You are on page 1of 24



This report is presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the Degree of Bachelor of Mechanical Engineering (Thermal Fluid)

Faculty of Mechanical Engineering Universiti Teknikal Malaysia Melaka

APRIL 2009

declare this thesis is result of my own research except as cited in the references” Signature Author’s Name Date : ………………………….ii “I hereby. : LING CHAI VOON : 10/04/2009 .

iii To my beloved family .

Lastly. . I would like to thank each and every individual who have either directly or indirectly helped me throughout the efforts of this report be it in the form of encouragement.iv AKNOWLEDGEMENT First and foremost.23. experience and guidance throughout the completion of project. advice or kind reminders. Special thanks also to the Faculty of Mechanical Engineering. Taman Tasik Utama for their consistent words of wisdom and company throughout the late nights. Jalan TU 23. I would like to convey my most heartfelt gratitude to Mr. Kamarul Ariffin Zakaria as the final year project supervisor who has graciously offered his time. University Technical Malaysia Malacca (UTeM) for the opportunities given and facilities offered. attention. A special thanks to the occupants of No.

research on old type methodology of opening a durian fruit also will be consider to find out the weaknesses of the methodology and solve the weaknesses with new idea of design. There are many different types of durian fruit opener that used by people nowadays. safety factor. Beside that. a model of durian fruit opener will be fabricate for the analysis test on its toughness and the force that it can afford on it. more information will be collect for analyses so that a more easy to use and comfortable durian opener idea can be create for the conveniences of durian fruit fans. . research will be done on those openers to find out the weaknesses such as its size. From these. research on the different body shape and size of durian fruit from different species have to be done well in order to get the dimension for the design. etc. A suitable material to fabricate the design of durian fruit opener also will be considering in this project. Therefore.v ABSTRACT The present investigation primarily designs of the durian fruit opener that easy to use and create the model for the design. To build up the idea of design the durian opener. method of use. After the full concept design have done.

dan sebagainya. sebuah model pembuka buah durian akan difabrikasi untuk ujian analisis ke atas kekuatan alat tersebut. . Daripada ini. Terdapat pelbagai jenis alat pembuka buah durian yang digunakan sekarang. kajian ke atas pelbagai bentuk dan saiz buah durian daripada pelbagai spesis hendaklah dikaji dengan baik untuk mendapat dimensi rekabentuk tersebut. Selain itu. Oleh itu. faktor keselamatan. Selepas idea konsep penuh telah dibuat. kajian ke atas kaedah lama yang digunakan untuk membuka buah durian juga akan dipertimbangkan untuk mengetahui kelemahan-kelemahan kaedah tersebut dan menyelesaikan kelemahan-kelemahan dengan idea baru rekabentuk. kaedah ABSTRAK Projek ini adalah kajian tentang mereka cipta satu alat pembuka buah durian yang mudah untuk digunakan dan membangunkan model rekabentuk tersebut. Untuk membina gagasan reka bentuk pembuka buah durian yang sempurna. kajian akan dibuat ke atas alat pembuka yang sedia ada untuk mengetahui kelemahankelemahan seperti saiznya. lebih banyak maklumat dapat dikumpulkan untuk membuat analisis supaya satu rekaan yang lebih mudah dan selesa dapat dibangunkan bagi kegunaan atau keselesaan peminat-peminat buah durian. Bahan yang sesuai untuk membina rekabentuk pembuka durian juga akan dipertimbangkan dalam projek ini.

3 1.1 1.vii TABLE OF CONTENT CHAPTER TOPIC PAGE VERIFICATION DEDICATION AKNOWLEDGEMENT ABSTRACT ABSTRAK TABLE OF CONTENTS LIST OF TABLES LIST OF FIGURES LIST OF APPENDICES ii iii iv v vi vii x xii xvi CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION 1.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 Background Study Problem Statement Objectives Scope 1 1 3 3 3 CHAPTER II LITERATURE REVIEW 2.2 1.4 Durian Fruit Different Species of Durian Fruit The Shape of Durian Fruit Old Type of Durian Opener and the Weaknesses of the Design 4 4 6 7 8 .

