' as he walked in the $oru', killed hi'( they slew also at the sa'e ti'e *la/ir, his $ather7in7law) "o *r#esilaus, wittingly or unwittingly, disobeyed the ora#le, and thereby $ul$illed his destiny) +hereti'a, the 'other o$ *r#esilaus, during the ti'e that her son, a$ter working his own ruin, dwelt at Bar#a, #ontinued to en2oy all his %ri&ileges at Cyrene, 'anaging the go&ern'ent, and taking her seat at the #oun#il7board) 3o sooner, howe&er, did she hear o$ the death o$ her son at Bar#a, than lea&ing Cyrene, she $led in haste to Egy%t) *r#esilaus had #lai's $or ser&i#e done to Ca'byses, son o$ Cyrus( sin#e it was by hi' that Cyrene was %ut under the +ersian yoke, and a rate o$ tribute agreed u%on) +hereti'a there$ore went straight to Egy%t, and %resenting hersel$ as a su%%liant be$ore *ryandes,

entreated hi' to a&enge her wrongs) Her son, she said, had 'et his death on a##ount o$ his being so well a$$e#ted towards the -edes) 3ow *ryandes had been 'ade go&ernor o$ Egy%t by Ca'byses) He it was who in a$ter ti'es was %unished with death by 5arius $or seeking to ri&al hi') *ware, by re%ort and also by his own eyesight, that 5arius wished to lea&e a 'e'orial o$ hi'sel$, su#h as no king had e&er le$t be$ore, *ryandes resol&ed to $ollow his e.a'%le, and did so, till he got his reward) 5arius had re$ined gold to the last %er$e#tion o$ %urity in order to ha&e #oins stru#k o$ it0 *ryandes, in his Egy%tian go&ern'ent, did the &ery sa'e with sil&er, so that to this day there is no su#h %ure sil&er anywhere as the *ryandi#) 5arius, when this #a'e to his ears, brought another #harge, a #harge o$ rebellion, against *ryandes, and %ut hi' to death) *t the ti'e o$ whi#h we are s%eaking *ryandes, 'o&ed with #o'%assion $or +hereti'a, granted her all the $or#es whi#h there were in Egy%t, both land and sea) The #o''and o$ the ar'y he ga&e to *'asis, a -ara%hian( while Badres, one o$ the tribe o$ the +asargadae, was a%%ointed to lead the $leet) Be$ore the e.%edition, howe&er, le$t Egy%t, he sent a herald to Bar#a to in,uire who it was that had slain king *r#esilaus) The Bar#aeans re%lied 9that they, one and all, a#knowledged the deed7 *r#esilaus had done the' 'any and great in2uries)9 *$ter re#ei&ing this re%ly, *ryandes ga&e the troo%s orders to 'ar#h with +hereti'a) "u#h was the #ause whi#h ser&ed as a %rete.t $or this e.%edition0 its real ob2e#t was, belie&e, the sub2ugation o$ Libya) For Libya is inhabited by 'any and &arious ra#es, and o$ these but &ery $ew were sub2e#ts o$ the +ersian king, while by $ar the larger nu'ber held 5arius in no 'anner o$ res%e#t) The Libyans dwell in the order whi#h will now des#ribe) Beginning on the side o$ Egy%t, the $irst Libyans are the *dyr'a#hidae These %eo%le ha&e, in 'ost %oints, the sa'e #usto's as the Egy%tians, but use the #ostu'e o$ the Libyans) Their wo'en wear on ea#h leg a ring 'ade o$ bron/e( they let their hair grow long, and when they #at#h any &er'in on their %ersons, bite it and throw it away) n this they di$$er $ro' all the other Libyans) They are also the only tribe with who' the #usto' obtains o$ bringing all wo'en about to be#o'e brides be$ore the king, that he 'ay #hoose su#h as are agreeable to hi') The *dyr'a#hidae e.tend $ro' the borders o$ Egy%t to the harbour #alled +ort +lynus) 3e.t to the *dyr'a#hidae are the Gilliga''ae, who inhabit the #ountry westward as $ar as the island o$ *%hrodisias) !$$ this tra#t is the island o$ +latea, whi#h the Cyrenaeans #olonised) Here too, u%on the 'ainland, are +ort -enelaus, and */iris, where the Cyrenaeans on#e li&ed) The "il%hiu' begins to grow in this region, e.tending $ro' the island o$ +latea on the one side to the 'outh o$ the "yrtis on the other) The #usto's o$ the Gilliga''ae are like those o$ the rest o$ their #ountry'en)

The *sbystae ad2oin the Gilliga''ae u%on the west) They inhabit the regions abo&e Cyrene, but do not rea#h to the #oast, whi#h belongs to the Cyrenaeans) Four7horse #hariots are in 'ore #o''on use a'ong the' than a'ong any other Libyans) n 'ost o$ their #usto's they a%e the 'anners o$ the Cyrenaeans) 4estward o$ the *sbystae dwell the *us#hisae, who %ossess the #ountry abo&e Bar#a, rea#hing, howe&er, to the sea at the %la#e #alled Eues%erides) n the 'iddle o$ their territory is the little tribe o$ the Cabalians, whi#h tou#hes the #oast near Tau#hira, a #ity o$ the Bar#aeans) Their #usto's are like those o$ the Libyans abo&e Cyrene) The 3asa'onians, a nu'erous %eo%le, are the western neighbours o$ the *us#hisae) n su''er they lea&e their $lo#ks and herds u%on the sea7shore, and go u% the #ountry to a %la#e #alled *ugila, where they gather the dates $ro' the %al's, whi#h in those %arts grow thi#kly, and are o$ great si/e, all o$ the' being o$ the $ruit7bearing kind) They also #hase the lo#usts, and, when #aught, dry the' in the sun, a$ter whi#h they grind the' to %owder, and, s%rinkling this u%on their 'ilk, so drink it) Ea#h 'an a'ong the' has se&eral wi&es, in their inter#ourse with who' they rese'ble the -assagetae) The $ollowing are their #usto's in the swearing o$ oaths and the %ra#ti#e o$ augury) The 'an, as he swears, lays his hand u%on the to'b o$ so'e one #onsidered to ha&e been %re7e'inently 2ust and good, and so doing swears by his na'e) For di&ination they betake the'sel&es to the se%ul#hres o$ their own an#estors, and, a$ter %raying, lie down to slee% u%on their gra&es( by the drea's whi#h then #o'e to the' they guide their #ondu#t) 4hen they %ledge their $aith to one another, ea#h gi&es the other to drink out o$ his hand( i$ there be no li,uid to be had, they take u% dust $ro' the ground, and %ut their tongues to it) !n the #ountry o$ the 3asa'onians borders that o$ the +sylli, who were swe%t away under the $ollowing #ir#u'stan#es) The south7wind had blown $or a long ti'e and dried u% all the tanks in whi#h their water was stored) 3ow the whole region within the "yrtis is utterly de&oid o$ s%rings) *##ordingly the +sylli took #ounsel a'ong the'sel&es, and by #o''on #onsent 'ade war u%on the southwind7 so at least the Libyans say, do but re%eat their words7 they went $orth and rea#hed the desert( but there the south7wind rose and buried the' under hea%s o$ sand0 whereu%on, the +sylli being destroyed, their lands %assed to the 3asa'onians) *bo&e the 3asa'onians, towards the south, in the distri#t where the wild beasts abound, dwell the Gara'antians, who a&oid all so#iety or inter#ourse with their $ellow7'en, ha&e no wea%on o$ war, and do not know how to de$end the'sel&es) These border the 3asa'onians on the south0 westward along the sea7shore their neighbours are the -a#ea, who, by letting the lo#ks about the #rown o$ their head grow long, while they #li% the' #lose

he took on board the usual he#ato'b. he set sail. intending to #oast round the +elo%onnese. whi#h is bare) t is distant two hundred $urlongs $ro' the sea) *d2oining the -a#ae are the Gindanes. and o$$ered to show hi' the #hannel. seated hi'sel$ u%on it. a##ording to an ora#le) The $ollowing is the story as it is #o''only told) 4hen 8ason had $inished building the *rgo at the $oot o$ -ount +elion. and. 'ake their hair rese'ble a #rest) n war these %eo%le use the skins o$ ostri#hes $or shields) The ri&er Ciny%s rises a'ong the' $ro' the height #alled 9the Hill o$ the Gra#es.ui%%ed. who use the lotus to so'e e. Triton . when they heard the words o$ this %ro%he#y. was shown by Triton the %assage through the shallows( a$ter whi#h the god took the tri%od. but the -a#hlyans let it grow at the ba#k o$ the head. he got a'ong the shallows o$ Lake Tritonis) *s he was turning it in his 'ind how he should $ind his way out.9 and runs $ro' then#e through their #ountry to the sea) The Hill o$ the Gra#es is thi#kly #o&ered with wood.9 he said. in this lake. though not so 'u#h as the %eo%le o$ who' we last s%oke) The -a#hlyans rea#h as $ar as the great ri&er #alled the Triton. #arrying it to his own te'%le. who li&e entirely on the $ruit o$ the lotus7tree) The lotus $ruit is about the si/e o$ the lentisk berry.t tribe beyond the -a#hlyans is the tribe o$ the *useans) Both these nations inhabit the borders o$ Lake Tritonis. and se#ure hi' a sa$e retreat. 9o$ one o$ the *rgo1s #rew should sei/e and #arry o$$ the bra/en tri%od.they say< a%%eared to hi'. and is thus &ery unlike the rest o$ Libya. deli&ered to 8ason and his #o'%anions a long %redi#tion) 94hen a des#endant. took away the tri%od and hid it) The ne. $illed with %ro%heti# $ury. whi#h it is said the La#edae'onians were to ha&e #olonised. while the *useans ha&e it long in $ront) The *usean 'aidens kee% . i$ he would gi&e hi' the tri%od) 8ason #o'%lying. and so to rea#h 5el%hi) The &oyage was %ros%erous as $ar as -alea( but at that %oint a gale o$ wind $ro' the north #a'e on suddenly. and. then by ine&itable $ate would a hundred Gre#ian #ities be built around Lake Tritonis)9 The Libyans o$ that region. and #arried hi' out o$ his #ourse to the #oast o$ Libya( where. whose wo'en wear on their legs anklets o$ leather) Ea#h lo&er that a wo'an has gi&es her one( and she who #an show the 'ost is the best estee'ed. whi#h e'%ties itsel$ into the great lake Tritonis) Here. be$ore he dis#o&ered the land.tent.e&erywhere else. as she a%%ears to ha&e been lo&ed by the greatest nu'ber o$ 'en) * %ro'ontory 2utting out into the sea $ro' the #ountry o$ the Gindanes is inhabited by the Loto%hagi. is an island #alled +hla. being se%arated $ro' one another by the ri&er Triton) Both also wear their hair long. and in sweetness rese'bles the date) The Loto%hagi e&en su##eed in obtaining $ro' it a sort o$ wine) The sea7#oast beyond the Loto%hagi is o##u%ied by the -a#hlyans. and 'oreo&er a bra/en tri%od) Thus e.

the *useans de#lare that su#h are $alse 'aidens) Be$ore the $ight is su$$ered to begin. till. #annot say) i'agine they dressed the' in Egy%tian ar'our. they water their gardens) *s the a$ternoon ad&an#es the #oldness goes o$$. li&ing. who #onsented to let her be his #hild( and so she be#a'e his ado%ted daughter) These %eo%le do not 'arry or li&e in $a'ilies. whi#h is held e&ery third 'onth. the i'age o$ 8u%iter has a $a#e like that o$ a ra') The *''onians ha&e another s%ring besides that whi#h rises $ro' the salt) The water o$ this strea' is lukewar' at early dawn( at the ti'e when the 'arket $ills it is 'u#h #ooler( by noon it has grown . and grows less and less hot till 'orning #o'es) This s%ring is #alled 9the Fountain o$ the "un)9 3e. they are brought be$ore the asse'bly o$ the 'en. and assigned to those who' they 'ost rese'ble) "u#h are the tribes o$ wandering Libyans dwelling u%on the sea7#oast) *bo&e the' inland is the wild7beast tra#t0 and beyond that. but dwell together like the gregarious beasts) 4hen their #hildren are $ull7grown. and that they honour with the' their nati&e goddess. about sunset. is sele#ted $ro' the rest( a Corinthian hel'et and a #o'%lete suit o$ Greek ar'our are %ubli#ly %ut u%on her( and. who is the sa'e as the -iner&a .year by year a $east in honour o$ -iner&a. and a%%lied to 8u%iter. thus adorned. the lo&eliest o$ the nu'ber. whereat their #usto' is to draw u% in two bodies. there$ore.uarrelled with her $ather.uite #old( at this ti'e. $or 'aintain that both the shield and the hel'et #a'e into Gree#e $ro' Egy%t) The *useans de#lare that -iner&a is the daughter o$ 3e%tune and the Lake Tritonis7 they say she . she is 'ade to 'ount into a #hariot. they ha&e another #ere'ony) !ne o$ the &irgins. 'ore inland than the wild7beast distri#t) !$ these nations the $irst is that o$ the *''onians. as 'entioned abo&e. and led around the whole lake in a %ro#ession) 4hat ar's they used $or the adorn'ent o$ their da'sels be$ore the Greeks #a'e to li&e in their #ountry. at the distan#e o$ ten days1 2ourney . and at 'idnight it boils $uriously) *$ter this ti'e it again begins to #ool.t to the *''onians. and $ight with stones and #lubs) They say that these are rites whi#h ha&e #o'e down to the' $ro' their $athers. who dwell at a distan#e o$ ten days1 $ro' Thebes. at the distan#e o$ about ten days1 2ourney $ro' one another. whi#h is both #old and sweet) *round dwell 'en who are the last inhabitants o$ Libya on the side o$ the desert. the water is on#e 'ore lukewar'( still the heat in#reases. as they do. hea%s o$ salt in large lu'%s lie u%on hills) *t the to% o$ e&ery hill there gushes $orth $ro' the 'iddle o$ the salt a strea' o$ water. and ha&e a te'%le deri&ed $ro' that o$ the Theban 8u%iter) For at Thebes likewise. a ridge o$ sand. rea#hing $ro' Egy%tian Thebes to the +illars o$ Her#ules) Throughout this ridge.*thene< o$ the Gre#ians) $ any o$ the 'aidens die o$ the wounds they re#ei&e.

and other si'ilar re%tiles) Their language is unlike that o$ any other %eo%le( it sounds like the s#ree#hing o$ bats) *t the distan#e o$ ten days1 2ourney $ro' the Gara'antians there is again another salt7hill and s%ring o$ water( around whi#h dwell a %eo%le.tends as $ar as the +illars o$ Her#ules. in whi#h they #hase the Troglodyte Ethio%ians. being #alled *tlantes) They are re%orted not to eat any li&ing thing. with no s%rings. white and %ur%le) Beyond the ridge. as they do also at the other salt7hills) This region is inhabited by a nation #alled the Gara'antians. and e&en $urther than these( and throughout the whole distan#e. who alone o$ all known nations are destitute o$ na'es) The title o$ *tarantians is borne by the whole ra#e in #o''on( but the 'en ha&e no %arti#ular na'es o$ their own) The *tarantians.they say< he burns and wastes both their #ountry and the'sel&es) !n#e 'ore at the distan#e o$ ten days1 there is a salt7hill. the #ountry is a desert. and a se#ond s%ring) The #ountry round is inhabited. a s%ring.uitting it either su''er or winter) The nati&es #all this 'ountain 9the +illar o$ Hea&en9( and they the'sel&es take their na'e $ro' it.along the ridge o$ sand. #alled the *tarantians. the #louds ne&er . and $urther in the thi#kness and hardness o$ their hides) The Gara'antians ha&e $our7horse #hariots. who #o&er the salt with 'ould. the walls o$ these houses #ould not stand) The salt . no beasts. a &ery %ower$ul %eo%le. in the dire#tion o$ the interior. .it is said< #annot be seen. as they gra/e. with %eo%le dwelling round it who all o$ the' build their houses with blo#ks o$ the salt) 3o rain $alls in these %arts o$ Libya( i$ it were otherwise. 'oreo&er. sin#e in that #ase their horns would be#o'e $i. &ery ta%er and round( so lo$ty. li/ards. and an inhabited tra#t) 3ear the salt is a 'ountain #alled *tlas. and the %la#e bears the na'e o$ *ugila) Hither it is that the 3asa'onians #o'e to gather in the dates) Ten days1 2ourney $ro' *ugila there is again a salt7hill and a s%ring( %al's o$ the $ruit$ul kind grow here abundantly. when the sun rises high in the hea&en. that the to% .en whi#h. and then sow their #ro%s) Fro' then#e is the shortest road to the Luto%hagi. southwards. so that it is not %ossible $or the' when gra/ing to 'o&e $orwards. at the end o$ e&ery ten days1 there is a salt7'ine. who o$ all the nations whereo$ any a##ount has rea#hed our ears are by $ar the swi$test o$ $oot) The Troglodytes $eed on ser%ents. be#ause .en.ed in the ground) !nly herein do they di$$er $ro' other o. and ne&er to ha&e any drea's) *s $ar as the *tlantes the na'es o$ the nations inhabiting the sandy ridge are known to 'e( but beyond the' 'y knowledge $ails) The ridge itsel$ e.uarried is o$ two #olours. a 2ourney o$ thirty days) n the Gara'antian #ountry are $ound the o. there is a se#ond salt7hill like the *''onian. and load hi' with re%roa#hes. #urse hi'. walk ba#kwards) This they do be#ause their horns #ur&e outwards in $ront o$ their heads.

#annot %ositi&ely say7 the healthiest #ertainly they are) $ when the #hildren are being burnt #on&ulsions #o'e on. and her *egis. honouring in this sis. no wood. but also $ro' the $lesh o$ swine) 4est o$ Lake Tritonis the Libyans are no longer wanderers. nor do they %ra#tise the sa'e #usto's as the wandering %eo%le. the last es%e#ially) The dress wherewith -iner&a1s statues are adorned.no rain. howe&er. the Egy%tian goddess. in all else the dress o$ both is e. e. burn the &eins at the to% o$ their heads with a $lo#k $ro' the $lee#e o$ a shee%0 others burn the &eins about the te'%les) This they do to %re&ent the' $ro' being %lagued in their a$ter li&es by a $low o$ rheu' $ro' the head( and su#h they de#lare is the reason why they are so 'u#h 'ore healthy than other 'en) Certainly the Libyans are the healthiest 'en that know( but whether this is what 'akes the' so. whi#h they #ut o$$ and throw o&er their house0 this done. who thus treated. or treat their #hildren in the sa'e way) For the wandering Libyans. 3e%tune. and altogether destitute o$ 'oisture) Thus $ro' Egy%t as $ar as Lake Tritonis Libya is inhabited by wandering tribes. or not. there is a re'edy o$ whi#h they ha&e 'ade dis#o&ery) t is to s%rinkle goat1s water u%on the #hild. but abstain $ro' it $or the sa'e reason as the Egy%tians. and -iner&a. is sure to re#o&er) n all this only re%eat what is said by the Libyans) The rites whi#h the wandering Libyans use in sa#ri$i#ing are the $ollowing) They begin with the ear o$ the &i#ti'. and their $ringes 'ade o$ leathern thongs instead o$ ser%ents.a#tly alike) The na'e too itsel$ shows that the 'ode o$ dressing the +allas7statues #a'e $ro' Libya) For the Libyan wo'en wear o&er their dress stri%t o$ the hair. 'any o$ the' at any rate.#e%t that the gar'ents o$ the Libyan wo'en are o$ leather. neither do they any o$ the' breed swine) E&en at Cyrene. the wo'en think it wrong to eat the $lesh o$ the #ow. none o$ these tribes e&er taste. not $ro' #ow1s $lesh only. $ringed at their edges. whose drink is 'ilk and their $ood the $lesh o$ ani'als) Cow1s $lesh. were deri&ed by the Greeks $ro' the wo'en o$ Libya) For. who' they worshi% both with $asts and $esti&als) The Bar#aean wo'en abstain. but not to any other god) This worshi% is #o''on to all the Libyans) The inhabitants o$ the %arts about Lake Tritonis worshi% in addition Triton. i$ not all7 #on#erning whi#h #annot s%eak with #ertainty7 when their #hildren #o'e to the age o$ $our years. they kill the ani'al by twisting the ne#k) They sa#ri$i#e to the "un and -oon. and #oloured with &er'ilion( and $ro' these goat7skins the Greeks get their word *egis .goat7harness<) think $or 'y %art that the loud #ries uttered in our sa#red rites #a'e also $ro' then#e( $or the Libyan wo'en are greatly gi&en to su#h #ries and utter the' &ery sweetly) Likewise the Greeks learnt $ro' the Libyans to yoke $our horses to a #hariot) .

whereo$ there is ine. land7#ro#odiles about three #ubits in length. 2a#kals.#e%t the 3asa'onians) They bury the' sitting. who' the Libyans de#lare to ha&e their eyes in their breasts( and also the wild 'en. di#tyes. where the wanderers dwell. and whose si/e is about that o$ the o. howe&er. and the #reatures without heads. howe&er. three sorts o$ 'i#e in these %arts( the $irst are #alled two7$ooted( the ne. are the ani'als belonging to the land o$ the wandering Libyans. hyaenas %or#u%ines. 'u#h like the Tartessian) "o 'any. as the Carthaginians re%ort.*ll the wandering tribes bury their dead a##ording to the $ashion o$ the Greeks. ea#h with a single horn) *ll these ani'als are $ound here. whose wi&es dri&e their #hariots to battle) !n the' border the Gy/antians( in whose #ountry a &ast deal o$ honey is 'ade by bees( &ery 'u#h 'ore. by the skill o$ 'en) The %eo%le all %aint the'sel&es red. and eat 'onkeys.#e%t the stag and the wild boar( but neither stag nor wild7boar are $ound in any %art o$ Libya) There are. and the lions. bu$$aloes. ostri#hes. and likewise those belonging to other #ountries.yans) They let the hair grow long on the right side o$ their heads. ga/elles.es. /egeries. boryes.es. but o$ a kind whi#h does not need to drink( also ory. and asses. wild ra's. and sha&e it #lose on the le$t( they bes'ear their bodies with red %aint( and they say that they are des#ended $ro' the 'en o$ Troy) Their #ountry and the re'ainder o$ Libya towards the west is $ar $uller o$ wild beasts and o$ wood than the #ountry o$ the wandering %eo%le) For the eastern side o$ Libya.uite other ani'als( as antelo%es. and are right #are$ul when the si#k 'an is at the %oint o$ gi&ing u% the ghost.haustible store in the hills) !$$ their #oast. %anthers. and 'any other $ar less $abulous beasts) *'ong the wanderers are none o$ these. to 'ake hi' sit and not let hi' die lying down) The dwellings o$ these %eo%le are 'ade o$ the ste's o$ the as%hodel. but . whi#h is a Libyan word 'eaning 9hills9( and the third. ur#hins) 4easels also are $ound in the "il%hiu' region.( $o. is low and sandy. the as%i#ks. whose horns are used $or the #ur&ed sides o$ #itherns. and little snakes. are other Libyans who till the ground. e. by . not o$ the horned sort. and li&e in houses0 these %eo%le are na'ed the -a. in so $ar at least as 'y resear#hes ha&e been able to rea#h) 3e. the ele%hants.yan Libyans are the Ka&e#ians. and wild wo'en. &ery like li/ards. lies an island. and o$ rushes wattled together) They #an be #arried $ro' %la#e to %la#e) "u#h are the #usto's o$ the a$ore7'entioned tribes) 4estward o$ the ri&er Triton and ad2oining u%on the *useans. and abounds with $orests and wild beasts) For this is the tra#t in whi#h the huge ser%ents are $ound. as $ar as the ri&er Triton( but westward o$ that the land o$ the husband'en is &ery hilly. the bears.t to the -a.t. and the horned asses) Here too are the dog7$a#ed #reatures. e. there$ore.

its breadth not great. whi#h is no less than $our $urlongs distant) "o then what is said o$ the island o$$ the Libyan #oast is not without likelihood) The Carthaginians also relate the $ollowing07 There is a #ountry in Libya. $our nations. they go aboard shi% on#e 'ore. howe&er( sin#e 'ysel$ ha&e seen %it#h drawn u% out o$ the water $ro' a lake in Ka#ynthus) *t the %la#e s%eak o$ there are a nu'ber o$ lakes( but one is larger than the rest. whi#h in s'ell is like to bitu'en.ual to any #ountry in the world $or #ereal #ro%s. and there is in the island a lake. inhabit it( and two o$ these nations are indigenous. and. with a bun#h o$ 'yrtle tied to one end. $or the king o$ the -edes) !ne thing 'ore also #an add #on#erning this region. raise a great s'oke) The nati&es. ha&ing dis%osed the' a$ter an orderly $ashion along the bea#h. and two $atho's in de%th) Here they let down a %ole into the water. while two are not) The two indigenous are the Libyans and Ethio%ians. beyond the +illars o$ Her#ules. whi#h is na'ed a$ter the ri&er that waters it) This %ie#e o$ land is e. e. that. na'ely. and. they draw it o$$ and %ut it u% in 2ars) 4hate&er $alls into the lake %asses underground. when they see the s'oke. and. so $ar as our knowledge rea#hes. and #o'es u% in the sea. and s%rings o$ water abound( . and wait %atiently) Then the others a%%roa#h and add to their gold. by di%%ing into the 'ud birds1 $eathers s'eared with %it#h) $ this be true. and when they raise it again. whi#h they are wont to &isit. nor do the nati&es e&er #arry o$$ the goods till the gold is taken away) These be the Libyan tribes whereo$ a' able to gi&e the na'es( and 'ost o$ these #ared little then.na'e Cyraunis. there is %it#h sti#king to the 'yrtle. the length o$ whi#h is two hundred $urlongs. #o'e down to the shore. and is in nothing like the rest o$ Libya) For the soil here is bla#k. but in all else is better than the %it#h o$ +ieria) This they %our into a tren#h dug by the lake1s side( and when a good deal has thus been got together. know not( but write what is said) t 'ay be e&en so. and whi#h is soon rea#hed $ro' the 'ainland) @ines and oli&e trees #o&er the whole o$ it. and indeed #are little now. $ro' whi#h the young 'aidens o$ the #ountry draw u% gold7dust. and no 'ore. laying out to &iew so 'u#h gold as they think the worth o$ the wares. being se&enty $eet e&ery way. till the Carthaginians are #ontent) 3either %arty deals un$airly by the other0 $or they the'sel&es ne&er tou#h the gold till it #o'es u% to the worth o$ their goods. lea&e the'. where they no sooner arri&e but $orthwith they unlade their wares. and a nation. who dwell res%e#ti&ely in the north and the south o$ Libya) The +hoeni#ians and the Greek are in7#o'ers) t see's to 'e that Libya is not to #o'%are $or goodness o$ soil with either *sia or Euro%e. withdraw to a distan#e) The Carthaginians u%on this #o'e ashore and look) $ they think the gold enough. they take it and go their way( but i$ it does not see' to the' su$$i#ient. returning aboard their shi%s.#e%t the Ciny%s region.

howe&er. the #ro%s o$ the 'iddle tra#t abo&e the #oast region . a$ter whi#h he brought 'ould and %la#ed it u%on the %lanks. the oath shall abide un#hanged( the %eo%le o$ Bar#a agree to %ay a $air su' to the king. whi#h is the highest tra#t within the %art o$ Libya inhabited by the wandering tribes. nor had the +ersians lost $ewer than their ad&ersaries.so that there is nothing to $ear $ro' drought( nor do hea&y rains . the $ruits ri%en and are $it $or #utting in the highest tra#t o$ all) "o that the %rodu#e o$ the $irst tra#t has been all eaten and drunk by the ti'e that the last har&est #o'es in) *nd the har&est7ti'e o$ the Cyrenaeans #ontinues thus $or eight $ull 'onths) "o 'u#h #on#erning these 'atters) 4hen the +ersians sent $ro' Egy%t by *ryandes to hel% +hereti'a rea#hed Bar#a. and the .uered by $or#e. and are ready $or the har&est and the &intage( a$ter they ha&e been gathered in.the hill7#ountry.and it rains in that %art o$ Libya< do any har' when they soak the ground) The returns o$ the har&est #o'e u% to the 'easure whi#h %re&ails in Babylonia) The soil is likewise good in the #ountry o$ the Eues%erites( $or there the land brings $orth in the best years a hundred7$old) But the Ciny%s region yields three hundred7$old) The #ountry o$ the Cyrenaeans. the Bar#aeans beat the' ba#k) 4hen 'u#h ti'e had been #onsu'ed. they laid siege to the town. although the Bar#aeans would ne&er be #on. taking #are to 'ake the %la#e le&el with the surrounding ground) *t dawn o$ day he su''oned the Bar#aeans to a %arley0 and they gladly hearkening. the Bar#aeans #ounter'ined. #ontri&ed as $ollows !ne night he dug a wide tren#h. and laid light %lanks o$ wood a#ross the o%ening. and laid it on the ground inside the #ity) n other +la#es the shield. who went with a bra/en shield all round the $ortress. and likewise 'ade a nu'ber o$ &igorous assaults) But their 'ines were dis#o&ered by a 'an who was a worker in brass. has three seasons that deser&e re'ark) First the #ro%s along the sea7#oast begin to ri%en. and slew the +ersian diggers) "u#h was the way in whi#h the 'ines were dis#o&ered( as $or the assaults. as they #all it< need har&esting( while about the ti'e when this 'iddle #ro% is housed. re$used to entertain the %ro%osition) "o the +ersians beleaguered Bar#a $or nine 'onths. #alling on those within to gi&e u% the 'en who had been guilty o$ the 'urder o$ *r#esilaus) The towns%eo%le. and the agree'ent ran thus7 9"o long as the ground beneath our $eet stands $ir'.uite du'b( but where the ground was under'ined. was . *'asis. there the brass o$ the shield rang) Here. and great nu'bers had $allen on both sides. %er#ei&ing that. there$ore. the leader o$ the land7ar'y. in the #ourse o$ whi#h they dug se&eral 'ines $ro' their own lines to the walls. when he laid it down. the ter's were at length agreed u%on) !aths were inter#hanged u%on the ground o&er the hidden tren#h. they 'ight be o&er#o'e by $raud. as they had one and all taken %art in the deed.

to who' she handed o&er the %ossession o$ the town) The +ersians now set out on their return ho'e. e. would not #onsent( 9be#ause. the Bar#aeans. slew all who dro%%ed behind and straggled.+ersians %ro'ise to #ause no $urther trouble to the %eo%le o$ Bar#a)9 *$ter the oath. these #onsenting. and they ran a distan#e o$ $ull si.#e%t only the Battiadae and those who had taken no %art in the 'urder. they had %assed through the town. a 'essenger #a'e to the' $ro' *ryandes. Bares. the leader o$ the land7$or#e. relying u%on its ter's. let the' %ass through the town) 5uring the %assage. out o$ regard $or an ora#le. yet a %ani# #a'e u%on the +ersians. there$ore. the oath #eased to hold) "u#h o$ the Bar#aeans as were 'ost guilty the +ersians ga&e u% to +hereti'a. and $astened the' likewise about the walls) The re'ainder o$ the %eo%le she ga&e as booty to the +ersians. and. she was o&ertaken by a 'ost horrid death) Her body swar'ed with wor's. would not su$$er this( whereu%on. howe&er. ad&ised to sei/e the %la#e( but *'asis. they set o$$ on their return to Egy%t) But the Libyans now beset the'. and were en#a'%ed u%on the hill o$ Ly#aean 8o&e. and allowed as 'any o$ the ene'y as #hose to enter) Then the +ersians broke down their se#ret bridge. went out the'sel&es beyond the walls. dire#tly a$ter taking &engean#e on the %eo%le o$ Bar#a. and they endea&oured to enter it a se#ond ti'e) The Cyrenaeans. the bridge was on#e broken down. howe&er. ordering the' ho'e) Then the +ersians besought the 'en o$ Cyrene to gi&e the' %ro&isions $or the way. the #o''ander o$ the $leet. by o&er7harsh %unish'ents. draw down u%on the'sel&es . and it was to 'y ti'e an inhabited %la#e in Ba#tria) 3or did +hereti'a hersel$ end her days ha%%ily) For on her return to Egy%t $ro' Libya.ty $urlongs be$ore they %it#hed their #a'%) Here as they lay. and rushed at s%eed into the town7 their reason $or breaking the bridge being that so they 'ight obser&e what they had sworn( $or they had %ro'ised the Bar#aeans that the oath should #ontinue 9so long as the ground whereon they stood was $ir')9 4hen. it re%ented the' that they had not sei/ed Cyrene. and. 9they had only been #harged to atta#k the one Greek #ity o$ Bar#a)9 4hen. during the whole 'ar#h ho'ewards) The $urthest %oint o$ Libya rea#hed by this +ersian host was the #ity o$ Eues%erides) The Bar#aeans #arried into sla&ery were sent $ro' Egy%t to the king( and 5arius assigned the' a &illage in Ba#tria $or their dwelling7%la#e) To this &illage they ga&e the na'e o$ Bar#a.9 he said. threw o%en all their gates. though no one a%%eared to o$$er the' battle. #arrying with the' the rest o$ the Bar#aeans. $or the sake o$ their #lothes and harness. who nailed the' to #rosses all round the walls o$ the #ity) "he also #ut o$$ the breasts o$ their wi&es. whi#h ate her $lesh while she was still ali&e) Thus do 'en. who' they had 'ade their sla&es) !n their way they #a'e to Cyrene( and the Cyrenaeans.

but ha&e #usto's at births and deaths whi#h will now des#ribe) 4hen a #hild is born all its kindred sit round about it in a #ir#le and wee% $or the woes it will ha&e to undergo now . the Trausi.the anger o$ the gods) "u#h then. in their 2oy had raised the %aean( when the +aeonians stru#k by the thought that this was what the ora#le had 'eant. a$ter a bra&e struggle $or $reedo'. when the #a'%s $a#ed one another. who had -egaba/us $or their general. e. o$ #ourse. was the stri$e waged( and the +erinthians. Entitled TER+" CH!RE The +ersians le$t behind by ?ing 5arius in Euro%e.#e%t. the ndians( and i$ they had one head. be$ore any other Helles%ontine state. 93ow o$ a surety has the ora#le been $ul$illed $or us( now our work begins)9 Then the +aeonians set u%on the +erinthians in the 'idst o$ their %aean.uer Thra#e) The Thra#ians are the 'ost %ower$ul %eo%le in the world. and dog to dog. or were agreed a'ong the'sel&es. daughter o$ Battus. and those who dwell abo&e the %eo%le o$ Creston) 3ow the 'anners and #usto's o$ the Getae. and i$ these latter. winners o$ two #o'bats out o$ the three. and that they would &ery $ar sur%ass all other nations) But su#h union is i'%ossible $or the'. the +aeonians) For the +aeonians $ro' about the "try'on were on#e bidden by an ora#le to 'ake war u%on the +erinthians. #hallenged the' by na'e to $ight. was the &engean#e whi#h +hereti'a. not to 'ake the ha/ard) The +aeonians $ollowed the ad&i#e) 3ow the 'en o$ +erinthus drew out to 'eet the' in the skirts o$ their #ity( and a three$old single #o'bat was $ought on #hallenge gi&en) -an to 'an. e. took u%on the Bar#aeans) The Fi$th Book. and horse to horse. who belie&e in their i''ortality. saying. it is 'y belie$ that their 'at#h #ould not be $ound anywhere. and there are no 'eans o$ e&er bringing it about) Herein there$ore #onsists their weakness) The Thra#ians bear 'any na'es in the di$$erent regions o$ their #ountry. the %eo%le o$ +erinthus. whi#h ha%%ened a long ti'e %re&iously) *t this ti'e the +erinthians. ha&e already s%oken o$) The Trausi in all else rese'ble the other Thra#ians. -egaba/us led his host through Thra#e.#e%ting only the Getae. and de$eated the' utterly. but all o$ the' ha&e like usages in e&ery res%e#t. and so $ier#e. then to &enture on a battle. subduing to the do'inion o$ the king all the towns and all the nations o$ those %arts) For the king1s #o''and to hi' was that he should #on. but i$ otherwise. lea&ing but $ew o$ the' ali&e) "u#h was the a$$air o$ the +aeonians. who had no 'ind to be#o'e sub2e#ts o$ the king) 3ow the +erinthians had ere this been roughly handled by another nation. %assed the word one to another. were o&er#o'e by nu'bers. and yielded to -egaba/us and his +ersians) *$ter +erinthus had been brought under. redu#ed.

