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Number & Algebra Terms 1-4: Addition and Subtraction 1 Terms 1-4 : Multiplication & Division 1 Terms 1 & 3: Patterns and Algebra 1 Terms 2 & 4: Fractions and Decimals 1

Measurement & Geometry Term 1: Length 1 / Time 1 / 2D 1 / Position 1 Term 2: Mass 1 / 3D 1 / Angles 1 Term 3: Volume and Capacity 1 / Time 1 / 2D 1 / Position 1 Term 4: Area 1 / 3D1 / Angles 1

Sharon Tooney

NUMBER AND ALGEBRA

Whole Number Addition & Subtraction Multiplication & Division Fractions & Decimals Patterns & Algebra Length Area

Volume & Capacity Mass Time 3D 2D Angles Position

Data Chance

TERM 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4

Yr 1 Yr 2 Yr 3 Yr 4 Yr 5 Yr 6 NB: Where a content strand has a level 1 & 2, the 1 refers to the lower grade within the stage, eg. Whole Number 1 in S1 is for Yr 1, Whole Number 2 is for Yr 2.

Sharon Tooney

STAGE: ES1 S1

STRAND: S2 S3

WEEK: 1 2

10

OUTCOMES A student: uses appropriate terminology to describe, and symbols to represent, mathematical ideas MA2-1WM selects and uses appropriate mental or written strategies, or technology, to solve problems MA2-2WM checks the accuracy of a statement and explains the reasoning used MA2-3WM applies place value to order, read and represent numbers of up to five digits MA2-4NA

OVERVIEW

Recognise, model, represent and order numbers to at least 10 000 represent numbers of up to four digits using objects, words, numerals and digital displays - make the largest and smallest number from four given digits identify the number before and after a given two-, threeor four-digit number - describe the number before as 'one less than' and the number after as 'one more than' a given number count forwards and backwards by tens and hundreds on and off the decade, eg 1220, 1230, 1240, (on the decade); 423, 323, 223, (off the decade) arrange numbers of up to four digits in ascending and descending order - use place value to compare and explain the relative size of four-digit numbers use the terms and symbols for 'is less than' and 'is greater than' to show the relationship between two numbers Apply place value to partition, rearrange and regroup numbers to at least 10 000 to assist calculations and solve problems apply an understanding of place value and the role of zero to read, write and order numbers of up to four digits - interpret four-digit numbers used in everyday contexts use place value to partition numbers of up to four digits, eg 3265 as 3 groups of one thousand, 2 groups of one hundred, 6 groups of ten and 5 ones state the 'place value' of digits in numbers of up to four digits, eg 'In the number 3426, the place value of the "4" is 400 or 4 hundreds' record numbers of up to four digits using place value, eg 5429 = 5000 + 400 + 20 + 9 partition numbers of up to four digits in non-standard forms, eg 3265 as 32 hundreds and 65 ones round numbers to the nearest ten, hundred or thousand

Background Information The place value of digits in various numerals should be investigated. Students should understand, for example, that the '5' in 35 represents 5 ones, but the '5' in 53 represents 50 or 5 tens. Language Students should be able to communicate using the following language: number before, number after, more than, greater than, less than, largest number, smallest number, ascending order, descending order, digit, zero, ones, groups of ten, tens, groups of one hundred, hundreds, groups of one thousand, thousands, place value, round to. The word 'and' is used between the hundreds and the tens when reading and writing a number in words, but not in other places, eg 3568 is read as 'three thousand, five hundred and sixtyeight'. The word 'round' has different meanings in different contexts, eg 'The plate is round', 'Round 23 to the nearest ten'.

Cross-curriculum priorities

Aboriginal &Torres Strait Islander histories & cultures Asia & Australias engagement with Asia Sustainability

General capabilities Critical & creative thinking Ethical understanding Information & communication technology capability Intercultural understanding Literacy Numeracy Personal & social capability

Other learning across the curriculum areas Civics & citizenship Difference & diversity Work & enterprise

Sharon Tooney

CONTENT

Recognise, model, represent and order numbers to at least 10 000 Apply place value to partition, rearrange and regroup numbers to at least 10 000 to assist calculations and solve problems

WEEK

Spin, Double and Flip Prepare a spinner displaying numerals one to ten and a flip counter. To make the flip counter, on one side of a counter write +1 and on the other side write -1. Provide the students with a strip of paper to record five numbers in the range 1 21. Students take turns to spin a number on the spinner. They then double the number to find the answer. If the student has this number on their paper strip they may cross it off. If the doubled number is one more or one less than a number on their paper strip, the student may choose to toss the flip counter. The winner is the first person to cross off all five numbers. Variations All students in the group may cross off the answer if they have it on their paper strip. Ask the students to write the five numerals vertically down a piece of paper. Addition Star Prepare a copy of Addition star BLM for each pair of students. The students will also need a counter and two dice. The students roll the dice and use the numbers that are rolled to indicate the target number. Eg, if a 5 and a 3 are rolled the students may choose to make the target number 53 or 35. Once the target number has been decided, the first player rolls one of the dice again and places the counter on the corresponding numeral on the star. If a six is rolled, the player may place the counter on any of the numerals. The second player then moves the counter along any line to add another number to the tally. If a player is able to add a number that bridges the total to the next decade, they have another turn. For example, student A starts at five. Student B moves to one and states the total, Six!. Player A moves the counter to four and states the total, Ten! I made it to the decade so I have another turn! The game continues until one player reaches the target number. Variation Start at the target number and subtract from the tally on each move. If a player moves down to the next decade, they have another turn. Brainy Fish Prepare a baseboard using Brainy fish BLM and a spinner displaying the following instructions: Double it, Double it plus one, Double it take away one, How many more to make 10? (Brainy fish spinner). Organise the students into groups or pairs and provide them with a fish baseboard, a die and a supply of counters. Each student will need his or her own colour counters. Have the students take turns to firstly roll the die, then spin the instruction spinner. After following the instructions on the spinner, the student determines the answer and places his or her counter onto a corresponding numeral on the baseboard. More than one counter may be placed on a numeral. The activity continues until one student is able to place three counters in a row. Addition Wheel Pairs Provide the students with a copy of the addition wheel worksheet. Ask the students to nominate a double fact they know where the answer is bigger than ten. The students then

ADJUSTMENTS

Support: Play as two teams before having the students play independently. Students record three numbers on a paper strip instead of five. Extension: When the answer has been calculated the student records the number sentence next to the answer. Extension: Students record the target number and the additions.

RESOURCES

Spinners, counters, paper strips, pencils

REG

Support: use transparent counters for students who still need to see the numbers.