1 New Design of a Durian Opener 3.1 Experiment Data for Compression Test 3.2 Analysis Axial Loading.4 Design Process 3.5.1 Tools use for fabricating model of new durian opener 3.1.3 Investigation of old methodology and design of durian opener 3.1 3.6.6 Preparing Model (Model Fabrication) 3.2 3.2 Procedure of fabricating the new durian opener 28 28 34 3.3 Experiments for Testing the Durian Opener 63 .2 Components of the New Durian Opener Complete With Dimension 23 3.5 Conception design Design Concept and Criteria Evaluation on Design Drawing 14 14 15 15 15 16 19 20 21 21 Detail Design 3.5.1 3.2 Planning Research of different type and shape of durian fruit CHAPTER TOPIC PAGE CHAPTER III METHODOLOGY 3. Normal Stress and Factor of Safety for the Durian Opener 39 39 46 49 49 Experiment Results for Compression Test 3.1 Compression Test 3.7 Analysis Test 3.7.

3 4.5 4.2 4.4 4.6 Expected Result Design Step Detail Design Fabrication Analysis on the design Further Development 66 66 67 68 68 69 70 CHAPTER V CONCLUSION 71 REFERENCE APPENDIX 72 74 .9 Conclusion 65 CHAPTER IV RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 4.1 4.ix CHAPTER TOPIC PAGE 3.

1 Five idea sketch complete with advantages and weaknesses 17 3. filling and welding process 34 .x LIST OF TABLES NO.3 The detail design of the durian opener complete with dimension 24 3.6 Procedure for cutting.1 Steps of opening durian fruit using old Methodology 9 2.4 Tools that use for cutting system in fabricating model 28 3. TITLE PAGES 2.2 Different types of existent durian opener and its weaknesses 11 3.2 Design Drawing Evaluation 20 3.5 Tools that use for welding system in fabricating model 32 3.

D98 and Durian Kampung 49 3.9 Maximum load and compressive strength of durian D13. TITLE PAGES 3.xi NO.8 The picture and procedure for compression test 44 3.10 The procedure of testing the durian opener 63 . D98 and Durian Kampung 42 3.7 The picture and the data measuring for durian D13.

Y. also known as Durian Merah (Source: Djatmiko W.A. S. 2007) 5 2.xii LIST OF FIGURES NO. 2007) 4 2. compared to human height (Source: Yun.4 Durio Oxleyanus (Source: Nirav.2 Durian tree.6 Durio Oblongus (Source: Nirav. 2003) 7 . 2003) 6 2. TITLE PAGES 2.3 Durian flowers (Source: Bryan Loh. 2003) 6 2. H.7 Three rare Durio species together (Source: Nirav. S.1 Picture of Durio Kutejensis fruits. 2008) 5 2.5 Durio Graveolens (Source: Nirav. S. S. 2003) 7 2.

7 The actual view of the new durian opener 38 3.3 Hierarchical Diagrams of Design Criteria 19 3.8 Durian fruit is armed with sharp thorns.1 Flow Chart of Methodology French’s Model of the Design Process 14 3.2 15 3. TITLE PAGES 2. 2006) 8 3. 2006) 7 2. fully capable of drawing blood (Source: Takato Marui. S. 22 3.10 Measuring the maximum width of a durian fruit 41 .9 The zigzag line where a durian will naturally split apart between sections (Source: Nirav.9 Measuring the maximum diameter of a durian fruit 40 3.4 Sketch of the design of durian opener.6 The explode view of the design 27 3.xiii NO.5 The caulking compress gun CG-A106 23 3.8 INSTRON 5585 Material Testing System 39 3.

13 Graph of Stress-strain diagram for Durian 13 46 3.18 Force acting to press the Aluminum rod down on the compress gun 51 3.19 Force acting to press the Aluminum Alloy 2011 rod down 52 3.17 Graph of Stress-strain diagram for Durian 98 48 3.14 Graph of Compressive Load (N) Versus Compressive Extension (mm) for Compression Test of Durian 98 47 3. TITLE PAGES 3.20 The Aluminum Alloy 2011 rod is subjected to equal and opposite comcentrated load P and P’ 52 .12 Graph of Compressive Load (N) Versus Compressive Extension (mm) for Compression Test of Durian 13 46 3.11 Measuring the maximum length of a durian fruit 41 3.15 Graph of Stress-strain diagram for Durian 98 47 3.xiv NO.16 Graph of Compressive Load (N) Versus Compressive Extension (mm) for Compression Test of Durian Kampung 48 3.