-ars. and en2oys the #o'%letest ha%%iness) The Thra#ians who li&e abo&e the Crestonaeans obser&e the $ollowing #usto's) Ea#h 'an a'ong the' has se&eral wi&es( and no sooner does a 'an die than a shar% #ontest ensues a'ong the wi&es u%on the . and 5ian) Their kings. and to be a tiller o$ the ground the 'ost dishonourable) To li&e by war and %lunder is o$ all things the 'ost glorious) These are the 'ost re'arkable o$ their #usto's) The gods whi#h they worshi% are but three. who wear. $i&e $ingers in length) They are a s'all breed. they bury hi' with laughter and re2oi#ings. they say. they raise a 'ound o&er the gra&e. on the other hand. a 'an has died. a$ter $irst bewailing the de%arted) Then they either burn the body or else bury it in the ground) Lastly. and they #all the'sel&es #olonists o$ the -edes( but how they #an be #olonists o$ the -edes . a dress like the -edes. and $east u%on the'. unlike the rest o$ the #iti/ens. and hold ga'es o$ all sorts. is slain o&er the gra&e by the hand o$ her ne. but lea&e the' altogether $ree. whi#h is the reason why the %eo%le o$ that #ountry use #hariots) Their borders rea#h down al'ost to the Eneti u%on the *driati# "ea. while on the #ondu#t o$ their wi&es they kee% a 'ost stri#t wat#h) Brides are %ur#hased o$ their %arents $or large su's o$ 'oney) Tattooing a'ong the' 'arks noble birth.t o$ kin. worshi% -er#ury 'ore than any other god. and ha&e horses whi#h are #o&ered entirely with a #oat o$ shaggy hair. 'aking 'ention o$ e&ery ill that $alls to the lot o$ hu'ankind( when. a$ter re#ei&ing the %raises both o$ 'en and wo'en.uestion whi#h o$ the' all the husband lo&ed 'ost tenderly( the $riends o$ ea#h eagerly %lead on her behal$.that it is #o'e into the world. always swearing by his na'e. $or nothing is #onsidered su#h a disgra#e) The Thra#ians who do not belong to these tribes ha&e the #usto's whi#h $ollow) They sell their #hildren to traders) !n their 'aidens they kee% no wat#h. and de#laring that they are the'sel&es s%rung $ro' hi') Their wealthy ones are buried in the $ollowing $ashion) The body is laid out $or three days( and during this ti'e they kill &i#ti's o$ all kinds. howe&er. and not strong enough to bear 'en on their ba#ks( but when yoked to #hariots. they are a'ong the swi$test known. $lat7nosed. and she to who' the honour is ad2udged. and say that now he is $ree $ro' a host o$ su$$erings. and the want o$ it low birth) To be idle is a##ounted the 'ost honourable thing. wherein the single #o'bat is awarded the highest %ri/e) "u#h is the 'ode o$ burial a'ong the Thra#ians) *s regards the region lying north o$ this #ountry no one #an say with any #ertainty what 'en inhabit it) t a%%ears that you no sooner #ross the ster than you enter on an inter'inable wilderness) The only %eo%le o$ who' #an hear as dwelling beyond the ster are the ra#e na'ed "igynnae. and then buried with her husband) The others are sorely grie&ed. Ba##hus.

and ordered so'e o$ his guard to $ollow her ste%s. and not a king.uested the so&ereignty o$ -ytilene) Both alike obtained their re. and straight7way betook the'sel&es to the %la#es whi#h they had #hosen) t #han#ed in the 'eanti'e that ?ing 5arius saw a sight whi#h deter'ined hi' to bid -egaba/us re'o&e the +aeonians $ro' their seats in Euro%e and trans%ort the' to *sia) There were two +aeonians. while she still ke%t twirling the s%indle) ?ing 5arius was $ull o$ wonder both at what they who had wat#hed . and wat#h to see what she would do with the horse) "o the s%ear'en went( and the wo'an. nor any o$ the dwellers in *sia. while a'ong the Cy%rians the word 'eans s%ears) *##ording to the a##ount whi#h the Thra#ians gi&e. while all the way as she went she s%an $la. did not 'ake re. than he bethought hi'sel$ o$ the good deed o$ Histiaeus the -ilesian.uest $or any go&ern'ent besides. they waited till a day #a'e when the king sat in state in the suburb o$ the Lydians( and then dressing their sister in the ri#hest gear they #ould. these 'en #a'e to "ardis. but asked 5arius to gi&e hi' -yr#inus o$ the Edonians. who was a tall and beauti$ul wo'an) Ha&ing so done. #a'e ba#k the sa'e way she had gone. re. and bade the' ea#h #ra&e a boon at his hands) 3ow Histiaeus. to do as she did) 5arius a##ordingly noted her. +igres and -antyes. sent her to draw water $or the') "he bore a %it#her u%on her head. and brought with the' their sister. on a##ount o$ whi#h it is i'%ossible to %enetrate $arther) But in this they see' to 'e to say what has no likelihood( $or it is #ertain that those #reatures are &ery i'%atient o$ #old) rather belie&e that it is on a##ount o$ the #old that the regions whi#h lie under the Bear are without inhabitants) "u#h then are the a##ounts gi&en o$ this #ountry. $irst watered the horse. where he wished to build hi' a #ity) "u#h was the #hoi#e that Histiaeus 'ade) Coes. and then $illing the %it#her. whose a'bition it was to obtain the so&ereignty o&er their #ountry'en) *s soon there$ore as e&er 5arius #rossed into *sia.uests. and the good #ounsel o$ the -ytilenean Coes) He there$ore sent $or both o$ the' to "ardis. as he was a 'ere burgher.) 3ow as she %assed by where the king was. the #ountry beyond the ster is %ossessed by bees. on the other hand. as he was already king o$ -iletus.$or 'y %art #annot i'agine) "till nothing is i'%ossible in the long la%se o$ ages) "igynnae is the na'e whi#h the Ligurians who dwell abo&e -assilia gi&e to traders. and the horse dragging u%on her ar'. when she #a'e to the ri&er. the sea7#oast whereo$ -egaba/us was now e'%loyed in sub2e#ting to the +ersians) ?ing 5arius had no sooner #rossed the Helles%ont and rea#hed "ardis. 5arius took noti#e o$ her( $or it was neither like the +ersians nor the Lydians. with the %it#her o$ water u%on her head. and with one ar' led a horse.

when they heard that all their towns were taken. who knew that they had #olle#ted. #rossing it. and they likewise who inhabited Lake +rasias. %oured down u%on their #ities. but sin#e that ti'e the #usto' whi#h has %re&ailed about $i. sin#e they thought the +ersians would endea&our to enter their #ountry on that side) Here then they stood in readiness to o%%ose the ar'y o$ -egaba/us) But the +ersians. and bring the' into his %resen#e. and the "try'on was at no great distan#e $ro' the Helles%ont) The +aeonians. they said.uestions. got guides. and %ro#ured guides $ro' Thra#e. 'en. and ga&e the'sel&es u% to the +ersians) *nd so these tribes o$ the +aeonians. $urther. the #o''ander who' he had le$t behind in Thra#e. and were gone to kee% guard at the %ass near the sea. they gathered the'sel&es together. $ro' whi#h the 'en had all 'ar#hed out( and $inding the' e'%ty. and taking the inland route be$ore the +aeonians were aware. and #hildren) *nd straightway a horse'an took the 'essage. and in what %art o$ the world they li&ed: and. and the !do'antians. to wit.ed in their %la#es by the whole body o$ the #iti/ens. were torn $ro' their seats and led away into *sia) They on the other hand who dwelt about -ount +angaeu' and in the #ountry o$ the 5oberes. were #olonists o$ the Teu#rians $ro' Troy) 4hen they had thus answered his . as soon as he had read it. the "iro%aeonians. but #ould not e$$e#t his %ur%ose) Their 'anner o$ li&ing is the $ollowing) +lat$or's su%%orted u%on tall %iles stand in the 'iddle o$ the lake. =es( $or this was the &ery ob2e#t with whi#h the whole thing had been done) "o 5arius wrote letters to -egaba/us.the wo'an told hi'. and ordered hi' to re'o&e the +aeonians $ro' their own land. 94ho the +aeonians were.ing the' is this07 . easily got %ossession o$ the') Then the 'en. and 'ar#hed down to the sea7#oast. the *grianians. wo'en. whi#h are a%%roa#hed $ro' the land by a single narrow bridge) *t the $irst the %iles whi#h bear u% the %lat$or's were $i. were not #on.uered by -egaba/us) He sought indeed to subdue the dwellers u%on the lake. the +aeo%lians and all the others as $ar as Lake +rasias. who had been wat#hing e&erything a little way o$$) Then 5arius asked the' o$ what nation the wo'an was( and the young 'en re%lied that they were +aeonians. s#attered this way and that to their ho'es. and +aeonia was a #ountry u%on the ri&er "try'on. what business had brought the young 'en to "ardis:9 Then the brothers told hi' they had #o'e to %ut the'sel&es under his %ower. 5arius asked i$ all the wo'en o$ their #ountry worked so hard: Then the brothers eagerly answered. and rode at s%eed to the Helles%ont( and. and she was their sister) 5arius re2oined by asking. ga&e the %a%er to -egaba/us) Then -egaba/us. and at what he had hi'sel$ seen) "o he #o''anded that she should be brought be$ore hi') *nd the wo'an #a'e( and with her a%%eared her brothers. 'ade war u%on +aeonia) 3ow when the +aeonians heard that the +ersians were 'ar#hing against the'.

when he draws it u% . and were brought into the %resen#e o$ *'yntas. than he sent into -a#edonia an e'bassy o$ +ersians. this also shall be granted to you)9 4hen *'yntas had thus s%oken. the tor'ent o$ their eyes)9 "o . and ea#h has also a tra%door gi&ing a##ess to the lake beneath( and their wont is to tie their baby #hildren by the $oot with a string. and the tilon) The +aeonians there$ore7 at least su#h o$ the' as had been #on. that 9what had been done was not wise( $or it had been better $or the wo'en not to ha&e #o'e at all. and they were all set to the drinking. we +ersians ha&e a #usto' when we 'ake a great $east to bring with us to the board our wi&es and #on#ubines. u%on one o$ the %lat$or's.uite $ull o$ the') The $ish are o$ two kinds. #hoosing $or the %ur%ose the se&en 'en o$ 'ost note in all the ar'y a$ter hi'sel$) These %ersons were to go to *'yntas. and re. than to #o'e in this way. the +ersians said7 95ear -a#edonian. do also a$ter our #usto' in this 'atter)9 Then *'yntas answered7 9!. when they rea#hed the #ourt. and e&ery 'an dri&es in three $or ea#h wi$e that he 'arries) 3ow the 'en ha&e all 'any wi&es a%ie#e( and this is the way in whi#h they li&e) Ea#h has his own hut. and 'ake the' sit beside us) 3ow then.uire hi' to gi&e earth and water to ?ing 5arius) 3ow there is a &ery short #ut $ro' the Lake +rasias a#ross to -a#edonia) Iuite #lose to the lake is the 'ine whi#h yielded a$terwards a talent o$ sil&er a day to *le. and gi&est 'oreo&er earth and water to ?ing 5arius. and then to wait a &ery short ti'e. whi#h they #all the %a%ra. and entertained the +ersians in right $riendly $ashion) 3ow when the 'eal was o&er. he no sooner brought the +aeonians under. +ersians> we ha&e no su#h #usto' as this( but with us 'en and wo'en are ke%t a%art) 3e&ertheless. and not sit by their sides.uered7 were led away into *sia) *s $or -egaba/us. wherein he dwells. as thou hast re#ei&ed us so kindly. re. wish it. but also in&ited the' to #o'e and $east with hi'( a$ter whi#h he 'ade ready the board with great 'agni$i#en#e. sin#e you. who are our lords. to sa&e the' $ro' rolling into the water) They $eed their horses and their other beasts u%on $ish.ander( and $ro' this 'ine you ha&e only to #ross the 'ountain #alled 5ysoru' to $ind yoursel$ in the -a#edonian territory) "o the +ersians sent u%on this errand. whi#h abound in the lake to su#h a degree that a 'an has only to o%en his tra%7door and to let down a basket by a ro%e into the water. he bade so'e go and $et#h the wo'en) *nd the wo'en #a'e at his #all and took their seats in a row o&er against the +ersians) Then. but re'ain o&er against the'. they s%oke again to *'yntas and said. and $easted us so handso'ely.uired hi' to gi&e earth and water to ?ing 5arius) *nd *'yntas not only ga&e the' what they asked. when the +ersians saw that the wo'en were $air and #o'ely.they are brought $ro' a hill #alled !rbelus.

$ull o$ wrath. %artly with 'oney. began to %ut their hands on the'. 9Look on these ladies as your own.ander.ander would %lay so'e wild %rank. when he had thus besought his son. and attendants. dear strangers. let the'. saying as he introdu#ed the'. when the +ersians began to be rude. that there was one 'an. who guessed that *le. bribing those sent on the errand. #ould not any longer restrain hi'sel$) He there$ore. thy words sound to 'e as those o$ one who is well nigh on $ire. i$ you %lease. that you 'ay %er#ei&e yoursel&es to be entirely honoured by us. who had drunk 'ore than they ought. sent the' o$$ to the hare'. *le. with 'u#h wisdo'. retire.t hi' a kiss) ?ing *'yntas saw. will e1en withdraw as thou biddest 'e)9 *'yntas.ander set by the side o$ ea#h +ersian one o$ those who' he had #alled -a#edonian wo'en. *'yntas1 son. and when they ha&e bathed they shall #o'e ba#k again)9 To this the +ersians agreed. 9-ethinks. a Greek. thou art old and shouldst s%are thysel$) Rise u% $ro' table and go take thy rest( do not stay out the drinking) will re'ain with the guests and gi&e the' all that is $itting)9 *'yntas. and %artly with the gi$t o$ his .*'yntas was $or#ed to bid the wo'en sit side by side with the +ersians) The wo'en did as he ordered( and then the +ersians. being a young 'an and una#. who was likewise there and witnessed the whole. and *le. s%ake thus to *'yntas07 95ear $ather. e&en as you deser&e to be7 and also that you 'ay take ba#k word to the king who sent you here. hushed u% the business.ander.ual nu'ber o$ beardless youths. we 'ake o&er to you our sisters and our 'others. 'ade answer07 95ear son.ander said to the +ersians. dear +ersians. but bear to look #al'ly on what they do) For 'ysel$. $or he greatly $eared the %ower o$ the +ersians) *le. and all that we #ould anywhere $ind to gi&e you7 and now. lest thou bring us all to ruin. ha&ing got the wo'en away. #arriages.ander.uainted with su$$ering. and one e&en tried to gi&e the wo'an ne. all or any o$ the'7 only tell us your wishes) But now. both they and also their $ollowers) For the +ersians had brought a great train with the'. as the e&ening wears. but who were in truth 'en) *nd these 'en. and baggage o$ e&ery kind7 all o$ whi#h disa%%eared at the sa'e ti'e as the 'en the'sel&es) 3ot &ery long a$terwards the +ersians 'ade stri#t sear#h $or their lost e'bassy( but *le. and 'ade ready in their roo' an e. by who' you were both $easted and lodged handso'ely)9 "o s%eaking. who' he dressed in the gar'ents o$ the wo'en. the satra% o$ -a#edonia. to #rown the whole. and see you ha&e all had wine enough. howe&er. ar'ing the' with daggers. that your entertain'ent has $allen short in nothing) 4e ha&e set be$ore you all that we had oursel&es in store. des%at#hed the' with their daggers) "o the a'bassadors %erished by this death. and %er#ei&e thou sendest 'e away that thou 'ayest do so'e wild deed) besee#h thee 'ake no #o''otion about these 'en. and then. although sorely grie&ed. brought the' in to the +ersians. but he ke%t silen#e. went out( and *le.

than longed. to let a Greek. the Greeks who were about to run against hi' would ha&e e. the #hie$ leader o$ the e. hear why ha&e sent $or thee) 3o sooner did return $ro' "#ythia. as ha&e ne&er longed $or aught else. be sure thou take good #are that he ne&er get ba#k to Gree#e again)9 4ith these words -egaba/us easily %ersuaded 5arius. and about whi#h are 'any dwellers both Greek and barbarian. ! Histiaeus> ha&e looked to $ind a 'an well a$$e#tioned towards 'e and towards 'y greatness( and ha&e $ound none who' #an trust like thee) Thy deeds. as they the'sel&es a$$ir'.#luded hi' $ro' the #ontest7 saying that Greeks only were allowed to #ontend. 95ear Histiaeus. and went u% to "ardis) He had be#o'e aware while in Euro%e that Histiaeus the -ilesian was raising a wall at -yr#inus7 the town u%on the "try'on whi#h he had obtained $ro' ?ing 5arius as his guerdon $or kee%ing the bridge) 3o sooner there$ore did he rea#h "ardis with the +aeonians than he said to 5arius. and oars in %lenty. 94hat 'ad thing is this that thou hast done. a %la#e too where there is abundan#e o$ ti'ber $it $or shi%building. and was drawn to run in the $irst %air) Thus was this 'atter settled) -egaba/us.%edition whi#h #a'e in sear#h o$ the lost 'en) Thus the death o$ these +ersians was hushed u%.own sister Gygaea.ander %ro&ed hi'sel$ to be an *rgi&e. i$ thou wouldest not be entangled in a war with thine own $ollowers) "to% hi'. and whi#h will herea$ter 'ake %lainly e&ident) That they are so has been already ad2udged by those who 'anage the +an7Helleni# #ontest at !ly'%ia) For when *le. %ray thee #o'e to 'e. and 'ines o$ sil&er.ander wished to #ontend in the ga'es. only bidding hi' to #o'e to thee) Then when thou on#e hast hi' in thy %ower. get hold o$ a town in Thra#e. sin#e ha&e a 'ighty enter%rise in hand. s%rung $ro' +erdi##as. sire. but with a gentle 'essage. who said. and had #o'e to !ly'%ia with no other &iew. a wise 'an and a shrewd. a +ersian. ha&e %ro&ed thy lo&e $or 'e) 3ow then. said to hi'. and no 'ore was said o$ it) 3ow that the 'en o$ this $a'ily are Greeks. 9These be the words o$ the king to thee. who thought he had shown true $oresight in this 'atter) 5arius there$ore sent a 'essenger to -yr#inus. ha&ing rea#hed the Helles%ont with the +aeonians. and was distin#tly ad2udged a Greek( a$ter whi#h he entered the lists $or the $oot7ra#e. to behold thee . #rossed it. that 'ay show thee what %ur%ose>9 Histiaeus. and not thy words only. who' he ga&e in 'arriage to Bubares. and not barbarians) But *le. ready enough to take hi' $or their #hie$. as it see'ed to hi' a grand thing to be the king1s #ounsellor. when he heard this. is a thing whi#h #an de#lare o$ 'y own knowledge. and lose thee out o$ 'y sight. %ut $aith in the words o$ the 'essenger( and. when he was #o'e. and by day and night to do his bidding> %ray thee 'ake this 'an #ease his work. he straightway went u% to "ardis) Then 5arius.

This Ly#aretus died a$terwards in his go&ern'ent)< The #ause whi#h !tanes alleged $or #on. whose $ather ?ing Ca'byses slew and $layed. and #utting his skin into stri%s. whi#h were #o'%osed by the +arians. and ne. and on their way.uering and ensla&ing all these nations was that so'e had re$used to 2oin the king1s ar'y against "#ythia. and taking Histiaeus with hi'. went u% to "usa) He le$t as general o$ all the troo%s u%on the sea7#oast !tanes. whene&er they saw in the waste and desolate #ountry any land that was well $ar'ed.os at this ti'e sur%assed all the other islands in %ros%erity. and bade hi' ne&er $orget in what way his seat was #ushioned) *##ordingly this !tanes. being o$ the nu'ber o$ the royal 2udges.%loits whi#h !tanes %er$or'ed in his #o''and) *$terwards. he borrowed shi%s o$ the Lesbians. who' the -ilesians #hose be$ore all the rest o$ the Greeks to rearrange their go&ern'ent) 3ow the way in whi#h the +arians healed their di$$eren#es was the $ollowing) * nu'ber o$ the #hie$ +arians #a'e to -iletus. then *ntandrus in the Troas. be#ause that he. while others had 'olested the host on its return) "u#h were the e. stret#hed the' a#ross the seat o$ the throne whereon he had been wont to sit when he heard #auses) Ha&ing so done Ca'byses a%%ointed the son o$ "isa'nes to be 2udge in his $ather1s roo'. his brother by the $ather1s side.on#e 'ore. who had o##u%ied so strange a throne. ha&e an o$$er to 'ake to thee) Let go -iletus and thy newly7$ounded town in Thra#e. and to inter#hange s%ee#h with thee) Right sure a' there is nothing in all the world so %re#ious as a $riend who is at on#e wise and true0 both whi#h thou art. and -iletus had rea#hed the height o$ her %ower. be#a'e the su##essor o$ -egaba/us in his #o''and. and took $irst o$ all By/antiu' and Chal#idon.os and -iletus troubles gathered anew about onia) 3ow 3a. the brother o$ that -aeandrius who was tyrant o$ "a'os) . and when they saw in how ruined a #ondition the -ilesians were.t La'%oniu') This done. they took . whi#h were still inhabited by +elasgians) 3ow the Le'nians stood on their de$en#e. they said that they would like $irst to go o&er their #ountry) "o they went through all -ilesia. and took Le'nos and 'brus. and was the glory o$ onia) But %re&iously $or two generations the -ilesians had su$$ered grie&ously $ro' #i&il disorders. had taken 'oney to gi&e an unrighteous senten#e) There$ore Ca'byses slew and $layed "isa'nes. but $or no long ti'e. there was a res%ite $ro' su$$ering) Then $ro' 3a. and $ought gallantly( but they were brought low in #ourse o$ ti'e) "u#h as outli&ed the struggle were %la#ed by the +ersians under the go&ern'ent o$ Ly#aretus. as ha&e had good %roo$ in what thou hast already done $or 'e) 3ow then 1tis well thou art #o'e( $or look. son o$ "isa'nes. and be 'y #ounsellor) 4hen 5arius had thus s%oken he 'ade *rta%hernes. and #o'e with 'e u% to "usa( share all that ha&e( li&e with 'e. go&ernor o$ "ardis.

would render the' obedien#e. and likewise the other islanders) For at that ti'e not one o$ the Cy#lades was sub2e#t to ?ing 5arius) "o *ristagoras went to "ardis and told *rta%hernes that 3a. $irst o$ all.ians heard this.ians should be restored by his hel%. had $led to -iletus) *ristagoras. whi#h . they #alled the %eo%le together on their return to -iletus. i$ the 3a.ians #a'e) 3ow these 3a.he said< and reinstate the e. who was still ke%t by 5arius at "usa. and s%oke as $ollows07 9 #annot engage to $urnish you with su#h a %ower as were need$ul to $or#e you. and told hi' to %ro'ise gi$ts and %ay $or the soldiers. and. so soon as they saw the' returned. lying near onia. and ha&e also a &ast nu'ber o$ shi%s o$ war) But will do all that lies in 'y %ower to get you so'e aid.down the na'es o$ the owners in their tablets( and ha&ing thus gone through the whole region.they said< they would readily $urnish. howe&er. and obtained a$ter all but $ew na'es.os by the #o''onalty. in ho%es thereby to re#o&er their #ountry) Then *ristagoras. sin#e they had great ho%e that the 3a.they said< that the sa'e %ersons who had 'anaged their own a$$airs well would likewise #ondu#t aright the business o$ the state) The other -ilesians. against their will. and 'ade %ro#la'ation that they ga&e the go&ern'ent into the hands o$ those %ersons whose lands they had $ound well $ar'ed( $or they thought it likely .ians who hold the #ity( $or know they #an bring into the $ield eight thousand bu#klers. son o$ Lysagoras. but a $air land and $ertile. and #ontaining 'u#h treasure and a &ast nu'ber o$ sla&es) 9-ake war then u%on this land . he would be lord o$ 3a. ha%%ened to be regent o$ -iletus at the ti'e o$ their #o'ing) For the kingly %ower belonged to Histiaeus( but he was at "usa when the 3a. u%on the 3a.uire)9 4hen the 3a. ha&e &ery ri#h gi$ts . and think #an 'anage it in this way) *rta%hernes ha%%ens to be 'y $riend) 3ow he is a son o$ Hystas%es. they e'%owered *ristagoras to 'anage the 'atter $or the' as well as he #ould. the ne%hew and likewise the son7in7law o$ Histiaeus.ians.os was an island o$ no great si/e. and brother to ?ing 5arius) *ll the sea7#oast o$ *sia is under hi'. they %la#ed under the rule o$ these 'en) Thus was the -ilesian go&ern'ent set in order by the +arians) t was. u%on their banish'ent. #onsidering with hi'sel$ that.ians had in ti'es %ast been bond7$riends o$ Histiaeus( and so on their arri&al at -iletus they addressed the'sel&es to *ristagoras and begged hi' to lend the' su#h aid as his ability allowed.iles( $or i$ thou wilt do this. who in ti'e %ast had been at &arian#e. and he has a nu'erous ar'y and nu'erous shi%s) think #an %re&ail on hi' to do what we re. son o$ -ol%agoras. $ro' the two #ities abo&e 'entioned that troubles began now to gather again about onia( and this is the way in whi#h they arose) Certain o$ the ri#h 'en had been banished $ro' 3a. %ut $orward the $riendshi% with Histiaeus to #loak his &iews.os.

uite enough to subdue the whole)9 The other answered7 9Truly thou art the author o$ a %lan whi#h 'ay 'u#h ad&antage the house o$ the king. and went ho'e in good heart to -iletus) *nd *rta%hernes. two hundred shall be at thy dis%osal when the s%ring #o'es) But the king hi'sel$ 'ust $irst a%%ro&e the undertaking)9 4hen *ristagoras heard this he was greatly re2oi#ed. being ne%hew both to hi'sel$ and to ?ing 5arius) t was to a daughter o$ this 'an that +ausanias the La#edae'onian. tou#hing at -iletus.os but the other islands whi#h de%end on it. being 'inded to wait there $or a north wind. and.in store $or thee .besides the #ost o$ the ar'a'ent. and all the rest o$ the Cy#lades) *nd when thou hast gained these. by na'e. and s%oke hotly to *ristagoras) Then the latter said to hi'7 94hat has thou to do with these 'atters: 4ert thou not sent here . whi#h is a large and wealthy island not less in si/e than Cy%rus. 'ade ready a $leet o$ two hundred trire'es and a &ast ar'y o$ +ersians and their #on$ederates) The #o''and o$ these he ga&e to a +ersian na'ed -egabates. and thrusting hi' through one o$ the holes in the shi%1s side. who belonged to the house o$ the *#hae'enids. was thus $astened. to $asten hi' there in su#h a way that his head 'ight show outside the &essel. ha&ing na'ed -egabates to the #o''and.ians( a$ter whi#h he steered.os) The 3a. when he #on#ei&ed the desire o$ be#o'ing tyrant o$ Gree#e) *rta%hernes now. and thy #ounsel is good in all %oints e. he brought the $leet to an#hor o$$ Cau#asa. he $ound a -yndian &essel u%on whi#h there was none set) Full o$ anger at su#h #arelessness. was allian#ed 'any years a$terwards.i$ at least there be any truth in the tale<. *ndros. as +aros. se#ondly. and then sail straight to 3a. $or the Helles%ont( and when he rea#hed Chios. and re#ei&ed his a%%ro&al o$ the undertaking. took on board *ristagoras with the onian troo%s and the 3a. one "#yla. one went and in$or'ed *ristagoras that -egabates had bound his -yndian $riend and was entreating hi' sha'e$ully) "o he #a'e and asked -egabates to let the 'an o$$( but the +ersian re$used hi'( whereu%on *ristagoras went hi'sel$ and set "#yla. as he ga&e out. and &ery easy to bring under) * hundred shi%s were . while his body re'ained within) 4hen "#yla. $ree) 4hen -egabates heard this he was still 'ore angry than be$ore. thou wilt bring under the %ower o$ the king not only 3a. the son o$ Cleo'brotus . he bade his guards to seek out the #a%tain. sent $orward the ar'a'ent to *ristagoras) -egabates set sail. a$ter he had sent a 'essenger to "usa to lay the %lans o$ *ristagoras be$ore the king. whi#h it is $air that we who are the authors o$ the war should %ay<( and.#e%t the nu'ber o$ the shi%s) nstead o$ a hundred.ians howe&er were not to %erish at this ti'e( and so the $ollowing e&ents were brought about) *s -egabates went his rounds to &isit the wat#hes on board the shi%s. thou 'ayest easily go on against Euboea.

and 'ade the'sel&es ready against a siege by %ro&isioning their town both with $ood and drink) Thus was 3a. wherein they le$t the banished 3a. and then %ri#king letters u%on the skin. and $irst building #ertain $orts. whereas. at this #on2un#ture *ristagoras held a #oun#il o$ his .%edition and his own . and to sail whithersoe&er ordered: 4hy dost 'eddle so: Thus s%ake *ristagoras) The other. i$ -iletus 'ade no 'o&e'ent. #ould $ind but one sa$e way. when he was an.ians o$ the #o'ing danger) 3ow the 3a.os.ians u% to this ti'e had not had any sus%i#ion that the ar'a'ent was dire#ted against the'( as soon. lest. gi&ing hi' no other 'essage than this7 94hen thou art #o'e to -iletus. he des%at#hed the 'an to -iletus. $ound the 3a. he should be ousted $ro' the go&ern'ent o$ -iletus) These 'ani$old alar's had already #aused hi' to #onte'%late raising a rebellion. then.os %la#ed in a %osture o$ de$en#e( and the +ersians. in high dudgeon at su#h language. and *ristagoras had likewise s%ent u%on the siege no s'all su' $ro' his %ri&ate 'eans. as ha&e already 'entioned. and 'ore was still needed to insure su##ess. the +ersians ga&e u% the atte'%t. and waiting till the hair grew again) Thus a##ordingly he did( and as soon as e&er the hair was grown. when the 'an with the 'arked head #a'e $ro' "usa.ians. withdrew to the 'ainland.uite unable to 'ake good his %ro'ises to *rta%hernes( nay. bid *ristagoras sha&e thy head. and be#ause he had strong ho%es that. owing to the $ailure o$ the e. and then des%at#hed a boat to 3a. to warn the 3a.ious to gi&e *ristagoras orders to re&olt. waited till the night. i$ troubles broke out. bringing hi' instru#tions on the %art o$ Histiaeus to re&olt $ro' the king) For Histiaeus.by *rta%hernes to obey 'e. as the 'essage rea#hed the'.hausted.uell the'. were the &iews whi#h led Histiaeus to des%at#h his 'essenger( and it so #han#ed that all these se&eral 'oti&es to re&olt were brought to bear u%on *ristagoras at one and the sa'e ti'e) *##ordingly. sha&ing all the hair $ro' o$$ his head. he would be sent down to the #oast to . he did not see a #han#e o$ his e&er again returning thither) "u#h. and look thereon)9 3ow the 'arks on the head.ians $ully %re%ared $or the') Howe&er they sat down be$ore the %la#e. as the roads were guarded. when they #rossed the sea $ro' Chios. o$ 'aking his wishes known( whi#h was by taking the trustiest o$ his sla&es.uarrel with -egabates. there$ore. $orthwith they brought within their walls all that they had in the o%en $ield. and besieged it $or $our whole 'onths) 4hen at length all the stores whi#h they had brought with the' were e. ha&ing utterly $ailed in their undertaking) *nd now *ristagoras $ound hi'sel$ . he was e&en hard %ressed to 'eet the #lai's whereto he was liable $or the %ay o$ the troo%s( and at the sa'e ti'e his $ear was great. were a #o''and to re&olt) *ll this Histiaeus did be#ause it irked hi' greatly to be ke%t at "usa.

