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An Overview of Sanatana Dharma Table of Contents 1. Introduction to Sanatana Dharma 2. Vedic Knowled e 2.1. Texts and treatises 2.2.

Overview of Scriptures 2.3. Vedas 2.4. Vedangas 2.5. Upangas 2.6. Upavedas 2.7. arsanas 2.!. S"ritis 2.#. $ga"as !. Vedic "eli ion 3.1. Sc%oo&s of Spiritua& '%i&osop%( )Vedanta* 3.2. 'at%s to Sa&vation 3.3. S%an"atas )+e&igions* #. Core Conce$ts 4.1. 'rincip&e of Transcendence 4.2. ,ors%ip 4.3. evata 4.4. -antra 4.5. .a/na 4.6. 0onsciousness Studies 4.7. 1indu View of 'atriotis" %. Individual and Social &ife 5.1. %ar"a 5.2. 2ar"a 5.3. 'urus%art%a 5.4. ,o"en 5.5. Ot%er 3nstitutions '. (o$ular "eli ion 6.1. Te"p&es A$$endi) I * Collectivism

1. Introduction to Sanatana Dharma Sanatana %ar"a is a co"pre%ensive s(ste" of &ife4 consisting of re&igion4 spiritua& p%i&osop%( and 5now&edge s(ste"4 socia& and po&itica& setup. +oals Si"p&( put4 t%e goa& of Sanatana %ar"a is -o5s%a4 &i6eration. 3t ai"s at "u5ti for ever( individua&4 and a&& t%e "et%ods it prescri6es are towards t%at goa&. 7u&fi&&"ent of t%e purposes of &ife is t%e "ean to it. 1owever4 p%eno"ena& wor&d is diverse4 and %ence t%ere are diverse "eans to fu&fi&&ing t%e purpose of &ife. (remises $ccording to Sanatana d%ar"a4 eac% 6eing is potentia&&( divine. +ea&i8ation is a6out unvei&ing t%e divinit(. 9od4 w%o created t%e universe4 is not different fro" it : 1e exists un"anifest4 6ut entire creation is a&so a part of 1i". 1e exists essentia&&(4 in eac% partic&e and p%eno"enon of creation. ;ac% 6eing4 t%roug% its c(c&es of 6irt% and deat%4 is evo&ving towards t%e sa"e goa&4 according to Sanatana %ar"a. So t%e e<ua&it( and ine<ua&it( are apparent4 and not essentia&. T%ese differences are 6ecause of t%e diversit( in "et%ods4 and differences in t%e stages and p%ases t%roug% w%ic% eac% 6eing is going at an( point of ti"e. ,indows 1owever4 t%ere are "u&tip&e windows to Trut% t%at descri6e t%e eterna&4 its re&ation to t%e universe and t%e concept of &i6eration. T%ese are ca&&ed arsanas. T%e( are six and &isted as =(a(a4 Vaises%i5a4 San5%(a4 .oga4 'urva -i"a"sa and Uttara -i"a"sa. T%e( differ in w%et%er t%ere is a >creator?9od@ different fro" t%e eterna&4 w%at causes 6inding and w%at causes &i6eration etc4 6ut t%e( a&& %ave co""on stand on t%ings &i5e t%ere is eterna& )'urus%a*4 w%o is actua&&( &i6erated4 6ut appears to 6e 6ound 6( t%e p&a( of =ature )'ra5riti*. T%e( are a&so co""on in t%at t%eir goa& is &i6eration. T%e( a&& advocate rig%teousness and devotion as "eans to &i6eration4 t%oug% t%e( suggest different "et%ods. T%e( are a&so co""on in t%at t%e( ta5e Veda as t%e aut%orit(. Schools T%ere are a&so "u&tip&e sc%oo&s t%at descri6e t%e re&ation of individua& and universa& sou&4 t%e concept and nature of &i6eration. T%ese are ca&&ed sc%oo&s of spiritua& p%i&osop%( or Vedanta and t%e( are $dvaita4 waita4 Visistadwaita etc. arsanas and sc%oo&s of Vedanta are often grouped toget%er4 for t%e( address so"e co""on su6/ects. T%e( a&so co""on&( 6e&ieve in t%e concepts &i5e 5ar"a and re6irt%. "eli ion 1induis" is actua&&( a set of re&igions4 a&& 6e&ieving in co""on aut%orit( : t%e Veda. Sanatana %ar"a can 6e 6road&( ca&&ed Vedic re&igion. ;ac% re&igion %as a t%eo&og(. 1owever t%e( are a&& not separate t%eo&ogies4 6ut different interpretations of t%eo&ogies

present in t%e texts : Veda and t%e 'uranas. T%e( a&so ta5e re&evant setsAportions of ritua&s4 codes prescri6ed in sruti and in s"ritis4 and fro" $ga"as. S"arta is t%e >re&igion@4 w%ere an( of t%e "a/or deities is wors%ipped and t%ere is no specific &eaning to an( of t%e". Bitera&&( >s"arta@ "eans fo&&owing >s"ritis@. T%en t%ere are six "a/or re&igions4 Saiva4 Vais%nava4 Sa5ta4 9anapat(a4 Saura and 2au"ara4 w%ic% treat deities Siva4 Vis%nu4 Sa5ti?t%e "ot%er 9oddess4 9anapat%i4 Sur(a and 2u"ara Swa"( as supre"e 9od%ead respective&(. (ur$oses T%ere are four goa&s of &ife to fu&fi&& w%ic% one s%ou&d wor5 : %ar"a4 $rt%a4 2a"a and -o5s%a. T%at is4 +ig%teousness4 generation of wea&t%Aproduction4 fu&fi&&"ent of desires and sa&vation. T%e first t%ree are "eans to t%e &ast. (aths T%ere are t%ree pat%s to sa&vation. One is of devotion )6%a5ti* w%ere an individua& t%roug% devotion for 9od4 attains "o5s%a. T%is is prescri6ed for t%e %eart?6eing. ,ors%ip is %is "et%od. evotion "eans4 6&iss and &ove goa&s. T%e second is of 5now&edge )/nana*4 w%ere one su6&i"ates %is &ower 6eing t%roug% gaining 5now&edge. T%is is for t%e inte&&ect?6eing. Stud(At%oug%t is %is "et%od. 0uriosit( is %is "eans4 Trut% goa&. T%e t%ird is of wor5s )5ar"a*4 w%ere one t%roug% fu&fi&&"ent of responsi6i&ities as an individua& and t%en serving fe&&ow 6eings4 attains "o5s%a. T%is is for t%e socia& 6eing. Service is %is "et%od. Se&f&essness is %is "eans4 infinit( and per"anence goa&. T%us trut%?6eaut(?per"anence4 t%e t%ree aspects of eterna& are t%e goa&s of t%ese t%ree pat%s. T%e( are inter?"ixing and over&apping pat%s4 wit% eac% of t%e" &eading to and "erging in t%e ot%ers. Scri$tures T%e root of Sanatana %ar"a is t%e Veda. T%e Veda is said to 6e c&assified 6efore t%e 6eginning of 2a&i .uga )a6out 31CC D0 according to traditiona& version*4 6( V(asa4 into four : +ig4 .a/us4 Sa"a and $t%arva. ;ac% Veda %as t%ree portions4 Sa"%ita )%("ns to gods*4 Dra%"ana )ritua& portion*4 $ran(a5a )p%i&osop%( portion*. T%ere are two "a/or strea"s of &iterature4 w%ic% deve&oped fro" t%e Veda and 6ase t%eir aut%orit( on it. One of t%e" is t%e s"riti &iterature4 w%ere entire &iterature is c&assified into 1! a6odes or "a%ast%anas. T%e( are t%e four Vedas4 six Vedangas )sastras to understand t%e Veda4 &itera&&( t%e parts of Veda*4 four Upangas )consisting of d%ar"a vi8 codes of conduct etc and &ogic* and four Upavedas )arts and sciences*. T%en t%ere are six darsanas or windows to trut%. T%e second strea" is t%e $ga"a &iterature4 consisting of -antra4 .antra and Tantra.

1owever t%ese are not "utua&&( exc&usive strea"s4 and t%ere are "an( aspects &i5e under&(ing spiritua& p%i&osop%(4 "antras4 so"e procedures for ritua&s t%at are co""on. Veda E EFFFF Vedic and S"riti &iterature E EFFFF Vedangas )six* E EFFFF Upangas )4* E EFFFF Upavedas )4* E EFFFF arsanas )6* E EFFFF $ga"a &iterature EFFFF Tantra Sco$e and Definition ,%at c&assifies one as 6e&onging to or outside t%e fo&d of Sanatana %ar"a4 is not as straig%t forward as answering w%at c&assifies one as 6e&onging to or outside t%e fo&d of an( particu&ar co""unit(. Sanatana %ar"a4 as it "eans4 is t%e eterna& &aw : %ence an(one 6( definition is inc&uded in it. 3t does not c&assif( peop&e as fo&&owers and non?fo&&owers4 6e&ievers and non? 6e&ievers and so on. T%us 6( definition4 it is universa& and a&&?inc&usive. T%is is 6ecause it ta&5s of t%e natura& and universa& order or &aw4 and not of t%e universe as seen 6( an( particu&ar seer. 1owever4 w%en seen in a socia& context t%ere do exist "an( c&assifications. T%e peop&e 6e&onging to t%e civi&i8ation of D%arata s%are a co""on cu&tura& and socia& 6aseG t%e( differ in p%i&osop%( and few socia& aspects. T%e first suc% division is Vedic?Unvedic. $ccepting t%e aut%orit( of Veda is t%e pri"ar( criterion4 for defining a person as 6e&onging to Veda "ata. $nd t%is covers a&& t%e 6ranc%es4 suc% as srauta4 s"arta4 Tantric and so on. 1owever4 t%ere are furt%er c&assifications in t%isH T%ere are sc%oo&s t%at %o&d $t%arva vedins as unvedic. T%ere are sc%oo&s t%at %o&d so"e Tantras as unvedic. $nd so on. 1owever4 wit% a&& t%e p%i&osop%ica& and re&igious differences4 t%e( a&& s%are one cu&tura&?socia& 6ase. T%e sc%oo&s t%at do not %o&d Veda as a pri"ar( aut%orit( are ca&&ed Unvedic. Daudd%a and Iaina4 t%oug% t%e( 6e&ieve in sa&vation )%aving t%eir own versions of =irvana and 2aiva&(a respective&(* are t%us ca&&ed Unvedic. T%e( do not %owever ca&& t%e Veda as fa&se 5now&edge. Daudd%a and Iaina a&so s%are t%e sa"e civi&i8ationa& and p%i&osop%ica& 6ase4 and t%e wor&dview as Vedic re&igion. 1ence t%e( are ver( "uc% parts of t%e D%arati(a 0ivi&i8ation. 1owever it s%ou&d not 6e understood in t%e sense t%at Veda is to 6e ta5en as an >aut%orit(@. Veda is ta5en as a 'ra"ana or a source and reference for va&idation of 5now&edge. $nd a sc%oo& t%at does not accept Veda as pra"ana4 i"p&ies t%at it does not

6e&ieve in state"ents ot%er t%an t%ose t%at cou&d 6e va&idated t%roug% ot%er "eans of 5now&edge. T%ere are accepta6&e pra"anas under eac% sc%oo&4 &i5e prat(a5s%a4 anu"ana4 upa"ana and so on w%ic% cou&d 6e trans&ated as )perception4 &ogic4 co"parison4 etc.*. $nd t%e 5now&edge t%at cou&d not 6e va&idated 6( t%ese4 according to Vedic re&igion4 is to 6e ta5en as va&id4 if it finds va&idation in t%e Veda. T%e reasoning given for t%is 6( t%e fo&&owers of Vedic re&igion is t%at Veda is 5now&edge of t%e eterna& and contains t%at 5now&edge w%ic% cannot 6e va&idated. So >so"et%ing t%at cannot 6e va&idated can exist and sti&& 6e accepted as true@ is t%e pre"ise. $nd t%is pra"ana was not &isted firstG in fact it was &isted after prat(a5s%a and so on4 to i"p&( t%at (ou do not need t%e pra"ana of Veda for so"et%ing t%at can 6e va&idated t%roug% direct "eans. $ccording to Unvedic darsanas &i5e Daudd%a4 on&( t%e 5now&edge t%at cou&d 6e va&idated 6( prat(a5s%a and anu"ana is to 6e ta5en as va&id. T%us4 t%e difference is pure&( at a p%i&osop%ica& &eve&4 and not rea&&( at a re&igious &eve&. T%erefore we cou&d see t%ere are a &ot of si"i&arities in t%e re&igious practices of a&& t%ese sc%oo&s4 suc% as Tantric and ot%er "et%ods. 1owever4 %ig% &eve& p%i&osop%ica& differences %ad socia& i"p&ications4 suc% as accepting t%e Vedic socia& order or Varna?$s%ra"a d%ar"a. Sti&&4 t%e( a&& s%ared t%e sa"e cu&tura&? civi&i8ationa& 6ase. 1owever4 it was eas( to assi"i&ate t%e" in t%e socia& order : for t%e( did not create a new socia& order4 and t%e( were not different socio?cu&tura& s(ste"s. T%us t%e Vedic?unvedic 6eca"e a s&ig%t&( different c&assification4 $sti5a ? =asti5a. T%ere are two criteria t%at "a5e one an $sti5a or %aving asti5(aH 6e&ieving in VedaJs pra"an(a4 and fo&&owing varna?as%ra"a d%ar"a. T%e 6e&ief in Veda trans&ating as $sti5(a 6orrows sense fro" t%e a6ove exp&anation4 of >so"et%ing t%at cannot 6e va&idated can exist and sti&& 6e accepted as true@. $ccepting 9od or 3swara4 %as never 6een a criterion in c&assif(ing so"et%ing as $sti5a or Vedic or 1indu for t%at "atter. Owing to t%e differences in approac% and diversit( in wor&dviews4 accepting t%e existence of 9od %as a&wa(s 6een a "atter of c%oice and oneJs p%i&osop%(. iversit( in attri6ution of supre"ac( to 9od4 re&igious practices4 p%i&osop%ica& traits4 none of t%ese "atter in c&assif(ing so"et%ing as Vedic?Unvedic. 1owever4 0arva5a differs great&( fro" a&& ot%er s(ste"s inc&uding Daudd%a and Iaina : t%e( accept prat(a5s%a )sense?perception* as t%e on&( pra"ana. ;ver( ot%er sc%oo&4 Vedic or Unvedic accepts at &east two pra"anas. $nd t%e( do not accept a5as%a as a "a%a6%uta or a pri"ordia& e&e"ent4 w%ic% a&& ot%er sc%oo&s accept. $5as%a is t%e e&e"ent w%ic% is 6ot% t%e origin of a&& t%e ot%er e&e"ents and &isted as an e&e"ent )in its un"anifest for"*. T%is causes a&& ot%er differences suc% as treating 6od( as se&f4 not accepting re6irt% and so on. 3n t%is4 0arva5a co"es ver( c&ose to t%e western "ateria&istic t%oug%t pattern. 7or t%is reason4 not on&( did 0arva5a %ave a different p%i&osop%ica& 6ut a&so an entire&( different socia& st(&e e"anating fro" an entire&( a&ien wor&dview w%ic% is inco"pati6&e wit% a&& t%e ot%er sc%oo&s. 1owever4 a&& ot%er D%arati(a peop&es4 inc&uding tri6a&4 s%ou&d 6e ca&&ed as s%aring t%e sa"e p%i&osop%ica& 6ase. ;it%er 6( t%eir practices4 or 6( t%eir goa&s4 t%eir origin &ies in t%e sa"e.

$n( p%i&osop%( t%at ca"e fro" outside4 or deve&oped independent&( in D%arata and ca"e in contact wit% Sanatana %ar"a4 %as 6een assi"i&ated in its co"pre%ensive4 a&&?inc&usive s(ste". 1owever4 t%e ones t%at are not assi"i&ated are t%e exc&usivist ideo&ogies &i5e $6ra%a"ic re&igions. 3n a wa(4 t%e( are as p%i&osop%ica&&( and socia&&( inco"pati6&e wit% Sanatana %ar"a as 0arva5a was at one ti"e. So an( ot%er sc%oo& is4 tec%nica&&( spea5ing4 6e&onging to or re&ated to Sanatana %ar"a. One one %and t%ere are sc%oo&s &i5e S%an"atas t%at are part of it4 and on t%e ot%er %and t%ere are sc%oo&s &i5e Daudd%a t%at %ave origin in it 6ut are outgrowt%s fro" it. Knowled e S-stem 1indu 5now&edge is a continuu"4 wit% 5now&edge of a&& 5inds : re&igion4 p%i&osop%(4 sciences and arts s%are one 6ase. T%e "ost integrated and we&& deve&oped structure of 5now&edge can 6e found in t%is s(ste". 3n p%i&osop%(4 trut% is seen as "u&tidi"ensiona& space4 wit% facts as points in t%e space. $n( do"ain or area of stud( is a "atrix of suc% points4 w%ic% is a set of interre&ated facts consistent wit% eac% ot%er. $n( interdiscip&inar( stud( is an over&apAintersection of suc% sets. 1owever4 an( suc% over&ap wi&& &ose out "an( points w%i&e ta5ing t%ose t%at are re&evant. $&so as we 5eep specia&i8ing "ore t%e granu&arit( of facts 5eeps growing. $n( genera& fact can 6e presented as a set of specific facts4 so"e of w%ic% are a&wa(s ignored "ost&( 6ecause of re&evance t%oug% occasiona&&( 6( error. T%us4 as facts 6eco"e "ore and "ore specific t%eir co"p&eteness co"es down4 as t%e( no "ore accurate&( app&( to t%e 6igger do"ain 6ut on&( to a part of it. T%is is one of t%e >dangers of specia&i8ation@. T%e 6est wa( to avoid t%is is to %ave one sing&e "atrix at t%e %ig%est &eve& fro" w%ic% a&& t%e discip&ines evo&ve4 and s%are a 6ase. T%is is exact&( w%at is done in t%e traditiona& 3ndian 5now&edge s(ste". T%is is t%e 5now&edge of t%e i"persona&4 universa& and eterna&4 t%e %ig%est for" of trut%. T%is is t%e 6ase fro" w%ic% a&& ot%er for"s of 5now&edge4 re&igious or scientific evo&ve. T%us re&igious and scientific 5now&edge s%are t%e sa"e p%i&osop%ica& 6ase or wor&dview4 and are t%erefore non?contradicting. 3n fact t%e( en%ance eac% ot%er and are co"p&e"entar(. T%e various &a(ers of 5now&edge t%at appea& to various &eve&s and aspects of %u"an consciousness ? e"otiona&4 inte&&ectua&4 ps(c%ic etc4 co"e fro" t%e sa"e origin and conve( t%e si"i&ar ideas4 t%us affecting an integrated and co"pre%ensive s(ste" for "anJs evo&ution. S$irit of Sastras Sastra is a stud( of t%e p%eno"ena of universe t%roug% specific "eans for a specific purpose. ifferent 5inds of 5now&edge can 6e differentiated 6ased on t%e nature of facts4 and t%e va&id "odes of exp&anations in t%ose. 7or instance in "odern science t%ere are four va&id exp&anationsH deductive4 pro6a6i&istic4 te&eo&ogica& and genetic. Bast two are va&id in &ife