4 Sharon Tooney

write the total for the double fact on the centre of the wheel and the doubles combination on one of the spokes. Have the students add one to one of the numbers and take away one from the other number so that the total remains the same. The students then record the new number sentence on the next spoke of the wheel. Continue adding and subtracting one from the number sentence until all the spokes are filled. On the second wheel ask the students to add ten to the centre number and determine the addition combinations using the first wheel to help them. Discuss the similarities between the two wheels. Variation: Ask the students to find partners who used the same number of spokes on the addition wheel and compare addition pairs. Singles or Doubles? Prepare two dice. one displaying numerals 1 6 and the other marked S, S, S, D, D, D. S means the number rolled on the other dice remains as a single number. D means the number rolled on the other dice is doubled. Each student takes a turn to roll the dice and keeps a tally of his or her score. The first player to reach 100 is the winner. Variation: Start with a score of 100 and subtract the rolled number. Even Stevens Prepare nine cardboard squares and write the number one on three cards, the number four on three cards and the number sixteen on the remaining three cards. Place the cards into a box with a lid. Instruct the students to write the even numbers to 62 on a piece of paper. Have one of the students take a turn to shake the box and then turn it up so the cards fall to the floor. The student then adds up any cards that have landed face-up and if the sum is on his or her paper, crosses it off. The first player to cross off ten different numerals wins. Variations: Have the students determine all of the numbers that can be created using the cards, prior to playing the game. Students construct bingo boards with some of the even numbers to fifty recorded on each students board. Engineers Dice Provide each group of students with five dice. To play the game a target number is selected by the group. The students then take turns to roll the dice in the following way: Roll all five dice. Choose two of the dice and nominate an operation (+ - x ) to carry out with the numbers rolled. Record the result. Discard these two dice. Roll the remaining three dice. Choose one number rolled, complete another operation (+ x ) with the chosen number and the first score. Discard that die. Roll the remaining two dice. Choose one number rolled and complete the same process as the step above using the current total. Roll the last die and complete the same process using the current total. After each player has had his or her turn, the students compare their totals to see who is closest to the target score.

Support: Provide concrete materials. Extension: work with dice that have values higher than 6. Support: Model building numbers to 10 and 20 and doubling . The first player to cross off 5 different numerals wins. Provide the students with a 100-chart. After the student has added the cards, s/he crosses off the number on the 100-chart.

Support: Provide concrete materials. Extension: Change the operations that can be used. For example, doubling plus one.

Sharon Tooney

Fancy Dice Provide each group with five dice. Each student takes it in turn to roll the dice and add the total. The student continues to roll the five dice and accumulate the total unless a two or a five is rolled. If so, any dice displaying a two or a five must be taken out for all subsequent throws for that player. The student throws the remaining dice again and keeps going until he or she has no dice left. If six is rolled on two of the dice, the player loses all of the score for that turn and it is the next players turn. If six is rolled on three dice, the player loses all of his or her score, returning to zero and it is the next players turn. The first player to reach 200 wins. Variation: Each player begins with a score of 200 and the total is subtracted from 100. The first player to reach zero is the winner. Counter Play Organise the students into pairs and provide each pair with a copy of Counter play BLM, seven counters of one colour, say red, and one counter of another colour, say blue, and paper and pencil for scoring. Have the students lay out the counters so that the blue counter is on the top left hand corner of the grid and the red counters are on all other squares except the bottom right-hand corner. This corner does not begin with a counter on it. The aim is for the students to move the blue counter to the opposite corner keeping to the following rules: All moves must be vertical or horizontal. Only one counter must be on a square at any time. Take it in turns to move a counter. A player can only move one space at each turn. A player cannot uncover the same number twice in a row. Players keep score by adding the number on the square the counter was moved from to their total. The player with the lowest score, when the blue counter is placed on the 6, wins. Revision and Assessment

Each student will need to keep his or her own accumulating total. Have each student demonstrate to the group how the addition or subtraction was calculated (support or extension should be provided at this point)

Extension: Have students record and explain their methods for adding.

10 ASSESSMENT OVERVIEW

Sharon Tooney

Counter Play

4 9 2

3 5 7

8 1 6

Sharon Tooney

STAGE: ES1 S1

STRAND: S2 S3

WEEK: 1 2

10

OUTCOMES A student: uses appropriate terminology to describe, and symbols to represent, mathematical ideas MA2-1WM selects and uses appropriate mental or written strategies, or technology, to solve problems MA2-2WM checks the accuracy of a statement and explains the reasoning used MA2-3WM uses mental and written strategies for addition and subtraction involving two-, three-, four and five-digit numbers MA2-5NA

OVERVIEW

Recall addition facts for single-digit numbers & related subtraction facts to develop increasingly efficient mental strategies for computation add 3 or more single-digit numbers model & apply the associative property of add to aid mental computation, eg 2 + 3 + 8 = 2 + 8 + 3 = 10 + 3 = 13 apply known single-digit add & sub facts to mental strategies for add & sub of 2, 3 & 4 digit numbers, including: the jump strategy on an empty number line, eg 823 + 56: 823 + 50 = 873, 873 + 6 = 879 the split strategy, eg 23 + 35: 20 + 30 + 3 + 5 = 58 the compensation strategy, eg 63 + 29: 63 + 30 = 93, subtract 1 to obtain 92 using patterns to extend number facts, eg 500 200: 5 2 = 3, so 500 200 = 300 bridging the decades, eg 34 + 26: 34 + 6 = 40, 40 + 20 = 60 changing the order of addends to form multiples of 10, eg 16 + 8 + 4: add 16 to 4 first using place value to partition numbers, eg 2500 + 670: 2500 + 600 + 70 = 3170 partitioning numbers in non-standard forms, eg 500 + 670: 670 = 500 + 170, so 500 + 670 = 500 + 500 + 170, which is 1000 + 170 = 1170 - choose & apply efficient strategies for add & sub - discuss & compare different methods of add & sub use concrete materials to model add & sub of 2 or more numbers, with & without trading, & record the method used select, use & record a variety of mental strategies to solve add & sub problems, including word problems, with numbers up to 4 digits - give a reasonable estimate for a problem, explain how the estimate was obtained, & check the solution use the = sign to record equivalent number sentences involving add & sub & so to mean is the same as, rather than to mean to perform an operation, eg 32 13 = 30 11 - check given number sentences to determine if they are true/ false & explain why, eg 'Is 39 12 = 15 + 11 true? Why/not?' Recognise & explain connection between addition & subtraction demonstrate how add & sub are inverse operations explain & check solutions to problems, including using inverse operation Represent money values in multiple ways & count the change required for simple transactions to the nearest five cents calculate equivalent amounts of money using different denominations perform simple calculations with money, including finding change, & round to the nearest 5c calculate mentally to give change