telling the' both what he had hi'sel$ %ur%osed. and to others. should sail to -yus. and Histiaeus the son o$ Ty'nes the Ter'erean7Coes likewise. on the other hand. he ga&e out that he laid down his own lordshi% o&er -iletus. they resol&ed u%on a re&olt) !ne o$ their nu'ber. and would sa&e the treasures $ro' $alling into the hands o$ the ene'y)9 3ow these treasures were o$ &ery great &alue. ne&ertheless. whose goodwill he ho%ed thereby to gain. than they led hi' $orth $ro' the #ity and stoned hi'( the Cy'aeans.ander.andridas the son o$ Leo was no longer king0 he had died. and in lieu thereo$ established a #o''onwealth0 a$ter whi#h. to who' 5arius ga&e -ytilene. and whose sub2e#t nations he enu'erated) *s howe&er he #ould not indu#e the' to listen to this #ounsel. and re#o''ended re&olt. allowed their tyrant to go $ree( as likewise did 'ost o$ the others) *nd so this $or' o$ go&ern'ent #eased throughout all the #ities) *ristagoras the -ilesian. $irst o$ all. he knew. and what 'essage had been sent hi' by Histiaeus) *t this #oun#il all his $riends were o$ the sa'e way o$ thinking. while. the son o$ Er. ea#h to the #ity whereto he belonged) 3ow the -ytileneans had no sooner got Coes into their %ower. and also 'any others) Thus *ristagoras re&olted o%enly $ro' 5arius( and now he set to work to s#he'e against hi' in e&ery %ossible way) First o$ all. and he took with guile !liatus the son o$ banolis the -ylassian. a$ter he had in this way %ut down the tyrants. howe&er. *na. and laid the business be$ore the'. and *ristagoras the son o$ Hera#lides the Cy'aean. sailed away hi'sel$ on board a trire'e to La#edae'on( $or he had great need o$ obtaining the aid o$ so'e %ower$ul ally) *t "%arta. ad&ised the' by all 'eans to a&oid engaging in war with the king o$ the +ersians.ian $leet. a weak state7 but i$ the treasures in the te'%le at Bran#hidae. throughout all onia he did the like( $or $ro' so'e o$ the #ities he dro&e out their tyrants. and his son Cleo'enes had 'ounted the throne. in order to indu#e the -ilesians to 2oin heartily in the re&olt.9 he said. where the $leet had been lying sin#e its return $ro' 3a. not howe&er by . thus gi&ing u% all the 'en who' he had sei/ed at the 3a. he ne. it was agreed. 9so $ar as he #ould see. o$ their su##eeding in this) -iletus was.t ad&ised that they should do all that lay in their %ower to 'ake the'sel&es 'asters o$ the sea) 9There was one only way.os. and bidden the #ities #hoose the'sel&es #a%tains in their roo'.#e%t only He#ataeus the historian) He. whose 'ight he set $orth. he had strong ho%es that the 'astery o$ the sea 'ight be thereby gained( at least it would gi&e the' 'oney to begin the war. as showed in the $irst %art o$ 'y History) The asse'bly.trusty $riends. he handed theirs o&er. and endea&our to sei/e the #a%tains who had gone there with the &essels) atragoras a##ordingly was des%at#hed on this errand. re2e#ted the #ounsel o$ He#ataeus. e. whi#h Croesus the Lydian ga&e to it. were sei/ed.

the 'other o$ Cleo'enes . when they heard a ru'our o$ the truth. and a$ter hi'. again .uite against all "%artan #usto') n a short ti'e. who had i'agined that he should be #hosen. the "%artans ke%t to the law.who was a daughter o$ +rinetadas. and laid this %ro%osal be$ore the king07 9"in#e thou art so $ond. by so'e strange #han#e #on#ei&ed. and who #ould not bear the thought o$ ha&ing su#h a 'an as Cleo'enes to rule o&er hi'. do what we now ad&ise. nor su$$er the ra#e o$ Eurysthenes to die out $ro' a'ong us) Co'e then. and looked #on$idently to re#ei&ing the kingdo' on the s#ore o$ 'erit) 4hen. it is said.right o$ 'erit. the wi$e who' he had last 'arried bore hi' a son. who 'ay bear thee #hildren)9 4hen he heard this o$$er. . Leonidas.ui#kly. and said it was a $alse boast.uired.andridas took to wi$e his own sister1s daughter. Cleo'brotus) "o'e e&en say that Leonidas and Cleo'brotus were twins) !n the other hand. and was tenderly atta#hed to her( but no #hildren #a'e $ro' the 'arriage) Hereu%on the E%hors #alled hi' be$ore the'. the $irst wi$e also. and wed another) "o wilt thou do what is well7%leasing to the "%artans)9 *na. king in his roo'. asked the "%artans to gi&e hi' a body o$ 'en. ne&ertheless we #annot allow this.andridas ga&e way7 and hen#e$orth he li&ed with two wi&es in two se%arate houses. the son o$ 5e'ar'enus<. and she 'eant.andridas. the se#ond wi$e. and gainsay us not. and said it was no good ad&i#e the E%hors ga&e. ne&er ga&e birth to a se#ond #hild) 3ow Cleo'enes. but o$ birth) *na. a$ter the death o$ *na. as we see thee to be. and take to hi'sel$ another) He there$ore de#lined to obey the') Then the E%hors and Elders took #ounsel together. and said7 9 $ thou hast no #are $or thine own sel$. . to bring $orward as her own a su%%osititious #hild) "o they raised an out#ry against her( and there$ore. and 'ade Cleo'enes. *na. and le$t "%arta with the' in order to $ound a #olony) Howe&er. they were sure. o$ thy %resent wi$e. 'ade a great stir. and ke%t a stri#t wat#h on the labour) *t this ti'e then she bore 5orieus. lest the "%artans 'ake so'e unwonted de#ree #on#erning thee) 4e ask thee not now to %ut away thy wi$e to who' thou art 'arried7 gi&e her still the sa'e lo&e and honour as e&er7 but take thee another wi$e beside.ui#kly. the E%hors. there$ore. who re#ei&ed the na'e o$ Cleo'enes( and so the heir to the throne was brought into the world by her) *$ter this. who were the'sel&es in#redulous. his eldest son. sat round her bed. 5orieus. to bid hi' %ut away his wi$e when she had done no wrong. and #a'e to be with #hild) Then the $riends o$ the se#ond wi$e. as thy %resent wi$e bears thee no #hildren. and a$ter hi'. %ut her away. he neither took #ounsel .andridas howe&er re$used to do as they re. who in ti'e %ast had been barren. was not right in his 'ind( indeed he &erged u%on 'adness( while 5orieus sur%assed all his #o7'ates. when her $ull ti'e was #o'e.

and the Crotoniats. the Libyans. and whi#h to 'y day re'ained in the %ossession o$ his $a'ily( while 5orieus and his des#endants . to 9$ound the #ity o$ Hera#lea in "i#ily( the whole #ountry o$ Ery. and had a share in taking the town) "u#h is the a##ount whi#h the "ybarites gi&e o$ what was done by 5orieus and his #o'%anions) The Crotoniats. but #on$ined hi'sel$ to the business on whi#h he was sent. on the other hand. and ke%t %ossession o$ it. he would assuredly ha&e #on. and %ro#eeded u%on his way along the shores o$ taly) 8ust at this ti'e. besought 5orieus to lend the' aid) 5orieus was %re&ailed u%on. whi#h has not its e. a$ter taking their #ity. %oint to the nu'erous allot'ents within their borders whi#h were assigned to Callias the Elean by their #ountry'en.uered the Ery#ian territory. and deserted to their side. instead o$ %erishing with all his $ollowers) The Crotoniats. greatly alar'ed.uered it)9 !n re#ei&ing this ad&i#e. a soothsayer o$ the ra#e o$ the a'idae( and he only $orsook Telys the "ybariti# king. they bring $orward the death o$ 5orieus as the surest %roo$( sin#e he $ell. and the Carthaginians) 5orieus returned to the +elo%onnese( whereu%on *nti#hares the Eleonian ga&e hi' a #ounsel . whi#h they de#lare that 5orieus. where he #olonised a s%ot. belonged.o$ the ora#le at 5el%hi as to the %la#e whereto he should go. when he $ound on sa#ri$i#ing that the &i#ti's were not $a&ourable to an atta#k on Crotona) "u#h is the a##ount whi#h ea#h %arty gi&es o$ these 'atters) Both %arties likewise addu#e testi'onies to the truth o$ what they say) The "ybarites show a te'%le and sa#red %re#in#t near the dry strea' o$ the Crastis.whi#h he got $ro' the ora#le o$ Laius<. on the other hand. 'aintain that no $oreigner lent the' aid in their war against the "ybarites. the "ybarites say. on the banks o$ a ri&er0 but $ro' this %la#e he was dri&en in the third year by the -a#ians.9 he said. be#ause he disobeyed the ora#le) For had he in nothing &aried $ro' the dire#tions gi&en hi'. dedi#ated to -iner&a Crastias) *nd $urther. bore %art in the war against "ybaris. . took u% the 'en who had sailed with hi' at the $irst. sa&e and e. nor obser&ed any o$ the #usto'ary usages( but le$t "%arta in dudgeon.#e%t Callias the Elean. 9to the Hera#leids. under the guidan#e o$ #ertain 'en who were Theraeans) These 'en brought hi' to Ciny%s.uire o$ the ora#le whether he would take the %la#e to whi#h he was about to go) The +ythoness %ro%hesied that he would( whereu%on 5orieus went ba#k to Libya.ual in all Libya.they re'ark< %ossess nothing) =et i$ 5orieus had really hel%ed the' in the "ybariti# war. sin#e Her#ules hi'sel$ #on. they and their king Telys were about to 'ake war u%on Crotona. and sailed away to Libya. he would ha&e re#ei&ed &ery 'u#h 'ore than Callias) "u#h are the testi'onies whi#h are addu#ed on either side( it is o%en to e&ery 'an to ado%t whi#he&er &iew he dee's the best) Certain "%artans a##o'%anied 5orieus on his &oyage as #o7$ounders. they say. 5orieus went to 5el%hi to in.

! ?ing Cleo'enes. tyrant o$ -iletus. whereu%on his 'arriage #a'e to nought( and he in his disa%%oint'ent took shi% and sailed to Cyrene) Fro' then#e he be#a'e a $ollower o$ 5orieus. deli&er the onians. with all its seas and ri&ers) 5is#ourse began between the two( and *ristagoras addressed the "%artan king in these words $ollowing07 9Think it not strange. howe&er. sur&i&ing the disaster) He then. they notwithstanding %ut hi' to death) *nother 'an who a##o'%anied 5orieus. Euryleon. he sought to be#o'e tyrant in his roo'. Thessalus. by na'e Gorgo) Cleo'enes. whi#h will now re#ount unto thee. +araebates. would ha&e been king o$ La#edae'on( sin#e Cleo'enes. that ha&e been at the %ains to sail hither( $or the %osture o$ a$$airs. and #o&er their heads with turbans) "o . was +hili% the son o$ Buta#idas. *ristagoras. Celeas. who i$ he had brooked the rule o$ Cleo'enes. a$ter he had been betrothed to a daughter o$ Telys the "ybarite. who are your own kins'en. died without 'ale o$$s%ring. there$ore. lea&ing behind hi' an only daughter. that the sons o$ the onians should ha&e lost their $reedo'. #olle#ting the re'nants o$ the beaten ar'y.to wit. was still king when *ristagoras. a$ter reigning no great length o$ ti'e. by the #o''on gods o$ the Gre#ians. $urnishing to the $leet a trire'e o$ his own. and hel%ed the "elinusians to throw o$$ the yoke o$ their tyrant +eithagoras) Ha&ing u%set +eithagoras. %rodu#ed a bron/e tablet. and the handso'est Greek o$ his day) His beauty gained hi' honours at the hands o$ the Egestaeans whi#h they ne&er a##orded to any one else( $or they raised a hero7te'%le o&er his gra&e. was banished $ro' Crotona. and died with hi'. the #rew o$ whi#h he su%%orted at his own #harge) This +hili% was an !ly'%ian &i#tor. rea#hed "%arta) *t their inter&iew. $ro' sla&ery) Truly the task is not di$$i#ult( $or the barbarians are an unwarlike %eo%le( and you are the best and bra&est warriors in the whole world) Their 'ode o$ $ighting is the $ollowing07 they use bows and arrows and a short s%ear( they wear trousers in the $ield. and #o'e to be the sla&es o$ others( but yet it tou#hes you likewise. and though he $led to the altar o$ 8u%iter *goraeus. inas'u#h as the %re7e'inen#e o&er all Gree#e a%%ertains to you) 4e besee#h you. whereu%on the whole #ir#uit o$ the earth was engra&ed. ! "%artans. and Euryleon) These 'en and all the troo%s under their #o''and rea#hed "i#ily( but there they $ell in a battle wherein they were de$eated by the Egestaeans and +hoeni#ians. only one. and he e&en reigned at "elinus $or a brie$ s%a#e7 but a$ter a while the "elinusians rose u% in re&olt against hi'. the "elinusian #olony. 'ade hi'sel$ 'aster o$ -inoa. and re'ained in "%arta. and they still worshi% hi' with sa#ri$i#es) "u#h then was the end o$ 5orieus. a 'an o$ Crotona( who. 'ade it $itting) "ha'e and grie$ is it indeed to none so 'u#h as to us. a##ording to the re%ort o$ the La#edae'onians. beyond the rest o$ the Greeks.

t to the'. who e. and e'broidered gar'ents. who ha&e 'ore $lo#ks and herds than any ra#e that know. who li&e here7 they too ha&e nu'erous $lo#ks and herds) *$ter the' #o'e the -atieni. this %ro&in#e.uit "%arta be$ore sunset) This is no good %ro%osal that thou 'akest to the La#edae'onians. tri%%ed in his s%ee#h and blundered( $or instead o$ #on#ealing the truth. in the order whi#h will now e. who had 'anaged the rest so #le&erly.9 he #ontinued. where Cy%rus . to #ondu#t the' a distan#e o$ three 'onths1 2ourney $ro' the sea)9 4hen he had thus s%oken. he said %lainly that it was a 2ourney o$ three 'onths) Cleo'enes #aught at the words. as he ought to ha&e done i$ he wanted to indu#e the "%artans to #ross into *sia. three days hen#e will gi&e thee an answer)9 "o they %ro#eeded no $urther at that ti'e) 4hen. and brass. with the' o$ *rgos likewise and o$ *r#adia. and su##eeded in de#ei&ing the king.tend all the way to this sea. . the daughter o$ Cleo'enes. %re&enting *ristagoras $ro' $inishing what he had begun to say #on#erning the road. you 'ay soon ha&e $or your own) The nations border on one another.%lain) 3e. where you see the ri&er Choas%es 'arked.t to the' #o'e the *r'enians. where the Great ?ing holds his #ourt. the day a%%ointed $or the answer #a'e. who' we Greeks know by the na'e o$ "yrians0 they are neighbours to the Cili#ians. 9#o'e these +hrygians. and. and hastened to the king1s house. and $ew %eo%le are so ri#h in sil&er) 3e. about %altry boundaries and stri%s o$ land not so re'arkably good.here he %ointed with his $inger to the 'a% o$ the world whi#h was engra&ed u%on the tablet that he had brought with hi'< 9these Lydians dwell( their soil is $ertile. inhabiting this #ountry( then Cissia. Cleo'enes asked *ristagoras. will ye de#ide otherwise:9 Thus s%oke *ristagoras( and Cleo'enes re%lied to hi'.uish> ?now too that the dwellers in these %arts ha&e 'ore good things than all the rest o$ the world %ut together7 gold. Cleo'enes went to his ho'e) But *ristagoras took an oli&e7bough in his hand. nor sil&er e&en. whi#h o$ten gi&e 'en heart to $ight and die) -ust ye wage su#h wars.easy are they to &an. addressed hi' thus07 9-ilesian stranger. and his only . and likewise the town "usa u%on its banks. ye #ontend with those who ha&e no gold.7 9-ilesian stranger. and where the treasuries are in whi#h his wealth is stored) !n#e 'asters o$ this #ity. beasts o$ burthen. you 'ay be bold to &ie with 8o&e hi'sel$ $or ri#hes) n the wars whi#h ye wage with your ri&als o$ -essenia. where he was ad'itted by reason o$ his su%%liant1s %liant1s guise) Gorgo. howe&er. and sil&er. and 'ore %lenti$ul har&ests) !n the' border the Ca%%ado#ians. 9how 'any days1 2ourney it was $ro' the sea o$ the onians to the king1s residen#e:9 Hereu%on *ristagoras. and the two on#e 'ore 'et.the island whi#h you see here< lies) The Cili#ians %ay the king a yearly tribute o$ $i&e hundred talents) 3e.t to these onians9 . and when ye 'ight so easily be lords o$ *sia. and bond7ser&ants7 all whi#h. i$ you only wish it.

and e. at ea#h o$ whi#h there is a guard %osted) Lea&ing these behind. and this is the ri&er whi#h Cyrus dis%ersed by digging $or it three hundred and si. where ele&en stations and 4G FLG %arasangs bring you to another na&igable strea'. whi#h it is ne#essary to #ross in boats) n *r'enia the resting7%la#es are FJ in nu'ber. %leased at the warning o$ his #hild. and the distan#e is JD FLG %arasangs) There is one %la#e where a guard is %osted) Four large strea's interse#t this distri#t.as it is #alled<. or the stranger will #ertainly #orru%t thee)9 Then Cleo'enes.uestion is the $ollowing07 Royal stations e. and are #o'e into Ca%%ado#ia. #ontinued to raise his o$$er till it rea#hed $i$ty talents( whereu%on the #hild s%oke07 9Father. and not 'ind the #hild) "o *ristagoras began with a %ro'ise o$ ten talents i$ the king would grant hi' his re. while the other $lows a$terwards out o$ the #ountry o$ the -atienians) The $ourth o$ the strea's is #alled the Gyndes. on the banks o$ whi#h the #ity o$ "usa is built) Thus the entire nu'ber o$ the stations is raised to one hundred and ele&en( and so 'any are in $a#t the resting7%la#es that one $inds between "ardis and "usa) $ then the royal road be 'easured aright. all o$ whi#h ha&e to be #rossed by 'eans o$ boats) The $irst o$ these is the Tigris( the se#ond and the third ha&e both o$ the' the sa'e na'e. thirty $urlongs. standing by her $ather1s side) *ristagoras. but do not e&en run $ro' the sa'e %la#e) For the one whi#h ha&e #alled the $irst o$ the two has its sour#e in *r'enia. as it does.uals. it tra&erses an inhabited tra#t. a'ounting thus to 4J0 . and is $ree $ro' danger) n Lydia and +hrygia there are twenty stations within a distan#e !$ H4 FLG %arasangs) !n lea&ing +hrygia the Halys has to be #rossed( and here are gates through whi#h you 'ust needs %ass ere you #an tra&erse the strea') * strong $or#e guards this %ost) 4hen you ha&e 'ade the %assage. you ha&e $our stations( these %assed you $ind yoursel$ in Cissia.uested Cleo'enes to send her out o$ the roo' be$ore he began to s%eak with hi'( but Cleo'enes told hi' to say on. seeing her.uitted "%arta $or good. GC stations and F04 %arasangs bring you to the borders o$ Cili#ia. not being able to dis#ourse any 'ore #on#erning the road whi#h led u% to the king) 3ow the true a##ount o$ the road in . and the %arasang e.ty #hannels) Lea&ing *r'enia and entering the -atienian #ountry. where you $ind three stations in a distan#e o$ FJ FLG %arasangs) The boundary between Cili#ia and *r'enia is the ri&er Eu%hrates. withdrew and went into another roo') *ristagoras . ha%%ened to be there. 9get u% and go. though they are not only di$$erent ri&ers.uest.#ellent #ara&anserais( and throughout. a girl o$ about eight or nine years o$ age. where the road %asses through two sets o$ gates.#hild. the whole distan#e $ro' "ardis to the %ala#e o$ -e'non . the Choas%es. re.9 she said.ist along its whole length. and when Cleo'enes shook his head. you go on through Cili#ia.

uiries. one will take e. a$ter whi#h he o$$ered the a&erting sa#ri$i#es. des#endants o$ those who #a'e with Cad'us into the #ountry now #alled Boeotia) Here they re#ei&ed $or their %ortion the distri#t o$ Tanagra.uit o$ its tyrants in the way that will now des#ribe) *$ter the death o$ Hi%%ar#hus . would be FE. and read hi' the $ollowing riddle07 Bear thou unbearable woes with the all7bearing heart o$ a lion( 3e&er. as it is #alled< F4.the son o$ +isistratus. whi#h had got . to whi#h the 'urderers o$ Hi%%ar#hus belonged. who.040 $urlongs( sin#e E%hesus is distant $ro' "ardis J40 $urlongs) This would add three days to the three 'onths1 2ourney) 4hen *ristagoras le$t "%arta he hastened to *thens. howe&er. the o%%ression o$ the *thenians #ontinued by the s%a#e o$ $our years( and they gained nothing. been ignorant) *nd originally they .'en both o$ the ra#e o$ the Ge%hyraeans<. and to who' the Ge%hyraei belonged. he thought he saw in his slee% a tall and beauti$ul 'an.#luded $ro' a nu'ber o$ %ri&ileges whi#h are not worth 'entioning) 3ow the +hoeni#ians who #a'e with Cad'us. a'ong the rest that o$ writing. whereo$ the Greeks till then had.a#t distan#e . introdu#ed into Gree#e u%on their arri&al a great &ariety o$ arts.whi#h ha%%ened so'e ti'e a$ter that o$ the Cad'eians $ro' the sa'e %arts by the *rgi&es< they took re$uge at *thens) The *thenians re#ei&ed the' a'ong their #iti/ens u%on set ter's. in s%ite o$ the #lear warning he had re#ei&ed #on#erning his $ate in a drea'. #a'e originally $ro' Eretria) -y in. whereby they were e. who stood o&er hi'. ha&e 'ade it #lear to 'e that they are in reality +hoeni#ians. he said no 'ore than the truth) The e. as think. but were worse used than be$ore) 3ow the drea' o$ Hi%%ar#hus was the $ollowing07 The night be$ore the +anathenai# $esti&al.a#tly ninety days to %er$or' the 2ourney) Thus when *ristagoras the -ilesian told Cleo'enes the La#edae'onian that it was a three 'onths1 2ourney $ro' the sea u% to the king.J00 $urlongs) Tra&elling then at the rate o$ FJ0 $urlongs a day. and then went and led the %ro#ession in whi#h he %erished) The $a'ily o$ the Ge%hyraeans. a##ording to their own a##ount. was slain by Har'odius and *ristogeiton .%arasangs. shall wrong7doer es#a%e the reward o$ wrong7doing) *s soon as day dawned he sent and sub'itted his drea' to the inter%reters.or the #ity o$ -e'non. be sure. in whi#h they a$terwards dwelt) !n their e.%ulsion $ro' this #ountry by the Boeotians .i$ any one desires still greater a##ura#y< is so'ewhat 'ore( $or the 2ourney $ro' E%hesus to "ardis 'ust be added to the $oregoing a##ount( and this will 'ake the whole distan#e between the Greek "ea and "usa . and brother o$ the tyrant Hi%%ias<.

but a$terwards they retired be$ore the Boeotians.uit o$ their . 'ust %ro#eed with the 'atter whereo$ was intending be$ore to s%eak( to wit.er. the $a'ily whereto his 'urderers belonged. where they ha&e a nu'ber o$ te'%les $or their se%arate use. the son o$ Labda#us.a'eter 'easure07 to $ar7shooting +hoebus was o$$ered by "#aeus the bo. the way in whi#h the *thenians got . and together with it the $or' likewise o$ their #hara#ters) 3ow the Greeks who dwelt about those %arts at that ti'e were #hie$ly the onians) The +hoeni#ian letters were a##ordingly ado%ted by the'. i$ dedi#ated by hi'. in #ourse o$ ti'e.a'eters. the son o$ Eteo#les. 'ost o$ the' sha%ed like the onian) !ne o$ the tri%ods has the ins#ri%tion $ollowing07 -e did *'%hitryon %la#e. as 2usti#e re. and took re$uge at *thens. but a$terwards. but with so'e &ariation in the sha%e o$ a $ew. in whose honour they likewise #elebrate s%e#ial orgies) Ha&ing thus related the drea' whi#h Hi%%ar#hus saw. would belong to the ti'e o$ !edi%us. and not by another o$ the sa'e na'e. instead. the son o$ Cad'us) *nother o$ the tri%ods has this legend in the he. that the Cad'eians were dri&en by the *rgi&es out o$ their #ountry. and $ound a shelter with the En#heleans) The Ge%hyraeans at that ti'e re'ained in the #ountry. and so they arri&ed at the %resent use. and tra#ed the des#ent o$ the Ge%hyraeans. still #alling the letters +hoeni#ian.sha%ed their letters e. 4hen he had won at the ga'es7 a wondrous beauti$ul o$$ering) This 'ight be "#aeus. they #hanged by degrees their language. 4hen he was set on the throne7 a wondrous beauti$ul o$$ering) t was in the reign o$ this Laoda'as. whi#h runs thus07 ?ing Laoda'as ga&e this tri%od to $ar7seeing +hoebus. the skins o$ shee% and goats7 on whi#h 'aterial 'any o$ the barbarians are e&en now wont to write) 'ysel$ saw Cad'eian #hara#ters engra&ed u%on so'e tri%ods in the te'%le o$ *%ollo s'enias in Boeotian Thebes. $ro' the $ar Teleboans #o'ing) This would be about the age o$ Laius. the son o$ Laius) The third tri%od has also an ins#ri%tion in he. the son o$ +olydorus. the son o$ Hi%%o#oon( and the tri%od. whi#h the other *thenians are not allowed to enter7 a'ong the rest. be#ause $or'erly when %a%er was s#ar#e they used.a#tly like all the other +hoeni#ians. one o$ *#haean Ceres.uired. a$ter the na'e o$ those who were the $irst to introdu#e the' into Gree#e) +a%er rolls also were #alled $ro' o$ old 9%ar#h'ents9 by the onians.

sent at last *n#hi'olius. they %ro#eeded. sent the' by a %ubli# &ote F000 horse'en. near the te'%le o$ Her#ules in Cynosargos) *$terwards. but 'ar#hed by the 'ainland) 4hen they were #o'e into *tti#a. whene&er any o$ the' #a'e to #onsult the ora#le.ist) Ha&ing done this.tyrants) 6%on the death o$ Hi%%ar#hus.uest $or aid) The Thessalians. that they 'ust $ree *thens) "o the La#edae'onians. whi#h they %ut under the #o''and o$ Cleo'enes. and to dri&e the re'ainder to their shi%s) "u#h was the $ate o$ the $irst ar'y sent $ro' La#edae'on. and to $ree *thens. but whi#h in those days did not e. with a re. they 'ade the $a#ings o$ +arian 'arble) These sa'e 'en. either on their own %ri&ate a$$airs or on the business o$ the state. i$ we 'ay belie&e the *thenians. to build the te'%le 'u#h 'ore 'agni$i#ently than the %lan obliged the') Besides other i'%ro&e'ents. grew harsh towards the *thenians( and the *l#aeonidae. under the #o''and o$ their king. between whi#h #ountry and *thens there was an allian#e. being 'en o$ great wealth and 'e'bers o$ an an#ient and distinguished $a'ily. who was king. and their %ur%ose re'ained una##o'%lished) They there$ore resol&ed to shrink $ro' no #ontri&an#e that 'ight bring the' su##ess( and a##ordingly they #ontra#ted with the *'%hi#tyons to build the te'%le whi#h now stands at 5el%hi. who had %re&ious knowledge o$ their intentions.iles. 2oined the other e. who was a Coniaean) 4hen this hel% #a'e. one o$ their kings) These troo%s were not sent by sea. a'ong the rest *n#hi'olius. albeit they were bound to the' by the #losest ties o$ $riendshi%) For they estee'ed the things o$ hea&en 'ore highly than the things o$ 'en) The troo%s went by sea and were #on&eyed in trans%orts) *n#hi'olius brought the' to an an#horage at +haleru'( and there the 'en dise'barked) But the +isistratidae. when they $ound no answer e&er returned to the' but this. the +isistratidae laid their %lan a##ordingly0 they #leared the whole %lain about +haleru' so as to 'ake it $it $or the 'o&e'ents o$ #a&alry. and then #harged the ene'y1s #a'% with their horse.andridas. whi#h $ell with su#h $ury u%on the La#edae'onians as to kill nu'bers. the son o$ *ster7 a 'an o$ note a'ong their #iti/ens7 at the head o$ an ar'y against *thens. and tried to gain their ob2e#t by ar's( but great disasters be$ell the'. and the to'b o$ *n#hi'olius 'ay be seen to this day in *tti#a( it is at *lo%e#ae . son o$ *na. during their stay at 5el%hi %ersuaded the +ythoness by a bribe to tell the "%artans. by $or#e) They sei/ed and $orti$ied Lei%sydriu' abo&e +aeonia. an *thenian $a'ily whi#h had been banished by the +isistratidae. their . the general. with orders to dri&e out the +isistratidae. Hi%%ias. instead o$ the #oarse stone whereo$ by the #ontra#t the te'%le was to ha&e been #onstru#ted. Cineas. and endea&oured to %ro#ure their own return.town<. had sent to Thessaly.Fo. the La#edae'onians des%at#hed a larger $or#e against *thens. in re%ly to their entreaties.

years o&er the *thenians) By des#ent they were +ylians. o$ the $a'ily o$ the 3eleids. besieged the tyrants.uest that the *thenians would lend the onians aid. and sagoras. killing abo&e $orty 'en( the re'ainder 'ade good their es#a%e. the son o$ Tisander. *rgades. whi#h they shortly %ut to $light. e. as they were being re'o&ed out o$ the #ountry) By this #ala'ity all their %lans were deranged. 'en who in $or'er ti'es $ro' $oreign settlers be#a'e kings o$ *thens) *nd hen#e it was that Hi%%o#rates #a'e to think o$ #alling his son +isistratus0 he na'ed hi' a$ter the +isistratus who was a son o$ 3estor) "u#h then was the 'ode in whi#h the *thenians got . to whi#h Codrus and -elanthus likewise belonged. Clisthenes. and 'ost ad&antageous $or the besiegers) The #hildren o$ the +isistratidae were 'ade %risoners. who did not e&en design to sit down be$ore the %la#e. Clisthenes 'ade ten tribes. now that the tyrants were gone. it is likely that a$ter a $ew days1 blo#kade the La#edae'onians would ha&e . $inding hi'sel$ the weaker. but whose %edigree a' not able to tra#e $urther) Howbeit his kins'en o$$er sa#ri$i#e to the Carian 8u%iter) These two 'en stro&e together $or the 'astery( and Clisthenes. and withdrew to "igeu' on the "#a'ander. instead o$ the $our tribes a'ong whi#h the *thenians had been di&ided hitherto. and. a$ter reigning thirty7si. o$ the $a'ily o$ the *l#'aeonids. who had shut the'sel&es u% in the +elasgi# $ortress) *nd now there had been s'all #han#e o$ the +isistratidae $alling into the hands o$ the "%artans. and the #o'ing o$ *ristagoras to *thens with a re.uit o$ their tyrants) 4hat they did and su$$ered worthy o$ note $ro' the ti'e when they gained their $reedo' until the re&olt o$ onia $ro' ?ing 5arius. . and agreed within $i&e days1 ti'e to . who is said to ha&e been the %ersuader o$ the +ythoness.uitted *tti#a altogether. all o$ who' were nati&e.$irst en#ounter was with the Thessalian horse. and $led straight to Thessaly) Cleo'enes %ro#eeded to the #ity. and %ar#elled out the *thenians a'ong the') He likewise #hanged the na'es o$ the tribes( $or whereas they had till now been #alled a$ter Geleon. and Ho%les.uit *tti#a) *##ordingly they soon a$terwards le$t the #ountry. whi#h had 'oreo&er been well %ro&isioned be$orehand with stores both o$ 'eat and drink. with the aid o$ su#h o$ the *thenians as wished $or $reedo'.7 nay. *egi#ores. who belonged to a noble house.#e%t *2a. it be#a'e greater than e&er) The #hie$ authority was lodged with two %ersons. and #alled his tribes a$ter #ertain other heroes. #alled to his aid the #o''on %eo%le) Hereu%on. was asso#iated be#ause.) *2a. and7as the ranso' o$ their #hildren7 they #onsented to the de'ands o$ the *thenians. and gone ba#k to "%arta7 had not an e&ent o##urred 'ost unlu#ky $or the besieged. Clisthenes set these na'es aside. shall now %ro#eed to relate) The %ower o$ *thens had been great be$ore( but. the $our sons o$ on.