sciences4 and not in p%(sica& sciences. 7or instance if we sa( ice f&oats on water 6ecause of ano"a&ous expansion4 we can exp&ain it as Kano"a&ous expansion of water 6etween ?4 to 4 degrees is t%e reasonK4 as we&& as K6ecause of t%is water is covered wit% ice in &a5es in fro8en conditions and t%is is %ow water?ani"a&s survive. So t%is is a wa( of nature to %e&p t%ose 6eingsK. T%e first is va&id in p%(sics4 and t%e second 6eing te&eo&ogica&4 is va&id in &ife sciences. Suc% reasoning is often a&so a&&owed in p%i&osop%(4 fo&&owing t%eories &i5e natureLs inte&&igence. 7or t%is reason '%i&osop%( and science are two co"part"ents in "odern 5now&edge s(ste". Dut traditiona&&(4 5now&edge is seen as one sing&e continuu". 7or instance if we &oo5 at t%e s"ritis ? Vedangas4 Upavedas and UpangasG Upavedas are exc&usive&( arts and sciences. Of t%ese4 gand%arvaveda is pure&( art4 d%anurveda is 6ot% art and science4 and $(urveda is a science. $nd specifica&&( $(urveda goes 6( a&& four exp&anations inc&uding genetic and te&eo&ogica&4 6ut +asa Sastra does not go 6( t%e &atter ones. So we recognise t%at t%ere are different t(pes of 5now&edge and t%e( differ in t%e exp&anations. Dut t%e differentia& factor is we rea&i8e t%at irrespective of exp&anations4 facts and concepts %ave to 6e 6orrowed across t%ese su6/ects. So t%e sciences are grouped under a different c&ass4 6ut t%e( are in t%e sa"e %ierarc%( of 5now&edge so we rea&i8e t%at it is t%e purpose of t%e 6ranc% of 5now&edge t%at differentiates 6ut not t%e 5now&edge as suc%. 3f we find a state"ent in a p%i&osop%ica& text &i5e an Upanis%ad or a darsana4 we are not &i5e&( to find its scientific exp&anation )as re&evant&( considered va&id in a particu&ar 6ranc% of science* in t%at p&ace. Iust t%e wa( we do not find a "at%e"atica&4 for"a&istic exp&anation for 'urna"ada% in 3sa Upanis%ad. Dut since we 5now t%at our p%i&osop%ica& texts are not detac%ed fro" and in fact for" 6ot% 6asis and purpose for scientific texts4 we are &i5e&( to find its scientific app&ication w%erever it is re&evant. T%e app&ication of t%e p%i&osop%ica& concept is t%e use of 8ero and infinit( in "at%e"atics4 w%ic% no ot%er civi&i8ation cou&d do. Si"i&ar&(4 app&ication of t%e p%i&osop%ica& concept of %o&is" %e&ped a "edicina& t%eor( &i5e $(urveda. $pp&ication of t%e p%i&osop%ica& concept of %appiness and princip&e of transcendence %e&ped an econo"ic t%eor( t%at sa(s Kdesires are &i5e 6urning fire4 t%e wa( is to transcend t%e" and not to "u&tip&( or fu&fi&& t%e"K in contrast to a "odern econo"ic t%eor( t%at sa(s Kon&( growt% of econo"( co"es t%roug% desires and t%eir "u&tip&icationK. T%is %as %uge socia& i"p&ications4 and deter"ines %ow content4 "ora& and %app( t%e peop&e of a societ( wou&d 6e. $t t%e sa"e ti"e4 scientific exp&anations are found in appropriate p&aces. T%e exp&anations used in various su6/ects depend on t%e nature and purpose of t%e 5now&edge. Mero is not defined or exp&ained in "at%e"atica& texts t%e sa"e wa( it is in a p%i&osop%ica& text. ;c&ipses are not exp&ained in a 'urana t%e sa"e wa( t%e( are exp&ained in an astrono"ica& text. T%e( are exp&ained in re&evant wa(s4 wit% necessar(

deductions. ;x. 'urana sa(s +a%u and 2etu swa&&ow Sun and -oon4 w%i&e $r(a6%ati(a sa(s ec&ipses are caused 6( t%e s%adows of ear% and "oon. 3t "a( 6e pro6a6&( said t%at $r(a6%ati(a is too recent a text4 6ut we can find t%e foundation of t%e &ogic in "uc% o&der I(otis%a w%ic% sa(s +a%u and 2etu are c%a(a gra%as )s%adows* and do not %ave 6e%avior of t%eir own. Sastra. Art and Science 1owever4 t%e word sastra is representative of 6ot% art and science for"s. So"e sastras are sciences4 w%i&e so"e are art?for"s. 1owever t%e art?for"s too4 are ca&&ed sastras4 6ot% 6ecause t%eir origin is 6ased on sastra and 6ecause t%eir pursuit is a we&& &aid pat%. T%ere is no c&ear &ine 6etween art and science. 3n fact as said t%e pursuit of science is an art and t%e pursuit of art is a science. 3ndependent of su6/ect4 t%e pursuit of science and art invo&ve creativit(. T%oug% t%ere are differences in t%e accepta6&e "et%ods and approac%es in eac% sastra4 and t%oug% t%ere are differences in t%e states and &eve&s of consciousness t%at va&idate trut%4 6ot% science and art ai" at Trut%. Trut% is for experi"enta& verification in science and for experientia& verification in art. 1owever it is %u"an consciousness t%at perceives t%e trut%4 and t%e &aws of science and art are re&ative to "anJs experience of t%e wor&d and not t%e wor&d >as it is@. T%is understanding is t%e 6asis of sastras4 6ot% sciences and arts. ;ac% art for" is a stud( in consciousness4 apart fro" aest%etics. =at(a sastra is a stud( in "udras and a6%ina(a. Sangeeta is a stud( in nada and swara. Scu&pture is a stud( in 3cono"etr( and a6%ina(a. Dut a&& t%ese4 are studies not on&( in t%e"se&ves4 t%e( are studies in %ow eac% of t%ese &ead to %appiness. T%ere are two pri"ar( aspects in art for"s : experience of t%e artist4 and its expression. $ perfor"ance or a piece of art is an expression of t%e artistJs experience. $nd pursuit of art is t%e "eans to t%e experience4 as it is founded in a profound stud( of t%e wa( a6%ina(a or nada are to 6e pursued in order to attain to t%e %ig%est experience. T%us an( traditiona& art?for" is a co"pre%ensive pursuit of %appiness. T%us4 trut% and 6eaut( are t%e aspects t%at science and art are ai"ing at. 1owever in t%e 1indu p%i&osop%( trut% and 6eaut( are two indivisi6&e aspects of T%e 'er"anent : t%e divine. T%us science and art are si"p&( two approac%es4 wit% t%e sa"e goa&4 descri6ed in two different wa(s. T%ere is 6eaut( in trut% and t%ere is trut% in 6eaut(. T%is is t%e out&oo5 t%at "a5es sciences and art?for"s run into eac% ot%er4 aiding eac% ot%er and advancing eac% ot%er. Sabda Sa6da )sound* is a concept w%ere we can c&ear&( o6serve t%e evo&ution of various sastras fro" one 6ase. Sa6da is t%e tan"atra of a5asa )t%e s5(*. 3n t%e five e&e"ents $5asa represents 6ra%"an. T%us Sa6da is eterna&. T%e stud( of eterna& word is "antra sastra. -antra is word. 3t %as "u&tip&e aspects4 and t%e stud( of eac% aspect evo&ved as a sastra. T%e two aspects of word are : sa6da )sound?for"* and pada )ver6a& for"*. T%e for"er %as two aspects4 d%vani )sound* and swara )tone*. T%e &atter %as four aspects4 a5s%ara )a&p%a6et4 s(&&a6&es and t%eir arrange"ent*4 art%a )"eaning : se"antics.*4 v(a5arana )s(ntax4 order and arrange"ent of words* and c%andas )arrange"ent of s(&&a6&es*. ;ac%

of t%ese aspects is a sastra. T%e sound?energ( root is 6ee/a. 3ts stud( is "antra. Swara %as two aspects again4 t%eir stud( 6eing Si5s%a )p%oenetics* and =ada )Sangeeta?"usic*. T%e word aspect is anot%er stud(. 3t %as a&p%a6et. $rrange"ent of a&p%a6etAs(&&a6&es is 0%andas. $rrange"ent of a&p%a6et into words and t%e stud( of "eaning of word is =iru5ta. 9ra""ar of t%e &anguage for"ed wit% words is V(a5arana. Dra%"an E E Sa6da : $5asa E EFFFF %vani E EFFFF E E E EFFFF E E EFFFF 'ada EFFFF EFFFF EFFFF EFFFF

%vani )vi6ration* EFFFF Dee/a )-antra : ;nerg(* Swara EFFFF Swara )Si5s%a* EFFFF =ada )Sangeeta* $5s%ara )$&p%a6etAs(&&a6&e* $rt%a )=iru5ta* V(a5arana 0%andas %ar"a.

Individual and Social &ife T%ere are a set of institutions t%at drive individua& and socia& &ife in Sanatana T%e( areH

%ar"a : deter"inant of rig%teousness or rig%t action $s%ra"a : four stages of &ife t%roug% w%ic% individua& attains fu&fi&&"ent and serves goa&s of &ife Viva%a V(avast%a : "arriage4 t%e 6asic 6ui&ding 6&oc5 of societ( Varna : an a6straction 6ased on various functions perfor"ed 6( "en in t%e societ(. Iati : an autono"ous endoga"ous cu&tura& unit.

2. Vedic Knowled e 2.1 Te)ts and Treatises 2.2 Overview of Scri$tures T%ere are 1! "a%ast%anas in t%e vedic 5now&edge s(ste". -a%ast%ana is an a6ode of 5now&edge. T%e( are t%e four Vedas4 four Upavedas4 six Vedangas and six Upangas. $part fro" t%ese we %ave six Vedic ars%anas. 2.! Vedas Veda is t%e %ig%est aut%orit( in 1indu 5now&edge s(ste" and t%e aut%orit( of a&& ot%er scriptures are 6ased on t%e aut%orit( of t%e Veda. Vedas are four : +ig4 .a/ur4 Sa"a and $t%arva. +igveda contains pra(ers to 9ods )+i5s are t%e "antras*. .a/urveda %as "et%ods to use +i5s for sacrifices ).a/us?.a/na*. Sa"a Veda introduces "usica& notes. $t%arva Veda gives wa(s to "a5e &ife successfu&4 and contains "et%ods to fu&fi&& w%at can 6e ca&&ed "ateria& aspirations. ;ac% Veda %as t%ree sections ? Sa"%ita4 Dra%"ana and $ran(a5a. Sa"%ita %as pra(ers or Su5tas. Dra%"ana %as sacrificia& "et%ods. $ran(a5a %as -antras and "et%ods t%at are practiced in t%e forests )t%at is4 not for gr%ast%as*. Upanis%ads nor"a&&( appear in t%e &ast part of $ran(a5a and dea& wit% spiritua& p%i&osop%(. So"e Upanis%ads are exceptions and appear in Sa"%ita and Dra%"ana too. T%us Upanis%ad4 as it appears in t%e &ast part of t%e Veda4 is ca&&ed Vedanta. T%ere are 1C! Upanis%ads and 1C of t%e" are fa"ous. Since Upanis%ads "ost&( p%i&osop%ica& t%e( are found in prose. Dut t%ere are Upanis%ads &i5e Taittiree(a and 9anapat%i $t%arva seers%a t%at %ave svara. T%ese four sections are "apped to t%e four $s%ra"as. $ 6ra%"acari is supposed to stud( t%e Sa"%ita. 9r%ast%a is supposed to fo&&ow t%e Dra%"ana. Vanaprast%i is supposed to fo&&ow $ran(a5a. San(asi is supposed to conte"p&ate on t%e Upanis%ads. T%e +igveda sa"%ita )1.164.46* itse&f indicates t%at Trut% is one : >e5a" sad vipra 6a%ud%a vadanti agni" (a"a" "atariswana" a%u%@ )"eaning Trut% is one4 6ut t%e &earned refer to it in different na"es &i5e agni4 (a"a4 "atariswan*. Dut t%e concept t%at t%ere is a sing&e 'ara6ra%"an and t%at a&& 9ods are 3ts for"s4 is "ore c&ear&( visi6&e towards t%e Vedanta )Upanis%ads*. 3ts i"p&ications can 6e seen in &ater sections4 especia&&( w%en we discuss ars%anas and 'uranas. Veda &itera&&( "eans 5now&edge. Traditiona&&( t%e fo&&owing features are attri6uted to t%e VedaH 1. Veda is anant%a )infinite*. On&( an infinitesi"a& portion of it is revea&ed to %u"ans. T%is can 6e understood in t%e sense t%at 5now&edge is infinite. 1owever4 Veda is t%e 5now&edge of Dra%"an4 t%e True4 $6so&ute and t%e 3nfinite. $nd t%e essence of Veda is said to 6e understood if one 5nows t%e infinite4 i.e.4 opens up to t%e infinite Se&f. +ea&i8ing t%e infinite t%roug% an( sing&e "antraAsu5ta of t%e Veda is e<uiva&ent to understanding t%e essence of an( ot%er "antra and t%e entire Veda. T%us it is said 5now t%e One )Dra%"an* 6( w%ic% ever(t%ing e&se is 5nown.

2. Veda is anadi4 %aving no 6eginning or end. 3t said to exist eterna&&(G it is ca&&ed t%e 6reat% of 'ara"at"a. T%is is a poetic expression4 t%is does not &itera&&( "ean para"at"a %as a 6reat% 6ut /ust t%e wa( 6reat% exists wit% a personLs &ife si"i&ar&( veda exists wit% 9odAcreation. ,%i&e t%e "odern view is t%at +igveda is t%e o&dest4 it is on&( in co"pi&ation t%at it is possi6&( o&der. +igveda itse&f "entions .a/urveda and Sa"aveda. 7or instance 'urus%a su5ta )+V 1C.#C* sa(s KTas"aat (agnaat sarva %uta14 +uca1? sa"aani /agnire4 c%andaag"si /agnire tas"aat4 (a/us tas"aada/aa(ataK. 3. Veda is apourus%e(a4 not aut%ored 6( %u"ans. T%e seers are said to revea& veda "antras to t%e wor&d4 t%e( are ca&&ed drastas. +igveda )Sa"%ita 1.164.45* sa(s >catvari va5 pari"ita padani tani vidur 6ra%"ana (e "inis%ina%4 gu%a trini ni%ita neenga(anti turi(a" vaco "anus%(a vadanti@4 "eaning va5 exists in four for"s and t%e &earned 5now of t%e". T%ree are %idden and t%e fourt% is w%at "en spea5. Va5 )&itera&&( word4 6ut "eaning veda "antra %ere* is said to exist in four for"s ? para4 pas(anti4 "ad%(a"a and vai5%ari. 'ara is t%e eterna& for" of va5. 'as(anti is w%en a seer envisions t%e "antra. -ad%(a"a is w%en it descends into "ind p&ane. Vai5%ari is t%e expression. T%us t%e Veda "antras exist eterna&&(4 t%e( are on&( revea&ed to t%e wor&d 6( t%e seers. T%oug% t%ere are four Vedas4 t%ere are a&ternate recitations in eac% Veda. T%ese are ca&&ed Kpat%antara"Ks. Dased on t%ese4 various 6ranc%es exist in eac% Veda4 eac% of t%e" is ca&&ed a Veda sa5%a. T%ere are various "et%ods of c%anting t%e Veda4 &i5e g%ana and /ata. "i veda/ T%e "antras in +igveda are ca&&ed +i5s. +igveda %as 1C "anda&as4 1C2! su5tas and 1C17C ri5s in t%e w%o&e. ;ac% su5ta is a co&&ection of ri5s on a devata and eac% "anda&a %as "an( su5tas. T%e sa"%ita portion of +igveda contains su5tas a&one and a&& su5tas are addressed to devatas &i5e $gni4 Va(u4 Vis%nu4 +udra4 -itra4 Varuna4 'us%an4 $r(a"an. T%e "a/or Upanis%ads found in +igveda sa5%as are $itare(a and 2aus%ita5i. 0a1urveda/ $s t%e na"e suggests4 .a/urveda dea&s wit% .a/na4 sacrifice. 3t app&ies ri5s and gives procedures and "antras for sacrifices. T%ere are two "a/or sa5%as in t%e .a/urveda4 Su5&a and 2ris%na. 2ris%na .a/urveda sa5%a is a&so ca&&ed Taittiree(a sa5%a. Sa"%ita of Su5&a .a/urveda is ca&&ed Va/asane(a sa"%ita and t%at of 2ris%na .a/urveda is ca&&ed Taittiree(a sa"%ita. Dra%"ana of Su5&a .a/urveda is ca&&ed t%e Satapat%a 6ra%"ana. 3n t%e 2ris%na .a/urveda4 t%ere is an over&ap 6etween sa"%ita and 6ra%"ana portions and &a(s down t%e procedures for sacrifices. T%is can 6e understood in t%e &ig%t t%at 6ra%"ana is t%e sacrificia& code and .a/urveda co"6ines t%is wit% ri5s. -an( sacrifices &i5e arsapurna"asa4 Va/ape(a4 So"a(aga4 and $swa"ed%a are found in .a/urveda.

T%ere is a specia& p&ace for &ord +udra in t%e 2ris%na .a/urveda4 and +udra su5ta" is found in t%e "idd&e of Taittiree(a Sa"%ita. 3t %as 7 5andas and t%e fourt% 5anda %as # c%apters. =a"a5a" is t%e 5t% c%apter and w%i&e 0%a"a5a" 7t% c%apter of t%e fourt% 5anda. T%is is 6ecause +udra is t%e presiding deit( of .a/nas and .a/urveda dea&s wit% .a/nas. T%e "a/or Upanis%ads found in .a/urveda are Dri%adaran(a5a4 -aitri4 3sa4 Taittiri(a4 Svetasvatara and 2at%a. Samaveda/ Sa"aveda puts t%e ri5s in "usica& notes. T%e "usica& notes in sa"aveda are said to 6e t%e origin of traditiona& "usica& octet. -a/or Upanis%ads found in Sa"aveda are 2ena and 0%andog(a. Atharvaveda/ $t%arvaveda4 apart fro" %("ns to gods4 gives "an( wa(s to "a5e &ife successfu&. ,%i&e 9a(atri "antra is said to 6e t%e essence of t%e t%ree Vedas )+ig4 .a/ur and Sa"a*4 t%ere is a different 9a(atri "antra for $t%arvaveda. $nd it re<uires t%at a second Upana(ana is done for t%e pupi& 6efore %e is initiated to &earning $t%arvaveda. )$not%er 6ra%"opadesa" of $t%arva 9a(atri is done %ere*. $t%arvaveda contains pra(ers to 9ods not "entioned in t%e ot%er t%ree Vedas4 &i5e 'rat(angira. $t%arvaveda a&so uses "an( +i5s. 7or instance4 t%e -an(u su5ta of +igveda appears as two c%apters >sena niree5s%ana@ and >sena sa"(o/ana@ in t%e $t%arvaveda. -a/or Upanis%ads in $t%arvaveda are -andu5(a4 -uda5a and 'rasna.

2.# Vedan as Understanding Vedangas is a pre?re<uisite to understanding t%e Veda. T%ere are six Vedangas. 2iru3ta/ =iru5ta is t%e science of et("o&ogies. 3t exp&ains t%e word?roots and derivation of "eanings of words in different contexts. TextH .as5aJs =iru5ta. V-a3arana/ V(a5arana is 9ra""ar. 'aniniJs $stad%(a(i is t%e aut%orit( on Sans5rit 9ra""ar. 3t was not written in Sans5rit 6ut 'anini used a "eta?&anguage ca&&ed Upadesa to define t%e gra""ar of Sans5rit in a6out !CCC sutrasAru&es. TextH 'aniniJs V(a5arana. Si3sha/ Si5s%a dea&s wit% p%oenetics4 t%e pronounciation and accent. 3t exp&ains %ow eac% s(&&a6&e s%ou&d 6e pronounced in w%ic% context and t%e ps(c%ic effects of t%ose. T%ere are two variations to p&ain pronunciation4 ca&&ed Udatta and $nudatta. $&tering t%e pronunciation a&ters t%e "eaning of w%at is 6eing c%anted and t%e resu&ts of c%anting. TextH 'aniniJs Si5s%a. Chandas/ 0%andas is t%e science of "etres. S(&&a6&es are c&assified into two categories4 9uru and Bag%u. $ string of 9uru?Bag%u se<uence of a particu&ar &engt% is ca&&ed a "etre. T%ere are various "etres in w%ic% t%e Vedic "antras are co"posed4 suc% as 9a(atri4 $nust%up4 Tris%tup and Iagati. T%e c%andas of a "antra deter"ines its usage4 suc% as its purpose and context. Dut it acts "ore as an error?correcting "ec%anis". Since t%e Veda is an ora& tradition4 an( a6erration in t%e c%andas 6ecause of error in text or t%e swara4 can 6e easi&( identified and corrected. TextH 'inga&aJs 0%andassastra. 4-otisha/ I(otis%a is t%e science of s%ining o6/ects : astrono"(. TextH Vedanga I(otis%a of Bagad%a. Kal$a/ 2a&pa spea5s of t%e ritua& portion4 %ow and w%en sacrifice is to 6e conducted. TextsH 2a&pa Sutras4 consisting of Su&6a Sutras and Srauta Sutras. Su&6a Sutras contain t%e geo"etr( of a&tars a&ong wit% "at%e"atica& deductions for t%e geo"etr(. Srauta Sutras contain guide&ines for conducting sacrifices. 2.% 5$avedas Upavedas are four and t%e( are %anurveda4 9and%arvaveda4 $(urveda and $rt%asastra. %anurveda is t%e science of warfare. 9and%arvaveda is t%e stud( if aest%etics and it spea5s of a&& art?for"s &i5e "usic4 dance4 poetr(4 scu&pture4 and erotica. $(urveda is t%e science of %ea&t% and &ife. $rt%asastra dea&s wit% pu6&ic ad"inistration4 governance4 econo"(4 po&it( and /udiciar(. $&& t%ese sciencesAarts are discussed not /ust fro" t%eir tec%nica& perspective )t%oug% t%at is pri"ari&( done*G t%ese are seen as "eans to transcendence.