Cross-curriculum priorities

Aboriginal &Torres Strait Islander histories & cultures Asia & Australias engagement with Asia Sustainability

Background Information An inverse operation is an operation that reverses the effect of the original operation. Addition and subtraction are inverse operations; multiplication and division are inverse operations. In Stage 2, it is important that students apply and extend their repertoire of mental strategies for addition and subtraction. The use of concrete materials to model the addition and subtraction of two or more numbers, with and without trading, is intended to provide a foundation for the introduction of the formal algorithm in Addition and Subtraction 2. One-cent and two-cent coins were withdrawn by the Australian Government in 1990. Prices can still be expressed in one-cent increments, but the final bill is rounded to the nearest five cents (except for electronic transactions), eg $5.36, $5.37 round to $5.35 $5.38, $5.39, $5.41, $5.42 round to $5.40 $5.43, $5.44 round to $5.45. Language Students should be able to communicate using the following language: plus, add, addition, minus, the difference between, subtract, subtraction, equals, is equal to, is the same as, number sentence, empty number line, strategy, digit, estimate, round to. Students need to understand the different uses for the = sign, eg 4 + 1 = 5, where the = sign indicates that the right side of the number sentence contains 'the answer' and should be read to mean 'equals', compared to a statement of equality such as 4 + 1 = 3 + 2, where the = sign should be read to mean 'is the same as'.

General capabilities Critical & creative thinking Ethical understanding Information & communication technology capability Intercultural understanding Literacy Numeracy Personal & social capability

Other learning across the curriculum areas Civics & citizenship Difference & diversity Work & enterprise

Sharon Tooney

CONTENT

Recall addition facts for singledigit numbers & related subtraction facts to develop increasingly efficient mental strategies for computation Recognise & explain connection between addition & subtraction Represent money values in multiple ways & count the change required for simple transactions to the nearest five cents

WEEK

Base 10 Material Students use 2, 3 or 4 dice to generate a two-, three- or four digit number and then represent this number using Base 10 material. Students then generate a second, smaller number by rolling one less die. Students represent this number using Base 10 material, then add the two numbers and show the result using Base 10 material. Students repeat this process, subtracting the second number from the first. Students record their solutions. Linking 3 Students record sixteen different numbers between 1 and 50 in a 4 4 grid eg. 19 28 17 13 2 18 41 5 16 1 38 49 15 26 40 7 Students link and add three numbers vertically or horizontally. Possible questions include: - can you find links that have a total of more than 50? - can you find links that have a total of less than 50? - how many links can you find that have a total that is a multiple of 10? - what is the smallest/largest total you can find? - can you find ten even/odd totals? Estimating Differences The teacher shows a card with the subtraction of a pair of two-digit numbers eg 78 32. Students estimate whether the difference between the numbers is closer to 10, 20, 30, 40 or 50 and give reasons why. The teacher shows other cards eg 51 18, 60 29, 43 25, 33 25. Students estimate the differences and discuss their strategies. They are asked to think about rounding numbers on purpose. For example for 51 18, students may round 51 down to 50 and 18 up to 20. Trading Games The trading games Win 500 or Lose 500 can be adapted for Stage 2 by adding and subtracting two-digit numbers using, recording and evaluating mental strategies. Students are given a pack of playing cards with the tens and the picture cards removed. The Aces are retained and represent 1 and the Jokers are retained and represents 0. Students flip two cards and assign place values to the numbers turned over. Students play Win 5000/50 000 and Lose 5000/50 000 to add and subtract three-digit and four-digit numbers. Students estimate their answer and then use formal written algorithms. Students could use a calculator to check their answer. Students are encouraged to pose problems, including money problems, using their numbers.

ADJUSTMENTS

Increase/decrease the number of dice used according to ability.

RESOURCES

Base 10 materials, dice, paper and pencils

REG

Increase/decrease the total number when questioning, according to ability. Provide concrete materials for those students who need support.

Support: provide number expanders for students to place cards onto and start from a number lower than 500. Extension: start from a higher number and subtract/add larger numbers

Sharon Tooney

Estimating Addition of Three-Digit Numbers The teacher briefly displays the numbers 314, 311, 310, 316, 312 on cards, then turns the cards over so that the numbers cannot be seen. Students are asked to estimate the total and give their reasons. The teacher reveals the numbers one at a time so that the students can find the total. The task could be repeated with other three-digit numbers and with four-digit numbers. Revision and Assessment

Increase/decrease the value of the numbers shown on cards according to ability. This may require grouping students.

Number cards

10 ASSESSMENT OVERVIEW

Sharon Tooney

STAGE: ES1 S1

STRAND: S2 S3

WEEK: 1 2

10

OUTCOMES A student: uses appropriate terminology to describe, and symbols to represent, mathematical ideas MA2-1WM selects and uses appropriate mental or written strategies, or technology, to solve problems MA2-2WM checks the accuracy of a statement and explains the reasoning used MA2-3WM uses mental and informal written strategies for multiplication and division MA2-6NA

OVERVIEW

Recall multiplication facts of two, three, five and ten and related division facts count by 2s, 3s, 5s or 10s using skip counting use mental strategies to recall multiplication facts for multiples of 2, 3, 5 & 10 - relate 'doubling' to multiplication facts for multiples of 2, eg Double 3 is 6 recognise & use the symbols for multiplied by (), divided by () & equals (=) link multiplication & division facts using groups / arrays, eg - explain why a rectangular array can be read as a division in 2 ways by forming vertical or horizontal groups, eg 12 3 = 4

or 12 4 = 3

Cross-curriculum priorities

Aboriginal &Torres Strait Islander histories & cultures Asia & Australias engagement with Asia Sustainability

Background Information In Stage 2, the emphasis in multiplication and division is on students developing mental strategies and using their own (informal) methods for recording their strategies. Comparing their own method of solution with the methods of other students will lead to the identification of efficient mental and written strategies. One problem may have several acceptable methods of solution. Students could extend their recall of number facts beyond the multiplication facts to 10 10 by also memorising multiples of numbers such as 11, 12, 15, 20 and 25. An inverse operation is an operation that reverses the effect of the original operation. Addition and subtraction are inverse operations; multiplication and division are inverse operations. The use of digital technologies includes the use of calculators. Language Students should be able to communicate using the following language: group, row, column, horizontal, vertical, array, multiply, multiplied by, multiplication, multiplication facts, double, shared between, divide, divided by, division, equals, strategy, digit, number chart. When beginning to build and read multiplication facts aloud, it is best to use a language pattern of words that relates back to concrete materials such as arrays. As students become more confident with recalling multiplication facts, they may use less language. For example, 'five rows (or groups) of three' becomes 'five threes' with the 'rows of' or 'groups of' implied. This then leads to 'one three is three', 'two threes are six', 'three threes are nine', and so on.