whi#h 'ust not $orbear to 'ention< was be#ause -elani%%us was *drastus1 great ene'y. it had been their wont to honour *drastus with tragi# #horuses. Clisthenes #arried -elani%%us ba#k with hi'. to "i#yon) The Thebans #onsenting. or +ig7$olk. $or he drew his new na'es $ro' the words 9%ig. ha&ing slain both his brother -e#istes and his son7in7law Tydeus) Clisthenes. he #hanged all the old na'es $or new ones( and here he took s%e#ial o##asion to 'o#k the "i#yonians. or Rulers. a$ter assigning the %re#in#t to -elani%%us. but thou art only a robber)9 "o when the god would not grant his re. and *drastus was +olybus1 daughter1s son( when#e it #a'e to %ass that +olybus. they took #ounsel together. and Choereatae. he went ho'e and began to think how he 'ight #ontri&e to 'ake *drastus withdraw o$ his own a##ord) *$ter a while he hit u%on a %lan whi#h he thought would su##eed) He sent en&oys to Thebes in Boeotia. and in$or'ed the Thebans that he wished to bring -elani%%us. whi#h yet stands in the 'arket7%la#e o$ the town) Clisthenes there$ore went to 5el%hi. not only during the reign o$ Clisthenes. king o$ "i#yon) This king. be#ause in the Ho'eri# %oe's *rgos and the *rgi&es were so #onstantly the the'e o$ song) He likewise #on#ei&ed the wish to dri&e *drastus. howe&er. seeing that he was an *rgi&e hero) For *drastus had a shrine at "i#yon. but ga&e the' a na'e drawn $ro' his own kingly o$$i#e) For he #alled his own tribe the *r#helai. assigned hi' a %re#in#t within the go&ern'ent7house. and built hi' a shrine there in the sa$est and strongest %art) The reason $or his so doing . out o$ his #ountry. !neatae. took away $ro' *drastus the sa#ri$i#es and $esti&als wherewith he had till then been honoured. taking at . not #hoosing the "i#yonians to ha&e the sa'e tribes as the *rgi&es. by the s%a#e o$ si. when he was at war with *rgos. and asked the ora#le i$ he 'ight e. while the others he na'ed Hyatae. the son o$ Talaus. and trans$erred the' to his ad&ersary) Hitherto the "i#yonians had %aid e. and #hanged to the well7known na'es o$ Hyllaeans. trans$erring to -elani%%us the rest o$ the sa#red rites) "u#h were his doings in the 'atter o$ *drastus) 4ith res%e#t to the 5orian tribes.although a $oreigner. and 5y'anatae.ty years0 then. Clisthenes.9 adding thereto the usual tribe7endings( only in the #ase o$ his own tribe he did nothing o$ the sort. he was a neighbour and an ally o$ *thens) -y belie$ is that in a#ting thus he did but i'itate his 'aternal grand$ather.%el *drastus) To this the +ythoness is re%orted to ha&e answered7 9*drastus is the "i#yonians1 king. but e&en a$ter his death. +a'%hylians. %ut an end to the #ontests o$ the rha%sodists at "i#yon.9 and 9ass. whi#h they assigned to hi' rather than Ba##hus. be#ause the #ountry had belonged to +olybus. dying #hildless. or *ss$olk. le$t *drastus his kingdo') Besides other #ere'onies. or "wine7$olk) The "i#yonians ke%t these na'es. the son o$ *sta#us. on a##ount o$ his #ala'ities) Clisthenes now ga&e the #horuses to Ba##hus.uest.traordinary honours to *drastus.

uiring Clisthenes and 9The *##ursed9 to . &ery 'u#h 'ore %ower$ul than his ad&ersaries) sagoras in his turn lost ground( and there$ore.as belie&e< o$ the onians. 'ade a #ontra#t o$ $riendshi% with hi') * #harge is e&en brought against Cleo'enes that he was on ter's o$ too great $a'iliarity with sagoras1s wi$e) *t this ti'e the $irst thing that he did was to send a herald and re. and were besieged $or the s%a#e o$ two days0 on the third day they a##e%ted ter's.uire that Clisthenes. who at that ti'e bore rule in *thens. the blood7guiltiness lay on the *l#'aeonidae and their %artisans. whi#h were %ointed out to hi' by sagoras) "u##eeding here. a &i#tor at the !ly'%i# Ga'es. indu#ed the $ugiti&es to re'o&e by a %ro'ise to s%are their li&es) 3e&ertheless they were all slain( and the bla'e was laid on the *l#'aeonidae) *ll this ha%%ened be$ore the ti'e o$ +isistratus) 4hen the 'essage o$ Cleo'enes arri&ed. $ro' #onte'%t .uit the #ity. while he and his $riends were . who were o$ the sa'e age with hi'sel$. with a s'all band o$ $ollowers( and on his arri&al sent into banish'ent se&en hundred *thenian $a'ilies. and 'ade the nu'ber greater than $or'erly( instead o$ the $our %hylar#hs he established ten( he likewise %la#ed ten de'es in ea#h o$ the tribes( and he was. that his tribes should not be the sa'e as theirs( and so $ollowed the %attern set hi' by his na'esake o$ "i#yon) Ha&ing brought entirely o&er to his own side the #o''on %eo%le o$ *thens. #a'e to *thens. $ro' *egialeus the son o$ *drastus) Thus had Clisthenes the "i#yonian done) The *thenian Clisthenes.t endea&oured to dissol&e the #oun#il. as a $ourth na'e. howe&er. being . he #alled in Cleo'enes the La#edae'onian. who' he #alled 9The *##ursed. sagoras. 'ade an atte'%t to sei/e the #itadel) But the atta#k $ailed( and Cylon be#a'e a su%%liant at the i'age) Hereu%on the Heads o$ the 3au#raries. who' he had be$ore disdained. to #ounter7%lot his ene'y. now that the #o''on %eo%le took his %art. he ga&e all the tribes new na'es. and aided by a nu'ber o$ his #o'%anions. who had already. and a large nu'ber o$ *thenians besides. who took the side o$ the #oun#il. and had been na'ed a$ter hi'. and their $ollowers took %ossession o$ the #itadel) Here they were atta#ked by the rest o$ the *thenians.uite #lear o$ it) The way in whi#h 9The *##ursed9 at *thens got their na'e. the title o$ *egialeans.the sa'e ti'e. at the ti'e when he was besieging the +isistratidae. who was grandson by the 'other1s side o$ the other.9 should lea&e *thens) This 'essage he sent at the suggestion o$ sagoras0 $or in the a$$air re$erred to. re. and to %ut the go&ern'ent into the hands o$ three hundred o$ the %artisans o$ that leader) But the #oun#il resisted. who as%ired to the so&ereignty. Clisthenes de%arted o$ his own a##ord) Cleo'enes. and re$used to obey his orders( whereu%on Cleo'enes. resol&ed. notwithstanding his de%arture. was the $ollowing) There was a #ertain *thenian #alled Cylon. he ne.

son o$ Hystas%es. who was at that ti'e go&ernor o$ the +la#e. o$ whose %rowess and #ourage ha&e great things whi#h #ould tell) "o these 'en died in %rison) The *thenians dire#tly a$terwards re#alled Clisthenes. notwithstanding that danger threatened the' $ro' e&ery . 9!h> wo'an. who were at Eleusis) *s the two hosts were about to engage. a##e%ted the ter's( but on their return to *thens. $or they knew that war would $ollow with Cleo'enes and the La#edae'onians) 4hen the a'bassadors rea#hed "ardis and deli&ered their 'essage. in order to . and %resu'e not to enter the holy %la#e7 it is not law$ul $or a 5orian to set $oot there)9 But he answered. Cleo'enes 'ade his atte'%t. together with his La#edae'onians) The rest were #ast into %rison by the *thenians.allowed7 at least su#h o$ the' as were La#edae'onians7 to . who had es#a%ed with hi' $ro' the #itadel. and in what %art o$ the world they dwelt. in. took !enoe and Hysiae.uestion her. and the se&en hundred $a'ilies whi#h Cleo'enes had dri&en out( and. but an *#haean)9 "lighting this warning. on another side. two #ountry towns u%on the $rontier( and at the sa'e ti'e the Chal#ideans. %ut o$$ all thought o$ the Boeotians and Chal#ideans till a $uture ti'e. they 'ight go ho'e again)9 *$ter #onsulting together. as des%ot o$ *thens) *##ordingly. and #onde'ned to die7 a'ong the' Ti'asitheus the 5el%hian. *rta%hernes. #hanged their 'inds. de%art hen#e. who was hi'sel$ king o$ "%arta and 2oint7leader o$ the e. while the Boeotians. without in$or'ing any one o$ his ob2e#t( whi#h was to re&enge hi'sel$ on the *thenians. he in&aded the distri#t o$ Eleusis.%edition.uarter.uired o$ the' 9who they were. that they wanted to be#o'e allies o$ the +ersians:9 The 'essengers told hi'( u%on whi#h he answered the' shortly7 that 9i$ the *thenians #hose to gi&e earth and water to ?ing 5arius. son o$ *riston. was drawing a $or#e together $ro' all %arts o$ the +elo%onnese. and to establish sagoras. an. a' not a 5orian.ious to $or' the allian#e. the %riestess arose $ro' her throne. and said7 9"tranger $ro' La#edae'on. and 'ar#hed against the +elo%onnesians. and drew o$$ $ro' the 'ain ar'y) Then 5e'aratus.uit the #ountry) *nd so the word whi#h #a'e to Cleo'enes re#ei&ed its $ul$il'ent) For when he $irst went u% into the #itadel. who #onsidered hi'sel$ to ha&e been insulted by the *thenians both in word and deed. they sent en&oys to "ardis. the en&oys. with a large ar'y. $irst o$ all the Corinthians. they $ell into dee% disgra#e on a##ount o$ their #o'%lian#e) -eanwhile Cleo'enes. $urther. he would #on#lude an allian#e with the'( but i$ not. who had #on#erted 'easures with hi'. be$ore he had %assed the doors. and who till now had had no sort o$ . and so he was $or#ed to retire. 2ust as he was entering the san#tuary o$ the goddess. bethinking the'sel&es that they were %er%etrating a wrong. %lundered di&ers %la#es in *tti#a) The *thenians. 'eaning to sei/e it. to 'ake an allian#e with the +ersians.

iliaries) "o when the rest o$ the allies saw that the La#edae'onian kings were not o$ one 'ind.7 whi#h is the na'e the Chal#ideans gi&e to their ri#h 'en) *ll the Chal#idean %risoners who' they took were %ut in irons. ad&an#ing to the aid o$ the latter as $ar as the Euri%us. and twi#e they #a'e to do good ser&i#e to the *thenian %eo%le) Their $irst in&asion took %la#e at the %eriod when they $ounded -egara. they likewise drew o$$ and de%arted) This was the $ourth ti'e that the 5orians had in&aded *tti#a0 twi#e they #a'e as ene'ies. and engaged the Chal#ideans with the like su##ess( whereu%on they le$t $our thousand settlers u%on the lands o$ the Hi%%obotae. but $ro' 'any e&erywhere. at the head o$ a +elo%onnesian ar'y. when Cleo'enes.uitted their %ost. as likewise were the Boeotians. and ke%t $or a long ti'e in #lose #on$ine'ent..uarrel with Cleo'enes. a law was %assed at "%arta. they #rossed into Euboea. killing a &ast nu'ber o$ the ene'y. the *thenians. not $ro' this instan#e only.a'%le) !n a##ount o$ this ru%ture between the kings. *thens subdued their %ride in &alorous $ight( Ga&e bonds $or insults( and. wishing to re&enge the'sel&es.%editions. $orbidding both 'onar#hs to go out together with the ar'y. as one o$ the kings was to be le$t behind. that . entered at Eleusis) Thus the 5orians had now $our ti'es in&aded *tti#a) "o when the "%artan ar'y had broken u% $ro' its . whi#h stands on the le$t hand i''ediately that one enters the gateway o$ the #itadel) The ins#ri%tion runs as $ollows07 4hen Chal#is and Boeotia dared her 'ight. hanging against the wall s#or#hed by the -edian $la'es. on the &ery sa'e day.%ended it on the bra/en #hariot drawn by $our steeds.uarters thus ingloriously. one o$ the Tyndaridae should also re'ain at ho'e( whereas hitherto both had a##o'%anied the e. that. the *thenians thought it best to atta#k the' $irst) * battle was $ought a##ordingly( and the *thenians gained a &ery #o'%lete &i#tory. o%%osite the #ha%el whi#h $a#es the west) The *thenians 'ade an o$$ering o$ the tenth %art o$ the ranso'7'oney0 and e. until the ranso' asked $or the' was %aid( and this the *thenians $i. the ranso' %aid. as au. $ollowed their e. howe&er. and taking se&en hundred o$ the' ali&e) *$ter this.ed at two 'inae the 'an) The #hains wherewith they were $ettered the *thenians sus%ended in their #itadel( where they were still to be seen in 'y day. Fro' the $ull tenths these steeds $or +allas 'ade) Thus did the *thenians in#rease in strength) *nd it is %lain enough. 'ar#hed $irst against the Chal#ideans) The Boeotians. and is rightly %la#ed in the reign o$ Codrus at *thens( the se#ond and third o##asions were when they #a'e $ro' "%arta to dri&e out the +isistratidae( the $ourth was the %resent atta#k. and that the Corinthian troo%s had . as had been the #usto' hitherto) The law also %ro&ided.

had two daughters.%lanation. they let the'sel&es be beaten.$reedo' is an e. and ha&e aided us with a good heart all through the war) !$ what use is it to ask the': But 'aybe this is not the true 'eaning o$ the ora#le)9 *s they were thus dis#oursing one with another. and ask the aid o$ those nearest the')9 The 'essengers. a #ertain 'an. there$ore.9 she said. o$ Coronaea. in$or'ed o$ the debate. agreed to lend the Thebans aid. #ried out79-ethinks that understand what #ourse the ora#le would re#o''end to us) *so%us. asked their aid. no sooner shook o$$ the yoke than they be#a'e de#idedly the $irst o$ all) These things show that. while undergoing o%%ression. #alled a 'eeting. and $orthwith went to war with the *thenians. and ra&aged a &ast nu'ber o$ the townshi%s u%on the sea7board. as these two were sisters. sin#e then they worked $or a 'aster( but so soon as they got their $reedo'. ea#h 'an was eager to do the best he #ould $or hi'sel$) "o $ared it now with the *thenians) -eanwhile the Thebans. 9be$ore the 'any7&oi#ed. %lundered +haleru'. who were at that ti'e a 'ost $lourishing %eo%le.#ellent thing sin#e e&en the *thenians. without e&en gi&ing the' noti#e by a herald) The attention o$ these latter being engaged by the struggle with the Boeotians. and been told by the +ythoness that o$ their own strength they would be unable to a##o'%lish their wish0 9they 'ust lay the 'atter. and besee#hing the' to send so'e 'en instead) The Eginetans. as the %eo%le 9nearest to the')9 n answer to this %etition the Eginetans said that they would gi&e the' the *ea#idae $or hel%ers) The Thebans now. returning the *ea#idae. and laid the answer o$ the ora#le be$ore the %eo%le. they say. the Thebans $orthwith sent 'essengers to Egina. had sent to the ora#le. and at the sa'e ti'e #alling to 'ind their an#ient $eud with *thens.#lai'ed7 94hat> are not they who dwell the nearest to us the 'en o$ Tanagra. &entured to renew the war( but they 'et with so rough a re#e%tion. whereby the *thenians su$$ered &ery grie&ous da'age) The an#ient $eud between the Eginetans and *thenians arose out o$ the $ollowing #ir#u'stan#es) !n#e u%on a ti'e the land o$ E%idaurus would bear no #ro%s( and the E%idaurians sent to #onsult the ora#le o$ . Thebe and Egina) The god 'eans that. that they resol&ed to send to the Eginetans again. and Thes%iae: =et these 'en always $ight on our side. a##ording to the ad&i#e o$ the ora#le. the Eginetans in their shi%s o$ war 'ade des#ents u%on *tti#a. while they #ontinued under the rule o$ tyrants. were not a whit 'ore &aliant than any o$ their neighbours. elated with their greatness. who longed to be re&enged on the *thenians. who. who no sooner heard the ad&i#e to 9ask the aid o$ those nearest the'9 than they e. relying on the assistan#e o$ the *ea#idae. on their return. and. we ought to ask the Eginetans to lend us aid)9 *s no one was able to hit on any better e.

#onsidering the' to be their own. howe&er. the Eginetans. but only the wo'en o$ the #ountry) Holy orgies o$ a si'ilar kind were in use also a'ong the E%idaurians. the Eginetans were in all things sub2e#t to the E%idaurians. re&olted $ro' the E%idaurians) Ha&ing thus #o'e to be at en'ity with the'. growing %roud. and had to #ross o&er to E%idaurus $or the trial o$ all suits in whi#h they were engaged one with another) *$ter this. and e&en #arried o$$ these &ery i'ages o$ 5a'ia and *u. and ha&ing obtained what they wanted.esia.esia. who bore #o''ission $ro' the state. who were 'asters o$ the sea. be#ause there were no oli&es at that ti'e anywhere else in all the world but at *thens)1 The *thenians answered that they would gi&e the' lea&e. landed in Egina. and e&en down to the ti'e when this took %la#e. in whose %ossession the $igures now were)9 6%on this the *thenians sent to Egina. and likewise another sort o$ holy orgies. inas'u#h as they were 'ade o$ their wood) *nd $irst they endea&oured to wren#h the' $ro' . belie&ing the *thenian oli&es to be the holiest( or. in the interior. and set the' u% in their own #ountry) Hen#e$orth their land bore its #ro%s( and they duly %aid the *thenians what had been agreed u%on) *n#iently. where$ore the *thenians sent to E%idaurus to re'onstrate) But the E%idaurians %ro&ed to the' that they were not guilty o$ any wrong0794hile the i'ages #ontinued in their #ountry. they were no longer under any obligation to %ay0 the *thenians should 'ake their de'and o$ the Eginetans. they $i. 9they had duly %aid the o$$erings a##ording to the agree'ent( now that the i'ages had been taken $ro' the'. and de'anded the i'ages ba#k( but the Eginetans answered that the *thenians had nothing whate&er to do with the') *$ter this the *thenians relate that they sent a trire'e to Egina with #ertain #iti/ens on board. a##ording to others. whereo$ it is not law$ul to s%eak) *$ter the robbery o$ the i'ages the E%idaurians #eased to 'ake the sti%ulated %ay'ents to the *thenians. 9!$ neither0 but let the' be 'ade o$ the garden oli&e)9 Then the E%idaurians sent to *thens and asked lea&e to #ut oli&e wood in *tti#a.5el%hi #on#erning their a$$li#tion) The answer bade the' set u% the i'ages o$ 5a'ia and *u. and that these 'en. whi#h they set u% in their own #ountry. 'ade the i'ages o$ oli&e wood. in %art o$ $e'ale satiri# #horuses( while at the sa'e ti'e they a%%ointed #ertain 'en to $urnish the #horuses. and sought to take the i'ages away. the Eginetans built the'sel&es shi%s. at a %la#e #alled !ea. about twenty $urlongs $ro' their #ity) This done. but on #ondition o$ their bringing o$$erings year by year to -iner&a +olias and to Ere#htheus) The E%idaurians agreed.9 they said.ed a worshi% $or the i'ages. ten $or ea#h goddess) These #horuses did not abuse 'en. and. whi#h #onsisted in %art o$ sa#ri$i#es. ra&aged E%idaurus. and %ro'ised the' better $ortune when that should be done) 9"hall the i'ages be 'ade o$ bron/e or stone:9 the E%idaurians asked( but the +ythoness re%lied.

their %edestals. dise'barking $ro' their shi%s. they in the ne. who returned alone to +haleru') "u#h is the a##ount gi&en by the *thenians) The Eginetans deny that there was only a single &essel7 9Had there been only one. as they were being dragged and hauled. 'ade $or the statues. tied ro%es to the' and began to haul) Then. he es#a%ed $ro' the battle in whi#h the rest o$ the *thenian troo%s were destroyed by the') *##ording to the *thenians.%edition took it sorely to heart that he alone should ha&e sur&i&ed the slaughter o$ all the rest(7 they there$ore #rowded round the 'an. $or he %erished in the $ollowing 'anner) 4hen he #a'e ba#k to *thens. it was the god who destroyed their troo%s( and e&en this one 'an did not es#a%e.t %la#e tied ro%es to the'. was the #ondu#t o$ the *thenians( they 'eanwhile. asking hi' where he had le$t her husband) *nd the 'an died in this way) The *thenians thought the deed o$ the wo'en 'ore horrible e&en than the $ate o$ the troo%s( as howe&er they did not know how else to %unish the'. ha&ing learnt be$orehand what was intended. as she stru#k. and set to work to try i$ they #ould haul the' down) n the 'idst o$ their hauling suddenly there was a thunder#la%. had %re&ailed on the *rgi&es to hold the'sel&es in readiness( and the *thenians a##ordingly were but 2ust landed on their #oasts when the *rgi&es #a'e to their aid) "e#retly and silently they #rossed o&er $ro' E%idaurus. 9or no 'ore than a $ew. a##ording to the'. began to kill one another( until at last there was but one le$t. when they $ound that no resistan#e was o$$ered. they #hanged their dress and #o'%elled the' to wear the #ostu'e o$ the onians) .%lain #learly whether it was $ro' a #on&i#tion o$ their own in$eriority at sea that they yielded. and with the thunder#la% an earth. and.uake with it) The *rgi&es and the Eginetans both agree in gi&ing this a##ount( and the *thenians the'sel&es a#knowledge that but one o$ their 'en returned ali&e to *tti#a) *##ording to the *rgi&es. e&en i$ they had had no $leet at all( but the *thenians #a'e against the' with a large nu'ber o$ shi%s. where$ore they ga&e way. like ene'ies. the wi&es o$ those who had been sent out on the e. they say7 and so'e %eo%le will %erha%s belie&e the'. though $or 'y %art do not7 the two statues. and stru#k hi' with the broo#hes by whi#h their dresses were $astened ea#h. and $ailing to wren#h the' $ro' their %edestals. and $ell u%on the'( and the thunder #a'e e. and so #arry the' o$$( but $ailing herein. $ell down both u%on their knees( in whi#h attitude they still re'ain) "u#h.9 they say. #ut o$$ their retreat to their shi%s. be$ore the *thenians were aware. bringing word o$ the #ala'ity. or whether it was $or the %ur%ose o$ doing that whi#h in $a#t they did) Their a##ount is that the *thenians. they would easily ha&e re%ulsed the atta#k.a#tly at that 'o'ent.uake( and the #rew o$ the trire'e were $orthwith sei/ed with 'adness. and did not ha/ard a battle)9 They do not howe&er e. and. and the earth.

whi#h does not re. who had brought the' with hi' to "%arta. then to begin the war) 9"o should they su##eed to their wish. a$ter they had su$$ered su#h grie&ous wrong at the hands o$ the Eginetans) *##ordingly they were 'aking ready to take their re&enge when a $resh stir on the %art o$ the La#edae'onians hindered their %ro2e#ts) These last had be#o'e aware o$ the truth7 how that the *l#'aeonidae had %ra#tised on the +ythoness.uire broo#hes) n &ery truth. this dress is not originally onian. and against the +isistratidae( and the dis#o&ery was a double grie$ to the'. when the Thebans 'ade their a%%li#ation $or su##our. when they were sto%%ed by the ora#le o$ 5el%hi. through hatred o$ the *thenians) "u#h then was the origin o$ the $eud whi#h e. were it e&en a 2ar o$ earthenware. whi#h de#lared that 'any dire #ala'ities should be$all the' at the hands o$ the *thenians) !$ these in ti'es %ast they had been ignorant( but now they had be#o'e a#.isted between the Eginetans and the *thenians) Hen#e. yet they 'ust go through 'u#h su$$ering and 'u#h e. and the +ythoness had s#he'ed against the'sel&es.ertion be$ore taking it)9 !n re#ei&ing this warning the *thenians set a%art a %re#in#t $or *ea#us7 the sa'e whi#h still re'ains dedi#ated to hi' in their 'arket7%la#e7 but they #ould not hear with any %atien#e o$ waiting thirty years. sha%ed nearly like that whi#h %re&ails at Corinth) Hen#e$orth they were 'ade to wear the linen tuni#. $or their wo'en to wear broo#hes hal$ as large again as $or'erly. where they had been le$t by the +isistratidae when they were dri&en $ro' .uainted with the' by 'eans o$ Cleo'enes. $or while they had dri&en their own sworn $riends into e. and to o$$er broo#hes rather than anything else in the te'%le o$ these goddesses) They also $orbade the bringing o$ anything *tti# into the te'%le. the Eginetans.ile. howe&er.Till this ti'e the *thenian wo'en had worn a 5orian dress. gladly lent their aid to the Boeotians) They ra&aged all the sea7#oast o$ *tti#a( and the *thenians were about to atta#k the' in return.uer the island in the end. they $ound that they had not gained thereby a %arti#le o$ good will $ro' *thens) They were also 'o&ed by #ertain %ro%he#ies. and in the thirty7$irst year. ha&ing $ound the' in the *thenian #itadel. #alling to 'ind the 'atter o$ i'ages. on this sa'e a##ount. but Carian( $or an#iently the Greek wo'en all wore the #ostu'e whi#h is now #alled the 5orian) t is said $urther that the *rgi&es and Eginetans 'ade it a #usto'. ha&ing $irst set a%art a %re#in#t $or *ea#us. whi#h bade the' wait till thirty years had %assed $ro' the ti'e that the Eginetans did the wrong.9 the ora#le said( 9but i$ they went to war at on#e. though they would still #on. and 'ade a law that none but nati&e drinking &essels should be used there in ti'e to #o'e) Fro' this early age to 'y own day the *rgi&e and Eginetan wo'en ha&e always #ontinued to wear their broo#hes larger than $or'erly.

uainted with tyranny. it o##urred to the' that. they would be likely to be as %ower$ul as the'sel&es. you would be better ad&ised than you now are in regard to . and Cleo'enes ha&ing dis#o&ered the'. and thereby gi&e hi' ba#k that whi#h we took $ro' hi' $or'erly)9 . and to obtain &engean#e on the *thenians) For this #ause we ha&e sent $or Hi%%ias to #o'e here. but i$ they were o%%ressed by a tyranny. La#edae'onians. %ro%ose to %ut down $ree go&ern'ents in the #ities o$ Gree#e. and had no 'ind to a#knowledge any sub2e#tion to their #ontrol. than they turned us and our king. to a#t as you are now doing is to treat your allies unworthily) $ you knew what tyranny was as well as oursel&es. and the "%artans on his arri&al su''oned de%uties $ro' all their other allies. with your hel%. and grew in %ower. #arried the' o$$) "o when the La#edae'onians obtained %ossession o$ the %ro%he#ies."" F)< "u#h was the address o$ the "%artans) The greater nu'ber o$ the allies listened without being %ersuaded) 3one howe&er broke silen#e but "osi#les the Corinthian.#lai'ed7 9"urely the hea&en will soon be below. and 'en will hen#e$orth li&e in the sea. to re'edy the e&ils we ha&e #aused. and $ish take their %la#e u%on the dry land. nothing so bloody. howe&er. begin by %utting a tyrant o&er yoursel&es. una#. out o$ their #ity) "in#e then they ha&e gone on #ontinually raising their thoughts higher.#ellent #are that "%arta 'ay not su$$er $ro' it. we will endea&our now. engaged to kee% *thens in de%enden#e u%on us( and we deli&ered the go&ern'ent into the hands o$ an unthank$ul %eo%le7 a %eo%le who no sooner got their $reedo' by our 'eans. we are $ree to #on$ess that we did lately a thing whi#h was not right) -isled by #ounter$eit ora#les. as a tyranny) $. we dro&e $ro' their #ountry those who were our sworn and true $riends. and the earth abo&e. as their neighbours o$ Boeotia and Chal#is ha&e already dis#o&ered to their #ost. where the +isistratidae had taken shelter) Hi%%ias #a'e at their bidding. and saw that the *thenians were growing in strength. it see's to you a desirable thing to ha&e the #ities under des%oti# rule. with e&ery token o$ insult. 'oreo&er. and as others too will %resently dis#o&er i$ they shall o$$end the') Ha&ing thus erred. and then establish des%ots in the other states) 4hile you #ontinue yoursel&es. and ha&e su''oned you likewise $ro' your se&eral states. who e. that we 'ay all now with heart and hand unite to restore hi' to *thens. and take su#h e. and to set u% tyrannies in their roo') There is nothing in the whole world so un2ust. they would be weak and sub'issi&e) 6nder this $eeling they sent and re#alled Hi%%ias. i$ the %eo%le o$ *tti#a were $ree. and thus addressed the asse'bly07 9Friends and brothers in ar's. as you ha&e always been. and who had. $ro' "igeu' u%on the Helles%ont. sin#e you. the son o$ +isistratus.*thens0 they were in the te'%le.

had a daughter. they sent ten o$ their nu'ber to the townshi% where *etion li&ed."" E)< The Ba##hiadae had %ossessed this ora#le $or so'e ti'e( but they were . they re'ained ."" G)< The go&ern'ent at Corinth was on#e an oligar#hy 7 a single ra#e. who was. a 'an o$ the townshi% o$ +etra. and was tou#hed with %ity. s'iled in his $a#e) The 'an saw the s'ile. held the 'anage'ent o$ a$$airs) 3ow it ha%%ened that *'%hion. and laid hi' in the ar's o$ one o$ the') 3ow they had agreed by the way that whoe&er $irst got hold o$ the #hild should dash it against the ground) t ha%%ened. and went into *etion1s house. howe&er. and right the #ity o$ Corinth) By so'e #han#e this address o$ the ora#le to *etion #a'e to the ears o$ the Ba##hiadae. -ighty and $ier#e. who inter'arried only a'ong the'sel&es. 2ust as Labda %ut hi' into the 'an1s ar's.%e#ting) *s soon. either by this wi$e or by any other. by a %ro&idential #han#e. brought the #hild. sin#e the two agreed so well together) 3e&ertheless. there$ore. #alled Ba##hiadae. who till then had been unable to %er#ei&e the 'eaning o$ another earlier %ro%he#y whi#h likewise bore u%on Corinth. as his wi$e was deli&ered. as he had no #hild. howe&er. na'ed Labda. that will one day Fall on the kingly ra#e. all ye Corinthian %eo%le. with orders to 'ake away with the baby) "o the 'en #a'e to +etra. that the babe. who knew nothing o$ their %ur%ose. though the bearing o$ the $irst %ro%he#y was now #lear to the'. *etion. son o$ E#he#rates. but thought their in. and there asked i$ they 'ight see the #hild( and Labda. so that he . and o$ the house o$ Caeneus) *etion. being 'inded to %ut to death the #hild whi#h *etion was e. one o$ these.uiries arose $ro' a kindly $eeling towards her husband. he shall loosen the li'bs o$ 'any beneath the'7 Brood ye well u%on this. and beetling Corinth) . worthy o$ honour7 Labda shall soon be a 'other7 her o$$s%ring a ro#k. and who' there$ore none o$ the Ba##hiadae would #onsent to 'arry( so she was taken to wi$e by *etion.uiet. and %ointed to the sa'e e&ent as *etion1s %redi#tion) t was the $ollowing07 4hen 'id the ro#ks an eagle shall bear a #arni&orous lion. who was la'e.uite at a loss to know what it 'eant until they heard the res%onse gi&en to *etion( then howe&er they at on#e %er#ei&ed its 'eaning. =e who dwell by $air +eirene.it) . by des#ent o$ the ra#e o$ the La%ithae. went to 5el%hi to #onsult the ora#le #on#erning the 'atter) "#ar#ely had he entered the te'%le when the +ythoness saluted hi' in these words7 3o one honours thee now.