2.' 5$an as T%ere are four Upangas4 =(a(a4 -i"a"sa4 3ti%asa?'uranas and %ar"a sastras. 2-a-a is a&so a dars%ana and spea5s of t%e >&aw of nature@. 3t a&so contains predicate &ogic. T%is can 6e discussed "ore e&a6orate&( as a dars%ana. 6imamsa too4 is a dars%ana and %as two parts : 'urva -i"a"sa and Uttara -i"a"sa. 'urva -i"a"sa spea5s of t%e p%i&osop%( of ritua&s and Uttara -i"a"sa is spiritua& p%i&osop%(. T%ere is anot%er text ca&&ed San5ars%a 5anda4 w%ic% is a&so ca&&ed t%e -ad%(a -i"a"sa and Upasana 2anda4 w%ic% spea5s of 9ods and "entions t%e essentia& one?ness of a&& 9od?for"s. T%is can 6e seen as a ra"p fro" 'urva -i"a"sa to Uttara -i"a"sa. -i"a"sa can 6e discussed "ore e&a6orate&( as a dars%ana. Itihasa.(uranas/ T%ere are 1! -a%a 'uranas and 1! Upa 'uranas. -a%a6%arata is t%e 3ti%asa. T%e eig%teen -a%a 'uranas are -ats(a4 -ar5ande(a4 D%agavata4 D%avis%(a4 Dra%"anda4 Dra%"a4 Dra%"a Vaivarta4 Vis%nu %ar"ottara4 Vara%a4 Va"ana4 Siva4 S5anda4 =arada4 9aruda4 'ad"a4 2ur"a4 Binga and $gni 'uranas. 'urana is said to spea5 of five su6/ects )'anca Ba5s%ana*H t%e creation and disso&ution of Universe4 evo&ution and t%e c(c&e of ti"e4 T%eo&og(4 %istor( of 2ings )%u"an %istor(*. $&ternate&(4 t%ese spea5 of t%ree &eve&s of a&&egories : terrestria&4 astrono"ica& and spiritua&. T%e( a&so spea5 of t%e different incarnations of t%e Supre"e 9od%ead : 51 avataras4 t%en 21 i"portant ones fro" t%e"4 t%en 1C pri"ar( avatars out of t%e" t%at we ca&& as das%avataras and 2 as co"p&ete incarnations )purnavataras*. +a"a and 2ris%na are said to 6e purnavataras. T%e re"aining are said to 6e a"s%avataras )partia& "anifestation* in different degrees. Dharma Sastras/ %ar"a sastras inc&ude s"ritis and t%e four sutras ? %ar"a sutras4 9r%(a Sutras4 Su&6a Sutras and Srauta Sutras. T%e sutras are &aid down for eac% Vedic sa5%aA6ranc%. %ar"a sutras contain t%e guide&ines to &ive a %ar"ic &ife. 9r%(a sutras contain specific guide&ines to 9r%ast%as. Srauta sutras contain guide&ines for perfor"ing ritua&s. Su&6a sutras contain t%e "at%e"atica& princip&es for construction of various a&tars. S"ritis inc&uding "etrica& codes &i5e -anus"riti4 and 'uranas are a&so ca&&ed %ar"a sastras. Vedic "eli ion -antra is centra& to Vedic re&igion. -antra is said to 6e t%e sound?for" )va5?rupa* of t%e 9od?for". .a/na is centra& to Vedic p%i&osop%(. $&& &ife perfor"ed as a .a/na )sacrifice : "a5ing an offering to derive so"et%ing greater* is t%e "eans to -o5s%a. ;ac% action4 education4 earning4 eating4 s&eeping4 procreation4 war4 wors%ip4 is a .a/na. oing eac% of t%ese as an offering t%roug% w%ic% transcendence is soug%t4 guarantees &i6eration. T%ere are different approac%es &i5e Tatva 0%intana4 Upasana4 .a/na and so on w%ere aspects &i5e -antra or +itua&s or devotion 6eco"e "ore i"portant or &ess i"portant for eac% of t%ose pat%s.

2.7 Darsanas T%ere are six Vedic arsanas4 or windows to Trut%. T%e( are =(a(a4 Vaises%i5a4 San5%(a4 .oga4 'urva -i"a"sa and Uttara -i"a"sa. Uttara -i"a"sa is a&so ca&&ed Vedanta arsana. $&& t%e six darsanas %ave t%ese e&e"ents in co""onH T%e( %o&d t%at $t"an is different fro" "anas4 6udd%i and pra5riti. $t"an is eterna& and free4 and &i6eration is not "ixing it or "ista5ing it for ot%ers. T%e( differ in t%e tec%nica&ities &i5e %ow 6inding co"es and t%e "et%ods and "eaning of &i6eration. T%e( co""on&( %o&d Veda as t%e %ig%est aut%orit( on Trut%. T%e( are not unani"ous in accepting t%e existence and nature of 3swara. 'ra"ana is a source of 5now&edge4 as we&& as a reference for va&idation of 5now&edge. ,%at "a5e a&& t%ese darsanas Vedic4 is t%at t%e( %o&d Veda as a pra"ana. T%e ot%er pra"anas are prat(a5s%a4 anu"ana4 upa"ana4 ard%apatti4 anupa&a6di. $&& t%e six pra"anas are accepted 6( 6ot% -i"a"sa arsanas. =(a(a accepts four of t%e"4 Vaises%i5a two4 San5%(a t%ree4 .oga t%ree. 'rat%(a5s%a and Sa6da are t%e two co""on pra"anas for a&& t%ese darsanas. T%ere are t%ree different approac%es t%at t%ese darsanas fo&&owH ara"6%a vada4 parina"a vada and vivarta vada. +oug%&(4 $ra"6%a vada %o&ds t%at universe is created. 'arina"a vada %o&ds t%at universe is not created or destro(ed 6ut it on&( transfor"s. 'articu&ar&(4 it is transfor"ation of t%e "anifesting for" of t%e i""uta6&e 9od. Vivarta vada %o&ds t%at Universe as it appears is 6ut 6ecause of t%e o6server and it appears so4 6ecause of -a(a4 t%e p&a( of vei&. ,%at it actua&&( is4 is Dra%"an and once t%at is rea&i8ed t%e i&&usion is no "ore t%ere )"eaning it puts an end to t%e sense?perception of universe and not an end to t%e universe as suc%*. 1owever4 Vedanta darsana is furt%er interpreted according to t%e &ig%ts of seers. $nd t%e( %ave 6eco"e different darsanas over ti"e. T%e fa"ous ones are $dvaita Vedanta4 Visistadvaita and vaita. T%ere are "an( ot%er >darsanas@4 suc% as vaitadvaita4 D%eda6%eda4 Sudd%advaita4 =a5u&eesa 'asupata4 'rat(a6%i/nana and so on. $dvaita Vedanta %o&ds six pra"anas and is pure&( a Vedanta )%aving spiritua& p%i&osop%(* darsana. 3t %o&ds vivarta vada. vaita and Visistadvaita accept t%ree pra"anas4 prat(a5s%a4 anu"ana and sa6da )Sruti*. Visistadvaita %o&ds parina"a vada. vaita in particu&ar is ca&&ed Tatva?vada4 w%ic% dea&s wit% t%e Tatvas of t%e universe. T%ere are Saiva sc%oo&s suc% as Saiva4 w%ic% a&so %o&d dvaita or dua&is". Daudd%a and Iaina accept two pra"anas4 prat(a5s%a and anu"ana. 0arva5a accepts prat(a5s%a a&one. T%is is t%e reason t%at t%e( are not counted as Vedic darsanas. Sa(ana -ad%avacar(a4 created a co"pi&ation of sixteen darsanas. T%e( are as fo&&owsH 1. 9auta"a arsana )=(a(a* 2. 2anada arsana )Vaises%i5a* 3. 2api&a arsana )San5%(a* 4. 'atan/a&a ).oga darsana*

5. Iai"ini darsana )'urva -i"a"sa* 6. San5ara arsana )$dvaita Vedanta* 7. +a"anu/a arsana )Visistadvaita* !. 'urna 'ra/na arsana ) vaita of -ad%vacar(a* #. 'aninee(a arsana )V(a5arana* 1C. =a5u&eesa 'asupata 11. Saiva arsana 12. +asesvara arsana 13. 'rat(a6%i/nana arsana 14. Daudd%a arsana 15. $r%ata arsana )Iaina* 16. 0arva5aA=asti5a arsana Of t%ese4 'asupata of =a5u&eesa4 Saiva4 +asesvara and 'rat(a6%i/nana are Saiva arsanas. 'urna 'ra/na and +a"anu/a darsanas are Vais%nava arsanas. T%ere are ot%er Vais%nava darsanas too4 suc% as t%e Sudd%advaita of Va&&a6%acar(a )w%ic% is a&so ca&&ed 'us%ti "arga*4 D%eda6%eda )9audi(a Vais%nava*4 vaitadvaita of =i"6ar5acar(a. T%ese p%i&osop%ies are c&ose&( 5nit wit% re&igious practices and t%eo&og(. T%e ot%ers are "ore of spiritua& p%i&osop%ies 5nit wit% specific sastras and wor&d?views. ,e can see t%at V(a5arana of 'anini4 w%ic% is essentia&&( a Vedanga4 is a&so ac5now&edged as a arsana. T%is is 6ecause V(a5arana is t%e science of purif(ing word and word is t%e one t%at gets us to understanding t%e wor&d. Spiritua& p%i&osop%( "eans Vedantic wor&dview. 3t essentia&&( dea&s wit% individua& sou& )/iva*4 supre"e 9od%ead )para* and nature )pra5riti*G exp&ains t%e nature of t%ose4 t%eir re&ation. 3t a&so defines w%at &i6eration "eans and w%at t%e state of 6ondage is4 a&ong wit% w%at causes &i6eration. Uttara -i"a"sa and $dvaita Vedanta are exa"p&es of Vedantic wor&dviews. 1owever4 "an( sc%oo&s %ave deve&oped a&ong wit% spiritua& p%i&osop%(4 e&a6orate "et%ods and practices t%at %e&p individua&Js &i6eration. .oga is a good exa"p&e for t%is. So"e spiritua& p%i&osop%ies %ave not deve&oped separate&( 6ut c&ose&( re&ated to t%eo&og( and re&igious practices4 t%e wa( Visistadvaita deve&oped %and in %and wit% Sri Vais%nava. T%e( are a&"ost insepara6&e. Sa"e %o&ds wit% Saiva arsanas &i5e 'asupata and Saiva. ,ors%ip of deit(4 t%eo&og( of t%e deit(4 pat%s to sa&vation4 %ow 9od "anifests in p%eno"ena& wor&d4 are contained in t%ese in addition to Vedantic wor&dview. arsanas &i5e Vaises%i5a or V(a5arana for instance4 are spiritua& p%i&osop%ies 5nit wit% sastras. 3t contains a wor&dview4 %ow t%e sastra exp&ains t%e p%eno"ena& wor&d4 a&ong wit% definition of %ow /iva is 6ound in t%e p%eno"ena& wor&d and w%at causes &i6eration. ,%i&e Vaises%i5a enu"erates t%e wor&d in ter"s of vises%as or attri6utes4 v(a5arana 6eing sa6da sastra sees t%e wor&d as a "anifestation of sound?energ( and gives wa(s to refine words to "a5e t%e sacrifice )(a/na* of &ife fruitfu&. The Si) Vedic Darshanas

T%ere are six ars%anas )windows to Trut%* t%at treat Veda as aut%orit(. T%e( are ca&&ed aasti5a dars%anas. T%e( are =(a(a4 Vaises%i5a4 San5%(a4 .oga4 'urva -i"a"sa and Uttara -i"a"sa. T%ere are six nasti5a dars%anas t%at do not accept t%e Veda as aut%orit( and are ca&&ed nasti5a darsanas. T%e asti5a darsanas can 6e grouped into t%ree pairs : =(a(a?Vaises%i5a4 San5%(a?.oga4 'urvottara -i"a"sa. =(a(a and Vaises%i5a are ca&&ed ara"6%a vada. San5%(a and .oga are ca&&ed parina"a vada. 'urva and Uttara -i"a"sa discuss p%i&osop%( of Veda. 'urva -i"a"sa discusses t%e p%i&osop%( of 5ar"a 5anda and Uttara -i"a"sa discusses t%e spiritua& p%i&osop%( )esp. Upanis%ads*. =(a(a4 .oga and Uttara -i"a"sa sa( t%at t%ere is an 3svara t%e Bord of $&& sou&s. T%e ot%er t%ree are =ireeswara vaadas. T%e( ta&5 of $t"an4 6ut not of 'ara"at"an. =ireeswara vaada is not necessari&( nasti5a vaada and t%ese darsanas do &a( e<ua& a"ount of stress on %ar"a and t%at is t%e reason t%e( are ca&&ed aasti5a darsanas and not 6ecause t%e( accept a 'ara6ra%"an different fro" individua& at"an. T%e( differ in t%eir 6asic tenets &i5e 3svara. $&& t%ese darsanas %o&d t%at at"an is different fro" "anas)"ind*4 6udd%i )inte&&ect* and pra5ruti )nature* and t%at 6inding is 6ecause of t%e contact of t%ese wit% t%e 'urus%a. Once t%e contact is rid4 t%at is &i6eration. T%e( differ in w%ic% of t%ese causes 6inding4 w%at causes creation and w%et%er creation is an appearance or true in a given state. T%e( a&so differ in w%et%er at"an is sa"e as Dra%"an or not. ifferentiating t%ese and understanding t%e unifor"it( of t%ese is ver( i"portant 6ot% in understanding 1induis" as we&& as differentiating 1indu fro" non?1indu ideo&og(. 1ere is a 6rief note of eac% darsana. Vaiseshi3a Text : Vaises%i5a darsanaG $ut%or : 2anadaG D%as%(a 5aara ? 'rasasta 'adaG Varti5a 5aara : Iagadid% D%attacar(. 3t %as 1C c%apters4 2C a%ni5as4 37C sutras. 3t accepts 2 pra"anas )criteria for verifia6i&it(* and 7 padart%as. Vaises%i5a is one of t%e ear&iest darsanas %(pot%esised. $ccording to it4 at"a?"anas contact causes t%e nine 9unas : 6udd%i4 su5%a4 du5%a4 icc%a4 dves%a4 pra(atna4 d%ar"a4 ad%ar"a4 sans5ara. T%is is t%e sa"sara for at"an. +ea&ising t%is and separating "ind fro" at"an so t%at t%e 9unas get disso&ved and do not arise again4 is -o5s%a. T%is is possi6&e t%roug% sat5ar"a4 sravana4 "anana and so on. $ccording to Vaises%i5a darsana4 9una?nas%a forever is "o5s%a. 2-a-a Text : =(a(a darsanaG $ut%or : 9ota"aG D%as%(a 5aara : Vatsa(anaG Varti5a 5aara : Ud(ota 5aara. 3t %as 5 c%apters4 1C a%ni5as and 52! sutras. 3t accepts 4 pra"anas and 16 padart%as. $ccording to =(a(a4 "id%(a /nana )nascience* causes sansara and tatva /nana )gnosis* 6rings &i6eration. estro(ing "iser( )du5%a* forever is -o5s%a. Iiva is different fro" 3svara. 3svara is a no"ina& )ni"itta 5arana* cause for creation4 t%e su6stantia& cause of

creation is para"aanus )upadana 5arana*. Iivas are "u&tip&e 6ecause of "u&tip&e 6odies )sareera*. Dut 3swara is one. 3swara created t%e Veda. 3t is ca&&ed =(a(a 6ecause it is constituted of five >&aws@ : 'rati/na4 1etu4 Uda%arana4 Upana(a4 =iga"ana. =(a(a inc&udes for"a& &ogic and "odes of scientific de6ate. 3t exp&ains t%e &ogica& constructs &i5e antecedent and &aws of i"p&(ing. 3t expounds various "odes of scientific de6ate and "et%ods for de6ate4 &i5e tar5a4 vitanda4 c%a&a4 /a&pa and so on. San3h-a Text : San5%(a darsana4 San5%(a 5ari5asG $ut%or : =ara(ana avatara 2api&a gave 25 sutras and Vaiswanara avatara 2api&a gave 6 c%apters. iscip&e &ine of t%e &atter 2api&a : $suri4 'anca Si5%acar(a4 3swara 2ris%na. 3swara 2ris%na wrote t%e San5%(a 2ari5as wit% 7C ar(avrittas. D%as%(a to t%ese are given 6( 9auda pada. Varti5a is given 6( Vi/nana D%i5s%u. 3t accepts 3 pra"anas and 25 tatvas )princip&es*. San5%(a too4 is an o&d sc%oo&. 3t sa(s t%at 6inding is 6evause of "ista5ing 'ra5ruti for 'urus%a. +ea&ising t%eir difference is &i6eration. $s suc%4 6inding and &i6eration are for t%e 'ra5ruti and not 'urus%a. T%e( appear on t%e 'urus%a 6ecause of contact wit% 'ra5ruti. =(a(a recogni8es 3swara. T%e wor&d is true. 'urus%a is asanga and c%idrupa4 not touc%ed 6( creation or action. 1e is Inana rupa4 6ut not Inanasra(a. T%at is4 'urus%a is %i"se&f 5now&edge and not seen as a resu&t of 5now&edge. 3n &i6erated state 'urus%a is neit%er /ada nor ananda rupa. -u&tip&e 'urus%as exist. T%ere is no sing&e 3swara4 and 'ra5ruti 1erse&f does creation. Su5%a4 du5%a and "o%a are 6ecause of t%e t%ree gunas )satva4 ra/as4 ta"as*. 0o a Text : .oga sutrasG $ut%or : 'atan/a&iG D%as%(a : Dadara(anaG Varti5a : Vi/nana D%i5s%u. 3t %as 4 padas and 1#4 sutras. 3t accepts 3 pra"anas and 25 tatvas. $ccording to .oga4 "ista5ing 6udd%i for 'urus%a causes 6inding. +ea&ising t%eir difference is &i6eration. 'urus%a is asanga and c%idrupa. Dudd%i satva %as t%ree <ua&ities )satva?ra/as?ta"o gunas* and it attracts 'urus%a. $t"an separated fro" 6udd%i and its <ua&ities is -o5s%a. .oga of eig%t &i"6s )(a"a4 ni(a"a4 asana4 prat(a%ara4 prana(a"a4 d%arana4 d%(ana4 Sa"ad%i* gets one to Sa"ad%i state. D( t%e grace of 3swara too one gets to Sa"ad%i state. One can rea&i8e t%e 6udd%i:at"an difference in t%at state. $vid(a is 6inding and /nana is 2aiva&(a )&i6eration*. Dinding and &i6eration are for 6udd%i and not for at"an4 t%e( on&( appear over t%e at"an. 3swara is one. (urva 6imamsa Text : 'urva -i"a"sa darsanaG $ut%or : Iai"iniG D%as%(a : Sa6ara Swa"(G Varti5a : 2u"ari&a D%att. 3t %as 16 c%apters in t%e ad%i5arana wa(. 3t accepts 6 pra"anas. 'urva -i"a"sa is a&so ca&&ed 2ar"a?-i"a"sa. %ar"a deve&ops 6( perfor"ing Vedic ritua&s. D( refraining fro" pro%i6ited deeds and actions inspired 6( desires4 one can 6e c&eansed fro" sins. 3t &eads to a state 6e(ond

d%ar"a and ad%ar"a. $fter experiencing t%e resu&t of past 5ar"a4 6od( )sareera* dies. 3f t%e state 6e(ond d%ar"a and ad%ar"a is attained 6( t%en4 t%e at"an does not assu"e sareera an( "ore. T%us &i6eration fro" sareera forever is -o5s%a. -o5s%a is a resu&t of nivritti d%ar"a. One can get to swarga )%eaven* 6( pravritti. $t"an is different fro" t%ose &i5e sareera and indri(as )sense organs*. T%ere is no 3swara separate fro" at"an. $t"an is /nanasra(a 6ut not /nanarupa. T%at is4 at"an can 6e 5nown t%roug% /nana 6ut is not /nana itse&f. Veda is accepted as pra"ana in 'urva -i"a"sa. $t"a?"anas contact causes t%e nine 9unas )spo5en of 6( Vaises%i5a*. 3n &i6erated state w%en at"an &i6erates fro" contact wit% "anas4 gunas get disso&ved. $t"an is /ada rupa in t%at state. 5ttara 6imamsa Text : Dra%"a sutrasG $ut%or : V(asaG D%as%(a : $di San5araG Varti5a : =ara(ana Saraswati. 3t %as 4 c%apters4 16 padas and 555 sutras. 3t accepts 6 pra"anas )prat(a5s%a4 anu"ana4 upa"ana4 aga"a4 ard%apatti4 anupa&a6di* and 25 tatvas. $ccording to Uttara -i"a"sa4 6inding is &ac5 of discri"ination 6etween at"an and non? at"an. 7ro" 5now&edge of at"an and its true nature4 ignorance is disso&ved. ;xperiencing it as nirguna )wit%out <ua&ities*4 adva(a )one wit%out second*4 and Dra%"an is -o5s%a. Iiva?3swara difference is 6ecause of nascience. Once t%at goes4 t%e natura& unit( of Iiva?'ara rea&i8es. Unti& t%e unit( is rea&i8ed4 Iagat )wor&dAuniverse* is true. Iagat appears over Dra%"an. Once t%at is rea&i8ed4 t%e wor&d is an i&&usion )"it%(a* and on&( Dra%"an re"ains. Dra%"an is t%e undifferentiated )a6%inna*4 no"ina& )ni"itta* and su6stantia& )upadana* cause for creation. T%us4 Uttara -i"a"sa %o&ds t%e indefina6&e nature of Dra%"an. 'urus%as are not "u&tip&e. T%ere is one 3swara and 'ra5ruti does not create 6( 1erse&f : S%e does it for and inspired 6( 3swara.