General capabilities Critical & creative thinking Ethical understanding Information & communication technology capability Intercultural understanding Literacy Numeracy Personal & social capability

model & apply the commutative property of multiplication, eg 5 8 = 8 5 Represent and solve problems involving multiplication using efficient mental and written strategies and appropriate digital technologies use mental strategies to multiply a 1-digit number by a multiple of 10, including: repeated addition, eg 3 20: 20 + 20 + 20 = 60 using place value concepts,eg 3 20: 3 2 tens = 6 tens =

60

= 60

Other learning across the curriculum areas Civics & citizenship Difference & diversity Work & enterprise

- apply the inverse relationship of multiplication & division to justify answers, eg 12 3 is 4 because 4 3 = 12 select, use & record a variety of mental strategies, & appropriate digital technologies, to solve simple multiplication problems - pose multiplication problems & apply appropriate strategies to solve them - explain how an answer was obtained & compare their own method of solution with the methods of other students - explain problem-solving strategies using language, actions, materials & drawings - describe methods used in solving multiplication problems

Sharon Tooney

CONTENT

Recall multiplication facts of two, three, five and ten and related division facts Represent and solve problems involving multiplication using efficient mental and written strategies and appropriate digital technologies

WEEK

Patterns Students investigate patterns in the multiplication grid. Students discuss these patterns and record their observations. For example, students compare the multiplication facts for 3 and the multiplication facts for 6. They then investigate the multiplication facts for 9. Students colour multiples on a hundreds chart and are encouraged to describe the patterns created. Chocolate Boxes The teacher poses the problem: Imagine you had the job of designing a chocolate box. There are to be 48 chocolates in the box. The box can be one or two layers high. How many ways could you arrange the chocolates in the box? Students draw or make models of their solutions and discuss these in terms of multiplication and division facts. Doubles Students work in small groups. A student chooses a small whole number and the next student doubles it. They take turns to keep doubling the number. A student checks the results with a calculator. In the next round they start with a different number. Possible questions include: - what did you notice? - did the pattern help you with your calculations? Sequences of Multiples Students record sequences of multiples and look for patterns. Students are asked if they can find patterns in the sequences of the numbers in the ones column. Students plot these on a circle with the points 0 to 9 marked on the circumference, joining the numbers in order. eg the multiples of 4 are 4, 8, 12, 16, 20, 24, 28, 32, 36, 40 etc and so the pattern for the digits in the ones column is 4, 8, 2, 6, 0, 4, 8, 2, 6, 0,

ADJUSTMENTS

Support: provide multiplication tables as a reference

RESOURCES

Multiplication tables, 100s charts, pencils

REG

Support: provide counters for students to model different combinations. Extension: work with larger numbers Support: concrete materials Extension: start with a larger number

Multiples Students take turns in throwing a die and moving a counter along a hundreds chart the number of spaces indicated on the die. If the counter lands on a multiple of 3 they jump forward to the next multiple of 3. If they land on a multiple of 5 they jump backwards to the previous multiple of 5. Two counters may land on the same square. The winner is the first player to reach or pass 100. Possible questions include: - which numbers are multiples of 3 and 5? Variation: The pair of multiples could be changed, or the sum of two dice could be used to indicate the number of squares the counter moves.

Sharon Tooney

10 ASSESSMENT OVERVIEW

Sharon Tooney

STAGE: ES1 S1

STRAND: S2 S3

Background Information

WEEK: 1 2

10

OUTCOMES A student: uses appropriate terminology to describe, and symbols to represent, mathematical ideas MA2-1WM checks the accuracy of a statement and explains the reasoning used MA2-3WM represents, models and compares commonly used fractions and decimals MA2-7NA

OVERVIEW

Model and represent unit fractions, including , , and their multiples, to a complete whole (ACMNA058) model fractions with denominators of 2, 3, 4, 5 and 8 of whole objects, shapes and collections using concrete materials and diagrams recognise that as the number of parts that a whole is divided into becomes larger, the size of each part becomes smaller recognise that fractions are used to describe one or more parts of a whole where the parts are equal name fractions up to one whole interpret the denominator as the number of equal parts a whole has been divided into interpret the numerator as the number of equal fractional parts use the terms 'fraction', 'denominator' and 'numerator' appropriately when referring to fractions Count by quarters, halves and thirds, including with mixed numerals; locate and represent these fractions on a number line (ACMNA078) identify and describe 'mixed numerals' as having a wholenumber part and a fractional part rename , , , and as 1 count by halves, thirds and quarters place halves, quarters, eighths and thirds on number lines between 0 and 1 place halves, thirds and quarters on number lines that extend beyond 1 compare unit fractions using diagrams and number lines and by referring to the denominator recognise and explain the relationship between the value of a unit fraction and its denominator

Cross-curriculum priorities

In Stage 2 Fractions and Decimals 1, fractions with denominators of 2, 3, 4, 5 and 8 are studied. Denominators of 6, 10 and 100 are introduced in Stage 2 Fractions and Decimals 2. Fractions are used in different ways: to describe equal parts of a whole; to describe equal parts of a collection of objects; to denote numbers (eg is midway between 0 and 1 on the number line); and as operators related to division (eg dividing a number in half). A unit fraction is any proper fraction in which the numerator is 1, eg , , , ,................... Three Models of Fractions Continuous model, linear uses one-directional cuts or folds that compare fractional parts based on length. Cuts or folds may be either vertical or horizontal. This model was introduced in Stage 1.

Continuous model, area uses multi-directional cuts or folds to compare fractional parts to the whole. This model should be introduced once students have an understanding of the concept of area in Stage 2. Discrete model uses separate items in collections to represent parts of the whole group. This model was introduced in Stage 1.

Language

Students should be able to communicate using the following language: whole, part, equal parts, half, quarter, eighth, third, fifth, one-third, one-fifth, fraction, denominator, numerator, mixed numeral, whole number, fractional part, number line. When expressing fractions in English, the numerator is said first, followed by the denominator. However, in many Asian languages (eg Chinese, Japanese), the opposite is the case: the denominator is said before the numerator.