"" J)< *etion1s son grew u%. and destroyed all the best and ri#hest %art o$ the #ro%( then. but not $inding the #hild a$ter looking e&erywhere. and took hi' into a $ield o$ #orn. 'any he de%ri&ed o$ their $ortunes. his son) This %rin#e at the beginning o$ his reign was o$ a 'ilder te'%er than his $ather( but a$ter he #orres%onded by 'eans o$ 'essengers with Thrasybulus. a 1#y%sel1 or #orn7bin) "he knew that i$ they #a'e ba#k to look $or the #hild. while he asked hi' again and again #on#erning his #o'ing $ro' Corinth.#ould not kill it( he there$ore %assed it on to his ne. as she stood near the door. son o$ *etion. they would sear#h all her house( and so indeed they did. he be#a'e e&en 'ore sanguinary) !n one o##asion he sent a herald to ask Thrasybulus what 'ode o$ go&ern'ent it was sa$est to set u% in order to rule with honour) Thrasybulus led the 'essenger without the #ity. and thereby be#a'e 'aster o$ Corinth) Ha&ing thus got the tyranny. and there bla'ed and re%roa#hed one another( #hie$ly howe&er a##using the 'an who had $irst had the #hild in his ar's. who ga&e it to a third( and so it went through all the ten without any one #hoosing to be the 'urderer) The 'other re#ei&ed her #hild ba#k( and the 'en went out o$ the house. he showed hi'sel$ a harsh ruler7 'any o$ the Corinthians he dro&e into banish'ent. he sent the . was na'ed Cy%selus. e&er as he went breaking o$$ and throwing away all su#h ears o$ #orn as o&er7to%%ed the rest) n this way he went through the whole $ield. without a word. they thought it best to go away. and returning to destroy her baby. and de#lare to those by who' they had been sent that they had done their bidding) *nd thus they re%orted on their return ho'e) .t neighbour. and king o$ the glorious Corinth7 He and his #hildren too. tyrant o$ -iletus. a$ter 'u#h ti'e had been thus s%ent. they resol&ed to go into the house again and all take %art in the 'urder) . and a still greater nu'ber o$ their li&es) . in re'e'bran#e o$ the danger $ro' whi#h he had es#a%ed. a$ter the #ornbin) 4hen he rea#hed to 'an1s estate."" D)< His reign lasted thirty years."" 4)< But it was $ated that e&il should #o'e u%on Corinth $ro' the %rogeny o$ *etion( and so it #han#ed that Labda. and $ear$ul o$ their #hanging their 'ind. heard all that the 'en said to one another. and on #onsulting the ora#le. but not his #hildren1s #hildren) "u#h was the ora#le( and Cy%selus %ut so 'u#h $aith in it that he $orthwith 'ade his atte'%t. re#ei&ed a res%onse whi#h was two7sided) t was the $ollowing0 "ee there #o'es to 'y dwelling a 'an 'u#h $a&our1d o$ $ortune. be#ause he had not done as had been agreed u%on) *t last. and. she #arried hi' o$$ and hid hi' in what see'ed to her the 'ost unlikely %la#e to be sus%e#ted. he went to 5el%hi. Cy%selus. through whi#h he began to walk. and stood near the door. and was %ros%erous to its #lose( inso'u#h that he le$t the go&ern'ent to +eriander. &i/).

that all the wi&es o$ the Corinthians should go $orth to the te'%le o$ 8uno) "o the wo'en a%%arelled the'sel&es in their bra&est. %er#ei&ing what the a#tion 'eant. with the hel% o$ his guards. who see'ed to ha&e lost his senses. who till "osi#les s%oke had re'ained . but re$used to s%eak or tell where the %ledge was7 1she was #hill. and burnt the whole hea%) This done."" M)< +eriander. beyond all others. had thus s%oken. when the $ated days #o'e $or the' to be distressed by the *thenians)9 Hi%%ias s%oke thus be#ause he knew the %ro%he#ies better than any 'an li&ing) But the rest o$ the allies. they #on2ured the La#edae'onians 9not to . who' he had %la#ed $or the %ur%ose. and. ! La#edae'onians> is tyranny. +eriander was eager to know what Thrasybulus had #ounselled. sin#e they had not been burnt) *nd this should be her token to +eriander. that what she said was true7 the o&en was #old when he baked his loa&es in it)1 4hen this 'essage was brought hi'. and went $orth. 'aking no di$$eren#e between the $ree wo'en and the sla&es( and.uiet. he stri%%ed the' one and all. 1ha&ing no #lothes( the gar'ents buried with her were o$ no 'anner o$ use. %lant not des%ots in her #ities) $ howe&er you are deter'ined. and had neither %ut the' to death nor banished the'. +eriander knew the token( where$ore he straightway 'ade %ro#la'ation. and -elissa a%%eared. by the #o''on gods o$ Gree#e. treated his sub2e#ts $ro' this ti'e $orward with the &ery greatest #ruelty) 4here Cy%selus had s%ared any. he #alled on the na'e o$ -elissa. all together broke silen#e. in&oking the sa'e gods. he said79!$ a surety the Corinthians will. but the 'essenger re%orted that he had said nothing( and he wondered that +eriander had sent hi' to so strange a 'an. that the Corinthians will not a%%ro&e your #ondu#t)9 4hen "osi#les. and knowing that Thrasybulus ad&ised the destru#tion o$ all the leading #iti/ens. sin#e he did nothing but destroy his own %ro%erty) *nd u%on this he told how Thrasybulus had beha&ed at the inter&iew) .'essenger ba#k) !n the return o$ the 'an to Corinth. and de#lared the'sel&es o$ the sa'e 'ind( and withal. and su#h are the deeds whi#h s%ring $ro' it) 4e Corinthians 'ar&elled greatly when we $irst knew o$ your ha&ing sent $or Hi%%ias( and now it sur%rises us still 'ore to hear you s%eak as you do) 4e ad2ure you. he sent a se#ond ti'e to the ora#le( and -elissa1s ghost told hi' where he would $ind the stranger1s %ledge) "u#h. when they heard hi' utter his thoughts thus boldly.1 she said. +eriander #o'%leted what his $ather had le$t un$inished) !ne day he stri%%ed all the wo'en o$ Corinth stark naked. against all 2usti#e. i$ you %ersist. in seeking to restore Hi%%ias7 know. taking their #lothes to a %it. as i$ to a $esti&al) Then. regret the +isistratidae. Hi%%ias re%lied. the de%uty $ro' Corinth. $or the sake o$ his own wi$e -elissa) He had sent 'essengers into Thes%rotia to #onsult the ora#le o$ the dead u%on the *#heron #on#erning a %ledge whi#h had been gi&en into his #harge by a stranger. at least.

uer) *ll this he urged. and re'inded the' also that -iletus was a #olony $ro' *thens. whose 'other was an *rgi&e wo'an) But this %rin#e was not allowed to en2oy %ea#eably what his $ather had 'ade o&er to hi'( $or during &ery 'any years there had been war between the *thenians o$ "igeu' and the -ytilenaeans o$ the #ity #alled *#hilleu') They o$ -ytilene insisted on ha&ing the %la#e restored to the'0 but the *thenians re$used. des#ribing his 'isad&enture to his $riend -elani%%us. they sent en&oys to "ardis.uerors) They hung the' u% in the te'%le o$ -iner&a at "igeu'( and *l#aeus 'ade a %oe'. dis'issed $ro' "%arta by Cleo'enes the La#edae'onian. and there$ore 'ade u% their 'inds to be at o%en en'ity with the +ersians) The *thenians had #o'e to this de#ision. and. who was #hosen by both %arties as arbiter7 he de#ided that they should ea#h retain that o$ whi#h they were at the ti'e %ossessed( and "igeu' %assed in this way under the do'inion o$ *thens) !n the return o$ Hi%%ias to *sia $ro' La#edae'on. with 'any and &arious in#idents. and were &ery easy to #on. whi#h $ell into the hands o$ the #on.re&olutionise a Gre#ian #ity)9 *nd in this way the enter%rise #a'e to nought) Hi%%ias hereu%on withdrew( and *'yntas the -a#edonian o$$ered hi' the #ity o$ *nthe'us. whereo$ the $ollowing was one) n a battle whi#h was gained by the *thenians. they 'ust re#ei&e ba#k Hi%%ias)9 The *thenians. *thens was the 'ost %ower$ul o$ the Gre#ian states) *##ordingly he a%%eared be$ore the %eo%le. when he be#a'e 'aster o$ the %la#e.iles) *rta%hernes told the' in re%ly. when *ristagoras the -ilesian. a$ter "%arta. sin#e they argued that the *eolians had no better #lai' to the Tro2an territory than the'sel&es. and e. the son o$ Cy%selus. but lost his ar's. when this answer was re%orted to the'. %re$erring to go ba#k to "igeu'. s%oke to the' o$ the good things whi#h there were in *sia. and did all that lay in his %ower to bring *thens into sub2e#tion to hi'sel$ and 5arius) "o when the *thenians learnt what he was about. and . as he had done at "%arta. and sent it to hi' at -ytilene) The -ytilenaeans and *thenians were re#on#iled by +eriander. while the Thessalians were willing to gi&e hi' ol#os0 but he would a##e%t neither the one nor the other. the %oet *l#aeus took to $light. whi#h #ity +isistratus had taken by $or#e o$ ar's $ro' the -ytilenaeans) +isistratus. 9that i$ they wished to re'ain sa$e. deter'ined not to #onsent. established there as tyrant his own natural son.horted the +ersians not to lend an ear to the *thenian e. and sa&ed hi'sel$. and o$ the +ersian 'ode o$ $ight7 how they used neither shield nor s%ear. or than any o$ the other Greeks who hel%ed -enelaus on o##asion o$ the ra%e o$ Helen) 4ar a##ordingly #ontinued. arri&ed at *thens) He knew that. and were already in bad odour with the +ersians. he 'o&ed hea&en and earth to set *rta%hernes against the *thenians. Hegesistratus.

ha&ing rea#hed the sea. and were #on&eyed by the Chians $ro' Chios to Lesbos. and %ro#eeded to atta#k "ardis. *ristagoras. has sent 'e to you. but a%%ointing to the #o''and his own brother Charo%inus and Her'o%hantus. and brought also in their #o'%any $i&e trire'es o$ the Eretrians( whi#h had 2oined the e. he #ared little what he %ro'ised7 till. while he hi'sel$ re'ained behind in -iletus) The onians sailed with this $leet to E%hesus. lea&ing their shi%s at Coressus in the E%hesian territory. asse'bled the rest o$ his allies. when he rea#hed the +aeonians. under the #o''and o$ -elanthius. at the last. not howe&er leading the ar'y in %erson. $ro' whi#h no 'anner o$ ad&antage #ould %ossibly a##rue to the onians(7 indeed. they 'ade all s%eed to the #oast( a $ew only re'aining in +hrygia through $ear) The rest. king o$ -iletus. and begged the +aeonians to #o'e ba#k again) These last re$used. not so 'u#h out o$ goodwill towards *thens. one o$ the #iti/ens. a 'an o$ 'ark in e&ery way) These shi%s were the beginning o$ 'is#hie$ both to the Greeks and to the barbarians) *ristagoras sailed away in ad&an#e. who were thirty thousand) 4on by his %ersuasions. and who now dwelt by the'sel&es in +hrygia. they were e. on their arri&al. they sent a 'essage a#ross to Chios. he did not ai' at their bene$it. taking with the' their wi&es and #hildren. howe&er. in $or'ing it. the -ilesians $ought on the Eretrian side throughout.#eedingly re2oi#ed. they &oted that twenty shi%s should be sent to the aid o$ the onians. took guides $ro' . where they had 2ust landed. and. and seeking to o&ertake the') 3ot su##eeding. i$ you #hoose to $ollow the ad&i#e he %ro$$ers) *ll onia has re&olted $ro' the king( and the way is o%en to you to return to your own land) =ou ha&e only to #ontri&e to rea#h the sea7#oast( the rest shall be our business)9 4hen the +aeonians heard this. and when he rea#hed -iletus. sin#e they were so %ower$ul7 and in the earnestness o$ his entreaties. though he $ailed to i'%ose on Cleo'enes the La#edae'onian. he %re&ailed and won the' o&er) t see's indeed to be easier to de#ei&e a 'ultitude than one 'an7 $or *ristagoras. while the Chal#ideans had the hel% o$ the "a'ian %eo%le) *ristagoras. su##eeded with the *thenians. and by the Lesbians then#e to 5oris#us( $ro' whi#h %la#e they 'ade their way on $oot to +aeonia) The *thenians now arri&ed with a $leet o$ twenty sail. but his sole wish was to annoy ?ing 5arius) He sent a 'essenger into +hrygia to those +aeonians who had been led away #a%ti&e by -egaba/us $ro' the ri&er "try'on. when a great troo% o$ +ersian horse #a'e $ollowing u%on their heels. ha&ing a tra#t o$ land and a ha'let o$ their own) This 'an.there$ore ought to re#ei&e their su##our. #rossed o&er to Chios. to in$or' you that you 'ay now es#a%e.%edition. de&ised a %lan. s%oke thus to the'07 9-en o$ +aeonia. as to %ay a debt whi#h they already owed to the %eo%le o$ -iletus) For in the old war between the Chal#ideans and Eretrians. one o$ the #iti/ens. and.

a'ong other buildings. #a'e u% with the' at E%hesus) The onians drew out against the' in battle array( and a $ight ensued. #a'e down u%on "ardis and took it. whi#h had sei/ed all the skirts o$ the town. one o$ the' was no sooner $ired by a soldier than the $la'es ran s%eedily $ro' house to house. they set o$$. and brings the "ardians a . runs dire#tly through the 'arket %la#e o$ "ardis. and $inding the'sel&es unable to get out. ha&ing with hi' no #onte'%tible $or#e) Though. re$used to gi&e hi' any $urther hel%) "till the onians. . took $right. as the houses in "ardis were 'ost o$ the' built o$ reeds. though *ristagoras besought the' 'u#h by his a'bassadors. #ontinued un#easingly their %re%arations to #arry on the war against the +ersian king. and all the other #ities in that . and brought hel% to the Lydians) Finding howe&er. went ba#k to their shi%s) "ardis howe&er was burnt. and. notwithstanding this desertion. and gathered the'sel&es u%on the banks o$ the +a#tolus This strea'. whi#h their late #ondu#t towards hi' had rendered una&oidable) "ailing into the Helles%ont.the #ity. no 'an o%%osing the'(7 the whole #ity $ell into their hands. in %art %ouring towards the' in dense #rowds. they went to Caria. and 2oins the Her'us. whi#h *rta%hernes de$ended in %erson. in#losed on e&ery side by the $la'es. and.uarter. e. were $or#ed to stand on their de$en#e( and the onians. when they saw the ene'y in %art resisting. they took the #ity. howe&er. #a'e in #rowds into the 'arket7%la#e. #rossing o&er the ridge o$ T'olus. and re#ei&ed 'u#h %raise $ro' "i'onides the Cean) "u#h as 'ade their es#a%e $ro' the battle. a #ertain Eual#idas. and s%read o&er the whole %la#e) *s the $ire raged. when they arri&ed. whi#h #o'es down $ro' -ount T'olus. and won the greater %art o$ the Carians to their side( while . brought together in this way in the 'arket7%la#e and about the +a#tolus.uantity o$ gold7dust.uite $orsook the onians. and. a 'an who had gained #rowns at the Ga'es.uitting the Helles%ont. and drawing o$$ to the ridge whi#h is #alled T'olus when night #a'e. dis%ersed a'ong the se&eral #ities) "o ended this en#ounter) *$terwards the *thenians . they brought By/antiu'. $ollowing #lose u%on their tra#k.#e%t only the #itadel. the Lydians and su#h +ersians as were in the #ity. and. they did not su##eed in %lundering it( $or. and e&en the $ew whi#h were o$ bri#k had a reed that#hing $or their roo$. they killed the #a%tain o$ the Eretrians. under their sway) *gain. all the +ersians who were stationed on this side the Halys drew together. a te'%le o$ the nati&e goddess Cybele was destroyed( whi#h was the reason a$terwards alleged by the +ersians $or setting on $ire the te'%les o$ the Greeks) *s soon as what had ha%%ened was known. that the onians had already withdrawn $ro' "ardis. wherein the Greeks had &ery greatly the worse) @ast nu'bers were slain by the +ersians0 a'ong other 'en o$ note. be$ore that ri&er rea#hes the sea) "o the Lydians and +ersians. and went u% the #ountry with a great host) They 'ar#hed along the #ourse o$ the ri&er Cayster.

?ing 5arius re#ei&ed tidings o$ the taking and burning o$ "ardis by the *thenians and onians( and at the sa'e ti'e he learnt that the author o$ the league. he with his %artisans #losed the gates u%on hi') Gorgus.#e%t the *'athusians. and a' not thought worthy to %artake all thy #ounsels: $ 'y . king o$ "ala'is. and when his brother had gone outside the town. he asked. to whi#h thou hast gi&en utteran#e: ad&ise aught $ro' whi#h un%leasantness o$ any kind. shot u%ward into the sky. when he heard o$ the re&olt o$ the onians. thinkest thou !r #an it ha&e been done without thy knowledge and ad&i#e: Beware lest it be $ound herea$ter that the bla'e o$ these a#ts is thine)9 Histiaeus answered7 94hat words are these. saying. #alled $or his bow. %ay dear $or their rebellion. he wat#hed his o##asion. re'e'ber the *thenians)9 Then he su''oned into his %resen#e Histiaeus i$ -iletus. thus de%ri&ed o$ his #ity. howe&er. Gorgus would not hearken to hi'. and laid siege to it) 4hile !nesilus was engaged in the siege o$ *'athus. %re&ailing on the onians7 whose #ondu#t shall know how to re#o'%ense7 to 2oin with this $or#e. sought to bring about a re&olt o$ the whole o$ Cy%rus) *ll were %re&ailed on e. #a'e o&er likewise) *ll the Cy%rians too. and grandson o$ E&elthon) This 'an had o$ten in $or'er ti'es entreated Gorgus to rebel against the king( but. when his dinner was s%read. whi#h had $or'erly re$used to 2oin with the'. o$ their own %ro%er 'otion es%oused the onian #ause) The o##asion o$ their re&olting $ro' the -edes was the $ollowing) There was a #ertain !nesilus. he was sure. he bade one o$ his ser&ants e&ery day. little or great. to re&enge 'ysel$ on the *thenians>9 *$ter this s%ee#h. as he let $ly the sha$t7 9Grant 'e. that thy lieutenant. than. a$ter the burning o$ "ardis. e. who was son o$ "iro'us. should #o'e to thee> 4hat #ould gain by so doing: !r what is there that la#k now: Ha&e not all that thou hast. being now king o$ "ala'is. and. younger brother o$ Gorgus. who would. 94ho the *thenians were:9 and. the 'an by who' the whole 'atter had been +lanned and #ontri&ed. who re$used to listen to hi'( whereu%on !nesilus sate down be$ore *'athus. has raised a rebellion against 'e) He has brought 'en $ro' the other #ontinent to #ontend with 'e.#e%ting those o$ *'athus. and son o$ Chersis. three ti'es re%eat these words to hi'7 9-aster. laying aside all thought #on#erning the onians. $led to the -edes( and !nesilus. ! Histiaeus. being in$or'ed. he has robbed 'e o$ "ardis> s this as it should be. 8u%iter. ! king. to who' thou hast gi&en -iletus in #harge. he le$t hi' no %ea#e with his i'%ortunity) *s. and %la#ing an arrow on the string.Caunus. who' he had ke%t at his #ourt $or so long a ti'e( and on his a%%earan#e addressed hi' thus 9 a' told. was *ristagoras the -ilesian) t is said that he no sooner understood what had ha%%ened.

and array yoursel&es $or the battle( we will then e'bark aboard your shi%s and engage the +hoeni#ians by sea) $. by %er'ission o$ 5arius. was looked $or to arri&e in Cy%rus with a great +ersian ar'a'ent) "o !nesilus. let that be your task0 only be sure. and thus addressed the'07 9-en o$ onia. when the news rea#hed hi'. do not think it #an really be that the -ilesians and 'y lieutenant ha&e raised a rebellion against thee) But i$ they ha&e indeed #o''itted aught to thy hurt. with the $leet. to a#. who was still besieging *'athus. and 5arius was shooting the arrow and ha&ing the #on$eren#e with Histiaeus. and then sought to e. it see's. and the latter. %ersuaded by his words.e#ute that whi#h they long ago desired( whereas. not to 'ake o&er our shi%s to you. was hastening down to the sea7 in Cy%rus the $ollowing e&ents took %la#e) Tidings #a'e to !nesilus. and %ro#eeded by land to atta#k "ala'is( while the +hoeni#ians. will not %ut o$$ the #lothes in whi#h rea#h onia till ha&e 'ade "ardinia. these last in $ull $or#e %assed o&er into the island( and the +ersians about the sa'e ti'e #rossed in their shi%s $ro' Cili#ia. wishing to de#ei&e the king( and 5arius. thy tributary)9 Histiaeus s%oke thus. whi#he&er %art you #hoose. that 'ay %la#e 'atters there u%on their $or'er $ooting. we Cy%rians lea&e it to you to #hoose whether you will $ight with the +ersians or with the +hoeni#ians) $ it be your %leasure to try your strength on land against the +ersians. not a single #ity would ha&e stirred) "u$$er 'e then to hasten at 'y best s%eed to onia. and a$terwards #o'e ba#k to "usa) n the 'eanti'e7 while the tidings o$ the burning o$ "ardis were rea#hing the king.lieutenant has indeed done as thou sayest.uit yoursel&es so that onia and Cy%rus. and the tidings are true whi#h ha&e #o'e to thee. that a #ertain *rtybius. who has #aused all the troubles) Ha&ing 'anaged this business to thy heart1s #ontent. sailed round the %ro'ontory whi#h goes by the na'e o$ 9the ?eys o$ Cy%rus)9 n this %osture o$ a$$airs the %rin#es o$ Cy%rus #alled together the #a%tains o$ the onians. swear by all the gods o$ thy royal house. i$ had been there. the biggest island in the world. 2udge thou how ill7ad&ised thou wert to re'o&e 'e $ro' the sea7#oast) The onians. ye %re$er to en#ounter the +hoeni#ians. a +ersian. ha&e waited till was no longer in sight. and deli&er u% to thee the de%uty o$ -iletus. the "ala'inian. #o'e on shore at on#e. and engage with the +ersians on shore) 4e will there$ore kee% the %ost whi#h has . and besought the onians to gi&e hi' aid) *$ter brie$ deliberation. so $ar as de%ends on you. 'ay %reser&e their $reedo')9 The onians 'ade answer7 9The #o''onwealth o$ onia sent us here to guard the sea. be sure he has done it all o$ his own head) For 'y %art. sent o$$ heralds to all %arts o$ onia. let hi' go( only bidding hi' be sure to do as he had %ro'ised. on the other hand.

re'e'bering what you su$$ered when you were the sla&es o$ the -edes. when the Carian #ut at hi' with a rea%ing7hook. the "a'ians es%e#ially distinguishing the'sel&es) -eanwhile the #o'bat had begun on land. 'y liege. the #hoi#est troo%s o$ the "ala'inians and the "olians were set to o%%ose the +ersians) *t the sa'e ti'e !nesilus. yet to $all by the hand o$ a worthy $oe 'akes death lose hal$ its horror) To us. %la#ing the' so that while the rest o$ the Cy%rians were drawn u% against the au. ai'ed his blow at the rider( the horse reared and %la#ed his $ore $eet u%on the shield o$ !nesilus. and *rtybius. a 'an well skilled in war. o$ his own a##ord. and the two ar'ies were engaged in a shar% struggle. and seek therein to be o$ so'e ser&i#e) 5o you. 1twill redound to thine honour. the steed or the rider:9 Then the s. who that day $ought as they ha&e ne&er done either be$ore or sin#e. lea&e his war7horse and his retinue) *nd ha&e thou no $ear o$ the horse1s tri#ks) warrant that this is the last ti'e he will stand u% against any one)9 Thus s%ake the Carian( and shortly a$ter. and o$ daring #ourage( and thus addressed hi'07 9 hear. astride u%on his horse. when thus it $ell out in the 'atter o$ the generals) *rtybius. took %ost o%%osite to *rtybius. in$or'ed o$ this. with hi') n the thi#k o$ the $ight. a' ready to undertake.been assigned to us. tyrant o$ Curiu'. and se&ered the two legs $ro' the body) The horse $ell u%on the s%ot. rears u% and atta#ks with his $ore legs and teeth the 'an against who' his rider urges hi') Consider .9 he said. #alled to hi' his shield7bearer. and there is nothing that will shrink $ro' at thy bidding) But will tell thee what see's to 'e to 'ake 'ost $or thy interests) *s thou art a %rin#e and a general. the two hosts 2oined battle both by sea and land) *nd here it #han#ed that by sea the onians.ui#kly there$ore and tell 'e whi#h wilt thou undertake to en#ounter. who was a Carian by nation. 9Both. and the Cy%rian kings ranged their troo%s in order o$ battle against the'. who #o''anded no in#onsiderable body o$ troo%s. the +ersian general) 3ow *rtybius rode a horse whi#h had been trained to rear u% against a $oot7soldier) !nesilus. "tesanor. de$eated the +hoeni#ians. #harged down u%on !nesilus.uire answered hi'. 9that the horse whi#h *rtybius rides. thy $ollowers.whi#h 'ay Hea&en $ore$end><.iliaries o$ the ene'y. i$ thou slayest thine ad&ersary. went o&er with the' to the ene'y) !n this desertion o$ the Curians7 *rgi&e #olonists. beha&e like bra&e warriors)9 "u#h was the re%ly o$ the onians) 3ot long a$terwards the +ersians ad&an#ed into the %lain be$ore "ala'is. or either. and i$ he slays thee . as he had agreed with his shield7bearer. i$ re%ort . think thou shouldest engage with one who is hi'sel$ both a %rin#e and also a general) For then. the +ersian general. who.

who was 'arried to one o$ the daughters o$ 5arius.odarus. and were #o''anded 9to take down the head and bury it. and drew together their strength to a %la#e #alled 9the 4hite Colu'ns. +er#ote. when they $ound that the a$$airs o$ !nesilus were utterly lost and ruined. and *risto#y%rus. who was the author o$ the re&olt. who was 'arried to a daughter o$ "yennesis. a$ter en2oying a year o$ $reedo'. de$eating the'. and sailed away ho'e) !$ the #ities whi#h were besieged. when he &isited Cy%rus. he turned round. the $or'er king. *bydos.#e%ting "ala'is. !tanes. was that o$ +i. "oli held out the longest0 the +ersians took it by under'ining the wall in the $i$th 'onth $ro' the beginning o$ the siege) Thus. lea&ing the Helles%ont. who were likewise 'arried to daughters o$ the king. where it was set u% o&er the gates) Here it hung till it be#a'e hollow( whereu%on a swar' o$ bees took %ossession o$ it. together with Hy'eas. and dri&ing the' to their shi%s. &ast nu'bers were slain. La'%sa#us. the son o$ Chersis. 'any %lans were %ut $orth( but the best. and +aesus) Fro' +aesus he 'ar#hed against +ariu'( but on his way re#ei&ing intelligen#e that the Carians had 'ade #o''on #ause with the onians. who' "olon the *thenian. be#ause !nesilus had laid siege to their town. and thrown o$$ the +ersian yoke. and took it with the' to *'athus. and. and %ro#eeded in su##ession to take and sa#k ea#h one o$ the') 5aurises atta#ked the towns u%on the Helles%ont. a strea' running $ro' the drian #ountry. and a'ong the' !nesilus. a Cindyan. a$ter %ursuing the onians who had $ought at "ardis. and that siege was laid to all the #ities o$ Cy%rus e. 'ar#hed away towards Caria) The Carians by so'e #han#e got in$or'ation o$ this 'o&e'ent be$ore 5aurises arri&ed. and took in as 'any days the $i&e #ities o$ 5ardanus.says true7 $orthwith the war7#hariots o$ the "ala'inians $ollowed the e. and then#e$orth to regard !nesilus as a hero. the Cy%rians were ensla&ed $or the se#ond ti'e) -eanwhile 5aurises.9 whi#h is on the ri&er -arsyas. and o$$er sa#ri$i#e to hi' year by year( so it would go the better with the')9 *nd to this day the *'athusians do as they were then bidden) *s $or the onians who had gained the sea7$ight. the Cili#ian king) His . king o$ the "olians) This *risto#y%rus was son o$ +hilo#y%rus. $orthwith they le$t Cy%rus. #ut the head o$$ his #or%se. and $illed it with a honey#o'b) !n seeing this the *'athusians #onsulted the ora#le. and e'%tying itsel$ into the -aeander) Here when they were 'et. and went o&er likewise( whereu%on &i#tory de#lared in $a&our o$ the +ersians( and the ar'y o$ the Cy%rians being routed. %raised in his %oe's beyond all other so&ereigns) The *'athusians. the son o$ -ausolus. and other +ersian #a%tains. in 'y 2udg'ent. di&ided their e$$orts against the di$$erent #ities. whi#h the inhabitants had surrendered to Gorgus.a'%le set the'.

#rossing the -aeander.uitted the +ro%ontis. and $ight with the ri&er at their ba#k( that so. while the Carians had not $ewer than F0. a 'an o$ -ylasa) "u#h was the way in whi#h these +ersians %erished) n the 'eanti'e Hy'eas.ad&i#e was that the Carians should #ross the -aeander. took Cius. all #han#e o$ $light being #ut o$$. 5aurises. and. but be dri&en headlong into the ri&er) The +ersians soon a$terwards a%%roa#hed. %re%ared the'sel&es a$resh $or war. and ha&e their natural #ourage raised to a still higher %it#h) His o%inion. so'e while a$ter. a #ity o$ -ysia) Learning. did not %re&ail( it was thought best to 'ake the ene'y ha&e the -aeander behind the'( that so. howe&er. a re'nant o$ the an#ient Teu#rians) He did not. doubting whether they would $are better i$ they ga&e the'sel&es u% to the +ersians. they laid an a'bush $or the' on the road whi#h leads to +edasus( the +ersians. who was likewise one o$ those by who' the onians were %ursued a$ter their atta#k on "ardis. they 'ight be $or#ed to stand their ground. whi#h ha%%ened as ha&e related. the son o$ Gyges. $ell into the tra%.uered the Gergithae. engaged the Carians u%on the banks o$ the -arsyas( where $or a long ti'e the battle was stoutly #ontested. and was gone into Caria. howe&er. and the whole ar'y was destroyed.000 slain) "u#h as es#a%ed $ro' the $ield o$ battle #olle#ted together at Labranda. a$ter gaining these su##esses. and "isi'a#es0 -yrsus too. he in his turn . and likewise #on. *'orges. and on the a%%roa#h o$ the +ersians ga&e the' battle a se#ond ti'e) They were de$eated. the blow $ell with 'ost $or#e on the -ilesians) The Carians. howe&er. who were 'aking a night7'ar#h. and 'ar#hing with the ar'y under his #o''and to the Helles%ont. was killed at the sa'e ti'e) The leader o$ the a'bush was Hera#lides. dis'issing their $or'er thoughts. were dire#ted . and !tanes. dire#ting his #ourse towards the +ro%ontis. being o&er%owered by nu'bers) !n the side o$ the +ersians there $ell G000. in the &ast %re#in#t o$ 8u%iter "tratius7 a deity worshi%%ed only by the Carians7 and in the sa#red gro&e o$ %lane7trees) Here they deliberated as to the best 'eans o$ sa&ing the'sel&es. i$ they were de$eated in the battle and %ut to $light. but. together with the generals. with still greater loss than be$ore( and while all the troo%s engaged su$$ered se&erely. howe&er. or i$ they abandoned *sia $or e&er) *s they were debating these 'atters a body o$ -ilesians and allies #a'e to their assistan#e( whereu%on the Carians. they 'ight ha&e no retreat o%en. *rta%hernes. that 5aurises had le$t the Helles%ont.uit the Troad. re%aired their ill $ortune in another a#tion) 6nderstanding that the +ersians were about to atta#k their #ities. the son o$ banolis. the satra% o$ "ardis. but at last the Carians were de$eated. . redu#ed all the *eolians o$ the Troad. was hi'sel$ #arried o$$ by disease) *$ter his death. the third general.

and he 'ight re7establish hi'sel$ in -iletus)9 "u#h was the ad&i#e gi&en by He#ataeus) *ristagoras. #a'e down to "ardis) !n his arri&al. tyrant o$ -iletus. whi#h Histiaeus had re#ei&ed as a gi$t $ro' ?ing 5arius. He#ataeus. the "ardian satra%. and laid be$ore the' the $ollowing %ro2e#t07 91Twould be well. %erished in the way whi#h ha&e des#ribed) -eanwhile Histiaeus. the historian.9 he said. 9in the island o$ Leros. 'ade answer that in his 2udge'ent neither %la#e was suitable) 9*ristagoras should build a $ort. .uite un#ons#ious o$ the whole business) *rta%hernes. who had been allowed by 5arius to lea&e "usa.to undertake the #ondu#t o$ the war against onia and the neighbouring *eolis) By the' Cla/o'enae in the $or'er. the author o$ the onian re&olt.ious to a##e%t ter's o$ surrender) The "i. seeing his danger. son o$ Hegesander. and it had astonished hi' greatly. while besieging a #ity whose de$enders were an. were re#o&ered) *s the #ities $ell one a$ter another. %retending to be . what he thought was the reason that the onians had rebelled. notwithstanding that it was he who had #aused the disturban#es in onia and 'ade so great a #o''otion. to look about $or 'eans o$ es#a%e) Being #on&in#ed that it was in &ain to endea&our to o&er#o'e ?ing 5arius. alar'ed at the knowledge whi#h he dis%layed. a 'an o$ but little #ourage<. should go there and bide his ti'e( $ro' Leros atta#ks 'ight readily be 'ade. howe&er.who was in truth.th Book. in #ase they were dri&en out o$ -iletus) "hould he go out at the head o$ a #olony to "ardinia.uestion o$ *ristagoras. as he now %lainly showed.9 he said. and.uestion) Fro' then#e he %ro#eeded to atta#k the Thra#ians( but here he was #ut o$$ with his whole ar'y. being asked by *rta%hernes. said to hi'. and had begun to $orti$y:9 To this . and Cy'e in the latter. or should he sail to -yr#inus in Edonia. i$ dri&en $ro' -iletus. howe&er. Histiaeus0 this shoe is o$ thy stit#hing( *ristagoras has but %ut it on)9 "u#h was the re'ark 'ade by *rta%hernes #on#erning the rebellion) Histiaeus. who %er#ei&ed that he was dealing dishonestly. he %ut the go&ern'ent o$ -iletus into the hands o$ one o$ the #hie$ #iti/ens. na'ed +ythagoras. sailed to Thra#e. began. he 'ade answer that he #ould not #on#ei&e. and there 'ade hi'sel$ 'aster o$ the %la#e in . was bent on retiring to -yr#inus) *##ordingly. 9 will tell thee how the #ase stands. he #alled his brothers7in7ar's together. 9to ha&e so'e %la#e o$ re$uge. and. taking with hi' all who liked to go. *ristagoras the -ilesian . and who had in $a#t $ull knowledge o$ the whole history o$ the outbreak. Entitled ER*T! *R "T*G!R*".