2.8 Smritis Vedic &iterature is pri"ari&( of two t(pes4 sruti and s"riti. T%e Veda is ca&&ed sruti and is t%e %ig%est aut%orit(. Ot%er texts are ca&&ed s"ritis4 and t%e( derive aut%orit( fro" t%e sruti. Sruti is apaurus%e(a4 and s"ritis are t%e words of seers. S"ritis cou&d 6e 6road&( c&assified as 1. Vedangas : su6/ects re<uired to understand various aspects of t%e Veda 2. Upavedas : arts and sciences 3. Upangas : understanding of d%ar"a and de6ating it 4. arsanas : windows to trut% 5. T%e ot%er sastras T%ese are not "utua&&( exc&usive c&asses. 7or instance4 =(a(a and -i"a"sa are arsanas as we&& as Upangas. %ar"a sutras are inc&uded in Vedanga 2a&pa as we&& as %ar"a Sastras )Upanga*. T-$es of Smritis Dased on t%e nature of 5now&edge4 t%e s"riti &iterature is of two t(pesH one t%at expounds sastra and one t%at out&ines codes of conduct. ,%i&e texts &i5e -anus"riti and 'uranas contain 6ot% t(pes of 5now&edge4 t%ere are specific texts for specific purposes. Texts &i5e 'anini(a $stad%(a(i )V(a5arana*4 9auta"a Sutras )=(a(a*4 Tar5a Sa"gra%a )tar5a* expound specific sastras. %ar"a Sutras and si"i&ar &iterature expound codes of conduct4 /udiciar( etc. Sutra and 6etrical forms Dased on t%e "et%od of organi8ing t%e text4 t%e s"riti &iterature is of two for"sH sutra and "etrica&. Sutra "et%od is a concise wa( of stating infor"ation4 w%ere entire text is arranged in a se<uence of ru&es. $ ru&e 6e&ow 6orrows context fro" t%e a6ove ones4 un&ess stated ot%erwise. T%us4 t%e si8e of text reduces considera6&( 6ecause ever( sutra is not an independent state"ent and a &ot of text co""on to sutras is t%us e&i"inated. 7or instance texts &i5e $stad%(a(i4 %ar"a Sutras fo&&ow t%e sutra "et%od. T%e non?sutra texts are "ore descriptive4 so eac% state"ent is una"6iguous in its "eaning. T%ese are in s&o5a )poetr(* or prose for"4 6ut "ost of t%e texts are in s&o5a for". ;xa"p&es are -anus"riti and 3ti%asa 'uranas. 7urt%er4 a set of sutras s&o5as or na"es are referenced wit% t%e first word of a 6eginning sutra and &ast word of ending sutra a&ong wit% t%e count of sutras. T%is wa( pointers to %uge a"ount of infor"ation is &in5ed to wit% s"a&& text. ExamplesH 1. T%e a&p%a6et is referred to as >a adi 5s%a anta@4 "eaning 6eginning wit% >a@ and ending wit% >5s%a@. 2. T%e entire procedure for constructing a te"p&e is referred to as >5ars%anadi pratist%anta"@4 6eginning wit% 5ars%ana and ending wit% pratist%a.

3. T%e 16 step procedure for wors%ip is ca&&ed >d%a(ava%adi s%odas%opacara@4 t%at is t%e sixteen steps 6eginning wit% d%(ana and ava%ana. 4. T%e s&o5a to refer to a&& t%e 1! puranas goesH >"a dwa(a" 6%a dwa(a" caiva 6ra tra(a" va catusta(a" ana pa 5u s5a &inga anta"N@ -eaning t%e na"es of two puranas start wit% "a )"ats(a and "ar5ande(a*4 two wit% 6%a )6%avis%(a4 6%agavata*4 t%ree wit% 6ra )6ra%"anda4 6ra%"a4 6ra%"a vaivarta*4 four wit% va )va"ana4 vara%a4 Vis%nu4 va(u*4 one eac% wit% a )agni*4 na )narada*4 pa )pad"a*4 5u )5ur"a*4 s5a )s5anda* and &inga. +oal of Smriti T%e s"ritis ai" at out&ining and giving a picture of %ow to &ive &ife in a wa( to fu&fi&& t%e purpose of &ife4 t%us "a5e &ife "eaningfu&. T%e( a&so ai" at ref&ecting Vedic wor&dview in dai&( &ife. T%e functions s"ritis prescri6e regu&ate &ife c&osest to natura& &aws as seen in t%e Veda. S$irit of Dharma Sastras %ar"a Sastra is a guide&ine t%at out&ines idea& practices. S"riti 5eeps in "ind t%at rea& &ife is not %owever idea&4 and reco""ends w%at is 6est. T%ere is a&wa(s a deviation fro" s"riti4 and t%e goa& is to 6e as c&ose to it as possi6&e. 0o""on "an is a&wa(s 6etween t%e two extre"es : <uestioning t%e s"riti and fo&&owing eac% princip&e wit%out fai&. ,%at s"riti atte"pts is to direct co""on "an towards giving %is 6est tr( to fo&&ow t%e s"riti. 3n case of a deviation4 s"riti a&so advocates wa(s %ow one can correct %i"se&f and fa&& 6ac5 in &ine. T%is is w%(4 w%i&e we find s"riti sa(ing w%at is not to 6e done4 it a&so sa(s %ow to dea& in cases of t%ings %appening ot%erwise. 7or instance4 %aving said one s%ou&d not %ave extra"arita& re&ation4 it sa(s w%at s%ou&d 6e &ega&&( done in cases of suc% re&ation and offspring of suc% re&ations )suc% as propert(4 in%eritance*. 1aving said a Dra%"in s%ou&d not drin54 it exp&ains %ow a drun5ard s%ou&d 6e dea&t wit% in various situations. T%is s%ows t%at w%i&e out&ining w%at is 6est4 s"riti ta5es into consideration a&& co"6inations in w%ic% t%ings can %appen )w%ic% are in agree"ent or disagree"ent wit% s"riti*4 and exp&ains %ow to dea& wit% a&& t%ose situations. T%us s"riti is t%oroug%&( founded in &ife and societ( and is not an out of t%e wor&d text. $&so4 6ecause of t%e f&exi6i&it( it t%us offers4 it app&ies to a&& ti"es wit% t%e fewest "odifications. 3n fact it s%ou&d 6e said t%at t%e "odifications needed to "a5e s"riti suit an( 5ind of ti"es are "uc% s"a&&er t%an t%e &eve& of deviation fro" it ot%erwise existent in t%e societ( )w%ic% is deviation for t%ose ti"es itse&f*. 7urt%er4 s"riti see5s to present wit% c&arit( t%e rig%ts and wrongs of a situation a&ong wit% dos and donJts. ,%i&e descri6ing t%e actions of "ost rig%teous )as in case of 3ti%asa 'uranas* it de"onstrates %ow one can rea&i8e idea&s in &ife. 3t a&so c&arifies t%e di&e""as and confusions "an faces in various &ife situations and exp&ains w%at its stand is and w%(.

T%us s"riti is a co"pre%ensive guide to &ife t%at defines goa&s of &ife4 gives "et%ods to ac%ieve t%e"4 c&arifies w%ere t%ere are confusions4 and exp&ains %ow to stic5 to t%ose goa&s and %ow to correct onese&f if one is going wrong in t%e pat%. 3t a&so out&ines socia& design suc% as various stages of &ife4 functions of "an and wo"an4 various c&assesAsections of t%e societ(4 po&it(4 ad"inistration4 /udiciar( and po&it(.

2.9 A amas $ga"a is fro" t%e root >ga"@ w%ic% "eans to co"e. Sruti4 t%e eterna& word4 is of two for"s : =iga"a )Veda* and $ga"a. Origin of portions of $ga"as cou&d 6e traced to t%e Vedic &iterature4 and are regarded 6( t%ose &i5e V(asa. Veda is said to 6e 'ra6%u? sa""ita" )T%e 2ing&i5e $ut%orit(*4 and $ga"a cou&d 6e ca&&ed $ptava5(a )dear oneJs word*. =arada 'ancaratra4 a Vais%nava $ga"a4 cou&d 6e traced 6ac5 to t%e Santi 'arva of -a%a6%arata. $ga"as extensive&( contain sa"puti5aranas and "an( of t%e "antras used cou&d 6e found in t%e Veda. $ga"as4 &i5e t%e Veda4 %ave co"e down t%roug% 9uru?Sis%(a para"para4 as an ora& tradition. $ga"as are regarded Vedic4 and $ga"as regard t%e"se&ves Vedic. -an( "antras in t%e $ga"as are found in t%e Veda. ,e find "an( Vedic "antras put into various co"6inations )sa"puti5aranas* in t%ese Tantras. ExampleH Vana urga c%apters in +udra .a"a&a Tantra use t%e "antras of urga Su5ta for "ost of t%e se<uences. urga Su5ta is found in Taittiri(a $ran(a5a4 w%ic% again is a co&&ection of +i5s scattered in different p&aces in t%e Sa"%ita. -an( of t%e procedures for ritua&s too4 acou&d 6e direct&( found in 2a&pa Sutras. ExampleH -antras of ritua&s for 'ratist%a in Vai5%anasa $ga"as cou&d 6e traced direct&( to Vai5%anasa 2a&pasutras. Contents of A amas $ga"as are said to contain Tantra4 -antra and .antra. 6antra is t%e word?for" of energ(. 3t is t%e "eansA6asis for 6ot% .antra and Tantra. 0antraH .antra is 6asica&&( a contrivance4 c%arged wit% t%e power of a "antra. 3t cou&d 6e a geo"etric s%ape as in case of devata (antra or /ust an( instru"ent as in case of an astra. 3t is t%e too&. T%e nature of .antra depends on its purpose soug%t to 6e served. ;ac% devata is said to %ave a .antra4 a specific geo"etric s%ape t%at represents t%e nature of energ( of t%e devata. 7or te"porar( purposes and wors%ipping4 it cou&d 6e drawn on c&ean f&oor wit% tur"eric or so"e ot%er powder4 or for insta&&ations it cou&d 6e carved on "eta& p&ates. T%e .antra is wors%ipped and c%arged wit% corresponding "antra. 3t is treated to 6e devata4 and is wors%ipped t%e wa( devata is wors%ipped. -ore specifica&&(4 .antra represents t%e entire vicinit(4 inc&uding t%e deit(Js consorts4 associated persons4 powers etc. So t%e wors%ip is an e&a6orate ritua& consisting of propitiation of eac% of t%ose. T%ere are variations in t%e .antra of a devata4 w%en used for different purposes. TantraH Tantra is a procedure4 w%ic% puts "antra to specific use. 3t is t%e "et%od as we&& as p%i&osop%( )Tatva?-antra sa"anva(a*. 3t e&a6orates procedures t%at a sad%a5a s%ou&d fo&&ow4 and t%e resu&ts of eac% practice. T%us Tantra is t%e superset and is t%erefore s(non("ous to $ga"a.

T%ere are t%ree divisions in Tantra4 da5s%ina va"a and "ad%(a"a. T%e( are said to 6e t%e satwic4 ra/asic and ta"asic for"s of Tantra respective&(. a5s%inacara prescri6es practices of "ind. Va"acara invo&ves p%(sica& codes and practices to vita&i8e energ( centers in t%e 6od(. T%e panca "a5aras4 "ats(a4 "a"sa4 "ait%una4 "ad(a and "udra are a&so practiced in so"e va"acara Tantras. T%us "antra4 .antra and Tantra are not exc&usiveG t%e( are interconnected. -antra is t%e energ(. .antras are geo"etric s%apes t%at define t%e wor5ings of various 5inds of energies. Tantra dea&s wit% t%e p%i&osop%( and "et%ods. 1owever4 6ot% .antra and Tantra use -antras. Tantra invo&ves "et%ods and practices t%roug% w%ic% t%e practitioner uses t%e energ( to serve a purpose4 w%i&e .antra uses too&sAs%apes t%at are c%arged 6( t%e power of "antra. T%us4 $ga"as are procedures for serving various purposes4 a&ong wit% "eans and "et%ods. $ga"as expound a variet( of su6/ects and cou&d 6e ca&&ed t%e guides to a %uge range of 1indu practices. T%e( contain -anua&s for wors%ip -et%ods for sa&vation4 .oga evata4 .antra 'ra(ogas using various "antras Te"p&e Dui&ding4 Town p&anning 3cono"etr( o"estic practices and civi& codes Socia&A'u6&ic festiva&s 1o&( '&aces ;&e"ents of Universe4 0reation and isso&ution '%i&osop%ies )Tatvas* ,or&ds $usterities and "an( ot%er interre&ated su6/ects. ;ac% $ga"as contains four parts or padas into w%ic% t%ese su6/ects are c&assified ? 1. Inana : 2now&edge 2. .oga : -editation "et%ods etc 3. 2ri(a : +itua&s 4. 0ar(a : -ora& codes etc $ga"as are pri"ari&( used 6( t%ree re&igions : Vais%nava4 Saiva and Sa5ta. Vaishnava A amas T%e Vais%nava $ga"as regard Vis%nu as t%e supre"e 9od%ead. T%e( are said to %ave co"e fro" t%e "out% of Vis%nu 1i"se&f. T%ere are %undreds of Vais%nava $ga"as. Dorad&( t%e( cou&d 6e c&assified as 'anacratra and Vai5%anasa. 'ancaratra4 as t%e na"e

suggests4 invo&ve a five?fo&d ritua& sc%edu&e. T%ere are a6out 2CC?225 'ancaratra texts. Vai5%anasa aga"as are taug%t 6( Vi5%ana to %is discip&es &i5e -aric%i and D%rigu. $ few Vais%nava $ga"asH 3svara4 $%ir6ud%n(a4 =arada4 1a(asirs%a4 'aus%5ara4 Satvata4 Inana"rita sara. Saiva A amas Saiva $ga"as %o&d Siva as t%e supre"e 9od%ead. T%ere are 2! Saiva $ga"as and t%e( cou&d 6e c&assified into two c&assesH 1C Siva 6%eda and 1! +udra 6%eda $ga"as. 7urt%er4 t%e 2! are c&assified into four c&assesH 2apa&a4 2a&a"u5%a4 'asupata4 Saiva. T%e &ast 5ind )Saiva* is furt%er c&assified into two su6c&asses : 2as"ira Saiva and Sidd%anta Saiva. 2as"ira Saiva is in vogue in t%e =ort% and Sidd%anta Saiva in Sout% 3ndia. ;ac% Saiva $ga"a %as supp&e"entsAadditiona& frag"ents ca&&ed Upa?$ga"as. $ few Saiva $ga"as to "entionH 2a"i5a4 Vira4 'ara"eswara4 Swa(a"6%uva. Sa3ta A amas Sa5ta $ga"as %o&d Sa5ti as t%e supre"e 9od%ead. T%ese Tantras are of two 5inds4 Va"a and a5s%ina. T%ere are said to 6e 64 Sa5ta $ga"as4 6ut t%e nu"6er cou&d 6e "uc% "ore. -an( of t%ese are in t%e for" of Siva?Sa5ti conversations. $ few Sa5ta $ga"as to "entionH 2u&arnava4 +udra .a"a&a4 Dra%"a .a"a&a4 Vis%nu .a"a&a4 -a%a =irvana. Tantras and Vedas 0ertain Tantric practices4 esp. extre"e side of va"avara Tantra %owever4 are in direct contradiction to so"e of t%e Vedic &iterature )2a&pa Sutras4 esp. 9ri%(a and %ar"a Sutras4 as we&& as s"ritis &i5e -anus"riti*. 1owever4 it is not t%e "antras t%at differentiate. T%e "et%ods used t%e practices t%at supp&e"ent4 t%e spirit in w%ic% t%e( are practiced and t%e purpose of t%ose practices deter"ines w%et%er a Tantric practice is in accordance wit% t%e s"ritis. So"e Tantras are /ust Vedic. So"e %ave e&e"ents and practices t%at are not supported 6( t%e Vedic &iterature4 6ut are not against Vedic spirit. So"e contain practices t%at are not conde"ned 6( Veda 6ut are not practiced in a wa( t%at fo&&owing Vedic &iterature )esp. Vedanga 5a&pa* prescri6es. So"e contain practices t%at not in accordance wit% s"ritis4 in var(ing degrees. 7or exa"p&e4 va"acara Tantras prescri6e five "a5aras4 w%ic% are five practices &i5e eating "eat and sexua& union. ,%i&e s"ritis do not pro%i6it t%ese per se4 w%at differentiates va"acara Tantras fro" s"riti?prescri6ed practices and "a5e t%e" >unvedic@4 is t%e purpose and context of t%ose practices. T%e Vedic &iterature gives ut"ost i"portance to 6ra%"acar(a. Sexua& union is a&&owed on&( for a gr%ast%a and t%at too4 t%e pri"ar( purpose is said to 6e 6egetting c%i&dren. ;ven a gr%ast%a is advised to a6stain on specified da(s )nind(as and parvas* and is said to derive t%e "erit of 6ra%"acar(a 6( t%at )-anu 3.5C4 2.176?1!14 6.26*. 'ra/anana )procreation* is to 6e seen

as a (a/na. D( contrast in va"acara Tantra4 sexua& union is a "et%od4 is an e&e"ent of spiritua& practiceAsad%ana. 'rocreation is not t%e purpose %ere. So sexua& union4 as done in va"acara Tantra is against t%e spirit of s"ritis. 3t is t%e sa"e wit% ot%er practices. -eat is to 6e ta5en on&( as t%e fruit of (a/na4 according to Vedic prescriptions4 w%i&e t%e( are "et%odsAe&e"ents of sad%ana in va"acara Tantra. $&co%o& is not prescri6ed 6( s"ritis eit%er )-anu 3.15#*. T%us4 it is not necessari&( a practiceG it is its context and purpose t%at differentiates. T%is said4 it s%ou&d 6e noted t%at extre"e practices in Tantra suc% as sitting wit% corpses4 are rea&&( not t%e core of Tantra. Tantra is 6asica&&( p%i&osop%( of spiritua& practice4 and does not %ave a negative connotation as suc%. T%is is evident fro" t%e fact t%at t%e word Tantra is used in "an( p&aces &i5e San5%(a 2ari5as )7C*4 San5ars%a 2anda4 a supp&e"ent to 2ar"a -i"a"sa )1.1.3* and a&so 6( "en &i5e $di San5ara )%e ca&&s San5%(a a Tantra*. 3n a&& t%ese p&aces4 Tantra is used as a genera& word for "et%odAp%i&osop%( rat%er t%an as so"et%ing undesira6&e. T%e 6u&5 of Tantra dea&s wit% varied su6/ects4 and contains su6&i"e spiritua& p%i&osop%( t%at is found in a&& ot%er &iteratureAsc%oo&s of 1induis". 3t a&so contains "an( spiritua& practices &i5e /apa4 %o"a4 arcana4 encapsu&ated into various sets of procedures. ;ntire science of te"p&e4 its practices4 construction4 ru&es are fro" t%ese4 and are in no contradiction to t%e Vedic spirit. 3n fact4 t%e practices t%at were i&&?suited to ti"es were i"provised wit% a&ternate for"s of wors%ip in t%ese texts. (resent da- :induism 3n t%e present for" of 1induis"4 we s%ou&d sa( t%at t%ere are no e&e"ents in t%e "ainstrea" and te"p&e wors%ip t%at are far fro" Vedic. T%ere was a ti"e w%en "an( unvedic practices were preva&ent and it was rea&&( toug% to differentiate4 6ut great refor"ers &i5e $di San5ara %ave refor"ed t%e s(ste" and expe&&ed "an( practices fro" t%e "ainstrea" 1induis" t%at are eit%er tota&&( unvedic in spirit or are not conde"ned 6( t%e Veda 6ut do not suit t%e ti"es. -en &i5e %i" toured D%arata vars%a and pacified Sa5ti wors%ipped in a&"ost ever( fa"ous te"p&e t%at was t%ere4 and "ade t%ose p&aces for Vedic for"s of wors%ip. -an( practices &i5e 2apa&i5a and ta"asic for"s of Sa5ta were preva&ent and "an( of t%e" were "argina&i8ed 6( $di San5ara. T%ere were a&so "an( practices t%at were not strict&( pro%i6ited 6( t%e Veda4 suc% as /antu 6a&i in t%e te"p&es. T%ese too4 were e&i"inated to suit t%e spirit of c%anging ti"es. $t t%e sa"e ti"e4 Tantra as suc% was not downp&a(ed : for San5ara %i"se&f %ad great 5now&edge of Tantra. On&( t%e undesira6&e practices were re"oved. T%e( do exist toda(4 6ut are found "ost&( outside t%e "ainstrea". T%e te"p&e practices especia&&(4 are refined and refor"ed to a great extent and do not contain an( of t%e extre"e practices.