Sharon Tooney

CONTENT

Model and represent unit fractions, including , , and their multiples, to a complete whole Count by quarters, halves and thirds, including with mixed numerals; locate and represent these fractions on a number line

WEEK

Fold, Open and Draw Teacher poses the question to the students to examine as a whole class: If we wanted to share a lamington bar fairly between Chris and Elaine, how could we do it? Draw a rectangle on the board and invite students to draw a line to show where they would cut the lamington to make it fair. Discuss the accuracy of the cut and emphasis that adjustments are important in establishing equal parts. Pose the problem for students to work on themselves: If Chris and Elaine wanted to share the lamington equally with Fiona, can you use another piece of paper to show how this could be done? Allow students time to engage with the problem, and reinforce that multiple adjustments to create a fair share may be necessary. Have students draw and explain how they shared the lamington. A Piece Of Cake (Forming an Image of Thirds) Have students trace a large circle to represent the top view of a cake. Tell the students that you want them to establish where to cut the cake to share it equally between three people. Have them use popsticks or pencils to represent cut lines, to allow for multiple adjustments. Have students record how they went about dividing the circle (cake) equally, making links between division as sharing and fractions. Ensure students understand that the fractions they have created are known as thirds and are represented numerically as . How Many Pikelets? (Part-whole Models Beyond One) In this activity the teacher wants the students to focus on forming wholes from fractional parts. Show the students a set of 24 quarter circles. As a class count the quarter circles and then put them away. Ask the students to work out how many circles they can make with 24 quarter circles. Have students record how they arrived at the answer, using diagrams and written explanations, using the term quarter and/or the numerical representation of a quarter ( ). A Birthday Secret (Recreating the Whole From a Part) In this activity, students focus on reconstructing a circle from a single piece of the circle. Show the 3-dimensional model of a slice of birthday cake. Explain that the mark on the cake is where a candle was and that the candles were equally spaced around the cake. How old was the person having the birthday? How could you work it out?

ADJUSTMENTS

Support as needed for students experiencing difficulty, especially with fine motor skills of folding. Extend activity by requiring students to explain the difficulties experienced in obtaining an equal share and how these were overcome. Support: provide circle cut outs for students experiencing difficulty tracing.

RESOURCES

Paper rectangles to represent lamingtons, paper and pencils, whiteboard and markers

REG

Support: provide circle quarters for students who are unable to do task independently. Extension: examine whether the size of circle quarters impacts results Peer tutoring, grouping strategies.

Give pairs of students cardboard sectors representing slices of cake and ask them to work out the age of the person having the birthday. From the cardboard model of a cake you can create pieces with 2 candles, 3 candles, 4 candles, 6 candles or 8 candles depending upon

Sharon Tooney

which multiples you wish to work with, or how many times you require students to repeat the unit. Provide opportunities for students to report on their solution methods. How many people could have a piece of cake the same size as the one you have?

10 ASSESSMENT OVERVIEW

Sharon Tooney

Sharon Tooney

MATHEMATICS PROGRAM PROFORMA STAGE: ES1 S1 STRAND: S2 S3 MEASUREMENT AND GEOMETRY KEY CONSIDERATIONS

Background Information In Stage 2, students should appreciate that formal units allow for easier and more accurate communication of measures. Students are introduced to the kilogram and gram. They should develop an understanding of the size of these units, and use them to measure and estimate. Language Students should be able to communicate using the following language: mass, more than, less than, about the same as, pan balance, (level) balance, measure, estimate, kilogram. 'Hefting' is testing the weight of an object by lifting and balancing it. Where possible, students can compare the weights of two objects by using their bodies to balance each object, eg holding one object in each hand. As the terms 'weigh' and 'weight' are common in everyday usage, they can be accepted in student language should they arise. Weight is a force that changes with gravity, while mass remains constant.

TERM: 1 2

WEEK: 1 2

10

SUBSTRAND: Mass 1

OUTCOMES A student: uses appropriate terminology to describe, and symbols to represent, mathematical ideas MA2-1WM checks the accuracy of a statement and explains the reasoning used MA2-3WM measures, records, compares and estimates the masses of objects using kilograms and grams MA2-12MG

OVERVIEW

Measure, order and compare objects using familiar metric units of mass (ACMMG061) recognise the need for a formal unit to measure mass use the kilogram as a unit to measure mass, using a pan balance associate kilogram measures with familiar objects, eg a standard pack of flour has a mass of 1 kg, a litre of milk has a mass of approximately 1 kg (Reasoning) recognise that objects with a mass of one kilogram can be a variety of shapes and sizes (Reasoning) record masses using the abbreviation for kilograms (kg) use hefting to identify objects that have a mass of 'more than', 'less than' and 'about the same as' one kilogram discuss strategies used to estimate mass, eg by referring to a known mass (Communicating, Problem Solving) compare and order two or more objects by mass measured to the nearest kilogram estimate the number of similar objects that have a total mass of one kilogram and check by measuring explain why two students may obtain different measures for the same mass (Communicating, Reasoning)

Cross-curriculum priorities

Sharon Tooney

CONTENT

Measure, order and compare objects using familiar metric units of mass

WEEK

On The Case Organise students into groups and provide each group with a kilogram weight. Students heft the weight to support their concept of a mass of 1 kilogram. Students heft their pencil cases, and sort the cases from lightest to heaviest. Students discuss which pencil cases would make a combined mass of about 1 kilogram. Weight the predict combinations and record the results stating if the mass of the pencil cases was less than 1 kilogram, equal to 1 kilogram or more than 1 kilogram. Make a Kilo Students examine a number of small items and estimate how many of each item will measure 1 kilogram. Students are given a limited range of items so that results can be compared and checked easily. Students record their estimates and results using the abbreviation kg. Kilogram Ball Pairs of students make a 1 kilogram ball of playdough or plasticine. As they build the ball, the students keep weighing to make an accurate mass of 1 kilogram. Record the process. Treasure Hunt Students find items in the classroom or playground that have a mass of about 1 kilogram. Students record items which are estimated to be 1 kilogram, then measure and record the mass as 1 kilogram, more than 1 kilogram, less than 1 kilogram. Ensure that a range of items that have a mass of about 1 kilogram are available before commencing the activity. Make a Shot Putt Students make a 1 kilogram shot by putting sand in a piece of fabric or old pillow case and tying firmly with a piece of string. Students putt the 1 kilogram shot and estimate then measure the distance thrown.

ADJUSTMENTS

Peer tutor grouping strategies.