so soon as night $ell, $led away to the #oast) Thus he $or$eited his word to 5arius( $or though he had %ledged hi'sel$ to bring "ardinia, the biggest island in the whole world, under the +ersian yoke, he in reality sought to obtain the dire#tion o$ the war against the king) Crossing o&er to Chios, he was there laid in bonds by the inhabitants, who a##used hi' o$ intending so'e 'is#hie$ against the' in the interest o$ 5arius) Howe&er, when the whole truth was laid be$ore the', and they $ound that Histiaeus was in reality a $oe to the king, they $orthwith set hi' at large again) *$ter this the onians in,uired o$ hi' $or what reason he had so strongly urged *ristagoras to re&olt $ro' the king, thereby doing their nation so ill a ser&i#e) n re%ly, he took good #are not to dis#lose to the' the real #ause, but told the' that ?ing 5arius had intended to re'o&e the +hoeni#ians $ro' their own #ountry, and %la#e the' in onia, while he %lanted the onians in +hoeni#ia, and that it was $or this reason he sent *ristagoras the order) 3ow it was not true that the king had entertained any su#h intention, but Histiaeus su##eeded hereby in arousing the $ears o$ the onians) *$ter this, Histiaeus, by 'eans o$ a #ertain Her'i%%us, a nati&e o$ *tarneus, sent letters to 'any o$ the +ersians in "ardis, who had be$ore held so'e dis#ourse with hi' #on#erning a re&olt) Her'i%%us, howe&er, instead o$ #on&eying the' to the %ersons to who' they were addressed, deli&ered the' into the hands o$ *rta%hernes, who, %er#ei&ing what was on $oot, #o''anded Her'i%%us to deli&er the letters a##ording to their addresses, and then bring hi' ba#k the answers whi#h were sent to Histiaeus) The traitors being in this way dis#o&ered, *rta%hernes %ut a nu'ber o$ +ersians to death, and #aused a #o''otion in "ardis) *s $or Histiaeus, when his ho%es in this 'atter were disa%%ointed, he %ersuaded the Chians to #arry hi' ba#k to -iletus( but the -ilesians were too well %leased at ha&ing got ,uit o$ *ristagoras to be an.ious to re#ei&e another tyrant into their #ountry( besides whi#h they had now tasted liberty) They there$ore o%%osed his return( and when he endea&oured to $or#e an entran#e during the night, one o$ the inhabitants e&en wounded hi' in the thigh) Ha&ing been thus re2e#ted $ro' his #ountry, he went ba#k to Chios( when#e, a$ter $ailing in an atte'%t to indu#e the Chians to gi&e hi' shi%s, he #rossed o&er to -ytilene, where he su##eeded in obtaining &essels $ro' the Lesbians) They $itted out a s,uadron o$ eight trire'es, and sailed with hi' to the Helles%ont, where they took u% their station, and %ro#eeded to sei/e all the &essels whi#h %assed out $ro' the Eu.ine, unless the #rews de#lared the'sel&es ready to obey his orders) 4hile Histiaeus and the -ytilenaeans were thus e'%loyed, -iletus was e.%e#ting an atta#k $ro' a &ast ar'a'ent, whi#h #o'%rised both a $leet and also a land $or#e) The +ersian #a%tains had drawn their se&eral deta#h'ents together, and $or'ed the' into a single ar'y(

and had resol&ed to %ass o&er all the other #ities, whi#h they regarded as o$ lesser a##ount, and to 'ar#h straight on -iletus) !$ the na&al states, +hoeni#ia showed the greatest /eal( but the $leet was #o'%osed likewise o$ the Cy%rians ;who had so lately been brought under<, the Cili#ians, and also the Egy%tians) 4hile the +ersians were thus 'aking %re%arations against -iletus and onia, the onians, in$or'ed o$ their intent, sent their de%uties to the +anioniu', and held a #oun#il u%on the %osture o$ their a$$airs) Hereat it was deter'ined that no land $or#e should be #olle#ted to o%%ose the +ersians, but that the -ilesians should be le$t to de$end their own walls as they #ould( at the sa'e ti'e they agreed that the whole na&al $or#e o$ the states, not e.#e%ting a single shi%, should be e,ui%%ed, and should 'uster at Lade, a s'all island lying o$$ -iletus7 to gi&e battle on behal$ o$ the %la#e) +resently the onians began to asse'ble in their shi%s, and with the' #a'e the *eolians o$ Lesbos( and in this way they 'arshalled their line07 The wing towards the east was $or'ed o$ the -ilesians the'sel&es, who $urnished eighty shi%s( ne.t to the' #a'e the +rienians with twel&e, and the -yusians with three shi%s( a$ter the -yusians were stationed the Teians, whose shi%s were se&enteen( then the Chians, who $urnished a hundred) The Erythraeans and +ho#aeans $ollowed, the $or'er with eight, the latter with three shi%s( beyond the +ho#aeans were the Lesbians, $urnishing se&enty( last o$ all #a'e the "a'ians, $or'ing the western wing, and $urnishing si.ty &essels) The $leet a'ounted in all to three hundred and $i$ty7three trire'es) "u#h was the nu'ber on the onian side) !n the side o$ the barbarians the nu'ber o$ &essels was si. hundred) These asse'bled o$$ the #oast o$ -ilesia, while the land ar'y #olle#ted u%on the shore( but the leaders, learning the strength o$ the onian $leet, began to $ear lest they 'ight $ail to de$eat the', in whi#h #ase, not ha&ing the 'astery at sea, they would be unable to redu#e -iletus, and 'ight in #onse,uen#e re#ei&e rough treat'ent at the hands o$ 5arius) "o when they thought o$ all these things, they resol&ed on the $ollowing #ourse07 Calling together the onian tyrants, who had $led to the -edes $or re$uge when *ristagoras de%osed the' $ro' their go&ern'ents, and who were now in #a'%, ha&ing 2oined in the e.%edition against -iletus, the +ersians addressed the' thus0 9-en o$ onia, now is the $it ti'e to show your /eal $or the house o$ the king) 6se your best e$$orts, e&ery one o$ you, to deta#h your $ellow7#ountry'en $ro' the general body) Hold $orth to the' the %ro'ise that, i$ they sub'it, no har' shall ha%%en to the' on a##ount o$ their rebellion( their te'%les shall not be burnt, nor any o$ their %ri&ate buildings( neither shall they be treated with greater harshness than be$ore the outbreak) But i$ they re$use to yield, and deter'ine to try the #han#e o$ a battle, threaten the' with the $ate whi#h shall assuredly o&ertake the' in that #ase) Tell

the', when they are &an,uished in $ight, they shall be ensla&ed( their boys shall be 'ade eunu#hs, and their 'aidens trans%orted to Ba#tra( while their #ountry shall be deli&ered into the hands o$ $oreigners)9 Thus s%ake the +ersians) The onian tyrants sent a##ordingly by night to their res%e#ti&e #iti/ens, and re%orted the words o$ the +ersians( but the %eo%le were all staun#h, and re$used to betray their #ountry'en, those o$ ea#h state thinking that they alone had had 'ade to the') 3ow these e&ents ha%%ened on the $irst a%%earan#e o$ the +ersians be$ore -iletus) *$terwards, while the onian $leet was still asse'bled at Lade, #oun#ils were held, and s%ee#hes 'ade by di&ers %ersons7 a'ong the rest by 5ionysius, the +ho#aean #a%tain, who thus e.%ressed hi'sel$07 9!ur a$$airs hang on the ra/or1s edge, 'en o$ onia, either to be $ree or to be sla&es( and sla&es, too, who ha&e shown the'sel&es runaways) 3ow then you ha&e to #hoose whether you will endure hardshi%s, and so $or the %resent lead a li$e o$ toil, but thereby gain ability to o&er#o'e your ene'ies and establish your own $reedo'( or whether you will %ersist in this sloth$ulness and disorder, in whi#h #ase see no ho%e o$ your es#a%ing the king1s &engean#e $or your rebellion) besee#h you, be %ersuaded by 'e, and trust yoursel&es to 'y guidan#e) Then, i$ the gods only hold the balan#e $airly between us, undertake to say that our $oes will either de#line a battle, or, i$ they $ight, su$$er #o'%lete dis#o'$iture)9 These words %re&ailed with the onians, and $orthwith they #o''itted the'sel&es to 5ionysius( whereu%on he %ro#eeded e&ery day to 'ake the shi%s 'o&e in #olu'n, and the rowers %ly their oars, and e.er#ise the'sel&es in breaking the line( while the 'arines were held under ar's, and the &essels were ke%t, till e&ening $ell, u%on their an#hors, so that the 'en had nothing but toil $ro' 'orning e&en to night) "e&en days did the onians #ontinue obedient, and do whatsoe&er he bade the'( but on the eighth day, worn out by the hardness o$ the work and the heat o$ the sun, and ,uite una##usto'ed to su#h $atigues, they began to #on$er together, and to say one to another, 94hat god ha&e we o$$ended to bring u%on oursel&es su#h a %unish'ent as this: Fools and distra#ted that we were, to %ut oursel&es into the hands o$ this +ho#aean braggart, who does but $urnish three shi%s to the $leet> He, now that he has got us, %lagues us in the 'ost des%erate $ashion( 'any o$ us, in #onse,uen#e, ha&e $allen si#k already7 'any 'ore e.%e#t to $ollow) 4e had better su$$er anything rather than these hardshi%s( e&en the sla&ery with whi#h we are threatened, howe&er harsh, #an be no worse than our %resent thraldo') Co'e, let us re$use hi' obedien#e)9 "o saying, they $orthwith #eased to obey his orders, and %it#hed their tents, as i$ they had been soldiers, u%on the island, where they re%osed under the shade all day, and re$used to go aboard the shi%s

and train the'sel&es) 3ow when the "a'ian #a%tains %er#ei&ed what was taking %la#e, they were 'ore in#lined than be$ore to a##e%t the ter's whi#h *ea#es, the son o$ "yloson, had been authorised by the +ersians to o$$er the', on #ondition o$ their deserting $ro' the #on$edera#y) For they saw that all was disorder a'ong the onians, and they $elt also that it was ho%eless to #ontend with the %ower o$ the king( sin#e i$ they de$eated the $leet whi#h had been sent against the', they knew that another would #o'e $i&e ti'es as great) "o they took ad&antage o$ the o##asion whi#h now o$$ered, and as soon as e&er they saw the onians re$use to work, hastened gladly to %ro&ide $or the sa$ety o$ their te'%les and their %ro%erties) This *ea#es, who 'ade the o&ertures to the "a'ians, was the son o$ "yloson, and grandson o$ the earlier *ea#es) He had $or'erly been tyrant o$ "a'os, but was ousted $ro' his go&ern'ent by *ristagoras the -ilesian, at the sa'e ti'e with the other tyrants o$ the onians) The +hoeni#ians soon a$terwards sailed to the atta#k( and the onians likewise %ut the'sel&es in line, and went out to 'eet the') 4hen they had now neared one another, and 2oined battle, whi#h o$ the onians $ought like bra&e 'en and whi#h like #owards, #annot de#lare with any #ertainty, $or #harges are brought on all sides( but the tale goes that the "a'ians, a##ording to the agree'ent whi#h they had 'ade with *ea#es, hoisted sail, and ,uitting their %ost bore away $or "a'os, e.#e%t ele&en shi%s, whose #a%tains ga&e no heed to the orders o$ the #o''anders, but re'ained and took %art in the battle) The state o$ "a'os, in #onsideration o$ this a#tion, granted to these 'en, as an a#knowledg'ent i$ their bra&ery, the honour o$ ha&ing their na'es, and the na'es o$ their $athers, ins#ribed u%on a %illar, whi#h still stands in the 'arket7%la#e) The Lesbians also, when they saw the "a'ians, who were drawn u% ne.t the', begin to $lee, the'sel&es did the like( and the e.a'%le, on#e set, was $ollowed by the greater nu'ber o$ the onians) !$ those who re'ained and $ought, none were so rudely handled as the Chians, who dis%layed %rodigies o$ &alour, and disdained to %lay the %art o$ #owards) They $urnished to the #o''on $leet, as 'entioned abo&e, one hundred shi%s, ha&ing ea#h o$ the' $orty ar'ed #iti/ens, and those %i#ked 'en, on board( and when they saw the greater %ortion o$ the allies betraying the #o''on #ause, they $or their %art, s#orning to i'itate the base #ondu#t o$ these traitors, although they were le$t al'ost alone and unsu%%orted, a &ery $ew $riends #ontinuing to stand by the', notwithstanding went on with the $ight, and o$tti'es #ut the line o$ the ene'y, until at last, a$ter they had taken &ery 'any o$ their ad&ersaries1 shi%s, they ended by losing 'ore than hal$ o$ their own) Hereu%on, with the re'ainder o$ their &essels, the Chians $led away to their own #ountry) *s $or su#h o$ their shi%s as were da'aged and disabled, these,

being %ursued by the ene'y, 'ade straight $or -y#ale, where the #rews ran the' ashore, and abandoning the' began their 'ar#h along the #ontinent) Ha%%ening in their way u%on the territory o$ E%hesus, they essayed to #ross it( but here a dire 'is$ortune be$ell the') t was night, and the E%hesian wo'en #han#ed to be engaged in #elebrating the Thes'o%horia7 the %re&ious #ala'ity o$ the Chians had not been heard o$7 so when the E%hesians saw their #ountry in&aded by an ar'ed band, they 'ade no ,uestion o$ the new7#o'ers being robbers who %ur%osed to #arry o$$ their wo'en( and a##ordingly they 'ar#hed out against the' in $ull $or#e, and slew the' all) "u#h were the 'is$ortunes whi#h be$ell the' o$ Chios) 5ionysius, the +ho#aean, when he %er#ei&ed that all was lost, ha&ing $irst #a%tured three shi%s $ro' the ene'y, hi'sel$ took to $light) He would not, howe&er, return to +ho#aea, whi#h he well knew 'ust $all again, like the rest o$ onia, under the +ersian yoke( but straightway, as he was, he set sail $or +hoeni#ia, and there sunk a nu'ber o$ 'er#hant'en, and gained a great booty( a$ter whi#h he dire#ted his #ourse to "i#ily, where he established hi'sel$ as a #orsair, and %lundered the Carthaginians and Tyrrhenians, but did no har' to the Greeks) The +ersians, when they had &an,uished the onians in the sea7$ight, besieged -iletus both by land and sea, dri&ing 'ines under the walls, and 'aking use o$ e&ery known de&i#e, until at length they took both the #itadel and the town, si. years $ro' the ti'e when the re&olt $irst broke out under *ristagoras) *ll the inhabitants o$ the #ity they redu#ed to sla&ery, and thus the e&ent tallied with the announ#e'ent whi#h had been 'ade by the ora#le) For on#e u%on a ti'e, when the *rgi&es had sent to 5el%hi to #onsult the god about the sa$ety o$ their own #ity, a %ro%he#y was gi&en the', in whi#h others besides the'sel&es were interested( $or while it bore in %art u%on the $ortunes o$ *rgos, it tou#hed in a by7#lause the $ate o$ the 'en o$ -iletus) shall set down the %ortion whi#h #on#erned the *rgi&es when #o'e to that %art o$ 'y History, 'entioning at %resent only the %assage in whi#h the absent -ilesians were s%oken o$) This %assage was as $ollows07 Then shalt thou, -iletus, so o$t the #ontri&er o$ e&il, Be, thysel$, to 'any a least and an e.#ellent booty0 Then shall thy 'atrons wash the $eet o$ long7haired 'asters7 !thers shall then %ossess our lo&1d 5idy'ian te'%le) "u#h a $ate now be$ell the -ilesians( $or the +ersians, who wore their hair long, a$ter killing 'ost o$ the 'en, 'ade the wo'en and #hildren sla&es( and the san#tuary at 5idy'a, the ora#le no less than the te'%le was %lundered and burnt( o$ the ri#hes whereo$ ha&e 'ade $re,uent 'ention in other %arts o$ 'y History)

Those o$ the -ilesians whose li&es were s%ared, being #arried %risoners to "usa, re#ei&ed no ill treat'ent at the hands o$ ?ing 5arius, but were established by hi' in *'%e, a #ity on the shores o$ the Erythraean sea, near the s%ot where the Tigris $lows into it) -iletus itsel$, and the %lain about the #ity, were ke%t by the +ersians $or the'sel&es, while the hill7#ountry was assigned to the Carians o$ +edasus) *nd now the "ybarites, who a$ter the loss o$ their #ity o##u%ied Laus and "#idrus, $ailed duly to return the $or'er kindness o$ the -ilesians) For these last, when "ybaris was taken by the Crotoniats, 'ade a great 'ourning, all o$ the', youths as well as 'en, sha&ing their heads( sin#e -iletus and "ybaris were, o$ all the #ities whereo$ we ha&e any knowledge, the two 'ost #losely united to one another) The *thenians, on the other hand, showed the'sel&es beyond 'easure a$$li#ted at the $all o$ -iletus, in 'any ways e.%ressing their sy'%athy, and es%e#ially by their treat'ent o$ +hryni#hus) For when this %oet brought out u%on the stage his dra'a o$ the Ca%ture o$ -iletus, the whole theatre burst into tears( and the %eo%le senten#ed hi' to %ay a $ine o$ a thousand dra#h's, $or re#alling to the' their own 'is$ortunes) They likewise 'ade a law that no one should e&er again e.hibit that %ie#e) Thus was -iletus bere$t o$ its inhabitants) n "a'os the %eo%le o$ the ri#her sort were 'u#h dis%leased with the doings o$ the #a%tains, and the dealings they had had the -edes( they there$ore held a #oun#il, &ery shortly a$ter the sea7$ight, and resol&ed that they would not re'ain to be#o'e the sla&es o$ *ea#es and the +ersians, but be$ore the tyrant set $oot in their #ountry, would sail away and $ound a #olony in another land) 3ow it #han#ed that about this ti'e the Kan#laeans o$ "i#ily had sent a'bassadors to the onians, and in&ited the' to ?ale7*#te where they wished an onian #ity to be $ounded) This %la#e, ?ale7*#te ;or the Fair "trand< as it is #alled, is in the #ountry o$ the "i#ilians, and is situated in the %art o$ "i#ily whi#h looks towards Tyrrhenia) The o$$er thus 'ade to all the onians was e'bra#ed only by the "a'ians, and by su#h o$ the -ilesians as had #ontri&ed to e$$e#t their es#a%e) Hereu%on this is what ensued) The "a'ians on their &oyage rea#hed the #ountry o$ the E%i/e%hyrian Lo#rians, at a ti'e when the Kan#laeans and their king "#ythas were engaged in the siege o$ a "i#ilian town whi#h they ho%ed to take) *na.ilaus, tyrant o$ Rhegiu', who was on ill ter's with the Kan#laeans knowing how 'atters stood, 'ade a%%li#ation to the "a'ians, and %ersuaded the' to gi&e u% the thought o$ ?ale7*#te the %la#e to whi#h they were bound, and to sei/e Kan#le itsel$, whi#h was le$t without 'en) The "a'ians $ollowed this #ounsel and %ossessed the'sel&es o$ the town( whi#h the Kan#laeans no sooner heard than they hurried to the res#ue, #alling to their aid Hi%%o#rates, tyrant o$ Gela, who was

one o$ their allies) Hi%%o#rates #a'e with his ar'y to their assistan#e( but on his arri&al he sei/ed "#ythas, the Kan#laean king, who had 2ust lost his #ity, and sent hi' away in #hains, together with his brother +ythogenes, to the town o$ ny#us( a$ter whi#h he #a'e to an understanding with the "a'ians, e.#hanged oaths with the', and agreed to betray the %eo%le o$ Kan#le) The reward o$ his trea#hery was to be one7hal$ o$ the goods and #hattels, in#luding sla&es, whi#h the town #ontained, and all that he #ould $ind in the o%en #ountry) 6%on this Hi%%o#rates sei/ed and bound the greater nu'ber o$ the Kan#laeans as sla&es( deli&ering, howe&er, into the hands o$ the "a'ians three hundred o$ the %rin#i%al #iti/ens, to be slaughtered( but the "a'ians s%ared the li&es o$ these %ersons) "#ythas, the king o$ the Kan#laeans, 'ade his es#a%e $ro' ny#us, and $led to Hi'era( when#e he %assed into *sia, and went u% to the #ourt o$ 5arius) 5arius thought hi' the 'ost u%right o$ all the Greeks to who' he a$$orded a re$uge( $or with the king1s lea&e he %aid a &isit to "i#ily, and then#e returned ba#k to +ersia, where he li&ed in great #o'$ort, and died by a natural death at an ad&an#ed age) Thus did the "a'ians es#a%e the yoke o$ the -edes, and %ossess the'sel&es without any trouble o$ Kan#le, a 'ost beauti$ul #ity) *t "a'os itsel$ the +hoeni#ians, a$ter the $ight whi#h had -iletus $or its %ri/e was o&er, re7established *ea#es, the son o$ "yloson, u%on his throne) This they did by the #o''and o$ the +ersians, who looked u%on *ea#es as one who had rendered the' a high ser&i#e and there$ore deser&ed well at their hands) They likewise s%ared the "a'ians, on a##ount o$ the desertion o$ their &essels, and did not burn either their #ity or their te'%les, as they did those o$ the other rebels) ''ediately a$ter the $all o$ -iletus the +ersians re#o&ered Caria, bringing so'e o$ the #ities o&er by $or#e, while others sub'itted o$ their own a##ord) -eanwhile tidings o$ what had be$allen -iletus rea#hed Histiaeus the -ilesian, who was still at By/antiu', e'%loyed in inter#e%ting the onian 'er#hant'en as they issued $ro' the Eu.ine) Histiaeus had no sooner heard the news than he ga&e the Helles%ont in #harge to Bisaltes, son o$ *%ollo%hanes, a nati&e o$ *bydos, and hi'sel$, at the head o$ his Lesbians, set sail $or Chios) !ne o$ the Chian garrisons whi#h o%%osed hi' he engaged at a %la#e #alled 9The Hollows,9 situated in the Chian territory, and o$ these he slaughtered a &ast nu'ber( a$terwards, by the hel% o$ his Lesbians, he redu#ed all the rest o$ the Chians, who were weakened by their losses in the sea7$ight, +oli#hne, a #ity o$ Chios, ser&ing hi' as head7,uarters) t 'ostly ha%%ens that there is so'e warning when great 'is$ortunes are about to be$all a state or nation( and so it was in this instan#e, $or the Chians had %re&iously had so'e strange tokens sent to the') * #hoir o$ a hundred o$ their youths had been des%at#hed

to 5el%hi( and o$ these only two had returned( the re'aining ninety7eight ha&ing been #arried o$$ by a %estilen#e) Likewise, about the sa'e ti'e, and &ery shortly be$ore the sea7$ight, the roo$ o$ a s#hool7house had $allen in u%on a nu'ber o$ their boys, who were at lessons( and out o$ a hundred and twenty #hildren there was but one le$t ali&e) "u#h were the signs whi#h God sent to warn the') t was &ery shortly a$terwards that the sea7$ight ha%%ened, whi#h brought the #ity down u%on its knees( and a$ter the sea7$ight #a'e the atta#k o$ Histiaeus and his Lesbians, to who' the Chians, weakened as they were, $urnished an easy #on,uest) Histiaeus now led a nu'erous ar'y, #o'%osed o$ onians and *elians, against Thasos, and had laid siege to the %la#e when news arri&ed that the +hoeni#ians were about to ,uit -iletus and atta#k the other #ities o$ onia) !n hearing this, Histiaeus raised the siege o$ Thasos, and hastened to Lesbos with all his $or#es) There his ar'y was in great straits $or want o$ $ood( whereu%on Histiaeus le$t Lesbos and went a#ross to the 'ainland, intending to #ut the #ro%s whi#h were growing in the *tarnean territory, and likewise in the %lain o$ the Cai#us, whi#h belonged to -ysia) 3ow it #han#ed that a #ertain +ersian na'ed Har%agus was in these regions at the head o$ an ar'y o$ no little strength) He, when Histiaeus landed, 'ar#hed out to 'eet hi', and engaging with his $or#es destroyed the greater nu'ber o$ the', and took Histiaeus hi'sel$ %risoner) Histiaeus $ell into the hands o$ the +ersians in the $ollowing 'anner) The Greeks and +ersians engaged at -alena, in the region o$ *tarneus( and the battle was $or a long ti'e stoutly #ontested, till at length the #a&alry #a'e u%, and, #harging the Greeks, de#ided the #on$li#t) The Greeks $led( and Histiaeus, who thought that 5arius would not %unish his $ault with death, showed how he lo&ed his li$e by the $ollowing #ondu#t) !&ertaken in his $light by one o$ the +ersians, who was about to run hi' through, he #ried aloud in the +ersian tongue that he was Histiaeus the -ilesian) 3ow, had he been taken straightway be$ore ?ing 5arius, &erily belie&e that he would ha&e re#ei&ed no hurt, but the king would ha&e $reely $orgi&en hi') *rta%hernes, howe&er, satra% o$ "ardis, and his #a%tor Har%agus, on this &ery a##ount7 be#ause they were a$raid that, i$ he es#a%ed, he would be again re#ei&ed into high $a&our by the king7 %ut hi' to death as soon as he arri&ed at "ardis) His body they i'%aled at that %la#e, while they e'bal'ed his head and sent it u% to "usa to the king) 5arius, when he learnt what had taken %la#e, $ound great $ault with the 'en engaged in this business $or not bringing Histiaeus ali&e into his %resen#e, and #o''anded his ser&ants to wash and dress the head with all #are, and then bury it, as the head o$ a 'an who had been a great bene$a#tor to hi'sel$ and the +ersians) "u#h was the se,uel o$ the history o$ Histiaeus) The na&al ar'a'ent o$ the +ersians wintered at -iletus, and in the

$ollowing year %ro#eeded to atta#k the islands o$$ the #oast, Chios, Lesbos, and Tenedos, whi#h were redu#ed without di$$i#ulty) 4hene&er they be#a'e 'asters o$ an island, the barbarians, in e&ery single instan#e, netted the inhabitants) 3ow the 'ode in whi#h they %ra#tise this netting is the $ollowing) -en 2oin hands, so as to $or' a line a#ross $ro' the north #oast to the south, and then 'ar#h through the island $ro' end to end and hunt out the inhabitants) n like 'anner the +ersians took also the onian towns u%on the 'ainland, not howe&er netting the inhabitants, as it was not %ossible) *nd now their generals 'ade good all the threats wherewith they had 'ena#ed the onians be$ore the battle) For no sooner did they get %ossession o$ the towns than they #hoose out all the best $a&oured boys and 'ade the' eunu#hs, while the 'ost beauti$ul o$ the girls they tore $ro' their ho'es and sent as %resents to the king, at the sa'e ti'e burning the #ities the'sel&es, with their te'%les) Thus were the onians $or the third ti'e redu#ed to sla&ery( on#e by the Lydians, and a se#ond, and now a third ti'e, by the +ersians) The sea $or#e, a$ter ,uitting onia, %ro#eeded to the Helles%ont, and took all the towns whi#h lie on the le$t shore as one sails into the straits) For the #ities on the right bank had already been redu#ed by the land $or#e o$ the +ersians) 3ow these are the %la#es whi#h border the Helles%ont on the Euro%ean side( the Chersonese, whi#h #ontains a nu'ber o$ #ities, +erinthus, the $orts in Thra#e, "elybria, and By/antiu') The By/antines at this ti'e, and their o%%osite neighbours, the Chal#edonians, instead o$ awaiting the #o'ing o$ the +hoeni#ians, ,uitted their #ountry, and sailing into the Eu.ine, took u% their abode at the #ity o$ -ese'bria) The +hoeni#ians, a$ter burning all the %la#es abo&e 'entioned, %ro#eeded to +ro#onnresus and *rta#a, whi#h they likewise deli&ered to the $la'es( this done, they returned to the Chersonese, being 'inded to redu#e those #ities whi#h they had not ra&aged in their $or'er #ruise) 6%on Cy/i#us they 'ade no atta#k at all, as be$ore their #o'ing the inhabitants had 'ade ter's with !ebares, the son o$ -egaba/us, and satra% o$ 5as#yleiu', and had sub'itted the'sel&es to the king) n the Chersonese the +hoeni#ians subdued all the #ities, e.#e%ting Cardia) 6% to this ti'e the #ities o$ the Chersonese had been under the go&ern'ent o$ -iltiades, the son o$ Ci'on, and grandson o$ "tesagoras, to who' they had des#ended $ro' -iltiades, the son o$ Cy%selus, who obtained %ossession o$ the' in the $ollowing 'anner) The 5olon#i, a Thra#ian tribe, to who' the Chersonese at that ti'e belonged, being harassed by a war in whi#h they were engaged with the *%sinthians, sent their %rin#es to 5el%hi to #onsult the ora#le about the 'atter) The re%ly o$ the +ythoness bade the' 9take ba#k with the' as a #olonist into their #ountry the 'an who should $irst o$$er the' hos%itality a$ter they ,uitted the te'%le)9 The 5olon#i, $ollowing the "a#red Road, %assed through the regions o$ +ho#is and Boeotia( a$ter

when #ut down. $ro' the ti'e o$ +hilaeas. he was 'ade king by those who had in&ited hi') *$ter this his $irst a#t was to build a wall a#ross the ne#k o$ the Chersonese $ro' the #ity o$ Cardia to +a#tya. $urlongs. the son o$ *2a. and he wanted to be beyond the tyrant1s rea#h) He there$ore went straightway to 5el%hi.9 he said. and #ould not tell how to #onstrue his threat 9that he would destroy the' like a $ir9( but at last one o$ their elders di&ined the true sense. as still no one in&ited the' in. and. and had thus se#ured the Chersonese against the *%sinthians. dressed as they were in outlandish gar'ents.. the son o$ Cy%selus. o$$ering the' lodging and entertain'ent) The strangers a##e%ted his hos%itality. had been naturalised at *thens) t ha%%ened that as the 5olon#i %assed his door -iltiades was sitting in his &estibule. being greatly a$raid o$ Croesus. 9he would destroy the' like a $ir)9 Then the La'%sa#enians were so'ewhile in doubt about this s%ee#h o$ Croesus. but $orthwith dies outright) "o the La'%sa#enians. a$ter the ban. and in. taking with hi' as 'any o$ the *thenians as liked to 2oin in the enter%rise. le$t *thens. king o$ Lydia) 4hen Croesus there$ore heard o$ his #ala'ity. by the hel% o$ Croesus. and sailed away with the 5olon#i) !n his arri&al at the Chersonese. who was the $irst *thenian #iti/en o$ the house. son o$ Cy%selus who had already won the $our7horse #hariot7ra#e at !ly'%ia. and $irst o$ all atta#ked the La'%sa#enians( but $alling into an a'bush whi#h they had laid he had the 'is$ortune to be taken %risoner) 3ow it ha%%ened that -iltiades stood high in the $a&our o$ Croesus. they turned aside. and told the' that the $ir is the only tree whi#h. they laid be$ore hi' in $ull the dire#tions o$ the ora#le and besought hi' on their own %art to yield obedien#e to the god) -iltiades was %ersuaded ere they had done s%eaking( $or the go&ern'ent o$ +isistratus was irkso'e to hi'. and let hi' go $ree) Thus did -iltiades. and tra&elled to *thens) 3ow +isistratus was at this ti'e sole lord o$ *thens( but -iltiades. and tra#ed its des#ent to *ea#us and Egina.uet was o&er. -iltiades. and ar'ed 'oreo&er with lan#es) He there$ore #alled to the'.uest.uired o$ the ora#le whether he should do as the 5olon#i desired) *s the +ythoness ba#ked their re. 'akes no $resh shoots.whi#h. the whole length o$ the %eninsula within the isth'us being $our hundred and twenty $urlongs) 4hen he had $inished #arrying the wall a#ross the isth'us. in&ited the' in. was likewise a %erson o$ 'u#h distin#tion) He belonged to a $a'ily whi#h was wont to #ontend in the $our7horse7#hariot ra#es. but whi#h. es#a%e this danger) . on their a%%roa#h. -iltiades %ro#eeded to engage in other wars. he sent and #o''anded the 'en o$ La'%sa#us to gi&e -iltiades his $reedo'( 9i$ they re$used. released -iltiades. and. whi#h #aused hi' to re'ark the'. to %rote#t the #ountry $ro' the in#ursions and ra&ages o$ the *%sinthians) The breadth o$ the isth'us at this %art is thirty7si.