xv NO.21 The location of durian fruit holder on the design 54 3.24 Force acting to press the aluminium rod down on the handle 57 3.23 Force acting to the Aluminum Alloy 2011 base support 56 3.28 Shearing stress on 4 Pin B (Aluminum Alloy 2011) 61 4. 58 3. TITLE PAGES 3.1 The front view of the design 66 4.22 The Holder (steel 1018) is subjected to equal and opposite concentrated load P and P’ 54 3.3 The fabricated model for the new design 68 .25 The Aluminum Alloy 2011 handle subjected to equal and opposite concentrated load P and P’ 58 3.27 Shearing stress on Pin A (Aluminum Alloy 2011) 60 3.26 The diagram to find the load acting on the pressing gun.2 The isometric view of the stand and holder for design 67 4.

xvi LIST OF APPENDICES NO. TITLE PAGES A B C D Gantt Chart Design 3D View Drawing Experiment Data for Compression Test Table A-20 Results of Tensile Tests of Some Metal 74 75 87 96 .

Most of these durian cultivars have a common name and a code number starting with "D" such as. wedge. Mao Shan Wang and with no common name. Beside vegetative clones. Its shape ranges from oblong to round. and formidable thorn-covered husk. and its flesh pale-yellow to red.CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION 1. D24 and D169 (Djatmiko W. whip or U-grafting onto seedlings of randomly selected rootstocks. there are many recognised durian species available in the international market. Nowadays. the fruit is distinctive for its large size. where farmer will mixed up the seeds from different type of durian. Sultan. by grafting.A. Kop (D99).1 Background study The durian is the fruit of trees from the genus Durio belonging to the Malvaceae. Chanee (D123). marcotting. Kradum Thong. cotton. 2007). and linden trees. unique odour. okra. most of them propagated by vegetative clones. Different cultivars can be distinguished to some extent by variations in the fruit shape. veneer. depending on the species (Djatmiko W. mallows. farmer will also propagated by layering.A. 2007). or more commonly. the colour of its husk green to brown. such as the shape of the spines. The fruit can grow up to 30 centimeters long and 15 centimeters in diameter. a large family which includes hibiscus. and typically weighs one to four kilograms. Widely known and revered in Southeast Asia as the "King of Fruits". . including bud. There are hundreds of durian cultivars.

J. pyramidal spikes. (People who handle durians professionally often use thick gloves. In this state. whereas most cultivars of D. J. slightly alcoholic. of many variations in shape. The durian rind is greenish-or-yellowish-tan-brown. However. and covered with thick. In Malaysia and Singapore. the ideal stage of ripeness to be enjoyed varies from region to region in Southeast Asia and by species. unless the fruits have all been pre-tied with strings or ropes to prevent their fall to the ground. . zibethinus are nearly always cut from the tree and allowed to ripen while waiting to be sold. Some people in southern Thailand prefer their durians relatively young when the clusters of fruit within the shell are still crisp in texture and mild in flavour. most consumers prefer the fruit to be quite ripe and may even risk allowing the fruit to continue ripening after its husk has already cracked open. or large safety nets positioned to catch them (Morton. sharp. the aroma pronounced and the flavour highly complex (Morton.pointed.The durian fruit is ready to eat when its husk begins to crack. In northern Thailand.) The weight of the fruit and its spiky armor make a durian grove a hazardous place to be during ripening season. smaller fruits with small spikes are difficult to hold barehanded for more than a few moments. 1987). Larger durian fruits can be gingerly and carefully picked up bare-handed by placing the fingers between the spikes. 1987) . the preference is for the fruit to be as soft and pungent in aroma as possible. the flesh becomes richly creamy. Some species grow so tall that they can only be collected once they have fallen to the ground. The rind is extremely tough and has evolved so as to be able to fall to the ground without major damage to the fruit (unless it lands on solid rock) from heights as much as 40 meter.

research on the old type durian fruit opener in market is important. Using the information get from the research to design a conceptual idea of durian opener. However.2 Problem Statement A durian fruit is delicious and it was the „King‟ of fruit in Malaysia. This research is to find out the weaknesses of the old type durian fruit opener so that to improve it at tha new design.3 Objectives To design and fabricate a durian opener which is easy to be handle and reliable. . Following this.1. Fabricate the model of the new design follow the real dimension so that it can be analyse the strenght of the new design of durian opener. Therefore a durian opener which is easy to be use and reliable has to be design to provide convenience for people that like to eat durian fruit.4 Scope The research will focus on the design of a new durian fruit opener. 1. To complete the design. because of it covered by spikes and the outer flesh of durian fruit are thick and tough it can be difficult to open if you don‟t know how. 1. discover the optimum and easy methodology to open a durian fruit.