RESOURCES

Scales, 1 kilogram weights, pencil cases, paper and pencils

REG

3 4

1kg mass, samples of food/materials in 1kg packages, scales or equal arm balances, different items to weigh Playdough, plasticine, scales, paper and pencils scales, items to weigh, paper and pencils

By The Cupful Students measure and compare the mass of cupfuls of different materials. Students estimate first by hefting, and then measure the cupfuls to find the heaviest cupful and the lightest cupful. Students order and record their measurements to the nearest 10grams. Make 50 Grams Students estimate how many of each object is needed to make a mass of 50grams. Students select objects, record their estimate, then measure and record the actual number of objects needed to make a mass of 50grams. Materials to weigh can include, blocks, dice and counters from the classroom, as well as small food items, and household items including nails, bolts and batteries.

Support: Having a metre ruler available as a visual support may assist students to estimate distance. Extension: students predict then measure, using a 2kg shot. Peer tutor grouping strategies. Extension: students graph the results Individual support as required.

Fabric, string, sand, tape measure, 1m rulers, scales, paper and pencils

Cups, different materials to compare, scales, pencils and paper Objects to weigh, scales pencils and paper.

Sharon Tooney

Massive Model Students work in pairs to make a model from 1 centimetre interlocking cubes. Students estimate the mass of their model before measuring and recording. Students combine with another two pairs of students, to estimate measure and record the combined mass of the models. Pass The Parcel Students sit in a whole-class circle and pass around 4 or 5 closed containers that contain small items to music. When the music stops, the students holding the containers write their estimate of the mass of the container and its contents on the board. After several estimates for different objects have been recorded, students weigh the items to determine who had the closest estimate. Revision and Assessment

Support: Access to labelled masses may assist students to estimate containers, by hefting s known mass and container.

Items in closed containers, music, scales, known masses, whiteboard and markers.

10 ASSESSMENT OVERVIEW

Sharon Tooney

STAGE: ES1 S1

S2

S3

MATHEMATICS PROGRAM PROFORMA STRAND: TERM: MEASUREMENT AND GEOMETRY 1 2 3 3 KEY CONSIDERATIONS

WEEK: 1 2

10

SUBSTRAND: Angles 1

OUTCOMES A student: uses appropriate terminology to describe, and symbols to represent, mathematical ideas MA2-1WM identifies, describes, compares and classifies angles MA216MG

OVERVIEW

Identify angles as measures of turn and compare angle sizes in everyday situations (ACMMG064) identify 'angles' with two arms in practical situations, eg the angle between the arms of a clock identify the 'arms' and 'vertex' of an angle describe informally an angle as the 'amount of turning' between two arms recognise that the length of the arms does not affect the size of the angle (Reasoning) compare angles directly by placing one angle on top of another and aligning one arm identify 'perpendicular' lines in pictures, designs and the environment use the term 'right angle' to describe the angle formed when perpendicular lines meet describe examples of right angles in the environment (Communicating, Problem Solving) identify right angles in two-dimensional shapes and three-dimensional objects (Communicating)

Background Information In Stage 2, students need informal experiences of creating, identifying and describing a range of angles. This will lead to an appreciation of the need for a formal unit to measure angles. Paper folding is a quick and simple means of generating a wide range of angles for comparison and copying.

Cross-curriculum priorities

The arms of the angles above are different lengths. However, the angles are the same size, as the amount of turning between the arms is the same. Students may mistakenly judge one angle to be greater in size than another on the basis of the length of the arms of the angles in the diagram. Language Students should be able to communicate using the following language: angle, amount of turning, arm, vertex, perpendicular, right angle.

Sharon Tooney

CONTENT

Identify angles as measures of turn and compare angle sizes in everyday situations

WEEK

Pattern Blocks Distribute pattern blocks so that each group has a large number. Ask the students what they notice about the blocks, in terms of colours and shapes. Possible questions: - What is the same about these shapes? - What is the same about the red blocks? - What are these different shapes called? Have students in their groups make their own patterns with the pattern blocks, describe their favourite pattern to the group and make a coloured drawing of their favourite pattern. Discuss the patterns the students have made: - How are these patterns different? - How are the patterns similar? - Why do we call them patterns? - Tell us why you like this pattern? Guide students to see that patterns always involve some regular repetition of colours and/or shapes. Discuss the way the pattern blocks fit together. Guide students to see that the blocks all have the same edge-length or multiples of that edge-length, and that the corners fit together in a special way. Windmill Patterns Students make windmill patterns by fitting pattern blocks of the same colour around a point. They use the patterns to compare the size of the pattern block corners. Put a number of pattern blocks on an overhead projector. Place them together so they form a pattern. - How would you describe my pattern? Make sure the students understand that the blocks fit together around a point. Separate the blocks and point to the pattern of lines made by joins between the blocks. - What do you notice about the lines in the middle of the pattern? Decide on a name for such patterns Have students work individually to make their own windmill patterns using different pattern block corners, draw their windmill patterns, label each drawing to state the number and type of block used (eg. 8 of the small red corners) Discuss the different windmill patterns the students have made. Make a table summarising the relationship between the pattern block corner used and the number of pieces needed. From the table, identify block corners that are the same size. Check by placing one corner on top of another. Introduce the mathematical word for corner as angle. Discuss why some patterns use more blocks than others. Fewer blocks are needed when the angles which are placed around the central point are larger.

ADJUSTMENTS

Extension: students work in pairs to make and describe patterns with pattern blocks. Student A makes a pattern without Student B seeing it. Student A describes the pattern and Student B makes the pattern by following their partners directions.

RESOURCES

Pattern blocks, paper and pencils.

REG

Extension: explore which corners combine to make another pattern block corner. For example, two triangle corners make a hexagon corner.

Sharon Tooney

Hexagon (yellow) Square (orange) Triangle (green) Fat rhombus (blue) Thin rhombus (brown or white) Trapezium (red)

3 corners 4 corners 6 corners 6 small corners 3 large corners 12 corners 6 small corners 3 large corners

Square Corners Students look for right angles in their classroom. They make drawings of the angles and use different methods to measure and compare the angle of the object and the drawn angle. Discuss what an angle is. Use the bent straw to show that an angle has two lines and a point. Explain that the mathematical terms are arm and vertex. - What angles can you see in this classroom? Introduce the term right angle or square angle. Students find examples of right angles in the classroom. - What does it mean to say that a corner is square? Discuss which pattern block has right angles. - What does it have to do with squares? Demonstrate how to bend a straw into a right angle by folding the straw over one corner of a square pattern block. - How could we check if this angle really is a right angle? Select one of the suggested examples of a right angle and use the straw to demonstrate that the angle is the same size. If possible, check by holding the pattern block against the angle. Draw the object and model how to use the bent straw to compare the drawn and the actual angle. Have your students work in pairs to: search for objects or locations that have right angles in the classroom make a sketch of the object and mark the angle(s) in colour use the bent straw and the square pattern block to check that the drawn angle is the correct size. Discuss and list the different examples of right angles that students have measured. - How many right angles do you think there would be in this room? Acute and Obtuse Angles Students look for acute and obtuse angles in the classroom. They make drawings of the angles, compare the angles with the corners of pattern blocks, and classify the angles according to size. Revise previous work with right angles, and discuss the terminology used to describe angles. - Find some angles in this classroom that are not right angles. Introduce the terms acute and obtuse and discuss their relationship to the right-angle.