and 'arried Hegesi%yla. but a di$$erent wo'an) -etio#hus and his shi% were taken( and when the +hoeni#ians $ound out that he was a son o$ -iltiades they resol&ed to #on&ey hi' to the king. had not been long in the #ountry when a #ala'ity be$ell hi' yet 'ore grie&ous than those in whi#h he was now in&ol&ed0 $or three years earlier he had had to $ly be$ore an in#ursion o$ the "#yths) These no'ads. the son o$ Ci'on. and got into 'brus. angered by the atta#k o$ 5arius. when the 5olon#i sent and $et#hed hi' ba#k) *ll this ha%%ened three years be$ore the e&ents whi#h be$ell -iltiades at the %resent ti'e) He now no sooner heard that the +hoeni#ians were atta#king Tenedos than he loaded $i&e trire'es with his goods and #hattels. and brother o$ the de#eased. and a bitter one) Thus died "tesagoras( and u%on his death the +isistratidae $itted out a trire'e. and re'ained away until the "#yths retired. and #a'e in a %ro#ession to the %la#e where -iltiades was. to the Chersonese. whose 'other was not the daughter o$ the Thra#ian king !lorus. but $led. in neither o$ whi#h is it law$ul $or any La'%sa#enian to #ontend) Be$ore the war with La'%sa#us was ended "tesagoras too died #hildless0 he was sitting in the hall o$ 2usti#e when he was stru#k u%on the head with a hat#het by a 'an who %retended to be a deserter. his hal$7brother) E&er sin#e his death the %eo%le o$ the Chersonese ha&e o$$ered hi' the #usto'ary sa#ri$i#es o$ a $ounder( and they ha&e $urther established in his honour a gy'ni# #ontest and a #hariot7ra#e. the son o$ Ci'on. #olle#ted in a body and 'ar#hed as $ar as the Chersonese) -iltiades did not await their #o'ing. who was the son o$ Ci'on. $orsooth. with $our o$ his &essels.uarter) They had already shown hi' 'u#h $a&our at *thens. 'aintained a body o$ $i&e hundred 'er#enaries. they had been no %arties to the death o$ his $ather Ci'on7 a 'atter whereo$ will gi&e an a##ount in another %la#e) He u%on his arri&al re'ained shut u% within the house. to #ondole with hi' u%on his 'is$ortune) -iltiades #o''anded the' to be sei/ed and thrown into %rison( a$ter whi#h he 'ade hi'sel$ 'aster o$ the Chersonese.%e#ting thereby to rise high in the royal . e. lea&ing his kingdo' and his ri#hes to "tesagoras. as i$. but was in good sooth an ene'y. %retending to do honour to the 'e'ory o$ his dead brother( whereu%on the #hie$ %eo%le o$ the Chersonese gathered the'sel&es together $ro' all the #ities o$ the land. and set sail $or *thens) Cardia was the %oint $ro' whi#h he took his de%arture( and as he sailed down the gul$ o$ -elas. along the shore o$ the Chersonese. one trire'e only $alling into the hands o$ his %ursuers) This &essel was under the #o''and o$ his eldest son -etio#hus. daughter o$ the Thra#ian king !lorus) This -iltiades. he #a'e suddenly u%on the whole +hoeni#ian $leet) Howe&er he hi'sel$ es#a%ed."o'e ti'e a$terwards he died #hildless. and sent -iltiades. that he 'ight undertake the 'anage'ent o$ a$$airs in that .

who did not e&en li$t a hand in their de$en#e. the king1s daughter) 4hen -ardonius. and sent down -ardonius. when the +hoeni#ians brought -etio#hus into his %resen#e. satra% o$ "ardis. and in lieu o$ the' established de'o#ra#ies) Ha&ing so done. when#e an atte'%t was . they #arried into e$$e#t the $ollowing 'easures. at a rate that has #ontinued unaltered $ro' the ti'e when *rta%hernes $i. and %ro#eeded through Euro%e against Eretria and *thens) *t least these towns ser&ed as a %rete. su''oned de%uties $ro' all the onian #ities. the real %ur%ose o$ whi#h was to sub2ugate as great a nu'ber as %ossible o$ the Gre#ian #ities( and this be#a'e %lain when the Thasians. he hastened to the Helles%ont. and also a +ersian wi$e. while the land ar'y 'ar#hed under other leaders towards the Helles%ont) n the #ourse o$ his &oyage along the #oast o$ *sia he #a'e to onia( and here ha&e a 'ar&el to relate whi#h will greatly sur%rise those Greeks who #annot belie&e that !tanes ad&ised the se&en #ons%irators to 'ake +ersia a #o''onwealth) -ardonius %ut down all the des%ots throughout onia.%edition. and likewise a %ower$ul land $or#e. was so $ar $ro' doing hi' any hurt.t s%ring 5arius su%erseded all the other generals. and had only lately 'arried *rta/ostra. and sailed along shore to *#anthus. a##o'%anied by this nu'erous host. he took shi% and %ro#eeded along shore with his $leet. the son o$ Gobryas. and $or#ed the' to enter into agree'ents with one another. while the land ar'y added the -a#edonians to the $or'er sla&es o$ the king) *ll the tribes on the hither side o$ -a#edonia had been redu#ed %re&iously) Fro' Thasos the $leet stood a#ross to the 'ainland.t $or the e. he #on&eyed his troo%s a#ross the strait by 'eans o$ his &essels. and with hi' a &ast body o$ 'en. were redu#ed by the sea $or#e. not to harass ea#h other by $or#e o$ ar's. and when a &ast 'ultitude o$ shi%s had been brought together. others $or land ser&i#e) -ardonius was a youth at this ti'e. be$ore the year was out. that he loaded hi' with bene$its) He ga&e hi' a house and estate.$a&our) For they re'e'bered that it was -iltiades who #ounselled the onians to hearken when the "#yths %rayed the' to break u% the bridge and return ho'e) 5arius. to the #oast. so'e $it $or sea. rea#hed Cili#ia. howe&er. but to settle their dis%utes by re$eren#e) He likewise took the 'easure'ent o$ their whole #ountry in %arasangs7 su#h is the na'e whi#h the +ersians gi&e to a distan#e o$ thirty $urlongs7 and settled the tributes whi#h the se&eral #ities were to %ay. $ro' 'brus he 'ade his way in sa$ety to *thens) *t this ti'e the +ersians did no 'ore hurt to the onians( but on the #ontrary. by who' there were #hildren born to hi' who were a##ounted +ersians) *s $or -iltiades hi'sel$. whi#h were greatly to their ad&antage) *rta%hernes.ed it down to the %resent day) The rate was &ery nearly the sa'e as that whi#h had been %aid be$ore the re&olt) "u#h were the %ea#e$ul dealings o$ the +ersians with the onians) The ne.

shattering the' and dri&ing the' aground u%on *thos) 1Tis said the nu'ber o$ the shi%s destroyed was little short o$ three hundred( and the 'en who %erished were 'ore than twenty thousand) For the sea about *thos abounds in 'onsters beyond all others( and so a %ortion were sei/ed and de&oured by these ani'als. 5arius re#ei&ed in$or'ation $ro' #ertain neighbours o$ the Thasians that those islanders were 'aking %re%arations $or re&olt( he there$ore sent a herald. indu#ed hi' to set out u%on his retreat( and so this ar'a'ent. deri&ed $ro' the two sour#es o$ their territory on the 'ain and their 'ines. a tribe o$ Thra#ians( and here &ast nu'bers o$ the +ersians were slain. and the great da'age done to his $leet o$$ *thos. the yearly %rodu#e o$ whi#h a'ounted in all to eighty talents) Their 'ines in Thasos yielded less.'ade to double -ount *thos) But here a &iolent north wind s%rang u%. at the ti'e when Histiaeus the -ilesian 'ade his atta#k u%on the'. and surrounding their #ity with another and a stronger wall) Their re&enue was deri&ed %artly $ro' their %ossessions u%on the 'ainland. they would a%%ly their wealth to building shi%s o$ war. and bade the' dis'antle their walls. they had a sur%lus in#o'e. on land -ardonius and his ar'y were atta#ked in their #a'% during the night by the Brygi. and e&en -ardonius hi'sel$ re#ei&ed a wound) The Brygi. and handled a large nu'ber o$ the shi%s with 'u#h rudeness. while others were dashed &iolently against the ro#ks( so'e.. the blow whi#h his land $or#e had re#ei&ed at their hands. in #o''on years o$ two hundred. who did not know how to swi'. had resol&ed that. did not su##eed in 'aintaining their own $reedo'0 $or -ardonius would not lea&e the #ountry till he had subdued the' and 'ade the' sub2e#ts o$ +ersia) "till. and took their whole $leet to *bdera) . and bring all their shi%s to *bdera) The Thasians. whi#h a$terwards took its na'e $ro' hi') These +hoeni#ian workings are in Thasos itsel$. and in the best years o$ three hundred talents) 'ysel$ ha&e seen the 'ines in . returned to *sia) The year a$ter these e&ents.uestion0 by $ar the 'ost #urious o$ the' are those whi#h the +hoeni#ians dis#o&ered at the ti'e when they went with Thasus and #olonised the island. %artly $ro' the 'ines whi#h they owned) They were 'asters o$ the gold 'ines at "#a%te7Hyle. o&er against "a'othra#e0 a huge 'ountain has been turned u%side down in the sear#h $or ores) "u#h then was the sour#e o$ their wealth) !n this o##asion no sooner did the Great ?ing issue his #o''ands than straightway the Thasians dis'antled their wall. as their in#o'e was &ery great. but still were so $ar %roli$i# that. were engul$ed( and so'e died o$ the #old) 4hile thus it $ared with the $leet. though he brought the' under the yoke. ne&ertheless. between Coenyra and a %la#e #alled *enyra. besides being entirely $ree $ro' land7ta. ha&ing $ailed disgra#e$ully. against whi#h nothing #ould #ontend.

son o$ +oly#ritus.they say< was *rgeia. asked Crius his na'e( and when Crius told hi'. was bringing #harges against Cleo'enes at "%arta) He too. belie&ing that it was $ro' en'ity to the'sel&es that they had gi&en #onsent. and re.t( and a##ordingly they sent $re. went in %erson to Egina. whose na'e . 9$or thou wilt ha&e to struggle with a great danger)9 -eanwhile 5e'aratus.ually with the rest. was king o$ the "%artans. and not the sons o$ *ristode'us) The wi$e o$ *ristode'us. who was then king o$ the "%artans. like Cleo'enes. who #ondu#ted the' to the land whi#h they now %ossess.andridas. intending to sei/e those whose guilt was the greatest) *s soon howe&er as he tried to arrest the'. #onsented to gi&e earth and water to the +ersian king) 4hen the *thenians heard what the Eginetans had done.uen#e o$ instru#tions whi#h he had re#ei&ed $ro' 5e'aratus) Hereu%on Cleo'enes. inas'u#h as it is the elder bran#h) The La#edae'onians de#lare. son o$ *risto'a#hus.*$ter this 5arius resol&ed to %ro&e the Greeks. but he belonged to the lower house7 not indeed that his house was o$ any lower origin than the other. and who was daughter . they straightway took the 'atter in hand) n good truth it greatly re2oi#ed the' to ha&e so $air a %rete. a nu'ber o$ the Eginetins 'ade resistan#e( a #ertain Crius. with orders to de'and e&erywhere earth and water $or the king) *t the sa'e ti'e he sent other heralds to the &arious sea%ort towns whi#h %aid hi' tribute. 9Get thy horns ti%%ed with brass with all s%eed. and 'ade it a #harge against the Eginetans that their #ondu#t in this 'atter %ro&ed the' to be traitors to Gree#e) Hereu%on Cleo'enes. the son o$ *na. son o$ *riston. being the $ore'ost in &iolen#e) This %erson told hi' 9he should not #arry o$$ a single Eginetan without it #osting hi' dear7 the *thenians had bribed hi' to 'ake this atta#k. and great7grandson o$ Hyllus.uit Egina. #ontradi#ting therein all the %oets. e. who. $or both houses are o$ one blood7 but the house o$ Eurysthenes is the 'ore honoured o$ the two. and that the Eginetans intended to 2oin the +ersian in his atta#k u%on *thens. ! Crius>9 he said.uired the' to %ro&ide a nu'ber o$ shi%s o$ war and horse7trans%orts) These towns a##ordingly began their %re%arations( and the heralds who had been sent into Gree#e obtained what the king had bid the' ask $ro' a large nu'ber o$ the states u%on the 'ainland.uent e'bassies to "%arta. $inding that he 'ust . and try the bent o$ their 'inds. and likewise $ro' all the islanders who' they &isited) *'ong these last were in#luded the Eginetans. whether they were in#lined to resist hi' in ar's or %re%ared to 'ake their sub'ission) He there$ore sent out heralds in di&ers dire#tions round about Gree#e. grandson o$ Cleodaeus. $or whi#h he had no warrant $ro' his own go&ern'ent7 otherwise both the kings would ha&e #o'e together to 'ake the sei/ure)9 This he said in #onse. that it was king *ristode'us hi'sel$.

9 and not $urther. and regarding hi' as the $irst7born. both o$ the' 'ight be 'ade kings o$ "%arta) The La#edae'onians were now in a great strait( so they sent to 5el%hi and in. ke%t a wat#h u%on the 'other( by whi#h 'eans they dis#o&ered that. i$ it were %ossible. ga&e birth to twins) *ristode'us 2ust li&ed to see his #hildren. there was always. 9Let both be taken to be kings( but let the elder ha&e the greater honour)9 "o the La#edae'onians were in as great a strait as be$ore. but died soon a$terwards o$ a disease) The La#edae'onians o$ that day deter'ined. we shall $ind that . son o$ Tisa'enus. she always ga&e the sa'e #hild the %re$eren#e) "o they took the boy who' the 'other honoured the 'ost. within a little while a$ter their #o'ing into the #ountry. or ha%ly e&en earlier. that they #ould not %ossibly tell whi#h o$ the two to #hoose0 so when they $ound the'sel&es unable to 'ake a #hoi#e. son o$ 5anae. grandson o$ Thersander. 9u% to +erseus)9 $ we $ollow the line o$ 5anad. they went to the 'other and asked her to tell the' whi#h was the elder. be#ause +erseus has no 'ortal $ather by whose na'e he is #alled. en'ity between the'( and the houses s%rung $ro' their loins ha&e #ontinued the $eud to this day) Thus 'u#h is related by the La#edae'onians. daughter o$ *#risius. that $a#t would tell the' all they wanted to know( i$. a##ording to #usto'.o$ *utesion. and rightly #onsidered to ha&e been Greeks the'sel&es( $or e&en at this early ti'e they ranked a'ong that %eo%le) say 9u% to +erseus.they say<7 #ounting u% to +erseus.a#tly o$ one si/e. she hersel$ &aried. till at length a #ertain -essenian. and a' right in saying. and #ould not #on#ei&e how they were to dis#o&er whi#h was the $irst7born. and great7grandson o$ +olyni#es. and so e. without letting her know why. but not by any o$ the other Greeks( in what $ollows gi&e the tradition o$ the Greeks generally) The kings o$ the 5orians . by na'e +anites. and. so'eti'es the other. brought hi' u% in the %ala#e( and the na'e whi#h they ga&e to the elder boy was Eurysthenes. suggested to the' to wat#h and see whi#h o$ the two the 'other washed and $ed $irst( i$ they $ound she always ga&e one the %re$eren#e. it would be %lain that she knew as little as they( in whi#h #ase they 'ust try so'e other %lan) The La#edae'onians did a##ording to the ad&i#e o$ the -essenian. on the #ontrary. and only $eigned ignoran#e in order that. as Her#ules has in *'%hitryon( whereby it a%%ears that ha&e reason on 'y side. whereu%on she de#lared that 9she hersel$ did not know the #hildren a%art9( although in good truth she knew the' &ery well. whene&er she either washed or $ed her #hildren. and so o'itting the god7 are rightly gi&en in the #o''on Greek lists. and tra#e her %rogenitors. to take $or their king the elder o$ the two #hildren( but they were so alike.uired o$ the ora#le how they should deal with the 'atter) The +ythoness 'ade answer. so long as they li&ed. while his brother they #alled +ro#les) 4hen the brothers grew u%. and so'eti'es took the one $irst.

who eat with the kings. ea#h o$ the' 'ust ha&e two #hoeni. without hindran#e $ro' any o$ the other "%artans. and what they did to raise the'sel&es to su#h a %osition. li&e at the %ubli# #harge) $ the kings do not #o'e to the %ubli# su%%er.the #hie$s o$ the 5orians are really genuine Egy%tians) n the genealogies here gi&en ha&e $ollowed the #o''on Greek a##ounts) *##ording to the +ersian story. on the $irst day. but say they were Egy%tians. he 'ust do it be$ore the kings) They .%editions as it see's the' good. and ha&e a double %ortion o$ e&erything( they take the lead in the libations( and the hides o$ the sa#ri$i#ed beasts belong to the') E&ery 'onth. those . two %riesthoods. they de#ide who is to 'arry her( in all 'atters #on#erning the %ubli# highways they 2udge( and i$ a %erson wants to ado%t a #hild. shall say nothing) %ro#eed to s%eak o$ %oints on whi#h no other writer has tou#hed) The %rerogati&es whi#h the "%artans ha&e allowed their kings are the $ollowing) n the $irst %la#e. two o$ the +ythians. whi#h he o$$ers u% to *%ollo( likewise a 'edi'nus o$ 'eal. ea#h o$ the'. and has not been betrothed by hi' to any one. a##ording to the'. and again on the se&enth o$ the $irst de#ade. these are . whi#h are these.uestions #on#erning whi#h. and o$ ha&ing a hundred %i#ked 'en $or their body guard while with the ar'y( likewise the liberty o$ sa#ri$i#ing as 'any #attle in their e.na'ely< o$ La#edae'onian and o$ Celestial 8u%iter( also the right o$ 'aking war on what #ountry soe&er they %lease. as the Greeks likewise testi$y) Enough howe&er o$ this sub2e#t) How it #a'e to %ass that Egy%tians obtained the kingdo's o$ the 5orians. and these only07 4hen a 'aiden is le$t the heiress o$ her $ather1s estate.uantity o$ ea#h. like the'.es o$ 'eal and a #otyle o$ wine sent ho'e to hi' at his house( i$ they #o'e.uet( they are ser&ed be$ore any o$ the other guests. as they ha&e been treated by others.uart) n the #ontests o$ the Ga'es they ha&e always the seat o$ honour( they a%%oint the #iti/ens who ha&e to entertain $oreigners( they also no'inate. and o$ wine a La#onian . +erseus was an *ssyrian who be#a'e a Greek( his an#estors. ea#h king re#ei&es a beast without ble'ish at the %ubli# #ost. were not Greeks) They do not ad'it that the $ore$athers o$ *#risius were in any way related to +erseus. they are gi&en a double . under %ain o$ outlawry( on ser&i#e the %ri&ilege o$ 'ar#hing $irst in the ad&an#e and last in the retreat. and the right o$ ha&ing the skins and the #hines o$ the slaughtered ani'als $or their own use) "u#h are their %ri&ileges in war( in %ea#e their rights are as $ollows) 4hen a #iti/en 'akes a %ubli# sa#ri$i#e the kings are gi&en the $irst seats at the ban. and. o$$i#ers whose business it is to #onsult the ora#le at 5el%hi. and the sa'e when any %ri&ate 'an in&ites the' to his table) They ha&e the #ustody o$ all the ora#les whi#h are %ronoun#ed( but the +ythians 'ust likewise ha&e knowledge o$ the') They ha&e the whole de#ision o$ #ertain #auses. there$ore.

had been 'arried to two wi&es. then they 'ake a statue o$ hi'. in e&ery house two $ree %ersons. that when one o$ their kings dies. not only the "%artans. while Cleo'enes in Egina was labouring $or the general good o$ Gree#e. take their trades by su##ession $ro' their $athers) * $lute7%layer 'ust be the son o$ a $lute7%layer. and gi&e two &otes as the royal %ro. king o$ "%arta. 'o&ed not so 'u#h by lo&e o$ the Eginetans as by 2ealousy and hatred o$ his #olleague) Cleo'enes there$ore was no sooner returned $ro' Egina than he #onsidered with hi'sel$ how he 'ight de%ri&e 5e'aratus o$ his kingly o$$i#e( and here the $ollowing #ir#u'stan#e $urnished a ground $or hi' to %ro#eed u%on) *riston. and %la#ing it u%on a #ou#h right bra&ely de#ked. or else be sub2e#t to a hea&y $ine) The La#edae'onians ha&e likewise a #usto' at the de'ise o$ their kings whi#h is #o''on to the' with the barbarians o$ *sia7 indeed with the greater nu'ber o$ the barbarians e&erywhere7 na'ely.ies. whether they will or no. so #arry it to the gra&e) *$ter the burial. and another #o'es to the throne. by the s%a#e o$ ten days there is no asse'bly. but #ontinue 'ourning the whole ti'e) They hold with the +ersians also in another #usto') 4hen a king dies. 5e'aratus at "%arta #ontinued to bring #harges against hi'. and likewise their #ooks. a #ook o$ a #ook. a herald o$ a herald( and other %eo%le #annot take ad&antage o$ the loudness o$ their &oi#e to #o'e into the %ro$ession and shut out the heralds1 sons( but ea#h $ollows his $ather1s business) "u#h are the #usto's o$ the La#edae'onians) *t the ti'e o$ whi#h we are s%eaking. a 'an and a wo'an. 'en and wo'en inter'ingled( and all o$ the' s'ite their $oreheads &iolently. nor do they ele#t 'agistrates. $lo#k together to the nu'ber o$ se&eral thousands.likewise ha&e the right o$ sitting in #oun#il with the eight7and7twenty senators( and i$ they are not %resent. whi#h is their own) "u#h are the honours whi#h the "%artan %eo%le ha&e allowed their kings during their li$eti'e( a$ter they are dead other honours await the') Horse'en #arry the news o$ their death through all La#onia. while in the #ity the wo'en go hither and thither dru''ing u%on a kettle) *t this signal. besides a third &ote. to attend the $uneral) "o these %ersons and the helots. 'ust %ut on 'ourning. then the senators nearest o$ kin to the' ha&e their %ri&ileges. and likewise the "%artans the'sel&es. and wee% and wall without stint. but a #ertain nu'ber o$ the #ountry %eo%le $ro' e&ery %art o$ La#onia are $or#ed. the newly7'ade 'onar#h $orgi&es all the "%artans the debts whi#h they owe either to the king or to the %ubli# treasury) *nd in like 'anner a'ong the +ersians ea#h king when he begins to reign re'its the tribute due $ro' the %ro&in#es) n one res%e#t the La#edae'onians rese'ble the Egy%tians) Their heralds and $lute7%layers. but neither o$ the' had borne hi' any #hildren( as howe&er he still thought it was %ossible he 'ight ha&e o$$s%ring. saying always that their last king was the best) $ a king dies in battle. he resol&ed .

seeing how highly she %ri/ed a look.#e%t his wi$e. and begged to know what it was she held in her ar's) The nurse told her it was a #hild. *getus. on whi#h she asked to see it( but the nurse re$used( the %arents. seeing how ill7$a&oured she was. as she le$t the te'%le. the lady1s husband. took her bad looks to heart. as he sat in #oun#il with the E%hors( whereat. who were wealthy %eo%le.to wed a third( and this was how the wedding was brought about) He had a #ertain $riend. and %ro%osed to hi' that they should e. he 'ight ha&e anything else90 howe&er. had $orbidden her to show the #hild to any one) Howe&er the wo'an would not take a denial( and the nurse. and besee#h the goddess to take away the #hild1s ugliness) !ne day. bethought hersel$ o$ a %lan. sin#e *riston was also 'arried. and how sadly her %arents. son o$ *l#ides. and there to %la#e her be$ore the i'age. whi#h was to #arry the #hild e&ery day to the te'%le o$ Helen at Thera%na.#hange gi$ts. or the tri#kery whi#h had been %ra#tised on hi'. 9The boy #annot be 'ine)9 This was said in the hearing o$ the E%hors( but they 'ade no a##ount o$ it at the ti'e) The boy grew u%( and *riston re%ented o$ what he had said( $or he be#a'e altogether #on&in#ed that 5e'aratus was truly his son) The reason why he na'ed . 'ade her his wi$e) 3ow it #han#ed that *riston $ell in lo&e with this %erson( and his lo&e so %reyed u%on his 'ind that at last he de&ised as $ollows) He went to his $riend. whi#h stands abo&e the +hoebeu'. #ried out with an oath. and when it #a'e to his turn to na'e the %resent whi#h he was to re#ei&e in e. she said. the sa'e who' ha&e 'entioned abo&e as the $riend o$ *riston. he #ounted the 'onths u%on his $ingers. 9!ne day this #hild shall be the $airest da'e in "%arta)9 *nd her looks began to #hange $ro' that &ery day) 4hen she was o$ 'arriageable age. who $elt no alar' about his wi$e. and said. whate&er it was. a wo'an a%%eared to her. and ha&ing so done. 9e. and said. re. ea#h taking that whi#h %leased hi' best out o$ all the %ossessions o$ the other) His $riend. a "%artan. o$ whi#h he had 'ade #hoi#e.#hange. with who' he was 'ore inti'ate than with any other #iti/en) This $riend was 'arried to a wi$e whose beauty $ar sur%assed that o$ all the other wo'en in "%arta( and what was still 'ore strange.uired to be allowed to #arry ho'e with hi' *getus1s wi$e) But the other de'urred. in less than the due ti'e7 when she had not yet rea#hed her $ull ter' o$ ten 'onths7 ga&e birth to a #hild. re'e'bering when it was that the wo'an be#a'e his wi$e. #onsented readily( and so the 'atter was #on$ir'ed between the' by an oath) Then *riston ga&e *getus the %resent. she had on#e been as ugly as she now was beauti$ul) For her nurse. the 5e'aratus o$ who' we ha&e s%oken) Then one o$ his ser&ants #a'e and told hi' the news. at last he su$$ered *riston to #arry her away to his house) *riston hereu%on %ut away his se#ond wi$e and took $or his third this wo'an( and she. as he #ould not resist the oath whi#h he had sworn. at last let her see the #hild) Then the wo'an gently stroked its head.

went to Leoty#hides. on the #o'ing o$ his ser&ant to announ#e to hi' the birth o$ his son. the %ro%hetess.ed. when bruited abroad. being resol&ed to ha&e his re&enge u%on 5e'aratus. as it see's. as there #a'e to be 'u#h stri$e #on#erning this 'atter. and 'ade agree'ent with hi' to this tenor $ollowing) Cleo'enes was to lend his aid to 'ake Leoty#hides king in the roo' o$ 5e'aratus( and then Leoty#hides was to take %art with Cleo'enes against the Eginetans) 3ow Leoty#hides hated 5e'aratus #hie$ly on a##ount o$ +er#alus. when the sa#red 'essengers #a'e and %ut their . who was o$ the sa'e $a'ily as 5e'aratus. and #ried out with an oath that the #hild was not his) t was on this s%ee#h o$ *riston1s that Leoty#hides relied to %ro&e that 5e'aratus was not his son. there$ore. he #ounted the 'onths. and brought u% against hi' the %hrase whi#h *riston had let dro% when. looking u%on *riston as a 'an o$ 'ark beyond all the kings that had reigned at "%arta be$ore hi'. a 'an o$ the greatest weight a'ong the 5el%hians( and this Cobon %re&ailed u%on +erialla. who' he had twi#e sorely &e. sin#e he was not the true son o$ *riston)9 *$ter he had thus sworn. Leoty#hides was %re&ailed u%on by the earnest desire o$ Cleo'enes to #o'e $orward against 5e'aratus and 'ake oath 9that 5e'aratus was not right$ul king o$ "%arta. had o$$ered u% a %rayer that he 'ight ha&e a son) !n this a##ount. the son o$ *risto%hantus. and grandson o$ *gis. and there$ore not right$ul king o$ "%arta( and he %rodu#ed as witnesses the E%hors who were sitting with *riston at the ti'e and heard what he said) *t last. to gi&e the answer whi#h Cleo'enes wished) *##ordingly. and a se#ond ti'e when Cleo'enes was gone a#ross to Egina against su#h as had es%oused the side o$ the -edes) Cleo'enes now. and robbed hi' o$ his bride. on#e when he led the ar'y ho'e $ro' Eleusis. Leoty#hides sued 5e'aratus. the +ythoness returned $or answer 9that 5e'aratus was not *riston1s son)9 "o'e ti'e a$terwards all this be#a'e known( and Cobon was $or#ed to $ly $ro' 5el%hi( while +erialla the %ro%hetess was de%ri&ed o$ her o$$i#e) . that these words.uestion.hi' 5e'aratus was the $ollowing) "o'e ti'e be$ore these e&ents the whole "%artan %eo%le. the na'e 5e'aratus was gi&en) n #ourse o$ ti'e *riston died( and 5e'aratus re#ei&ed the kingdo'0 but it was $ated. should stri% hi' o$ his so&ereignty) This was brought about by 'eans o$ Cleo'enes. the daughter o$ Chilon. son o$ 5e'ar'enus0 this lady had been betrothed to Leoty#hides( but 5e'aratus laid a %lot. and 'arrying her) "u#h was the origin o$ the en'ity) *t the ti'e o$ whi#h we s%eak. the son o$ -enares. the "%artans 'ade a de#ree that the 5el%hi# ora#le should be asked to say whether 5e'aratus were *riston1s son or no) Cleo'enes set the' u%on this %lan( and no sooner was the de#ree %assed than he 'ade a $riend o$ Cobon. $orestalling hi' in #arrying her o$$.

by way o$ insult and 'o#kery. ha&e told thee all thou wouldest $ain know) Either thou art the son o$ that hero7 either thou 'ayest #all *straba#us sire( or else *riston was thy $ather) *s $or that 'atter whi#h they who hate thee urge the 'ost. de#lared that the a%%arition was that &ery %erson) *nd now. when he heard 'y oath. where he %re%ared an o. a$ter staying with 'e a while. and others re%eat a yet 'ore disgra#e$ul tale. thou hast done no 'ore than 'any a wo'an( and the "%artans re'ark it as strange. $or sa#ri$i#e.uestion. tell 'e the &ery truth. sent a ser&ant to hi' and asked hi'. understood that there was so'ething beyond nature in what had taken %la#e) *nd indeed it a%%eared that the garlands had #o'e $ro' the hero7te'%le whi#h stands by our #ourt gates7 the te'%le o$ hi' they #all *straba#us7 and the soothsayers. rose. when the 'essenger told . who. it shall indeed be $ully told to thee) 4hen *riston brought 'e to his house. and taking the garlands $ro' his own brows %la#ed the' u%on 'y head. lea&ing the theatre. i$ a' *riston1s son. 'oreo&er. a$ter whi#h he #alled $or his 'other) 4hen she a%%eared. by all the gods. 9how it $elt to be a 'agistrate a$ter one had been a king:9 5e'aratus. who. de#lared that when thou be#a'est *riston1s wi$e thou didst already bear in thy wo'b a #hild by thy $or'er husband. 'y son. besought her in these words $ollowing07 95ear 'other. and."u#h were the 'eans whereby the de%osition o$ 5e'aratus was brought about( but his $lying $ro' "%arta to the -edes was by reason o$ an a$$ront whi#h was %ut u%on hi') !n losing his kingdo' he had been 'ade a 'agistrate( and in that o$$i#e soon a$terwards. who was really 'y $ather) For Leoty#hides. sin#e thou entreatest so earnestly $or the truth. in the suit whi#h we had together. and %la#ing the' in her hand. asked 'e who ga&e the' to 'e) said. on the third night a$ter 'y #o'ing. who was hurt at the . and told hi' he did not do well to disse'ble when he had so lately risen $ro' 'y side and le$t the garlands with 'e) Then *riston. and so went away) +resently a$ter *riston entered. 1twas he( but this he stoutly denied( whereu%on sole'nly swore that it was none other. 'ade answer7 9Tell hi' ha&e tried the' both. that our groo' $ound $a&our in thine eyes. he took o$ the entrails. when the $east o$ the Gy'no%aediae #a'e around. he took his station a'ong the lookers7on( whereu%on Leoty#hides. but he has not) Howbeit this s%ee#h will be the #ause to "%arta o$ in$inite blessings or else o$ in$inite woes)9 Ha&ing thus s%oken he wra%%ed his head in his robe. went ho'e to his own house. who was now king in his roo'. there a%%eared to 'e one like to *riston. the words o$ *riston. and #hie$ly by our own hearth7god 8u%iter. and o$$ered it to 8u%iter. that he had no #hildren by his other wi&es)9 Thus s%ake 5e'aratus( and his 'other re%lied as $ollows0 95ear son. and that a' his son) entreat thee there$ore by the gods to tell 'e the truth) For i$ thou hast gone astray. besee#h you. and when he saw the garlands whi#h still wore.

howe&er. Cleo'enes.hi' o$ thy birth. being $ound sitting in his tent on a gauntlet. #hildren are born not only at ten 'onths. no long ti'e a$terwards. #alled Cynis#us by 'any o$ the "%artans) This Keu. Keu. lea&ing a son. where he ended his days) But these e&ents took %la#e long a$terwards) *t the ti'e o$ whi#h we are s%eaking. and sought to lay hands u%on hi'.ida'us did not reign at "%arta. and to se%arate hi' $ro' his retinue( but the Ka#ynthians would not gi&e hi' u% to the'0 so he es#a%ing. 'arried a se#ond wi$e. and lea&ing Elis be$ore they arri&ed.1 it was a rando' s%ee#h. and there #onsult the ora#le) The La#edae'onians. howe&er. did not s%end his old age in "%arta. 'ade his way a$terwards by sea to *sia. ha&ing #arried his %ro#eedings in the 'atter o$ 5e'aratus to a %ros%erous issue. na'ed Euryda'e. but only a daughter #alled La'%ito. Keu. 'y son. that his s%ee#h s%rang $ro' thoughtlessness) Hearken not then to other tales #on#erning thy birth. and e&en at se&en) Thou wert thysel$. when Keu. but died be$ore his $ather. uttered $ro' 'ere ignoran#e) The truth is. de#lared be$ore 'any witnesses that 1thou wert not his son. and #rossed o&er to atta#k the Eginetans( $or his anger was hot against the' on a##ount o$ the . and %resented hi'sel$ be$ore ?ing 5arius. %retending that he %ur%osed to %ro#eed to 5el%hi.ida'us1 son) E&en Leoty#hides.uered the whole o$ it. a 'an distinguished a'ong the La#edae'onians $or 'any noble deeds and wise #ounsels. Leoty#hides. sailed a#ross to Ka#ynthus) The La#edae'onians $ollowed. 'y son0 $or be assured thou hast the whole truth) *s $or groo's. and who alone o$ all the "%artan kings brought honour to his #ountry by winning at !ly'%ia the %ri/e in the $our7horse #hariot7ra#e) *$ter 5e'aratus was de%osed. re#ei&ed the kingdo') He had a son. sus%e#ting that he 'eant to $ly his #ountry.ida'us was taken $ro' hi'. *r#hida'us) Leoty#hides. . who' he ga&e in 'arriage to *r#hida'us. and 'ight ha&e #on. but was bribed by a large su' o$ 'oney) t #han#ed that he was #aught in the $a#t.ida'us. a se&en 'onths1 #hild) *riston a#knowledged. but at nine. $orthwith took Leoty#hides with hi'. took with hi' %ro&ision $or the 2ourney. but su$$ered a %unish'ent whereby 5e'aratus was $ully a&enged) He #o''anded the La#edae'onians when they 'ade war against Thessaly. ha&ing learnt all that he wished to know. $oras'u#h as the ten 'onths were not $ully out. the sister o$ -enius and daughter o$ 5ia#torides) By her he had no 'ale o$$s%ring. the son o$ -enares. who re#ei&ed hi' generously. sent 'en in %ursuit o$ hi'( but 5e'aratus hastened.uite $ull o$ sil&er) 6%on this he was brought to trial and banished $ro' "%arta( his house was ra/ed to the ground( and he hi'sel$ $led to Tegea. and ga&e hi' both lands and #ities) "u#h was the #han#e whi#h dro&e 5e'aratus to *sia. and went into Elis. %ray Hea&en Leoty#hides and all who s%eak as he does 'ay su$$er wrong $ro' the'>9 "u#h was the 'other1s answer) 5e'aratus.