1 Durian Fruit The durian.A. (2007)) .CHAPTER II LITERATURE REVIEW 2.1: Picture of Durio Kutejensis fruits.. R. and is used to flavour a wide variety of savoury and sweet edibles in Southeast Asian cuisines. Indonesia and Malaysia. The flesh can be consumed at various stages of ripeness. also known as Durian Merah (Source: Djatmiko W. The name durian comes from the Malay word duri (thorn) with suffix -an. Durian had been famously described its flesh as "a rich custard highly flavoured with almonds" in the 19th century. native to Brunei. (Wallace A. Figure 2. has been known to the western world for about 600 years. 1900). The seeds can also be eaten when cooked.

compared to human height (Source: Yun. thick branches or trunk. and densely covered with gray or reddish-brown. rough.25-25 cm long. is usually erect with short. 5-7.The durian tree.5-9 cm wide. (2008)) Figure 2. are borne in pendant clusters of 3 to 30 directly from the old.5 cm wide. bell-shaped calyx. and thin branches coated with coppery or gray scales when young. darkgreen and glossy above. straight. Y. 6.3: Durian flowers (Source: Bryan Loh. silvery or pale-yellow. with 5lobed. whitish to golden-brown. Malodorous. peeling trunk to 1. alternate leaves are oblong-lance-olate.. 2. 3-petalled flowers. rounded at the base.2: Durian tree.2 meter in diameter. H. hairy scales on the underside. The evergreen. J. reaching 27-40 meter in height in tropical forests. and irregular dense or open crown of rough branches. or elliptic-obovate. leathery. abruptly pointed at the apex. (2007)) . 1987) Figure 2. (Morton.

In Malaysia. which has been bred and selected for centuries in Southeast Asia for various desirable qualities (Shunyam Nirav). dulcis.5: Durio Graveolens (Source: Nirav. and the common domestic durian. zibethinus. D. there are 44 clones with small differences in time and extent of flowering.2. (Brown. there are many species for which the fruit has never been collected or properly examined. D. macrantha. Mon Thong (D159). All Thai durians and most Malaysian durians are varieties and clones of only one species. nine of them have been identified as producing edible fruits: D. oxleyanus and D. Durio zibethinus. productivity and edible quality (Morton. D. Kan Yao (D158). Only a few of these are in commercial cultivation. In peninsular Malaya. D. Berserah or Green Durian or Tuan Mek Hijau (D145 ). graveolens. at least nine of which produce edible fruit. testudinarum. 1987). (2003)) . There are hundreds of durian cultivars. D..1997) . floral and fruit morphology. D24. 2004). D. (2003)) Figure 2. D101 and D169.. However.There is over 300 named varieties of durian in Thailand. (O'Gara et al. Among the thirty known species of Durian. 2004).. S. 100 types are graded for size and quality. Chanee (D123). grandiflorus. Kradum Thong and with no common name. S. so other species with edible fruit may exist. Michael J. D. Figure 2. kutejensis. lowianus. J.4: Durio Oxleyanus (Source: Nirav.2 Different Species of Durian Fruit There are 30 recognized Durian species. (O'Gara et al. Some popular clones are Kop (D99 ). most of them have a common name and a code number starting with "D".

pinkish or orange-colored flesh and 1 to 7 chestnut-like seeds. (2003)) Figure 2. others do not split. The yellow or yellowish-green rind is thick.3 The Shape of Durian Fruit The fruits are ovoid or ovoid-oblong to nearly round. and densely set with stout. S. but all fall to the ground when 7-sided at the base. and up to 18 lbs (8 kg) in weight.Figure 2.. (2006)) .8: Durian fruit is armed with sharp thorns. J. Handling without gloves can be painful. 1987) Figure 2. 5 to 6 in (12. 3/4 to 2 1/4 in (2-6 cm) long with glossy. (Source: Takato Marui. red-brown seedcoat.7: Three rare Durio species (Source: Nirav. fully capable of drawing blood. sharply pointed spines. S. tough. 6 to 12 in (15-30 cm) long. Inside there are 5 compartments containing the creamy-white. semi-woody. Some fruits split into 5 segments.5-15 cm) wide.6: Durio Oblongus together (Source: Nirav. (Morton. 3. (2003)) 2. yellowish..