Variation: Find right angles in the playground and check the size using the drinking straw angle tester or the square pattern block.

Extension: Look for reflex angles (angles greater than two right angles) in the classroom. Find examples in the classroom and ask students to describe these. Examples may include the

Sharon Tooney

Ask students to identify acute and obtuse angles in the classroom, and list several of these. - Where can you see acute and obtuse angles in the room? Select one example of an acute angle. Demonstrate how to use a bent straw to measure and draw the angle on the board. Use the straw to compare the size of the drawn angle with the angle on the object. - How do you know the angles are the same size? Find a pattern block that has an angle about the same size, and label the angle drawing with the pattern block colour or shape. - Can you suggest a pattern block angle which is about the same size as our drawn angle? Have your students work in pairs to: look for acute and obtuse angles in the classroom use the bent straw to measure the angle draw and label the angle and use the bent straw to measure the correct size find a pattern block that has an angle about the same size as the angle drawn order the angles from smallest to largest by numbering them. Discuss different examples of angles that students have measured and list them under the headings acute and obtuse. Write the size of the angle in terms of the pattern blocks, e.g. the same as a small red corner - What is the difference between obtuse and acute angles? - How would you describe an acute angle to your friend? - Which pattern blocks have obtuse angles? Angles in Geometrical Patterns Students find and label acute, obtuse and right angles in a pentagram or octagon pattern. Students draw and measure the angles. Revise the terms right, acute and obtuse angles. - What types of angles have we been talking about? - What are the differences between these angles? Ask a student to use a bent straw to demonstrate the mathematical terms arm, vertex and angle. Introduce the pentagram or octagon worksheet and discuss the instructions. - What kinds of angles can you see in this pentagram? Why do you think it is called a pentagram?

Ask your students to mark the angles on their worksheets. Remind students to copy each angle as accurately as possible by using the bent straw to measure and compare the two angles.

Extension: Look for reflex angles (angles larger than two right angles) and straight angles (180) on the geometrical patterns.

Lead students in a discussion of the angles they identified. Ask several students to draw their angles on the board, and describe the angle using the terminology arms and vertex. - Draw one of your angles on the chalkboard. - How do you know that it is the right size? - What can you tell us about your angle? Revision and Assessment

10 Sharon Tooney

ASSESSMENT OVERVIEW

Sharon Tooney

Pentagram

Finding angles in the pentagram Find and label an acute angle and an obtuse angle. Copy these angles in the space below, and label each one. Check that your angles are the correct size. Use coloured pencils to mark the angles that are the same size. Count and record your total number of angles.

Sharon Tooney

Octagon

Finding angles in the octagon Find and label an acute angle, an obtuse angle and a right angle. Copy these angles in the space below, and label each one. Check that your angles are the correct size. Use coloured pencils to mark the angles that are the same size. Count and record your total number of angles.

Sharon Tooney

STAGE: ES1 S1

S2

S3

MATHEMATICS PROGRAM PROFORMA STRAND: TERM: MEASUREMENT AND GEOMETRY 1 2 3 3 KEY CONSIDERATIONS

Background Information

WEEK: 1 2

10

SUBSTRAND: 3D 1

OUTCOMES A student: uses appropriate terminology to describe, and symbols to represent, mathematical ideas MA2-1WM checks the accuracy of a statement and explains the reasoning used MA2-3WM makes, compares, sketches and names three-dimensional objects, including prisms, pyramids, cylinders, cones and spheres, and describes their features MA2-14MG

OVERVIEW

Make models of three-dimensional objects and describe key features (ACMMG063) identify and name three-dimensional objects as prisms (including cubes), pyramids, cylinders, cones and spheres recognise and describe the use of three-dimensional objects in a variety of contexts, eg buildings, packaging (Communicating) describe and compare curved surfaces and flat surfaces of cylinders, cones and spheres, and faces, edges and vertices of prisms (including cubes) and pyramids describe similarities and differences between prisms (including cubes), pyramids, cylinders, cones and spheres (Communicating) use a variety of materials to make models of prisms (including cubes), pyramids, cylinders, cones and spheres, given a three-dimensional object, picture or photograph to view deconstruct everyday packages that are prisms (including cubes) to create nets, eg cut up tissue boxes recognise that a net requires each face to be connected to at least one other face (Reasoning) investigate, make and identify the variety of nets that can be used to create a particular prism, such as the variety of nets that can be used to make a cube, eg

The formal names for particular prisms and pyramids are not introduced in Stage 2. Prisms and pyramids are to be treated as classes for the grouping of all prisms and all pyramids. Names for particular prisms and pyramids are introduced in Stage 3.

Language

Cross-curriculum priorities

Students should be able to communicate using the following language: object, two-dimensional shape (2D shape), threedimensional object (3D object), cone, cube, cylinder, prism, pyramid, sphere, surface, flat surface, curved surface, face, edge, vertex (vertices), net. In geometry, the term 'face' refers to a flat surface with only straight edges, as in prisms and pyramids, eg a cube has six faces. Curved surfaces, such as those found in cylinders, cones and spheres, are not classified as 'faces'. Similarly, flat surfaces with curved boundaries, such as the circular surfaces of cylinders and cones, are not 'faces'. The term 'shape' refers to a two-dimensional figure. The term 'object' refers to a three dimensional figure.

distinguish between (flat) nets, which are 'twodimensional', and objects created from nets, which are 'three-dimensional' (Communicating, Reasoning)

Sharon Tooney

CONTENT

Make models of threedimensional objects and describe key features

WEEK

Parts of a 3D Shape Identify and define parts of a 3D shape: Faces: flat surfaces or curved surfaces Edges: ridge where two faces meet Vertices: where three or more faces meet to form a corner Examine the number of faces and what shape they are, number of edges and number of vertices of: cube, rectangular prism, triangular prism, square based pyramid, triangle based pyramid, sphere, cone and cylinder. Create a chart. Possible questions: - Which shapes have 8 corners? - Which shapes have two or more faces that are the same? - Which shapes have all their edges the same length? Classify 3D Shapes Into Families 3D shapes have families just like 2D shapes. Have students examine a variety of 3D shapes. Ask students to group them together if they are similar. Students should describe and draw the groupings they have made. Possible questions: - What properties did you use to group your shapes? - Why did you choose those properties? 3D Families The following 3D shapes have been classified into families according to their properties. Look at the groups and try to work out what properties have been used to group them. Prisms Spheres Cylinders Cones

ADJUSTMENTS

Questioning techniques

RESOURCES

3D shapes, chart paper and textas

REG

Extension: If you were going to add the following shape into your categories, where would it go? Give reasons for your answers.