being only a helot. he asked the 'an $or a kni$e) The kee%er at $irst re$used. they were a$raid. and endea&oured to unite the *r#adians against "%arta) He bound the' by &arious oaths to $ollow hi' whithersoe&er he should lead. son o$ *risto#rates. #utting gashes in his $lesh. hi%s. it was %ro%hesied to hi' that he should take *rgos( u%on whi#h he went . and there de%osited the' in the hands o$ the *thenians. who wielded the #hie$ %ower( and these 'en they #arried with the' to *tti#a. and showing that he was gone . when Cleo'enes had sent to 5el%hi to #onsult the ora#le. thighs. where Cleo'enes slew the'. whereu%on in a little ti'e he died) The Greeks generally think that this $ate #a'e u%on hi' be#ause he indu#ed the +ythoness to %ronoun#e against 5e'aratus( the *thenians di$$er $ro' all others in saying that it was be#ause he #ut down the sa#red gro&e o$ the goddesses when he 'ade his in&asion by Eleusis( while the *rgi&es as#ribe it to his ha&ing taken $ro' their re$uge and #ut to %ie#es #ertain argi&es who had $led $ro' battle into a %re#in#t sa#red to *rgus. the great ene'ies o$ the Eginetans) *$terwards. along his legs. burning likewise at the sa'e ti'e. and loins. as the *r#adians say. where this $ountain is to be seen. Cleo'enes was sei/ed with $ear o$ his own #ountry'en.a$$ront whi#h they had $or'erly %ut u%on hi') Hereu%on the Eginetans.uite out o$ his 'ind. until at last he was a$raid. and this is the a%%earan#e they %resent0 you see a little water. and was e&en desirous o$ taking their #hie$ leaders with hi' to the #ity o$ 3ona#ris. he horribly dis$igured hi'sel$. dri%%ing $ro' a ro#k into a basin. when it #a'e to be known what e&il arts had been used against 5e'aratus. where he began to stir u% troubles. and e&en %ut his $eet in the sto#ks) 4hile so bound. until at last he rea#hed his belly. was s'itten with downright 'adness) This he showed by striking e&ery "%artan he 'et u%on the $a#e with his s#e%tre) !n his beha&ing thus. thought it best to 'ake no $urther resistan#e) "o the two kings %i#ked out $ro' all Egina the ten 'en who $or wealth and birth stood the highest. and Casa'bus. beginning at his legs. the gro&e itsel$) For on#e..) For the waters o$ "ty. whi#h is $en#ed round by a low wall) 3ona#ris. whi#h he likewise began to gash. his kindred i'%risoned hi'. whereu%on Cleo'enes began to threaten hi'. and agreed with hi' that he should #o'e ba#k to "%arta and be king as be$ore) "o Cleo'enes #a'e ba#k( but had no sooner returned than he. and ga&e hi' what he re. is a #ity o$ *r#adia near +heneus) 4hen the La#edae'onians heard how Cleo'enes was engaged. and $led into Thessaly) Fro' then#e he %assed into *r#adia. son o$ +oly#ritus.uired) Cleo'enes had no sooner got the steel than. a'ong who' were Crius. are in that #ity. through irre&eren#e. seeing that both the kings were #o'e against the'. $inding hi'sel$ le$t alone with a single kee%er. who had ne&er been altogether o$ sound 'ind. that he 'ight swear the' to his #ause by the waters o$ the "ty.

the &i#ti's were not $a&ourable to his #rossing) "o he said that he ad'ired the god $or re$using to betray his #ountry'en. the waters o$ whi#h e'%ty the'sel&es into a %it#h7dark #has'. but still the *rgi&es should not es#a%e hi' $or all that) He then withdrew his troo%s. were dri&en to take re$uge in the gro&e o$ *rgus hard by. at the %la#e whi#h bears the na'e o$ "e%eia. lea&ing no great s%a#e between the hosts) *nd now their $ear was not so 'u#h lest they should be worsted in o%en $ight as lest so'e tri#k should be %ra#tised on the'( $or su#h was the danger whi#h the ora#le gi&en to the' in #o''on with the -ilesians see'ed to inti'ate) The ora#le ran as $ollows07 Ti'e shall be when the $e'ale shall #on. and wat#h ke%t u%on the') 4hen things were at this %ass Cleo'enes a#ted as $ollows0 Ha&ing learnt the na'es o$ the *rgi&es who were shut u% in the sa#red . where he sa#ri$i#ed a bull to the sea. and shall #hase hi' Far away7 gaining so great %raise and honour in *rgos( Then $ull 'any an *rgi&e wo'an her #heeks shall 'angle Hen#e. 9Ta'ed by the s%ear e. %ro#eeded to o$$er sa#ri$i#e to it. they %ro#eeded to a#t as $ollows0 whene&er the herald o$ the La#edae'onians ga&e an order to the soldiers o$ his own ar'y. in s%ite o$ all that he #ould do. he #o''anded his troo%s that.uer the 'ale. but. in the ti'es to #o'e 1twill be said by the 'en who are unborn. where the *rgi&es #all the' the Erasinus) Cleo'enes. and led the' to the ri&er Erasinus) This strea' is re%orted to $low $ro' the "ty'%halian lake. and led the' down to Thyrea. while the rest. and then . they should instantly sei/e their ar's and #harge the host o$ the ene'y) 4hi#h the La#edae'onians did a##ordingly.%ired the #oiled terrible ser%ent)9 *t the #oin#iden#e o$ all these things the *rgi&es were greatly #ast down( and so they resol&ed that they would $ollow the signals o$ the ene'y1s herald) Ha&ing 'ade this resol&e. $ollowing the signal. 'ar#hed down to the sea to de$end their #ountry( and arri&ing in the neighbourhood o$ Tiryns. and #on&eyed his 'en on shi%board to 3au%lia in the Tirynthian territory) The *rgi&es. when they heard o$ this. where they were surrounded.out at the head o$ the "%artans. ha&ing arri&ed u%on the banks o$ this ri&er.as they say< rea%%ear in *rgos. they %it#hed their #a'% o%%osite to the La#edae'onians. who were 'ore than they whi#h died in the $ight. they had begun their re%ast( whereby it #a'e to %ass that &ast nu'bers o$ the *rgi&es were slain. so soon as the herald ga&e the word $or the soldiers to go to dinner. the *rgi&es did the like on their side) 3ow when Cleo'enes heard that the *rgi&es were a#ting thus. and $ell u%on the *rgi&es 2ust as.

the %riest $orbade hi'. $illed the o$$i#es. on %reten#e o$ ha&ing re#ei&ed their ranso's) 3ow the ranso' o$ %risoners a'ong the +elo%onnesians is $i. while with a thousand o$ his best troo%s he %ro#eeded to the te'%le o$ 8uno. he dire#tly i'agined that the ora#le had re#ei&ed its a##o'%lish'ent( he there$ore thought it not good to atte'%t the town. and 'assa#red the') *ll this while they who re'ained in the en#losure knew nothing o$ what was ha%%ening( $or the gro&e was so thi#k that the %eo%le inside were unable to see what was taking %la#e without) But at last one o$ their nu'ber #li'bed u% into a tree and s%ied the trea#hery( a$ter whi#h none o$ those who were su''oned would go $orth) Then Cleo'enes ordered all the helots to bring brushwood. as it was not law$ul .he said< $or a $oreigner to sa#ri$i#e in that te'%le) *t this Cleo'enes ordered his helots to drag the %riest $ro' the altar and s#ourge hi'.uired by sa#ri$i#e. #itadel and all( but as it shone $ro' the breast. i''ediately there $lashed $orth a $la'e o$ $ire $ro' the breast o$ the i'age( whereby he knew o$ a surety that he was not to take *rgos) For i$ the $lash had #o'e $ro' the head. or was deter'ined to o%%ose his taking it) "o he o$$ered in the te'%le o$ 8uno. to o$$er sa#ri$i#e) 4hen howe&er he would ha&e slain the &i#ti' on the altar hi'sel$. and when the o'ens were %ro%itious. 9*rgus)9 "o he.ed at two 'inae the 'an) "o Cleo'enes had these %ersons #alled $orth se&erally. or thereabouts. while he %er$or'ed the sa#ri$i#e hi'sel$. *%ollo. and as#ertained i$ the god 'eant to grant hi' the %la#e. uttered a loud groan. god o$ %ro%he#y. when he heard that. he had done so 'u#h as the god intended)9 *nd his words see'ed to the "%artans so true and reasonable. and ad'inistered e&erything until the . and 'ade it a #harge against hi' that he had allowed hi'sel$ to be bribed. and on that a##ount had not taken *rgos when he 'ight ha&e #a%tured it easily) To this he answered7 whether truly or $alsely #annot say with #ertainty7 but at any rate his answer to the #harge was that 9so soon as he dis#o&ered the sa#red %re#in#t whi#h he had taken to belong to *rgos. to the nu'ber o$ $i$ty. in saying that should take *rgos) $ear 'e thy ora#le has now got its a##o'%lish'ent)9 Cleo'enes now sent ho'e the greater %art o$ his ar'y. he sent a herald to su''on the' one by one.%re#in#t $ro' #ertain deserters who had #o'e o&er to hi'. at the least until he had in. that he #a'e #lear o$$ $ro' his ad&ersaries) *rgos howe&er was le$t so bare o$ 'en that the sla&es 'anaged the state. and said07 9Greatly hast thou de#ei&ed 'e. he would ha&e gained the town. and hea% it around the gro&e( whi#h was done a##ordingly( and Cleo'enes set the gro&e on $ire) *s the $la'es s%read he asked a deserter 94ho was the god o$ the gro&e:9 whereto the other 'ade answer. a$ter whi#h he went ba#k to "%arta) Thereu%on his ene'ies brought hi' u% be$ore the E%hors.

$ro' the ti'e that 5arius 'ade his inroad into their #ountry. a soothsayer. that whereas he had grossly a$$ronted the %eo%le o$ Egina. a##ording to their own a##ount. to be led away in %la#e o$ the 'en who' the *thenians had in their kee%ing) Then the a'bassadors were about to lead hi' away( but Theasides. and died so 'iserably. #hanged their %lan. %ro%osing to endea&our the'sel&es to enter -edia by the +hasis. a %ra#ti#e whi#h is thought by the "%artans to ha&e #aused his 'adness) Fro' this distan#e o$ ti'e the "%artans. and de'anded the restoration o$ . while the "%artans should 'ar#h inland $ro' E%hesus. by bringing utter destru#tion u%on your #ountry)9 The Eginetans. and said to the'07 94hat are ye 'inded to do.sons o$ those who were slain by Cleo'enes grew u%) Then these latter #ast out the sla&es. and. but only $ro' the habit o$ drinking wine un'i. i$ you a#t thus. agreed with hi' that he should #o'e with the' to *thens. when they want to drink %urer wine than #o''on. who' his #ountry'en ha&e gi&en into your hands: Though now in their anger they ha&e %assed this senten#e. on a##ount o$ these doings) But his own #ountry'en de#lare that his 'adness %ro#eeded not $ro' any su%ernatural #ause whate&er. and stirred the' u% to 'ake a $resh atta#k u%on their lords) Then were they at war with one another by the s%a#e o$ 'any years( but at length the *rgi&es with 'u#h trouble gained the u%%er hand) The *rgi&es say that Cleo'enes lost his senses. and gi&e the' ba#k their 'en) 4hen howe&er he rea#hed that #ity. inter$ered. 2oined hi'sel$ to the sla&es. he should be gi&en u% to the a'bassadors. ye 'en o$ Egina: To lead away #a%ti&e the king o$ the "%artans.ed with water. and got the #ity ba#k under their own rule( while the sla&es who had been dri&en out $ought a battle and won Tiryns) *$ter this $or a ti'e there was %ea#e between the two( but a #ertain 'an. had always had a wish $or re&enge) They there$ore sent a'bassadors to "%arta to #on#lude a league. and then the two ar'ies should 2oin together in one) 4hen the "#yths #a'e to "%arta on this errand Cleo'enes was with the' #ontinually( and growing so'ewhat too $a'iliar. who was by ra#e a +higalean $ro' *r#adia. ha&e been a##usto'ed. who were still ke%t at *thens) "o they o$ La#edae'on asse'bled a #ourt o$ 2usti#e and ga&e senten#e u%on Leoty#hides. to gi&e the order to $ill 9"#ythian $ashion)9 The "%artans then s%eak thus #on#erning Cleo'enes( but $or 'y own %art think his death was a 2udg'ent on hi' $or wronging 5e'aratus) 3o sooner did the news o$ Cleo'enes1 death rea#h Egina than straightway the Eginetans sent a'bassadors to "%arta to #o'%lain o$ the #ondu#t o$ Leoty#hides in res%e#t o$ their hostages. when they heard this. the son o$ Leo%re%es. learnt o$ the' to drink his wine without water. whi#h he learnt o$ the "#yths) These no'ads. who was a 'an greatly estee'ed in "%arta. instead o$ leading Leoty#hides away #a%ti&e. yet belike the ti'e will #o'e when they will %unish you. na'ed Cleander.

whereat they %rodu#ed the tallies. #onsidering that their 'oney was utterly lost to the') *s $or Glau#us. or kee% the'. sin#e a' well assured that it will be sa$e in thy kee%ing) Here then is the sil&er7 take it7 and take likewise these tallies. to tell you what ha%%ened on#e in "%arta about a %ledge) The story goes a'ong us that three generations ba#k there li&ed in La#edae'on one Glau#us. and ha&e #o'e hither. and there #onsulted the ora#le) To his . a#t whi#h way you #hoose7 gi&e 'e u% the hostages. to do as thou wishest. and noted likewise how wealth is #ontinually #hanging hands in our #ountry. the son o$ E%i#ydes. Glau#us. and answered the'0 1 ha&e no re#olle#tion o$ the 'atter( nor #an bring to 'ind any o$ those %arti#ulars whereo$ ye s%eak) 4hen re'e'ber. will #ertainly do what is 2ust) $ had the 'oney. "wearing an oath to %re&ail. and so 'ake %ri/e o$ the 'oney. and whose #hara#ter $or 2usti#e was su#h as to %la#e hi' abo&e all the other "%artans) 3ow to this 'an at the a%%ointed season the $ollowing e&ents ha%%ened) * #ertain -ilesian #a'e to "%arta and. ha&ing desired to s%eak with hi'. being unwilling to #o'%ly. and they did not think it right to gi&e the' ba#k to the one without the other)9 "o when the *thenians re$used %lainly to restore the 'en. and be righteous. and be the #ontrary) wish. shall %ut the Greek law in $or#e against you) For the %resent gi&e you no answer( but $our 'onths hen#e will settle the business)1 "o the -ilesians went away sorrow$ul.#uses. howe&er. the +ythoness returned $or answer these lines $ollowing07 Best $or the %resent it were. and when obser&ed that whereas onia is always inse#ure. the *thenians. in the ho%e o$ %ro$iting by thy honesty) For when heard 'u#h talk thereo$ in onia and through all the rest o$ Gree#e.his %ledge. you ha&e a right to re#ei&e it ba#k( but i$ it was ne&er gi&en to 'e. he 'ade a 2ourney to 5el%hi. and had an inter&iew with Glau#us. took #ounsel with 'ysel$ and resol&ed to turn one7hal$ o$ 'y substan#e into 'oney. and so to 'ake %ri/e o$ the 'oney) "wear then7 death is the lot e1en o$ those who ne&er swear $alsely) .uestion i$ he should swear. and asked to ha&e the 'oney returned to the') But Glau#us sought to re$use. ! Glau#us. the +elo%onnese stands $ir' and unshaken. Leoty#hides said to the'07 9-en o$ *thens. saying 9that two kings had #o'e and le$t the 'en with the'. and be #are$ul o$ the'( re'e'ber thou art to gi&e ba#k the 'oney to the %erson who shall bring you their $ellows)1 "u#h were the words o$ the -ilesian stranger( and Glau#us took the de%osit on the ter's e. a 'an who in e&ery other res%e#t was on a %ar with the $irst in the kingdo'. %ro#eeded to 'ake e. and %la#e it in thy hands.%ressed to hi') -any years had gone by when the sons o$ the 'an by who' the 'oney was le$t #a'e to "%arta. said7 1 a' o$ -iletus.

he le$t the' and went his way) The Eginetans had ne&er been %unished $or the wrongs whi#h. so'e ti'e a$ter. did not #o'e to the day( $or their own $leet was not o$ $or#e su$$i#ient to engage the Eginetans. on board o$ whi#h were a nu'ber o$ *thenians o$ the highest rank. as he $ound that the *thenians would not hearken to hi'. there$ore. holding to the agree'ent. and 'ade the'sel&es 'asters o$ the holy &essel. they had #o''itted u%on *thens) 3ow. #on#ei&ing that they were the'sel&es wronged. the $ailure o$ the enter%rise took %la#e) n those days the Corinthians were on the best o$ ter's with the *thenians( and a##ordingly they now yielded to their re. what 'y %ur%ose has been in re#ounting to you this history) Glau#us at the %resent ti'e has not a single des#endant( nor is there any $a'ily known as his7 root and bran#h has he been re'o&ed $ro' "%arta) t is a good thing. sent $or the -ilesian strangers. when a %ledge has been le$t with one. 'ade hi'sel$ 'aster o$ what is #alled the old town) The *thenians. and they would #o'e with a body o$ troo%s to his assistan#e) *nd 3i#odro'us. and ga&e the' ba#k their 'oney) *nd now will tell you. who had heard how deter'ined they were to do the Eginetans a 'is#hie$. or the house o$ the 'an who is %er2ured) But oath7 kee%ing 'en lea&e behind the' a $lourishing o$$s%ring) Glau#us when he heard these words earnestly besought the god to %ardon his .=et hath the !ath7God a son who is na'eless. the son o$ Cnoethus. and had a $air ground o$ #o'%laint against the *thenians. and $urnished the' with twenty shi%s( but. not e&en in thought to doubt about restoring it)9 Thus s%ake Leoty#hides( but. they instantly %re%ared to re&enge the'sel&es) *s it #han#ed that the *thenian theoris. who was on ill ter's with his #ountry'en be#ause on a $or'er o##asion they had dri&en hi' into banish'ent. they listened to o&ertures $ro' this 'an. the Eginetans #ontri&ed an a'bush. and handless( -ighty in strength he a%%roa#hes to &engean#e. as . whi#h was a &essel o$ $i&e banks o$ oars. howe&er. as there was in Egina at that ti'e a 'an o$ 'ark.uestion( but the +ythoness re%lied that it was as bad to ha&e te'%ted the god as it would ha&e been to ha&e done the deed) Glau#us. lay at "uniu'. 3i#odro'us by na'e. $ootless. who' they took and threw into %rison) *t this outrage the *thenians no longer delayed. to %leasure the Thebans.uest. howe&er. and while they were begging the Corinthians to lend the' so'e shi%s. but set to work to s#he'e their worst against the Eginetans( and. and whel's in destru#tion. *thenians. *ll who belong to the ra#e. and agreed with hi' that on a #ertain day he should be ready to betray the island into their hands. howe&er.

laid hold o$ the doorhandles. and $lying to the gateway o$ the te'%le o$ Ceres the Lawgi&er. and led the' out to death) But here they were guilty o$ a sa#rilege. Eurybates. and #lung to the') The others sought to drag hi' $ro' his re$uge( but. the *rgi&es( but these latter re$used now to lend the' any aid. had e. lea&ing the hands still tightly gras%ing the handles) "u#h were the doings o$ the Eginetans a'ong the'sel&es) 4hen the *thenians arri&ed. when they now %rayed the *rgi&es $or aid. they went out to 'eet the' with se&enty shi%s( and a battle took %la#e. wherein the Eginetans su$$ered a de$eat) Hereu%on they had re#ourse again to their old allies. the state re$used to send the' a single soldier) 3otwithstanding.uit o$ the debt( but the Eginetans would 'ake no a#knowledg'ent at all. $ought a nu'ber o$ single #o'bats. and agreed with the *rgi&es to %ay the' a hundred talents. na'ed "o%hanes) . whi#h Cleo'enes had taken by $or#e. but arri&ed a day later than the ti'e agreed u%on) -eanwhile 3i#odro'us. a$ter killing three 'en in this way. a 'an skilled in the %entathli# #ontests) !$ these 'en the greater %art ne&er returned. but were slain by the *thenians in Egina) Eurybates. and 2oined in the dise'barkation) The sa'e thing had ha%%ened at the sa'e ti'e 4ith #ertain &essels o$ the "i#yonians( and the *rgi&es had laid a $ine o$ a thousand talents u%on the 'isdoers. they #ut o$$ his hands. and showed the'sel&es %roud and sti$$ne#ked) For this reason. notwithstanding all their e$$orts. took shi% and 'ade his es#a%e $ro' the island) The Eginetans who a##o'%anied hi' were settled by the *thenians at "uniu'. and so took hi'.ui%%ed a $leet o$ se&enty sail. $i&e hundred u%on ea#h0 whereu%on they o$ "i#yon a#knowledged the'sel&es to ha&e sinned. and. when#e they were wont to issue $orth and %lunder the Eginetans o$ the island) But this took %la#e at a later date) 4hen the wealthier Eginetans had thus obtained the &i#tory o&er the #o''on %eo%le who had re&olted with 3i#odro'us. by 'anning also their own shi%s. their #a%tain. was hi'sel$ slain by the $ourth. who was a 5e#elean. they laid hands on a #ertain nu'ber o$ the'. they sold the' to the *thenians $or $i&e dra#h's a%ie#e) *s soon then as the *thenians had obtained this aid. being angry be#ause so'e Eginetan shi%s. whi#h. they #rossed o&er to Egina. when one o$ the' es#a%ed $ro' his #hains. &olunteers 2oined the' $ro' *rgos to the nu'ber o$ a thousand.their law did not allow the shi%s to be gi&en $or nothing. and so be . a##o'%anied hi' in his in&asion o$ *rgolis. and. being dri&en $ro' the island be$ore they had a%%eased the goddess who' they now %ro&oked) "e&en hundred o$ the #o''on %eo%le had $allen ali&e into their hands( and they were all being led out to death. when he $ound the *thenians did not #o'e to the ti'e a%%ointed. under a #a%tain. they were ne&er able to atone. $inding the'sel&es unable to tear hi' away.

os. a%%roa#hing $ro' the #arian "ea. while he hi'sel$ %ro#eeded to dis#o&er whither the 5elians had $led( a$ter whi#h he sent a herald to the' with this 'essage0 .%edition had su##eeded so ill. while at the sa'e ti'e they burnt all the te'%les together with the town) This done. took to $light. that so he 'ight redu#e all those who had re$used to gi&e hi' earth and water) *s $or -ardonius. whi#h. when 5atis sailed $orward in ad&an#e o$ the other shi%s( #o''anding the'. #a%turing $our shi%s with their #rews) Thus did war rage between the Eginetans and *thenians) -eanti'e the +ersian %ursued his own design. they had deter'ined to atta#k be$ore any other state. 5arius took the #o''and o$ the troo%s $ro' hi'.%edition drew near. instead o$ en#ountering the'.os) 4hen the +ersians. where the year be$ore they had su$$ered so grie&ously on their %assage( but a #onstraining #ause also was their $or'er $ailure to take 3a. instead o$ an#horing at 5elos.9 and likewise urged #ontinually by the +isistratidae.os. #ast an#hor at 3a. who were to lead the host against Eretria and *thens( to wit.horted by his ser&ant to 9re'e'ber the *thenians. instead o$ %ro#eeding with a straight #ourse along the shore to the Helles%ont and to Thra#e. they le$t 3a. the 3a.uitted 5elos. there$ore. hundred trire'es. 'ade sail $or onia) Then#e. and sailed away to the other islands) 4hile the +ersians were thus e'%loyed. a'ounting in all to si. $ro' day to day e. sin#e his e.uired o$ the se&eral states. the year be$ore.t $or #arrying war into Gree#e.ians. as belie&e. and the' they #arried away #a%ti&e. and at the sa'e ti'e by the horsetrans%orts whi#h 5arius had. be#ause they $eared the danger o$ doubling -ount *thos. who was by des#ent a -ede. they loosed $ro' "a'os and &oyaged a#ross the #arian sea through the 'idst o$ the islands( 'ainly. who were e&er a##using their #ountry'en) -oreo&er it %leased hi' well to ha&e a %rete. ha&ing with the' a nu'erous and wella%%ointed land ar'y) En#a'%ing here. the 5elians likewise .*$terwards the Eginetans $ell u%on the *thenian $leet when it was in so'e disorder and beat it. and *rta%hernes. to rende/&ous at Rhenea. his own ne%hew) These 'en re#ei&ed orders to #arry *thens and Eretria away #a%ti&e. re#olle#ting what there be$ell the' $or'erly. 5atis. they were 2oined by the sea $or#e whi#h had been re. and a%%ointed other generals in his stead. and hurried o$$ to the hills) The +ersians howe&er su##eeded in laying hands on so'e. the son o$ *rta%hernes. and took re$uge in Tenos) *nd now the e. o&er against 5elos. and to bring the %risoners into his %resen#e) "o the new #o''anders took their de%arture $ro' the #ourt and went down to Cili#ia. to the *leian %lain. #o''anded his tributaries to 'ake ready) *board these the horses were e'barked( and the troo%s were re#ei&ed by the shi%s o$ war( a$ter whi#h the whole $leet.

howe&er. while others. a$ter loosing $ro' 5elos. but in %art arising $ro' the #ontentions a'ong their own #hie$ 'en res%e#ting the su%re'e %ower) 4here$ore it is not sur%rising that 5elos. though it had ne&er be$ore been shaken. both the #ountry and its inhabitants) Co'e ba#k there$ore to your dwellings( and on#e 'ore inhabit your island)9 "u#h was the 'essage whi#h 5atis sent by his herald to the 5elians) He likewise %la#ed u%on the altar three hundred talents1 weight o$ $rankin#ense. and o$$ered it) *$ter this he sailed with his whole host against Eretria. 5elos . and likewise #arried o$$ a nu'ber o$ the #hildren as hostages) Going thus $ro' one to another.as the 5elians told 'e< was shaken by an earth. and took troo%s $ro' ea#h. whi#h said o$ 5elos7 5elo1s sel$ will shake.uired o$ the') -eanwhile the Eretrians. the $irst and last sho#k that has been $elt to this day) *nd truly this was a %rodigy whereby the god warned 'en o$ the e&ils that were #o'ing u%on the') For in the three $ollowing generations o$ 5arius the son o$ Hystas%es. who said they would neither gi&e any. but assigned to the' as au. yet they were not agreed a'ong the'sel&es how they should a#t( so'e o$ the' were 'inded to lea&e the #ity and to take re$uge in the heights o$ Euboea.iliaries the $our thousand landholders to who' they had allotted the estates o$ the Chal#idean Hi%%obatae) *t Eretria. who looked to re#ei&ing . nor #onsent to bear ar's against the #ities o$ their neighbours.es the son o$ Ber. they #a'e at last to Carystus( but here the hostages were re$used by the Carystians. should at that ti'e ha&e $elt the sho#k o$ an earth.9 Ber. besought the *thenians $or assistan#e) 3or did the *thenians re$use their aid. understanding that the +ersian ar'a'ent was #o'ing against the'. and wasted the #ountry round.uake) *nd indeed there was an ora#le.uake. ! holy 'en: 4hy ha&e ye 2udged 'e so harshly and so wrong$ully: ha&e surely sense enough.9 and *rta. until at length the inhabitants were brought o&er and agreed to do what was re. and *rta. 'ore woes be$ell Gree#e than in the twenty generations %re#eding 5arius7 woes #aused in %art by the +ersians. whi#h ne&er yet has been shaken !$ the abo&e na'es 5arius 'ay be rendered 94orker.es.er.94hy are ye $led. Ber. to s%are the #ountry whi#h ga&e birth to the two gods7 to s%are. 'eaning *thens and Eretria) Hereu%on the +ersians laid siege to Carystus.es 9Great 4arrior)9 *nd so 'ight we #all these kings in our own language with %ro%riety) The barbarians.es the son o$ 5arius. e&en had not the king so ordered.er. %ro#eeded to tou#h at the other islands. say. things were in no healthy state( $or though they had #alled in the aid o$ the *thenians.es 94arrior. taking with hi' both onians and *eolians) 4hen he was de%arted.

and it lay 'oreo&er . still with the sa'e 'ares. one o$ the $irst 'en in Eretria. whereby he gained the &ery sa'e honour whi#h had be$ore been #arried o$$ by -iltiades. was banished $ro' *thens by +isistratus. and 'ade ready to atta#k the ene'y) But the Eretrians were not 'inded to sally $orth and o$$er battle( their only #are. to de$end their walls) *nd now the $ortress was assaulted in good earnest. the son o$ "tesagoras.uit the #ity.a reward $ro' the +ersians. his hal$7brother on the 'other1s side) *t the ne. they %ro#eeded $orthwith to dise'bark their horses. ha&ing 'ade an agree'ent with hi' that on yielding hi' this honour he should be allowed to #o'e ba#k to his #ountry) *$terwards. betrayed the %la#e to the +ersians) These were no sooner entered within the walls than they %lundered and burnt all the te'%les that there were in the town. greatly straitening the *thenians as they a%%roa#hed. in this way es#a%ed the danger) The +ersian $leet now drew near and an#hored at Ta'ynae. ha&ing thus brought Eretria into sub2e#tion a$ter waiting a $ew days.uite #lose to Eretria. days there $ell on both sides &ast nu'bers. and +hilagrus. they likewise 'ar#hed their troo%s to -arathon. 'ade sail $or *tti#a. and there stood on the de$ensi&e. three %la#es in the territory o$ Eretria) !n#e 'asters o$ these %osts. and *egilia. Choereae. be#ause there was no +la#e in all *tti#a so #on&enient $or their horse as -arathon. #ondu#ted the' thither) 4hen intelligen#e o$ this rea#hed the *thenians. and. he won the %ri/e a third ti'e( whereu%on he was %ut to death by the sons o$ +isistratus. o$ who' one was -iltiades) 3ow this 'an1s $ather. and not %erish with his #ountry'en) *nd the *thenians hearkened to his #ounsel. ha&ing at their head ten generals. the son o$ Cyneas. and $or si. but on the se&enth day Eu%horbus. the son o$ Hi%%o#rates) n his banish'ent it was his $ortune to win the $our7horse #hariot7ra#e at !ly'%ia. #rossing o&er to !ro%us. they did a##ording to the orders o$ 5arius. in re&enge $or the burning o$ their own te'%les at "ardis( 'oreo&er. a$ter it had been resol&ed not to . were 'aking ready to betray their #ountry) "o when these things #a'e to the ears o$ *es#hines. the son o$ *l#i'a#hus. was. i$ %ossible. beyond what is #alled the @alley Road( and right . there$ore Hi%%ias. the son o$ 3othon.t !ly'%iad he won the %ri/e again with the sa'e 'ares( u%on whi#h he #aused +isistratus to be %ro#lai'ed the winner. Ci'on. who were both #iti/ens o$ good re%ute. and besought the' to return ho'e to their own land. and thinking to deal with the' as they had dealt with the %eo%le o$ Eretria) *nd. the son o$ +isistratus. whose $ather was no longer li&ing) They set 'en to lie in wait $or hi' se#retly( and these 'en slew hi' near the go&ern'ent7house in the night7ti'e) He was buried outside the #ity. and #arried away #a%ti&e all the inhabitants) The +ersians. he 'ade known the whole state o$ a$$airs to the *thenians who were already arri&ed.

entirely belie&ing in the truth o$ this re%ort. he rea#hed "%arta on the &ery ne. as they did not like to break their established law) t was then the ninth day o$ the $irst de#ade( and they #ould not 'ar#h out o$ "%arta on the ninth. and bade hi' ask the *thenians 9where$ore they negle#ted hi' so entirely.o%%osite his to'b were buried the 'ares whi#h had won the three %ri/es) The sa'e su##ess had likewise been a#hie&ed on#e %re&iously. and by %ro$ession and %ra#ti#e a trained runner) This 'an. set u% a te'%le to +an under the *#ro%olis. and. and was #ited by the' be$ore a #ourt and i'%ea#hed $or his tyranny in the Chersonese) But he #a'e o$$ &i#torious here likewise. and said to the'07 9-en o$ La#edae'on. when the 'oon had not rea#hed the $ull) "o they waited $or the $ull o$ the 'oon) . was with his $ather in *thens) t was this -iltiades who now #o''anded the *thenians. who had a great desire to take hi' and #arry hi'