!. Vedic "eli ion !.1 Schools of S$iritual (hiloso$h- ;Vedanta< T%e curricu&u" for Vedanta or Spiritua& p%i&osop%( is ca&&ed 'rast%ana Tra(i4 it consists of D%agavad9ita4 Upanis%ads4 and Dra%"a Sutras. D%agavad 9ita is t%e co"pendiu" on spiritua& p%i&osop%ies 6( Sri 2ris%na. Upanis%ads are found in $ran(a5a portion of t%e Veda. Of t%e 1C! Upanis%ads4 ten i"portant ones are studied. Dra%"a sutras are given 6( Dadara(ana. T%ere are t%ree "a/or sc%oo&s of Spiritua& '%i&osop%( )Vedanta* in 1induis". T%e( are $dvaita4 waita and Visistadwaita. $&& t%e t%ree accept t%e aut%orit( of texts and sources of 5now&edge. T%e( are different interpretations of t%e Vedantic texts. T%e cause and "et%od of creation4 t%e re&ation 6etween /iva and 3swara4 t%e ro&e of 'ra5riti are seen different&( 6( t%ese sc%oo&s. T%e "a/or proponents of t%ese sc%oo&s )San5ara in case of $dvaita4 +a"anu/a in case of Visistadvaita and -ad%va in case of vaita* %ave written co""entaries on t%e prast%ana tra(i. 1owever4 t%oug% t%ese are t%e "a/or ones4 t%ere are "an( ot%er sc%oo&s &i5e 9audi(a Vais%nava )D%eda6%eda*4 Va&&a6%a Sa"prada(a )S%udd%advaita* and =i"6ar5a Sa"prada(a ) vaitadvaita*. T%ere are t%ree "a/or concepts )vaadas* t%at exp&ain t%e cause of universeH $ra"6%a4 'arina"a and Vivarta. 3n $ra"6%a vada universe is seen as eterna&. 3n 'arina"a vada Dra%"an is said to createA6eco"e t%e Universe. 3n Vivarta Vada Dra%"an is said to 6e wit%out c%ange 6ut on&( appear as t%e Universe4 t%roug% t%e p&a( of "a(a. 3n t%e six darsanas4 =(a(a and Vaises%i5a are Arambha vada. San5%(a and .oga %o&d (arinama Vada. -i"a"sa4 esp. Uttara -i"a"sa is said to contain Vivarta Vada. T%e dwaitic sc%oo&s of Vedanta too4 %o&d 'arina"a vada. $ccording to t%e" 9od 6eco"es or creates t%e Universe /ust t%e wa( a spider creates its we6 fro" its 6od(. 3n Vivarta Vada t%e Universe is not created or destro(ed : it on&( appears as it is4 6( t%e p&a( of -a(a. +ea&i8ing Dra%"an puts an end to t%e apparent. T%e cause of creation or an( p%eno"enon )5arana* is said to 6e of two 5inds : nimitta )no"ina&* and u$adana )su6stantia&*. 3f we ta5e t%e fa"ous exa"p&e of "a5ing a pot4 t%e potter is said to 6e t%e no"ina& cause4 and "ud w%ic% is t%e su6stance of pot is said to 6e t%e su6stantia& cause.

Advaita $dvaita is t%e o&dest sc%oo&. $di San5ara is t%e &atest 6est exponent of t%e $dvaita p%i&osop%(. T%ere are so"e sc%oo&s t%at differentiate $dvaita as San5ara and San5ara? 'urva )t%e one t%at existed 6efore San5ara* advaita. $dvaitins accept a&& t%e si) $ramanas4 prat(a5s%a4 anu"ana4 upa"ana4 art%apatti4 sa6da and anupa&a6di. $dvaita is found as an independent sc%oo& of spiritua& p%i&osop%(4 not c&ose&( re&ated to an( of t%e re&igions. -an( f&avors of re&igions inc&uding Saiva4 Sa5ta4 Tantra )t%oug% a&& t%ese are not "utua&&( exc&usive*4 are advaitic in nature. =rahman * 4iva * 6a-a $dvaita4 especia&&( San5ara $dvaita co"p&ete&( stands 6( Vivarta Vada. Universe is e"pirica&&( true : v(ava%ari5a sat(a. Dut it is not w%at it appears to 6e. 3t appears so4 6ecause of t%e vei& caused 6( -a(a. T%is is of two t(pes4 vei&ing )covering t%e Trut%* and pro/ection )appearing to 6e True*. T%ese are ca&&ed avarana and vi5s%epa. -a(a is neit%er rea& nor unrea&4 it is inexp&ica6&e. 3t is not rea& 6ecause it ceases to exist w%en Dra%"an is rea&i8ed. 3t is not unrea& in t%e e"pirica& sense. -a(a is t%e cause of >creation@. Dra%"an is t%e no"ina& cause )ni"itta 5arana* for creation4 -a(a does creation. T%e su6stantia& cause )upadana 5arana* for creation too4 is Dra%"an. T%e on&( difference t%e pot?potter exa"p&e %as fro" creation is t%at t%e su6stance of creation is sa"e as t%at of t%e potter. T%us Dra%"an is not on&( ni"itta and upadana 6ut a&so a6%inna )undifferentiated* 5arana for creation. Iivat"a4 t%e individua& sou&4 is not%ing 6ut Dra%"an. 3t is untouc%ed4 un"anifest4 neit%er conscious nor unconscious4 6e(ond <ua&ities )nirguna*4 and adva(a )t%e one wit%out t%e second*. 3t is on&( witness of action and experiences4 6ut not t%e one t%at experiences. $vid(a )nascience* caused 6( -a(a is cause for 6inding. T%is is t%e reason for at"a appearing as non?at"a. ifferentiating at"a fro" non?at"a and t%us rea&i8ing at"a4 is &i6eration. 6o3sha -o5s%a is rea&i8ing onese&f to 6e at"a and at"a to 6e Dra%"an. T%e Iiva is a&read( &i6erated in its true nature : t%us rea&i8ing t%e true nature of onese&f )/iva* is &i6eration. T%us4 one can 6e &i6erated even t%oug% one is wearing a 6od(. T%is is ca&&ed /ivan"u5ti )getting &i6erated even w%i&e >&iving@ in a 6od(*. Vide%a "u5ti is ac%ieved eventua&&(4 after /iva &eaves t%e 6od(.

Visistadvaita Visistadvaita is <ua&ified non?dua&is". T%oug% t%e sc%oo& existed "uc% ear&ier4 +a"anu/acar(a was t%e 6est proponent of t%e sc%oo&. 1ence it ca"e to 6e 5nown as +a"anu/a darsana. Specifica&&(4 %is co""entar( on Dra%"a Sutras is ca&&ed Sri D%as%(a. Visistadvaita is c&ose&( re&ated to Sri Vais%nava4 %ence it is seen "ore as a p%i&osop%( of re&igion rat%er t%an an independent spiritua& p%i&osop%( t%at is fo&&owed 6( an( re&igion. Visistadvaita as t%e ter" indicates is $dvaita t%at accepts vises%as. Visistadvaitins accept 6asic advaita or non?dua&it( of /iva and para. 3n t%e &i6erated state /iva is para. Iiva %as vises%as of consciousness in un&i6erated state4 un&i5e in $dvaita w%ere /iva is /ust a witness even in un&i6erated state )in fact &i6eration is not for t%e /ivat"a4 it is for t%e entit( /iva consisting of su5s%"a sarira etc4 w%ic% is 6ound 6( 'ra5riti or -a(a*. Visistadvaitins accept three $ramanas or sources for 5now&edge : prat(a5s%a4 anu"ana4 sa6da. T%ere are t%ree Tatvas )Tatva?tra(a* : 3svara4 Iiva and 'ra5riti. 3svara or Dra%"an is t%e on&( independent rea&it(. Iiva and 'ra5riti are rea&ities dependent on Dra%"an. Isvara Dot% nirguna 6ra%"an and 3svara are accepted and wors%ipped. ;ntire wor&d is t%e p&a( or &i&a of 3svara. $nd 3svara %ence cou&d 6e wors%ipped as sa5ara. T%is can a&so 6e understood in t%e &ig%t t%at Visistadvaita is re&igion O p%i&osop%(. Dot% upasana and Vedanta are c&ose&( 5nit. T%e eterna& is said to 6e five?fo&d4 and wors%ipped in t%ese five for"sH (ara : T%e eterna& 6eing. T%is is Sri -a%a Vis%nu in ti"es of non?creation in Vai5unt%a4 s&eeping in t%e coi&s of infinit(. V-uha : T%e one wit% four aspects4 San5ars%ana4 Vasudeva4 'rad(u"na and $nirudd%a )Vis%nu Sa%asrana"a praises 1i" as caturv(u%a4 or %aving four v(u%as*. Antar-amin : T%e One )as sou&* t%at pervades a&& creation. Vibhava : T%e g&orious incarnations of 9od4 suc% as Sri +a"a and Sri 2ris%na. Arca : T%e for"s of wors%ip4 suc% as incarnations4 ido&s. ;xa"p&e of $rca?avatara is Ven5ateswara. 4iva Iiva )individua& sou&* is said to 6e anu )indivisi6&e*4 av(a5ta )un"anifest*4 acint(a )unt%in5a6&e*4 nirvi5ara )%aving no distortion or transfor"ation* and /nanasra(a )t%e a6ode of 5now&edge*. Iiva is an indivisi6&e part of 3svara. T%ere are t%ree t(pes of Iivas4 6ound4 &i6erated and eterna&. $n( Iiva prior to &i6eration or "o5s%a is said to 6e 6ound. 'ost &i6eration t%e Iiva is "u5ta4 and "erges in 3svara. T%ere are eterna& /ives too4 t%at are not 6ound 6ut exist : suc% as devatas4 consorts4 servants4 ve%ic&es of Vis%nu )9aruda4 Iava?Vi/a(a etc*. (ra3riti

'ra5riti is t%e cause of "anifestation. 3t causes t%e t%ree consciousness <ua&ities4 satva4 ra/as and ta"as. T%ere are two for"s of satva4 suddha satva and misra satva. Sudd%a satva is one t%at is not touc%ed 6( ra/as and ta"as : t%is is t%e one t%at "anifests in Vai5unt%a4 creating t%e >eterna&@ 6eings &i5e 9aruda and $nanta. T%is is said to 6e nit(a vi6%uti. T%e p%eno"ena& wor&d is caused 6( "isra satva4 a co"6ination of a&& t%e t%ree <ua&ities. T%is is said to 6e &i&a vi6%uti. 6o3sha Visistadvaita does not accept t%e /ivan"u5ti concept of $dvaita. $ccording to Visistadvaita4 &i6eration is possi6&e on&( after t%e /iva &eaves t%e 6od(. T%ere are different t(pes in t%is. One is reac%ing 3svara after deat%. $not%er is reac%ing %ig%er wor&ds )&i5e swarga* after deat%4 and "oving to sti&& %ig%er wor&ds and u&ti"ate&( reac%ing 3svara sannid%(a. T%is is ca&&ed 5ra"a )gradua&4 stepwise* "u5ti. T%ere are four 5inds of 3svara sannid%(a4 in ascending order of evo&utionH Salo3-a : Biving in t%e wor&d of 3svara )ex. Vai5unt%a* Samee$-a : Biving c&ose to 3svara Saru$-a : Boo5ing /ust &i5e 3svara Sa-u1-a : Deco"ing one wit% 3svara 6o3sha sadhana T%ere are t%ree concepts in pat% to &i6eration4 Tatva4 %ita and purus%art%a. Tatvas are t%ree as discussed. 1ita is fivefo&d4 swa?swarupa )5nowing t%e nature of se&f*4 para? swarupa )5nowing t%e nature of t%e eterna&*4 purus%art%a swarupa )fu&fi&&"ent of purposes or goa&s of &ife : d%ar"a4 $rt%a4 5a"a and "o5s%a*4 upa(a swarupa )"eans "et%ods or pat%s to "o5s%a* and virod%i swarupa )o6stac&es in attain"ent of "o5s%a*. T%ere are five avarod%as )virodhi* or o6stac&es in t%e pat% of evo&utionH O6stac&es in rea&i8ing se&f4 in rea&i8ing 9od4 in &i6eration4 in fo&&owing "eans to rea&i8ation and in attain"ent of goa&s -o5s%a Upa(a is fivefo&dH Karma : t%is inc&udes 5ar"a 5anda4 panca "a%a (a/nas4 d%(ana4 /apa etc. 4nana : T%is inc&udes vairag(a4 d%(ana4 nidid%(asana etc found in /nana "arga. =ha3ti : T%is inc&udes devotion and wors%ip. T%ere are seven aids for 6%a5ti4 vive5a )discri"ination and purit(*4 vi"o5a )detac%"ent*4 a6%(asa )practice*4 5ri(a )wor5s4 specifica&&( t%e panca "a%a (a/nas*4 5a&(ana )trut%fu&ness4 peace of "ind4 gent&eness etc*4 anavasada )untouc%ed 6( sorrow or disappoint"ent*4 anudd%ars%a )untouc%ed 6( excite"ent*. (ra$atti )or sarana ati* : 'rapatti is consecration and surrender. T%is inc&udes surrender of ego4 doing t%ings on&( to p&ease 9od and a6staining fro" a&& t%at action t%at on t%e contrar( )ta5e one towards wor&d&iness*4 %aving fait% and attri6uting oneJs own careta5ing to 3svara. Acar-abhimana : 1aving fait% in4 respecting and fo&&owing teac%ersJ words.

Dvaita vaita vada or t%e sc%oo& of dua&is" is popu&ari8ed 6( -ad%vacar(a4 a&so ca&&ed $nanda Tirt%a Swa"i. 1is darsana is a&so ca&&ed 'urna pra/na darsana4 Tatva vada4 D%eda vada4 Di"6a?prati6i"6a vada. T%is sc%oo& too4 is c&ose&( re&ated to Vais%nava "ata and -a%a Vis%nu is %e&d to 6e t%e supre"e 9od%ead. vaitins accept t%ree pra"anas: prat(a5s%a4 anu"ana4 sa6da. T%ere are t%ree Tatvas4 Iiva4 3svara and 'ra5riti. 3svara is t%e on&( independent )swatantra* rea&it(. Iiva and 'ra5riti are rea&ities dependent )paratantra* on 3svara. ependent and independent are t%e two categories dvaita expounds. ;ver(t%ing ot%er t%an 3svara ? ti"e4 "atter or action4 is dependent on 3svara. 3svara is sentient and /iva is sentient. 'ra5riti is insentient. Iiva is sentient 6( t%e grace of 3svara. vaita %o&ds t%at /iva and para are not one and t%e sa"e4 and t%at t%e( are different. Universe is rea&4 and runs 6( t%e grace of 3svara. ,%at "a5es /iva and pra5riti function is a&so 3svara. T%ere are five differences 6etween TatvasH 1. 3svara and /iva 2. 3svara and 'ra5riti 3. 'ra5riti and /iva 4. Iiva and anot%er /iva 5. One e&e"ent of pra5riti and anot%er Understanding t%ese differences is t%e <ua&if(ing 5now&edge for "u5ti. vaita %o&ds "u&tip&icit( of /ivas. Iivas are "u&tip&e4 and of t%ree t(pes : t%e ones t%at are 6orn4 t%e ones in various wor&ds a6ove eart%4 and t%e &i6erated. T%e /ivas are of different &eve&s and capa6i&ities and fa&& in a %ierarc%( t%at ranges fro" "anus%(a to 3svara. T%e gradation is given 6( -ad%vacar(a4 starting fro" Vis%nu in t%e top4 fo&&owed 6( Sri Ba5s%"i4 t%en Dra%"a and so on ti&& "anus%(as. T%us vaita is c&ose&( 5nit wit% t%eo&og(4 a&ong fro" Tatva and Vedanta. V(asa Tirt%a4 a fo&&ower of -ad%vacar(a condensed -ad%va arsana asH )i* Vis%nu is supre"e )ii* T%e universe is rea& and not i&&usor( )iii* T%e five differences are rea& )iv* T%e &eagues of /ivas are su6ordinates of Vis%nu )v* Iivas are different and of different &eve&s )vi* -u5ti is t%e experience of oneJs own innate 6&iss )vii* -u5ti is ac%ieved t%roug% wisdo" and devotion to t%e Supre"e )viii* T%ere are t%ree pra"anas ? prat(a5s%a4 anu"ana and aga"a )sa6da* )ix* Vis%nu is t%e supre"e and pri"ar( entit( descri6ed in Veda. 6o3sha

T%ere is &i6eration for /iva4 6ut even &i6eration does not unite t%e /iva wit% 3svara. 3t e&evates /iva to %ig%er wor&ds and ends t%e "iseries. 3n &i6erated state /iva experiences existentia& 6&iss4 and is free fro" 6ondage as we&& as "iser(. 1owever4 t%e /iva exists separate fro" 3svara even in &i6erated state. Iiva is i""uta6&e4 and is 6ound 6( "iser( 6ecause of fa&se identification. D( rea&i8ing t%e five tatvic differences one gains wisdo" and eventua&&( "u5ti4 6( t%e grace of 3svara.