Extension: If you were going to add the following shape into your categories, where would it go? Give reasons for your answer.

Pyramids

What properties have been used to group the families of shapes above? Examining Nets Using the properties that students have assigned to 3D shapes in previous lessons, have them examine a variety of 3D nets and predict which 3D shapes they will make. Provide both BLM of nets and flattened out everyday items, such as, cereal boxes etc for students to identify. After predictions have been made, create the 3D shapes using the nets and check predictions. Discuss what properties of 3D shapes assisted the students in accurately identifying 3D shapes from the nets.

Sharon Tooney

7-8

10 ASSESSMENT OVERVIEW

Planning To Build With 3D Shapes Discuss with students the concept of building a model with 3D shapes and engage with wooden blocks to make generalisations about the appropriateness of different solids as building blocks. Examine aspects of stability, ability to attach to other solids and the problem of gaps. Using the generalisations made, have the students identify which solids they would select to build with and give reasons why. Have students draw a plan of an object (eg, a rocket, castle, skyscraper, etc) they could build using 3D shapes. Their plan should include an illustration of what they are building and the number of shapes per solid they will need to complete their construction. Building With 3D Shapes Using the plan that students created in the previous lesson, instruct them that they are going to construct the object from their plan. To do so, firstly they must identify the solids required (size and number) and select the appropriate nets for their construction. After creating the required number of solids using the nets provided by the teacher (a variety of different sizes of each net should be made available), students need to construct their object. When complete students should write a report on the construction process, including: - Problems encountered and how these were overcome. - Changes that needed to be made to the original plan. - Suitability of chosen 3D shapes. - What would they do the same/differently next time? Revision Assessment

Support: photograph model and allow student to count objects from concrete model

Support: prepared solids for students who have difficulty constructing these on their own.

Plan from previous lesson, nets, scissors, glue, tape, paper and pencils

Sharon Tooney

STAGE: ES1 S1

STRAND: S2 S3

Background Information Random generators include coins, dice and spinners.

WEEK: 1 2

10

SUBSTRAND: Chance 1

OUTCOMES A student: uses appropriate terminology to describe, and symbols to represent, mathematical ideas MA2-1WM checks the accuracy of a statement and explains the reasoning used MA2-3WM describes and compares chance events in social and experimental contexts MA2-19SP

OVERVIEW

Conduct chance experiments, identify and describe possible outcomes, and recognise variation in results (ACMSP067) use the term 'outcome' to describe any possible result of a chance experiment predict and list all possible outcomes in a chance experiment, eg list the outcomes when three pegs are randomly selected from a bag containing an equal number of pegs of two colours predict and record all possible combinations in a chance situation, eg list all possible outfits when choosing from three different T-shirts and two different pairs of shorts predict the number of times each outcome should occur in a chance experiment involving a set number of trials, carry out the experiment, and compare the predicted and actual results keep a tally and graph the results of a chance experiment (Communicating) explain any differences between expected results and actual results in a chance experiment (Communicating, Reasoning) make statements that acknowledge 'randomness' in a situation, eg 'The spinner could stop on any colour' (Communicating, Reasoning) repeat a chance experiment several times and discuss why the results vary (Communicating)

Language Students should be able to communicate using the following language: chance, experiment, outcome, random, trials, tally, expected results, actual results.

Cross-curriculum priorities

Sharon Tooney

CONTENT

Conduct chance experiments, identify and describe possible outcomes, and recognise variation in results

WEEK

Expected Result Students are asked to predict the result of 10 tosses of a coin. Possible questions include: - what outcomes can occur when the coin is tossed once? - what is the likelihood of tossing tails on any one toss? - how many heads and tails do you expect there to be? - did the expected result and the actual result match? - did tossing tails on the previous toss increase the likelihood of tossing tails on the next toss? Why? - which outcome, heads or tails, is more likely? Students are encouraged to suggest how the experiment could be improved and implement their plan. This activity could be extended to tossing two coins. Certain, Uncertain The teacher writes headings Certain and Uncertain on a sheet of paper. In pairs, students are asked to list under the headings things that they think are sure to happen (certain) at school on the day and then things that they think are not sure to happen (uncertain) at school on the same day. Students discuss their findings. Variation: Extend the activity to include other categories using the language of chance eg impossible, uncertain, certain. Pegs In groups, students are given a bucket of pegs. The bucket could have 10 blue and 10 yellow pegs. Students are asked to sort and count the pegs and then return them to the bucket. Students are asked to predict all possible combinations of pegs if two pegs are randomly taken from the bucket. They select one possible combination and, without looking, take two pegs out of the bucket. They see if the actual result matches their predicted result and discuss. Students repeat the selection several times returning the pegs to the bucket after recording their selection. They write a description of the activity explaining their observations. Fair Game? Students play games such as Snakes and Ladders, Heads Down/Thumbs Up, or outdoor games such as Statues. Students are asked if they think the game played is a fair game or not. Students are encouraged to justify their answers and to associate the idea of fairness with the idea that everyone has an equal chance to win. This activity could be extended to playing a game designed to be obviously unfair in order to stimulate discussion. Tossed Fruit Salad The teacher labels a large die with three faces displaying an apple, two faces displaying a banana and one face displaying an orange, and shows the die to the class. Students are asked to order the fruits from least likely to most likely to be rolled. After a number of rolls, the students compare the results with their predictions. Students

ADJUSTMENTS

Questioning techniques

RESOURCES

Coins, paper and pencils

REG

Extension: Students devise their own rating scale using the language of chance.

Variety of games

Sharon Tooney

10 ASSESSMENT OVERVIEW

discuss whether their predictions were supported by their experiment and explain the differences between expected results and actual results in this simple chance experiment. Possible questions include: - how can we change the labels on the die so that the orange is most likely to be rolled? The labels are then changed accordingly, and the die rolled a number of times to compare the results with the students predictions. Students are encouraged to make other suggestions about altering the labels to change the outcomes and these suggestions are tested. Revision Assessment

Sharon Tooney

Sharon Tooney

Sharon Tooney

Sharon Tooney

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