!.2 (aths to Salvation T%ere are t%ree pat%s to sa&vationG t%e( are ca&&ed 6%a5ti4 /nana and 5ar"a (ogas. $&& ai" at t%e sa"e goa&4 rea&i8ation. -an is &i"ited 6( upad%is )sa( 6od( or "ind*4 w%ic% are &i"itations as we&& as %is "eans in evo&ution. T%e t%ree pat%s prescri6e different "et%ods )t%oug% over&apping* to address different facu&ties and use t%e upad%is in different wa(s4 depending on t%e nature of t%e see5er4 to "a5e %i" transcend t%e upad%is t%e"se&ves. =ha3ti One is of devotion )6%a5ti* w%ere an individua& t%roug% devotion for 9od4 attains "o5s%a. T%is is prescri6ed for t%e %eart?6eing. ,ors%ip is %is "et%od. evotion "eans4 6&iss and &ove goa&s. +ea&i8ing 9od and 6eco"ing one wit% 1i" is &i6eration. T%ere are two stages or for"s of 6%a5ti4 gauna and "u5%(a. T%e for"er invo&ves t%e t%ree consciousness <ua&ities4 t%e &atter is 6e(ond t%e". $para and 'ara 6%a5ti too4 is a si"i&ar c&assification. 3n t%e pat% of evo&ution t%e devotee treats devata as %aving a&& t%e no6&e <ua&ities4 a for"4 and wors%ips wit% devotion. $s inward &oo5ing deve&ops )antar"u5%a*4 %e transcends for"s and o6/ects. $&ongside4 %e a&so transcends desires and attac%"ents. T%e devotion t%en ta5es a para or "u5%(a for"4 w%ere %e is no "ore wors%ipping 6ut actua&&( "erging in t%e infinite. T%is is t%e sa"e end t%at a 6%a5ta4 /nani and 5ar"a (ogi arrives at. T%ere are five for"s of D%a5ti4 in t%e Vais%nava pant%eon : santa4 das(a4 sa5%(a4 vatsa&(a4 "ad%ura. T%e first is a ca&" devotion for 9od and it "ain&( ai"s at detac%"ent fro" wor&d&iness. T%e re"aining four invo&ve e"otiona& attac%"ent wit% 9od. as(a is serving 9od. Sa5%(a is treating 9od as a friend. Vatsa&(a is treating 9od as a c%i&d and "ad%ura is treating 9od as %us6and. ;ac% one 6asica&&( ai"s at a tota& surrender4 and rea&&( t%ere is no distinction in t%e true nature of devotion. T%ere are nine acts of devotion4 descri6ed in D%agavataH Sravana )%earing of 9odJs &i&as and g&or(*4 2irtana )praising 9odJs g&or( and %is &i&as*4 S"arana )re"e"6ering 9od t%roug%out*4 'adasevana )service in genera&*4 $rcana )wors%iping*4 Vandana )6owing*4 as(a )serving &i5e a servant*4 Sa5%(a )6efriending 9od* and $t"anivedana )"a5ing tota& surrender*. T%us 6%a5ti uses "ind as t%e upad%i4 directs it towards su6&i"ation of its &ower tendencies4 t%roug% &ove and devotion. 4nana T%e second is of 5now&edge )/nana*4 w%ere one su6&i"ates %is &ower 6eing t%roug% gaining 5now&edge. T%is is for t%e inte&&ect?6eing. Stud(At%oug%t is %is "et%od. 0uriosit( is %is "eans4 Trut% goa&. 2now&edge of t%e True and $6so&ute is &i6eration.

T%ere are t%ree "eans in /nana "arga4 sravana4 "anana and nid%id%(asana. T%e first one is &istening to a teac%erA&earned person )a6out t%e True4 Dra%"an*. T%e next is "anana4 to re"e"6er and ref&ect on t%e teac%ing4 its "eaning and idea. T%e t%ird is to "editate on t%e Trut% spo5en of. T%is eventua&&( &eads to discover( of Trut%. 3nte&&ection is t%e "et%od of /nana "arga. ifferentiating True fro" untrue and "a5ing out t%e True is t%e wa( it is done. Tatva )natura& p%i&osop%(* and Vedanta )spiritua& p%i&osop%(* are t%e su6/ects to 6e studied. 3n genera&4 t%e 1indu t%eor( is t%at an( sastra w%en studied &eads to tatvic understanding. T%ere are four re<uire"ents for t%is. T%e first is Vive5a or discri"ination 6etween True and untrue. T%is co"es wit% &earning. T%e second is Vairag(a or dispassion or 6eing passive or growing over wor&d&iness. T%is co"es wit% renunciation of desires. Un&i5e in D%a5ti (oga w%ere desires are directed towards 9od and %ence su6&i"ated wit%out suppression4 a &eve& of renunciation is necessar( in t%e sad%a5a4 in t%is pat%. T%en concentration and surrender to t%e purpose4 t%roug% /i/nasa )curiosit(* is needed. T%ese <ua&ities are su""ari8ed as t%e t%ird re<uire"ent4 na"ed s%ad?sa"patti or six >possessions@. T%e( are sa"a )peace of "ind*4 da"a )restraint*4 uparati )6eing passive to word&iness*4 titi5s%a )endurance and perseverance*4 sradd%a )%aving sing&e?pointed goa&4 fait% and sincerit(*4 sa"ad%ana )6eing e<ua& to t%e dua&s and unwavering*. -u"u5s%utva or tota&&( surrendered to rea&i8ation of Trut% or desiring &i6eration is t%e fourt% re<uire"ent. T%e stages in evo&ution areH 1. Deing virtuous4 t%us purif(ing t%oug%t 2. 3n<uir( into se&f4 t%us turning t%e "ind inwards 3. Deco"ing a "ind?6eing 4. Deco"ing an inte&&ect?6eing 5. Tota& detac%"ent and 6eco"ing a 6&issfu& 6eing 6. +ea&i8ation 7. Bi6eration 3n t%is4 it can 6e seen t%at t%e sad%a5a c&i"6s t%e &adder of seven urd%va &o5as and "oves into t%e inner 5osas. )-ore can 6e seen in t%e overview on consciousness.* Karma T%e t%ird is of wor5s )5ar"a*4 w%ere one t%roug% fu&fi&&"ent of responsi6i&ities as an individua& and t%en serving fe&&ow 6eings4 attains "o5s%a. T%is is for t%e socia& 6eing. Service is %is "et%od. Se&f&essness is %is "eans4 universa&it(4 infinit( and per"anence goa&s. ispassionate4 se&f?&ess action is t%e feature of t%is pat%. One s%ou&d do action t%at causes we&&?6eing of peop&e4 wit%out see5ing resu&ts for onese&f. T%e fruit of action s%ou&d 6e surrendered to divine. D%agavad 9ita sa(s >5ar"an(eva ad%i5araste4 "aa p%a&es%u 5adacana@ : "eaning one is t%e "aster of %is actions4 6ut not t%e "aster of t%e fruit of %is actions.

0ause?effect of action is t%e t%eor( t%at drives t%is pat%. One is supposed to do t%at action w%ic% not on&( 6rings down 5ar"a ses%a 6ut a&so does not add to it. Se&f&ess and detac%ed action is of t%at 5ind. T%us trut%?6eaut(?per"anence4 t%e t%ree aspects of eterna& are t%e goa&s of t%ese t%ree pat%s. T%e( are inter?"ixing and over&apping pat%s4 wit% eac% of t%e" &eading to and "erging in t%e ot%ers.

!.! Shanmatas ;Vedic "eli ions< Droad&(4 t%e re&igious practices in Sanatana %ar"a cou&d 6e c&assified into two : S"arta and Tantric. T%e( are not "utua&&( exc&usive4 and are c&ose&( re&ated. Bitera&&( s"arta "eans fo&&owing s"ritis. T%is "eans t%e s"ritis associated wit% t%e Veda4 suc% as t%e Vedangas and %ar"asastras. Specifica&&( 6( s"arta one "eans fo&&owing d%ar"a sastras. S"arta is a fra"e of practices4 and not a re&igion. Tantra is part of t%e $ga"ic &iterature4 t%at deve&oped para&&e& to t%e S"arta &iterature. T%ere are six "a/or re&igions or t%eistic sc%oo&s4 ca&&ed S%an"atas. T%e( are Saiva4 Vais%nava4 Sa5ta4 Saura4 9anapat(a and 2au"ara. T%e( regard Siva4 Vis%nu4 Sa5ti4 Sur(a4 9anapati and 2u"araswa"( as t%e supre"e?god%ead respective&(. T%ese are not pure&( t%eo&ogica&4 and inc&ude "an( ot%er t%ings a&ong wit% t%eo&og(4 suc% as spiritua& p%i&osop%( and "et%ods of sad%ana. Statistica&&(4 Saiva4 Sa5ta and Vais%nava are t%e "a/or re&igions and fo&&owed a&& over t%e countr(. T%e ot%er t%ree are practiced "ore in specific regions. 3t a&so depends on t%e region w%ic% re&igion is fo&&owed "ore4 6ecause of "an( factors &i5e t%e 6ranc% of Veda popu&ar in t%e region. 7or instance t%e fo&&owers of 2ris%na .a/urveda are usua&&( Siva wors%ippers4 since Sri +udra" is in t%e "idd&e of Taittiri(a Sa"%ita. $nd t%e region w%ere 2ris%na .a/urveda fo&&owers are "ore4 %ave "ore s"arta?Saivas. ,%i&e t%ere are "an( re&igions or wors%ipers of "an( different devatas4 $di San5ara c&assified t%ese into six "a/or sc%oo&s. ;ac% of t%ese re&igions ta5es e&e"ents fro" t%eo&og(4 spiritua& p%i&osop%(4 s"riti4 Tantra. Desides4 t%ere are sc%oo&s in t%e wors%ip of eac% devataAre&igion t%at ta5e e&e"ents fro" different Tantras4 different spiritua& p%i&osop%ies and different s"ritis. 7or instance Vais%nava itse&f %as different codes4 &i5e Vai5%anasa and 'ancaratra. So"e f&avors of t%ese re&igions are tig%t&( 6ound wit% so"e spiritua& p%i&osop%ies and so"e wit% "et%ods of sad%ana. T%us eac% re&igion in fact %as a wide range and different &eve&s of practices. Desides4 so"e f&avors of t%ese re&igions attac% "ore i"portance wit% so"e of t%e pat%s4 &i5e 6%a5ti4 /nana and 5ar"a. $ f&avor of re&igion t%at attac%es "ore i"portance to /nana is "ore 6ound wit% a spiritua& p%i&osop%(. $ f&avor of re&igion t%at attac%es "ore i"portance to 6%a5ti is "ore 6ound to t%e "et%ods of sad%ana and so on. T%ere were 6rief conf&icts 6etween t%e fo&&owers of t%ese re&igionsG "ost&( t%e( were de6ates. ;ac% re&igionAsc%oo& "ade co""enda6&e contri6utions to 1induis"4 and even t%eir de6ates against eac% ot%er were enric%ing to t%e traditions. T%e( were ver( rare&( destructive and %ate?driven. -ost of t%e" are at t%e p%i&osop%ica& &eve&4 and a&& t%e sc%oo&s %ave co""on&( agreed 6ases suc% as t%e aut%orit( of Veda4 prast%ana tra(i4 w%ose interpretations were diverse. ;ven wors%ip in t%e sc%oo&s %as "an( co""on aspects. SmartaH Usua&&( a s"riti fo&&owing person t%at does not practice an( of t%e specific re&igions is ca&&ed a s"arta. T%is is a 6road fo&d under w%ic% an( of t%e re&igion natura&&( fa&&s )t%oug% wit% so"e exceptions as can 6e seen*. S"artas ta5e e&e"ents "ost&( fro" srauta4 and practices fro" $ga"as t%at are in accordance wit% s"ritis. T%e s%an"atas ta5e fro" $ga"as in var(ing degrees. 7or instance f&avors of sa5ta ta5e even t%ose

e&e"ents t%at are in contradiction to s"riti4 suc% as t%e va"acara Tantra. T%oug% different spiritua& p%i&osop%ies are fo&&owed4 s"artas "ost&( are advaitins. T%e wors%ip of s"artas usua&&( consists of five devatas )panca(atana* : Siva4 Vis%nu4 9anapati4 Sur(a and Sa5ti. T%is is popu&ari8ed 6( $di San5ara. VaishnavaH Vis%nu is treated as t%e Supre"e 9od%ead. 1e is said to 6e t%e st%iti?5ara5a4 t%e eterna& and t%e cause of a&& states of existence and t%e pervader. Vis%nu is a Vedic deit(. Vais%navas are a&"ost pure&( s"artas4 and t%e aga"as t%e( regard are Vai5%anasa and 'ancaratras. T%e Vais%nava concept of 6%a5ti is "ost fa"ous. T%e( descri6e five 5inds of devotee?9od re&ations4 or five for"s of devotion to 9od. T%e( are santa4 das(a4 sa5%(a4 vatsa&(a and "ad%ura. 3n order4 t%e( are ca&" devotion4 6eing a servant to 9od4 6eing a friend of 9od4 treating 9od as a c%i&d and treating 9od as %us6and. T%oug% t%ese in var(ing degrees are practiced 6( a&& re&igions t%e( are exp&icit&( categori8ed 6( t%e Vais%navas. T%ere are a&so five different for"s in w%ic% t%e 9od%ead "anifests according to Vais%navas ? 'ara4 $rca4 Vi6%ava4 V(u%a and $ntar(a"i. T%e two fa"ous Vedantic p%i&osop%ies Visistadwaita and waita4 propounded 6( +a"anu/acar(a and -ad%vacar(a4 are fo&&owed 6( t%e Vais%navas. T%e fo&&owers of +a"anu/acar(a are Sri Vais%navas and t%e fo&&owers of -ad%vacar(a are -ad%vas. T%ere are "an( different sc%oo&s in Vis%nu?wors%ip or Vais%navaH S"arta )D%agavata "ata* Sri Vais%nava )fo&&owers of +a"anu/acar(a ? Visistadvaitins* Sad?Vais%nava )fo&&owers of -ad%vacar(a ? vaita* 9audi(a Vais%nava )D%eda6%eda* Va&&a6%a Sa"prada(a )S%udd%advaita* =i"6ar5a Sa"prada(a ) vaitadvaita* SaivaH Siva is treated as t%e Supre"e 9od%ead. 1e is said to 6e t%e eterna&4 and t%e first cause of existence. Siva is a Vedic deit(. T%ere are "an( for"s of Siva?wors%ip4 in s"arta as we&& as Tantra. T%e s"artas w%o are wors%ippers of Siva are usua&&( advaitins. T%ere are dvaita versions of Saiva too. T%ere are "an( sects in Saiva4 suc% as D%airavas4 2apa&i5as4 Veera Saivas. T%ese are wors%ip "odes and wors%ips of different for"s of Siva and not different spiritua& p%i&osop%ies. T%e Saiva $ga"as are twent( eig%t in nu"6er. T%ere are two 5inds of Saiva $ga"as4 2as%"ira and Sidd%anta. T%e for"er are fo&&owed in nort% and &atter in sout% 3ndia. Sa3taH Sa5ti4 t%e -ot%er?9odess is treated as t%e Supre"e 9od%ead. S%e is said to 6e t%e pri"a& r%(t%"ic energ(4 and t%e cause of a&& "anifestation and action. Sa5ti cou&d 6e found in "u&tip&e for"s in t%e Veda4 &i5e urga4 9auri4 Saraswati4 a5s%ina4 D%arati and Sri. T%ere are 6ot% s"arta and Tantric for"s of Sa5ti?wors%ip. T%e Sa5ti wors%ippers are usua&&( advaitins. T%ere are ten for"s in w%ic% Sa5ti is wors%ipped4 9anga4 D%avani4 9a(atri 2a&i4 Ba5s"i4 Sarasvati4 +a/ara/esvari4 Da&a4 S(a"a&a and Ba&ita.

T%ere are ten for"s 5now&edge of Sa5ti or -a%avid(as4 na"e&( 2a&i4 Tara4 0%inna"asta4 D%uvanes%wari4 Daga&a4 %u"avati4 2a"a&a4 -atangi4 Sodasi and D%airavi. T%e( inc&ude t%e p%i&osop%(4 "et%ods of wors%ip wit% "antra4 .antra and Tantra. T%e wors%ip and 5now&edge of Sa5ti4 is ca&&ed Sri Vid(a. T%ere are sc%oo&s &i5e 'ancadasi and Sodasi4 w%ic% expound t%e p%i&osop%( of Sri Vid(a. ,%i&e 'ancadasi is pure&( s"arta4 sodasi 6eing a -a%avid(a inc&udes Tantric part too. T%e Sri 0%a5ra or Sri .antra is t%e one used in Sri Vid(a. T%e devata is ca&&ed Tripurasundari again ca&&ed wit% na"es &i5e Ba&ita and Da&a. Sa5ti is wors%ipped in t%ree "a/or for"s4 as a c%i&d or "aiden )Da&a*4 as t%e consort of Siva )'arvatiAU"a* and as 2a&i. Decause of t%is4 "an( sc%oo&s wors%ip Siva and Sa5ti toget%er. SauraH Sur(a is treated as t%e Supre"e 9od%ead. 1e is said to 6e t%e giver of &ife4 and t%e sou& of a&& 6eings. Sur(aA$dit(aASavitr is a Vedic deit(. Saura is a co"parative&( &ess practiced re&igion4 6ut was "ore in practice a few centuries ago. T%ere are few fa"ous te"p&es of Sur(a4 &i5e t%e ones in 2onar5 )Orissa* and $rasava&&i )$nd%ra 'rades%*. T%oug% Saura as an exc&usive re&igion is not ver( fa"ous4 wors%ip of Sur(a )as Savitr devata* is done 6( ever( practicing Dra%"in in %is Sand%(a vandana t%rice a da(. Savitri is t%e sa5ti associated. S%e is said to 6e in t%ree for"s4 9a(atri4 Savitri and Saraswati )in t%e t%ree parts of t%e da(*. +ana$at-aH 9anapat%i is treated as t%e Supre"e 9od%ead. 1e is t%e &eader of a&& t%e forces or t%e pra"ad%a ganas. 3n addition4 9anapati is t%e deit( of o6stac&es and is to 6e wors%ipped 6efore 6eginning an( "a/or wor5. 1e is said to reside and ru&e t%e "u&ad%ara or t%e 6ase of energ( centers. T%is is in fact t%e reason w%( 1e s%ou&d 6e wors%ipped first4 6efore an( ot%er deit(. T%us4 9anapati is a&so said to 6e a&& t%e four for"s of va5 or word )para?pas(anti?"ad%(a"a?vai5%ari*. 9anapati is found as Dra%"anaspati in t%e Veda. T%oug% wors%iped a&& over4 exc&usive 9anapati wors%ip is found "ore in -a%arast%ra and 2arnata5a. T%ere are varied&( eig%t4 sixteen and t%irt( two for"s in w%ic% 9anapati is wors%ipped. Desides4 t%ere are "an( Tantric for"s of wors%ip of 9anapati4 &i5e Ba5s%"iganapati4 'inga&aganapati4 Uc%c%is%taganapati and Urd%vaganapati. KaumaraH 2au"ara is t%e sc%oo&d t%at wors%ips 2u"araswa"(. T%ere are two Vedic for"s $gni and Sarpa4 w%ic% are precursors of 2u"araswa"(ASu6ra%"an(a. 1e is wors%ipped "ore in sout% 3ndia esp. Ta"i&nadu. "eli ion Vais%nava (radhanaDevata S$iritual (hiloso$hies Vis%nu waita4 Visistadwaita A amas Vai5%anasa4 'ancaratra

Saiva Sa5ta Saura 9anapat(a 2au"ara

Siva Sa5ti Sur(a 9anapat%i 2u"araswa"(

$dvaita $dvaita ? ? ?

2as%"ira4 Sidd%anata Saiva Sa5ta Tantras ? 9anapat(a Tantras ?

#. Core Conce$ts #.1 (rinci$le of Transcendence * Indian View of &ife 3s t%ere an 3ndian view of &ifeP Bet us exp&ore if one suc% t%ing exists4 if (es w%at are its features and %ow it can 6e seen in various facets of &ife. >ducation ;ducation ai"s at se&f?"aster( and not /ust 5now&edge. $s Swa"i Vive5ananda defines4 ;ducation is t%e "anifestation of divinit( a&read( present in "an. 3t is not %ow "an( texts one %as "astered4 it is %ow we&& one %as interna&i8ed a sing&e text t%at "atters. Traditiona&&( c%i&dren are taug%t at ear&( stages to 6( %eart. T%is is to train 0%itta4 t%e "e"or(. $ we&& trained 0%itta for"s t%e 6asis for se&f?"aster(4 not /ust good education. T%is does not "ean t%at ana&(tica& facu&ties are not trained. Dut "e"or( is trained a%ead of t%e" so t%at it for"s a 6asis for ot%er facu&ties. 1ow does 6etter "e"or( %e&p 6etter ana&(sisP $na&(sis in itse&f is a processing of facts to derive inferences. T%us4 considering "ore re&evant facts resu&ts in a 6etter ana&(sis. $nd a person wit% 6etter trained "e"or( can consider "ore facts for %is ana&(sis. T%us4 training "e"or( a%ead of training ana&(tica& facu&ties is 6eneficia&. ;xp&icit&( training "e"or( as a part of pri"ar( education is ver( essentia&. $not%er i"portant aspect of education is i"parting "ora& education. T%e seeds of "ora&it( a&ong wit% trained "e"or( are going to sta( wit% t%e student for &ife. -(t%o&og( and stories of great persona&ities inspire c%i&dren and %e&p t%e" "ou&d t%eir c%aracter in t%eir footsteps. 3ndians are far a%ead of ot%ers in 0onsciousness studies. 1ow to "aster oneJs own "enta& facu&ties4 senses and 6od(4 is a ver( i"portant aspect in &eading a successfu& &ife. Dut if t%at training co"es i"p&icit&( a&ong wit% a good education4 t%at is t%e 6est wa( it can %appen4 since it is practica&&( not possi6&e to train one in consciousness studies at a (oung age. To train t%ose facu&ties w%i&e t%e( are (oung and &et t%e" "aster t%ose 6( t%e ti"e t%e( grow up4 is exact&( w%at t%e traditiona& s(ste" ai"s at. >conomics T%e first paragrap% we find in an( econo"ics text wou&d 6e so"et%ing &i5e t%isH K-an %as desires. To fu&fi&& t%e" %e earns "one(. 1is desires "u&tip&(4 so do %is earnings4 t%us grows econo"ics.K Dut t%e traditiona& 3ndian princip&e sa(sH K esire is &i5e a 6urning fire. T%e "ore c&arified 6utter (ou pour into it to fu&fi&& t%e"4 t%e greater t%e( f&a"e. T%erefore t%e wa( is not to fu&fi&& t%e"G t%e wa( is to transcend t%e"K. 3t a&so sa(s4 Kida" eva%i pandit(a"4 catur(a" ida" eva%i4 ida" eva%i su6udd%itva"4 ada(a a&pataro v(a(a%K ? "eaning a&& wisdo" &ies in spending &ess t%an w%at one earns. T%is is t%e 6asis for conservative econo"ics. Dut one is never discouraged fro" earning. 3n fact4 earning is prescri6ed for "an( sections of societ(. Dut one is encouraged to spend

not "ore t%an w%at is re<uired to &ive "odest&( and use t%e re"aining for t%e 6enefit of societ(. 3n suc% a societ( w%ere ever(one is read( to %e&p eac% ot%er4 t%ere is no scope or fear of povert(. T%is does not "ean t%at suc% an arrange"ent encourages parasites. Suc% a s(ste" on&( encourages peop&e to wor5 for t%e 6etter"ent of t%e"se&ves as we&& as ot%ers. Ours is a societ( t%at does not 5now w%at centra&i8ed socia& securit( is. Socia& securit( exists4 tota&&( at a private &eve&. T%e west is doing its 6est to privati8e socia& securit(4 as its fears of 6an5ruptc( due to socia& securities fro" 9overn"ents are going %ig%er ever( (ear. ,e 5now %ow vo&unteer organi8ations wor5 ? t%ere are so"e peop&e w%o wor5 for t%e cause and t%e funds t%e( get to support t%ose vo&unteers are fro" t%e societ( ? private contri6utions. T%at is4 peop&e wor5 for societ( and societ( supports t%ose individua&s. T%us4 suc% arrange"ents do not in%erent&( encourage une"p&o("ent t%e wa( pu6&ici8ed socia& securit( s(ste"s do. Science and (hiloso$h- of &ife oes Science depend on our view of &ifeP 3s t%ere a 1indu view of t%isP Bet us proceed 6( considering so"e instances to see w%et%er Science is independent of our view of &ife or ot%erwise. 1. Creation of ?ero/ iscover( of 8ero is one of t%e "ost i"portant %appenings in t%e %istor( of Science or 1u"an 5now&edge in genera&. -at%e"atics and "an( 6ranc%es of Science wou&d not 6e in t%eir present for" wit%out 8ero. 3t is not /ust a nu"eric 8ero we spea5 of4 6ut t%e nu"eric 8ero was t%e origina& idea w%ic% in &ater ti"es inspired t%e Fexpression of not%ingness in areas &i5e group t%eor(. T%e i"portance of 8ero in "odern Science can never 6e exaggerated. 7or"a&ist and reductionist approac%es w%ic% are wide&( used 6( Science &arge&( depend on 8ero conceptua&&(. Mero is not%ingness4 an air( not%ing. 0reation of 8ero necessari&( s%ows an atte"pt to conceptua&ise and concretise not%ingness. Dut is an idea to concretise not%ingness an ar6itrar( idea or an indication of "ere&( oneLs genius or scientific te"perP 3s expressing not%ingness a purpose in itse&f or is it a "eans to so"et%ing e&seP Si"p&if(ing t%e Fexpression of 6ig nu"6ers is a s"a&&er purpose served 6( 8ero. 3ts actua& purpose is seen w%en infinit( is expressed. 'er%aps we cannot express infinit( or generate infinit( wit%out 8ero. 3t is not 6( generating 6ig nu"6ers and "u&tip&(ing t%e" t%at we arrive at infinit(4 6ut it is rat%er dividing nu"6ers4 %owever s"a&&4 6( 8ero t%at we can arrive at infinit(. T%is is not /ust interesting &ogic4 6ut it is rat%er t%e <uintessence of 3ndian '%i&osop%(. 3t sa(sH K3t is not 6( &oo5ing out4 wor5ing to fu&fi&& desires t%at one gets satisfaction 6ut it is 6( &oo5ing in and identif(ing onese&f wit% t%e Se&f t%at one gets to t%e state of i""orta&it(.K Our ;cono"ic t%eor( sa(sH K-anLs desire is &i5e 6urning fire. T%e "ore c&arified 6utter (ou add to it )t%e "ore (ou fu&fi&& (our desires*4 t%e 6igger t%e fire 6urns)desires grow 6ut never di"inis%*. T%e wa( to satisfaction is not fu&fi&&"ent of desire 6ut transcending desire.K Our p%i&osop%( of &ife sa(sH K3t is not 6( en"it( t%at we can defeat en"it(4 6ut it is 6( &ove t%at we can defeat it.K Si"i&ar was t%e idea t%at vio&ence cannot win vio&ence4 on&( non?vio&ence can. 3t is evident fro" t%e past t%at 3ndia &ived t%is '%i&osop%( 6( continuous&( creating4 even creating in response to a&& t%e

destruction 6( t%e invaders. 3t is not possi6&e to discover 8ero wit%out suc% p%i&osop%ica& 6ac5ground. T%erefore t%is idea is existent in a&& aspects of &ife4 in different for"s. 3t is not &i"ited to -at%e"atics. T%e Upanis%ads sa(H K$t"anQDra%"anK4 i.e.4 t%e individua& se&f is t%e sa"e as t%e Universa& Se&f. T%erefore reac%ing to one is reac%ing to t%e ot%er. T%is is t%e origin of t%e idea of expressing infinit( using not%ingness. T%e concept of Dra%"an4 t%e 8ero and t%e infinite4 pervades a&& for"s of 3ndian 5now&edge4 3ndian view of &ife and 3ndian wor&dview. T%is in context of -at%e"atics 6eca"e 8ero and infinit(4 in context of -edicine 6eca"e 'rana4 in context of econo"ics 6eca"e anot%er corresponding ru&e and so on. 2. 6edicine/ 3ndian "edicine spea5s of L'ranaL4 anot%er instance of t%e sa"e concept of Dra%"an. T%is resu&ted in a positive approac% to "edicine. T%e ;ng&is% "edicine proceeds 6( stud(ing a6nor"a&ities in t%e 6od( and fixing t%e". $(urveda proceeds 6( stud(ing %ow a perfect&( %ea&t%( 6od( is and %ow different&( it 6e%aves under certain conditions. 3n fact t%e w%o&e western '%i&osop%( is so. 3t gives innu"era6&e na"es to a6nor"a&ities and concentrates on t%e". 1ere in 3ndia t%ere was no concept of a Bunatic as(&u"4 since t%e case of "enta& i"6a&ance was a&"ost ru&ed out. T%e socia& organi8ation was so fas%ioned 6e%ind an idea& societ( t%at it went for 6a&ance rat%er t%an fixing i"6a&ances. $ccording to ;ng&is% "edicine t%e re"ed( )t%e "edicine* enters t%e 6od( and fig%ts t%e disease. $ccording to $(urveda t%e "edicine revita&ises 'rana so t%at 6od( itse&f fig%ts t%e disease. T%is is t%e funda"enta& difference. Dot% "edicine and disease 6eing outsiders to t%e 6od(4 w%en two outsiders fig%t in t%e 6od( a side?effect is natura&. T%is is t%e draw6ac5 of t%e ;ng&is% "edicine. Dut ours is anot%er instance of t%e '%i&osop%( stated a6ove4 t%at it is revita&i8ation t%at cures t%e disease 6ut not a 6att&e wit% t%e disease. T%e princip&e of 1o"eopat%( is t%at a disease c%aracterised 6( a s("pto" co"p&ex can 6e cured effective&( 6( t%e drug )in extre"e di&ution*4 w%ic% produces in a %ea&t%( individua& a si"i&ar s("pto" co"p&ex )si"i&ia si"i&i6us curanter4 "eaning &et &i5es cure &i5es*. 3t co"es c&ose to $(urveda in its %o&istic approac%4 its conception of L'ranaL and its ver( princip&e. T%e west cou&d not accept %o"eo as a LscientificL sc%oo& of "edicine4 6ecause of its p%i&osop%ica& disco"fort wit% suc% princip&e rat%er t%an 6ecause of a Lrea&&( scientificL reason. 3. T%at $lants have a nervous s-stem4 t%at even t%e( can 6reat%e and s"e&& and %ave &ife4 was un5nown to t%e west a centur( ago4 ti&& I. 0. Dose proved it. 1is idea was initia&&( criticised as radica& and %e was advised to c%ange %is views in certain respects w%en %e suggested t%at p&ants %ave &ife4 in %is paper. T%e western wor&d too5 a s%oc5 w%en I. 0. Dose cou&d prove in t%e +o(a& societ( 6( LscientificL "et%ods t%at p&ants %ave &ife. T%e i"portance of t%is apparent&( e&e"entar( fact can 6e understood4 since wit%out t%e 5now&edge of t%is fact "an( 6ranc%es of &ife sciences we see toda( wou&d not 6e t%ere in t%eir present for". 1ow &ife&ess are &ife sciences wit%out ac5now&edging &ife in p&antsP T%e wor&d 5ept using p&ants for "i&&ions of (ears and (et it too5 unpardona6&( &ong for "odern "an to rea&ise t%at t%e( are &iving 6eings.

3t can 6e easi&( 5nown fro" our scriptures t%at our ancestors %ad t%e 5now&edge "i&&ennia ago t%at p&ants %ave &ife. T%e( %ad a&so t%e 5now&edge t%at p&ants can s"e&& R &isten4 a6sor6 water t%roug% t%eir roots4 prepare t%eir food t%e"se&ves. 3s t%is /ust a t%eor( of science or does it %ave an( p%i&osop%ica& i"p&icationP 3t &oo5s to us &i5e a "atter of co""onsense t%at if p&ants grow in age and si8e4 ta5e 6irt% and wear out t%e( "ust 6e %aving &ife. Dut w%( cou&d t%e western "an not see &ife in t%e"P 3s t%e pro6&e" in %is science or %is ver( approac% to &ifeP 3t is certain&( a "atter of oneLs approac% to &ife t%at deter"ines t%ese. T%e 3ndians see t%e sa"e divine in a&& <ua&itative "anifestation. T%e( see t%at ever( part of t%e Universe %as consciousness4 w%et%er it is roc5 or "an. T%e( possess t%erefore no pre/udice t%at so"e %ave additiona& greatness as co"pared to ot%ers. 1ence it is not difficu&t for t%e" to 6e&ieve t%at even p&ants %ave &ife. T%at t%e( %ave verified t%is scientifica&&( is a different t%ing. Dut t%e( did not %ave t%e sense of superiorit( w%ic% stands as an o6stac&e to seeing "an( ground rea&ities. T%e( wors%ip p&ants not as nature wors%ipping 6ar6arians4 6ut as %ig%&( civi&ised peop&e w%o can see divinit( a&& over4 in ever( part of t%e universe. 3t is suc% approac% t%at &ed t%eir eco&ogica& sense4 w%ic% is toda( a ver( 6ig 6u88word. 3n fact t%e ecosense of 3ndians can 6e seen fro" t%e "o"ent t%e( wa5e up in t%e "orning w%en t%e( as5 "ot%er ;art% to forgive t%e" for %aving touc%ed %er wit% t%eir feet. Unfortunate&( we cannot see as "uc% of science in suc% practices as "uc% we see a re&igious superstition since we are trained to &oo5 at t%e" t%e wrong wa(. T%e western "an4 on t%e ot%er %and4 %as a&wa(s 6e&ieved t%at "an is superior to ot%er e&e"ents of nature. 3t is t%erefore difficu&t for %i" to LgrantL an( greatness to an( ot%er 6eing. T%is sense of superiorit( is visi6&e at different &eve&s of co&&ectivit(. 3t is t%e sa"e sense of superiorit( t%at "ade %i" po&&ute nature and exter"inate "an( species of ani"a&s around %i". 3t is t%e sa"e attitude t%at s%ows out in t%eir pre/udice t%at westerners are superior to ot%er %u"an races. 3t is t%is sense of superiorit( t%at &ed t%e" to destro( great civi&i8ations a&& over t%e wor&d. 3t is t%e sa"e co"p&ex at a different &eve& of co&&ectivit( t%at resu&ted in two wor&d wars. 3t is not true t%at it was proved on&( a centur( ago t%at p&ants %ave &ife. Dut t%e wa( 3ndians verified it was not on&( scientific4 6ut a&so spiritua&. 1ere co"es t%e first %iccup for t%e westerner4 for %e cannot see spiritua&is" as a scientific "eans to rea&it(. T%e exa"p&es considered a6ove fa&& a"ong t%e "ost significant discoveries4 w%ic% c%anged t%e course of "odern science. ,e %ave seen %ow t%e sa"e root idea t%at inspires a scientific t%eor( affects ot%er aspects of %u"an &ife4 socio?po&itica&4 econo"ic4 p%i&osop%ica& and spiritua&. 3t is visi6&e fro" t%e a6ove exa"p&es t%at t%e Science discovered 6( a civi&i8ation ref&ects its wor&dview4 its approac% to &ife and its va&ue s(ste"4 6ut is not unaffected 6( t%e" or dis/oint fro" t%e". Consciousnss Studies 1indus rea&i8ed &ong 6ac5 t%at a&& 5now&edge is u&ti"ate&( su6/ect to verification on&( 6( %u"an consciousness and facu&ties. T%us t%e stud( of o6server )%u"an consciousness* for"s an i"portant part of 6ot% trut% and its criteria. ,e see t%at scientists of &ate %ave arrived at t%is. $ fa"ous '%(sicist said K$&& science is natureLs answer to "anLs <uestion a6out w%at nature is4 it is not w%at nature actua&&( isK. ;ntire t%eor( of re&ativit( is a6out ac5now&eding t%e o6server and trut%Ls re&ativit( wit% reference to o6server.

S$iritualitSpiritua&it( is not /ust a "atter of "editation practisesA(oga4 t%oug% t%e( are "eans to t%e sa"e. Spiritua&it( is an out&oo5 to &ife t%at recognises a princip&e of transcendence in ever( aspect of &ife. T%e a6ove4 i.e.4 ;cono"ics4 Science4 ;ducation4 are few exa"p&es of %ow recogni8ing t%e princip&e of transcendence affects and redirects t%e entire p%i&osop%( and pursuit. ,%i&e science4 re&igion4 econo"ics4 education4 a&& t%ese %ave a p&ace in t% 1indu s(ste"4 a&& t%ese are put in t%e rig%t perspective. $s a resu&t4 we donot see an( of t%ese overw%e&"ing t%e ot%ers. T%at is4 tec%no&og( %as its due p&ace4 6ut it doesnot supercede an( ot%er aspect of &ife4 sa( re&igion. Suc% a 6a&anced view is uni<ue to 1induis". 3f we &oo5 at t%e west4 t%e( suffered fro" fanatic re&igions and grew over t%ose wit% rationa& t%in5ing. Dut as a resu&t t%e void created 6( t%e a6sence of a true spiritua& cu&ture is sti&& not fi&&ed in. $nd t%at is w%( we see t%at ;astern spiritua& cu&tures are now 6eing received t%ere. $&so4 t%e discoveries in sciences in t%e past centur( %ave "ar5ed a new era4 recognising t%e continuit( of trut% and a&so t%e &i"itations of t%e %u"an o6server w%o perceives t%ese on&( in discrete <uanta. T%ose &i5e ;rwin Sc%rodinger w%o "ade t%ese discoveries4 %ave o6served t%at t%ese discoveries co"e ver( c&ose to t%e Vedantic view of &ife. ,e a&so see t%at 6e it t%e o&den ti"es or present4 t%e "ost significant discoveries t%at c%anged t%e course of t%e %istor( of "an5ind4 direct&( or indirect&(4 5nowing&( or un5nowing&(4 ac5now&edge t%is princip&e of transcendence. Conclusion T%us w%at "ar5s t%e 1indu approac% is t%e recognition of t%e 'rincip&e of Transcendence.

#.2 ,orshi$ * 6urti (u1a -urti 'u/a )ido& wors%ip* is one of t%e core concepts of 1induis". T%is uni<ue concept of 1induis" is "isunderstood 6ot% wit%in and outside 1induis". 6urti . Devata $n ido& is a s("6o&4 representing a 9od?for". ,%en a person wors%ips an ido&4 %e is wors%ipping t%e deit( in t%e ido&. -urti usua&&( is a concrete s%ape4 %aving features attri6uted to t%e deit(. T%ese are usua&&( t%e p%(sica& attri6utes of t%e deit( as descri6ed 6( t%e t%eo&og( for t%e deit(. T%e ido& %as as "an( %andsA&egsA%eads as spo5en of in t%eo&og(. 7eatures &i5e wearing sna5esAgar&andsA%aving "oon as adorn"ent4 t%e weapons t%e( %o&d4 are a&so ref&ected in t%e ido&. Dut devata as suc% does not %ave a specific for" or <ua&it(G t%ese are not t%e p%(sica& attri6utes of devata. evata 6eing pure consciousness4 t%ese are t%e attri6utes t%at ref&ect t%e nature of t%at consciousness. 7or instance4 w%en we spea5 of &ord Siva4 1e is feature&ess. 1e is t%e eterna&. Dut 1e is said to %ave two wives4 wearing a sna5e4 trave&ing on an ox4 %aving "atted and dusted %air. ,%at are t%ese features of t%e feature&essP ,%at are t%e wives of t%e One wit%out t%e secondP $&& t%ese features4 if seen proper&(4 ref&ect on&( 1is feature&essness. 1is %air is t%e infinite space4 v(o"a )v(o"a5esa*. T%e sna5e %e wears is t%e awa5ened consciousness. 1e is t%e eterna& and is associated wit% two attri6utes : energ( and consciousness. T%ese are 1is two wives )Sa5ti and 9anga*. T%e universe is said to 6e t%e p&a( of pri"a& r%(t%"ic energ( and 1er union wit% t%e eterna& is said to 6e t%e disso&ution or &i6eration as t%e context "a( 6e. T%e ve%ic&e of t%is union is =andi4 t%e ox. T%is is t%e upward "ove"ent or ascent "an. 1e is diga"6ara4 t%e one wit% directions as %is c&ot%es : t%is in t%e trivia& sense is nudit(4 6ut in profound sense on&( indicates 1is infiniteness. T%us4 none of t%ese are <ua&ities in t%e sense a person %as <ua&ities4 6ut are t%e attri6utes t%at descri6e t%e feature&ess t%e 6est. >)$erience . Darsana >Seeing@ is a "etap%orica& expression of experiencing. D( sa(ing one >sees@ devata4 we are sa(ing t%at t%e person e&evated to t%e state of experiencing god?consciousness. T%en4 w%at does one "ean w%en %e >sees@ 9od in t%is for"P ,%at does %e "ean w%en %e sa(s %e saw +udra or urgaP oes it "ean %e rea&&( saw t%e devata in %u"an for"P 1ow is t%is possi6&eP T%e answer %as two partsH .es devata does descend into a for" for t%e sa5e of t%e devotee. ,%en wors%ipped wit% sincerit(4 in an( particu&ar for"4 one sees divinit( in t%e particu&ar for" as one "a( desire. $s suc%4 divinit( is pure consciousness and it does not %ave a for". Iust &i5e water. Dut one can co&&ect it in t%e vesse& %e wants. T%is vesse& is of two 5inds : t%e %u"an vesse& and t%e god?vesse&. $s &ong as person exists4 %e %as to experience t%e i"persona& in eit%er of t%ese wa(s. T%e i"persona& exists eterna&&(4 6ut experiencing co"es on&( w%en we ta&5 of a see5er. $nd so &ong as t%e see5er is t%ere4 t%ere is a vesse& needed. T%e vesse& is ca&&ed upad%i. 1. Iust invo5e pure consciousness and experience t%e for"&ess. .ou are t%e vesse& %ere. T%is is &i5e co&&ecting water in a vesse&.

2. 3nvo5e it in t%e for" (ou want. T%is is &i5e free8ing water into an ice?6&oc5 of (our desired s%ape. .ou can 6e%o&d waterG see it4 and its for". T%e ice?6&oc5 is t%e devata. T%e reason t%is 5ind of practice can 6e institutiona&i8ed is t%at t%is is not specific to an( %u"an vesse& : t%is is i"persona& and a >concrete for"@ of t%e i"persona& t%at is created for t%e we&&?6eing of entire "an5ind. T%ere is no difference in t%e &eve& of divinit( one sees or in t%e nature of divinit( one sees. T%e on&( difference is in t%e wa( one see5s to attain divinit(. T%ese are different approac%es t%at need to 6e practiced 6ased on t%e approac% of t%e devotee. T%ere are definite advantages in 6ot%. Dut t%e for"er is a secret practice t%at is possi6&e on&( in few cases w%i&e t%e &atter is possi6&e at a "ore popu&ar &eve&. T%e reasons areH 1. ;go a&wa(s co"es in w%i&e sa(ing 3 a" t%e pure consciousness or its vesse&. T%is is not t%e case w%en we tr( to invo5e it as if we are not t%e sa"e. Dut it s%ou&d 6e understood t%at t%oug% one tries to invo5e divinit( instead of fee&ing oneness wit% it4 %e can on&( 6e%o&d it on&( w%en %e attains t%at oneness. Seeing is 6eco"ing. 2. -ind %as t%e &i"itation of wor5ing even w%i&e it t%in5s it does not wor5. 0oncentrating on t%e for"&ess is not possi6&e un&ess one transcends t%e ver( state of concentration. So it is toug% to get to t%e rea& state of experiencing t%e for"&ess un&ess guided ver( carefu&&(. 3. Treating t%e for"&ess as %aving for"s and <ua&it(?&ess in ter"s of <ua&ities a&&ows one to soon discover t%e nature of t%ose <ua&ities. T%is wa( t%in5ing of 9od and wors%ipping can 6e "ade understanda6&e and practica6&e for ever(one. 4. T%e state of %aving a for" a&wa(s 6( oneJs side4 is a great ps(c%o&ogica& advantage. One can easi&( start fee&ing >(es t%ere is t%is )i"persona&* person w%o is "ore interested in "( we&fare t%an "e4 w%o is capa6&e of ever(t%ing t%at 3 a" not4 w%o %as infinite patience4 power4 "erc(4 and &ove for "e and ever(one e&se@. One s&ow&( decreases 6ot%ering a6out %i"se&f 6ecause %e is a&read( ta5en care of and starts caring "ore a6out t%e >person@ t%an %i"se&f. T%is is %ow one s&ow&( identifies wit% t%e i"persona& and i"persona&i8es %i"se&f. 5. 3n fact4 if seen proper&(4 w%at is %e 6etter wa( to sa( >3 a" t%at@ )a%a" 6ra%"as"i* and >T%at is "e@4 t%an treating devata as %aving a for"4 &ife and <ua&ities &i5e %u"anP Treating god &i5e onese&f is not%ing 6ut fee&ing oneness wit% 9od. D( ad"iring t%e <ua&ities attri6uted to devata4 one on&( grows over %is own &i"itations of %u"an <ua&ities and invo5es t%ose <ua&ities %e wors%ips t%e devata as %aving4 in %i"se&f. ,%at we ca&& as seeing4 is not seeing a p%(sica& for" wit% 6io&ogica& e(es. T%e one4 w%o sees4 certain&( sees a for" 6ut not a p%(sica& for" t%at ever( one can see. 3t is visi6&e to %i" a&one as a tai/asi5a rupa. T%e for" ta&5s to %i" and revea&s to %i" "an( secrets of t%e pat% %e is fo&&owing4 and s%owers on %i" "an( ot%er 6oons. Dut t%is is on&( anot%er wa( of sa(ing t%at t%e devotee ac<uired a&& t%ose t%roug% %is sad%ana. So4 6( disowning t%e capa6i&it( as an individua& and attri6uting it to t%e One4 one can easi&( grow over ego. T%is is precise&( t%e reason w%( dua&it( of individua&?9od )dwaita of /ivat"a? para"at"a* is so successfu& )ex. D%a5ti "arga*.

Dut devata as suc% cannot 6e &i"ited to an ido&. T%en w%at are we doing 6( wors%ipping an ido& as devataP ,e are on&( invo5ing t%e for"&ess infinite in t%e s"a&& ido& as s"a&& as our t%u"6. 3t does get invo5ed t%ere : w%erever we want and in w%ic%ever t%ing we want. ,e need not 6ot%er w%et%er we can co"press t%e infinite into t%e ido& : we cannot and we donJt %ave to. Dut of t%e si8e of t%e t%u"6 is t%e -an t%at is ru&ing us fro" wit%in )'urus%a*. T%is is t%e reason w%( ido& is usua&&( prescri6ed to 6e of t%at si8e )for persona& wors%ip*. 1owever4 t%e consciousnessAenerg( t%at one 6e%o&ds t%roug% t%e wors%ip is on&( of t%e order t%at %is own consciousness per"its4 and not of t%e si8e of t%e ido&. One on&( identifies t%e ido& wit% t%e 'urus%a wit%in : %e actua&&( experiences it. Theor- of (u1a 'u/a or wors%ip is a to5en of affection towards divinit(. 3t is t%e ritua&istic expression of devotion. T%e divine is t%e c&osest and t%e "ost private re&ative of "an4 and pu/a is a wa( to express oneJs gratitude to 9od4 6ecause a&& t%at %e is is 6ecause of 9od. 9od causes our existence4 and our evo&ution. 3t is not an expectation of 9od t%at we express an(t%ing to 1i"4 for it does not "atter to 1i". Dut it is a necessit( of "an to rea&i8e %is own insignificance in t%e cos"ic ga"e4 as t%at is t%e wa( %e can grow over a&& %is "iseries into infinite 6&iss. Iust t%e wa( a parent nurtures t%e c%i&d irrespective of w%et%er t%e c%i&d sa(s >t%an5s@ or 5isses t%e parentG 9od sti&& ta5es care of our evo&ution. Dut /ust t%e wa( a c%i&d spending good a"ount of ti"e in t%e parentJs &ap ever( da( never starves for an(t%ing4 t%e devotee w%o sits in t%e &ap of t%e divine consciousness never starves for an(t%ing. T%e parent is a&read( t%ere to ta5e care of us4 so t%ere is no need to starve for an(t%ing as suc%. Dut a&& t%e difference is 6etween 5nowing t%at t%e parent is t%ere. T%e c%i&d w%o t%in5s %e is not getting so"et%ing %e wants4 and a c%i&d w%o t%in5s %e gets ever(t%ing fro" t%e parent4 do not differ in t%eir success : t%e parent causes t%eir success in eit%er case. T%e( differ %owever4 on&( in t%e <ua&it( of t%eir %appiness4 t%eir confidence4 t%eir craving for desires. One4 w%o rests %is desires on 9od a&one4 %as not%ing to desire : 6ecause %e 5nows %e a&read( %as ever(t%ing. .es it is true t%at one can wors%ip god desiring so"et%ing : 6ut w%en it is &i5e t%e 5id appeasing t%e "ot%er wit% 5isses wanting so"et%ing4 it is e<ua&&( 6&issfu&. Dut one does not experience t%e 6&iss in t%at &ove : %is attention is in t%e t%ing %e is as5ing for and not t%e 6eaut( of "ot%erJs &ove. 3t is sti&& t%ere %owever. $nd evo&ution in &ife is to s&ow&( "ove oneJs attention fro" t%e o6/ect of desire to t%e experience of &ove. T%en one auto"atica&&( rea&i8es t%e insignificance of desire. 1e rea&i8es t%at t%e %appiness in t%e o6/ect of desire is infinitesi"a& 6efore t%e %appiness in "ot%erJs &ove. $nd %e t%en see5s to sit in t%e "ot%erJs &ap and does not see5 an(t%ing e&se. T%is is w%at %appens w%en one 5eeps wors%ipping : sa5a"a 6eco"es nis%5a"a over ti"e. One does not %ave to suppress desires4 6ut one %as to wors%ip wit% sincerit( even t%oug% see5ing so"et%ing. T%is guarantees %is evo&ution. Te)tual "eferences Dra%"ana portion of t%e Veda )$ran(a5a a&so to so"e extent* contains "antras for wors%ipping. T%ere are "an( wa(s to wors%ip4 &i5e arcana4 %o"a4 /apa. T%e "antras t%at

praise t%e devata are found "ost&( in t%e Sa"%ita portion of t%e Veda. T%e "antras used in t%e se<uence of various steps in t%e wors%ip co"e fro" Dra%"ana. T%e procedures for various 5inds of wors%ip are found in t%e 2a&pa Sutras )esp. Srauta Sutras*. 7or different purposes4 "antras are put into different se<uences4 and used in different co"6inations wit% different procedures. ;ac% of t%ese is ca&&ed a sa"puti5arana. The (rocedure T%e "a/or steps in wors%ipping are "editating on t%e devata4 t%en invo5ing devata and pra(ing. 3n case of arcana4 devata is invo5ed in an ido&. 3n case of %o"a4 $gni is invo5ed and is as5ed to carr( o6&ations to a&& t%e devatas. 3n case of /apaA(oga devata is invo5ed in t%e 6od( of devotee %i"se&f. T%is is ca&&ed d%arana in (oga and n(asa in /apaAupasana ter"ino&og(. T%ese categories are not "utua&&( exc&usive : n(asa can 6e done during arcana and so on. T%ere are differences in t%e wa( it is done4 6ut in a&& t%e cases t%e sad%a5a invo5es devata in %i"4 direct&( or indirect&(. T%ere are a few co""on steps for a&& "odes of wors%ip. T%e( areH San3al$a San5a&pa is t%e first step in wors%ip. Defore 6eginning wors%ip t%e devotee "entions t%e p&ace4 date and ti"e and dec&ares t%at %e is 6eginning wors%ip. T%e devata 6eing wors%ipped4 t%e "ode of wors%ip and purpose of wors%ip are a&so "entioned. $fter ava%ana4 t%e "antra used for wors%ip4 its ris%i and c%andas are a&so "entioned 6efore n(asa is done. Tar$ana T%e devata is >satisfied@ 6efore wors%ip. Tarpana co"es fro" trupti and tarpana "eans satisf(ing. 3t is outward&( s("6o&i8ed 6( &eaving water4 6ut t%e devata is satisfied 6( offering ra%as(a tarpana t%roug% (ogic practice. T%ere are different "eans of giving a tarpana4 for different purposes. 3n case of devatas it is t%roug% water or "i&5 or an( ot%er sweet f&uid. 3n case of pitris it is water wit% 6&ac5 sesa"e )ti&aOuda5a*. (u1a T%e devata is t%en invo5ed4 wors%ipped in an( of t%e wa(s. One is said to attain to Sa"ad%i and 6eco"e one wit% t%e devata in t%at state4 during wors%ip. (hala T%e resu&tA"erit of wors%ip perfor"ed is offered after wors%ip. 3t is offered according to t%e resu&t soug%t during san5a&pa. 3t cou&d 6e &o5a 5a&(ana or an( specific desire or si"p&( &eft to t%e devata. 1ere is a 6rief of "et%ods of wors%ip. Arcana

$rcana invo&ves 16 upacaras to t%e devata4 d%(ana4 ava%anaN and visar/ana. T%ese are preceeded 6( vigra%a sod%ana and prana pratist%a. Vigra%a sod%ana is finding and purif(ing t%e ido& to "a5e it fit for wors%ip. T%en t%e ido& is c%arged wit% god?ness. T%is is ca&&ed prana pratist%a. uring prana pratist%a4 t%e ido& is said to 6e given &ife4 e(es and ot%er organs. ,it%out t%is4 devata cannot 6e invo5ed in t%e ido&. T%roug% t%is4 we are invo5ing t%e cos"ic consciousness t%at ena6&es a&& our vision4 into t%e ido&. 3n ot%er words4 we are c%arging t%e ido& wit% t%e devata?ness. T%is is t%e step 6efore inviting t%e devata )ava%ana*. $s t%e ido& is given &ife and senses4 we "editate on t%e for" of devata we are invo5ing )d%(ana*. T%en we invo5e t%e devata in t%at for" )ava%ana*. T%en t%e devata is wors%ipped in "an( wa(s4 and is offered a&& t%at a %u"an is offered. 3t s%ou&d 6e understood t%at prana pratist%a is different fro" ava%ana. 'rana pratist%a is done to t%e ido& w%i&e ava%ana is done 6( and for t%e devotee. 'rana pratist%a is c%arging t%e ido& wit% god?ness w%i&e ava%ana is invo5ing t%e god?ness. 'rana pratist%a c%arges t%e ido& wit% t%e devata4 6ut it does not invo5e it. T%ere are cases w%ere devata resides i""inent&( in certain ido&s )&i5e sa&agra"as or swa(a"6%uva &ingas* and t%e( do not need prana pratist%a. 1owever4 ava%ana is needed in a&& cases inc&uding t%ese4 since invo5ing t%e devata in t%e ido& is to 6e done ever( ti"e t%e devotee is see5ing to wors%ip devata in t%at ido&. 1aving said t%is4 w%en one wors%ips wit% sincerit( and attains divinit( steps &i5e prana pratist%a and ava%ana %appen 6( t%e"se&ves even w%en t%e( are not done exp&icit&(. T%at does not under"ine t%e significance of t%ese steps 6ut on&( stresses t%e i"portance of devotion. evata is offered a&& t%at a "an is offered. T%e >upacaras@ or services or treat"ent t%at are done to a %u"an guest4 &i5e inviting4 giving water and ot%er drin5s4 c&ot%es4 food4 entertain"ent t%at %e &i5es are a&& done to t%e devata. $fter t%at4 t%e devata is >wors%ipped@. T%is invo&ves c%anting "antra or stotra4 and "a5ing offerings to t%e devata. T%is cou&d 6e f&owers or 5un5u" or a6%is%e5a. ;ac% devata is wors%ipped in a specific wa(. 7or instance evi is wors%ipped wit% pus%pa4 5un5u"a and %aridra )tur"eric*. S%e is said to &ove to 6e praised )stotra pri(a*. Vis%nu is offered f&owers4 gar&ands4 scents4 1e is said to &i5e adorn"ents )a&an5ara pri(a*. Siva is said to &i5e a6%is%e5a )continuous&( pouring waterA"i&5Asweet &i<uidsAriceA6%as"a etc over t%e Siva &inga* )a6%is%e5a pri(a*. evatas are said to &i5e to 6e ca&&ed wit% different na"es )ex. Ba&ita evi is praised as na"a para(ana preeta*. D( ta5ing t%e different na"es of a devata4 one rea&i8es t%e "u&tifaceted and infinite nature of t%e devata. T%e upacaras are done again after t%is and t%e wors%ip t%en conc&udes.

4a$a Iapa is c%anting of "antra. T%e procedure for /apa invo&ves san5a&pa4 n(asa4 d%(ana and "antra /apa. :oma 1o"a is wors%ipping t%roug% fire )agni 5ar(a*. 3n 1o"a4 $gni is invo5ed. $gni is said to 6e t%e face of a&& devatas )deva "u5%a*. $&& t%e o6&ations )%avis* are offered to 1i". $fter offering o6&ations to $gni4 o6&ations to a&& ot%er devatas are offered t%roug% $gni : $gni is said to carr( t%ose to devatas. 1avis is said to 6e t%e food of devatas 6( o6taining w%ic% t%e( cause "anJs we&&?6eing. $gni 6eing t%e carrier of o6&ations4 %is consort s("6o&i8es offering. $gni is said to %ave two wives4 Sva%a and Swad%a. Sva%a is t%e word to 6e said w%i&e o6&ations are poured into fire. Sva%a is offering to devatas and Swad%a is t%e offering to pitris or departed fat%ers. 7or a %o"a4 an a&tar is 6ui&t. T%en fire is invo5ed in t%at. T%en t%e artic&es are purified and fire is wors%ipped. T%en ot%er devatas are wors%ipped. 2it-a3arma One is supposed to perfor" eig%t ritua&s ever(da(4 t%e( are ca&&ed nit(a5ar"as. T%ese are eig%t wa(s of wors%ip. T%e &ist varies for varnas and eac% varna %as t%e nit(a 5ar"a? asta5a prescri6ed separate&(. Droad&( t%e( are ta5ing 6at%4 various for"s of wors%ip4 serving occupation and treating guests. 7or a srotri(a4 t%e( are snana4 sand%(avandana4 /apa4 %o"a4 devatarcana4 vaisadeva4 atit%(a and veda pat%a. #.! Devata evata or deit( is a "u&tifaceted concept in Sanatana %ar"a. T%ere are ver( "an( different aspects of devata. $part fro" o6/ect of wors%ip4 devata is a s("6o& representing different t%ings in different for"s of 5now&edge. 0o""on&( we see t%at devatas are descri6ed as %aving consorts4 weapons and ve%ic&es. $nd t%e( %ave nu"6er of %eads4 %ands and feet. T%e( are a&so associated wit% different sets of nu"6ers. $&& t%ese %ave different "eanings in different senses4 w%en we ta&5 of different aspects of t%e devata. So"e of t%e s("6o&s 6eco"e "ore i"portant or &ess i"portant 6ased on t%e aspect we are ta&5ing of. T%en t%ere are different &i5es and dis&i5es for eac% devata. =ot %aving a for" and <ua&ities in t%e %u"an sense4 &i5es and dis&i5es do not app&( to devata t%e wa( t%e( app&( to %u"ans. T%e( represent "et%ods t%at "a5e t%e devata easi&( reac%a6&e or in ot%er words4 t%e( are t%e "eans to rea&i8e t%e devata. Droad&(4 t%e different aspects of devata areH

=elon in to a level of consciousness . transcendentalH evata represents a facu&t( of %ig%er consciousness. 0onsorts represent t%e associate consciousness powers of devata t%at are insepara6&e fro" devata. ,eapons and ve%ic&es represent powers4 instru"ents and "et%ods t%at ena6&es one to reac% t%e devata. 2apa&i epit%et of Siva )2apa&ini of Sa5ti too* is a good exa"p&e of t%is4 w%ic% "eans t%at 1e wears 5apa&as or in ot%er words resides in t%e 5apa&as of t%e devotees. ifferent for"s of devata are said to reside in or ru&e different wor&ds. T%oug% devatas pervade a&& t%e wor&ds4 we usua&&( app&( t%e word devata in t%e seven urd%va &o5as4 especia&&( fro" swarga &o5a and a6ove. ,%at is s("6o&ica&&( narrated in genera& 6( a&&egories of gods 5i&&ing de"ons is t%e stor( of transcendence. T%ere are de"ons and gods. e"ons do evi& acts4 %urt no6&e peop&eG gods s&a( t%e" and protect t%e no6&e. 3n Sanatana d%ar"a4 t%ere is not%ing t%at is no6&e or evi&. ;ver(t%ing4 good or 6ad4 is seen as a part of evo&ution of "an. On&( evi& is ignorance of "an or nascience t%at wi&& 6e transcended 6( gnosis. evata 5i&&ing an $sura4 is a&so a ps(c%o&ogica& suggestion. 3t s("6o&ises t%e growt% of "an over %is inner ene"ies suc% as %atred and &ust t%at e"anate fro" ignorance4 and %is "arc% towards trut%. 9ods are t%e no6&er facets of %u"an nature t%at are "anifestations of 5now&edge and rea&isation. T%e( %e&p "an e&evate %i"se&f to %ig%er states of consciousness 6( s&a(ing de"ons. -an %i"se&f4 6( %is wi&& power4 reac%es to t%ose states is anot%er version of t%e sa"e state"ent. $r/una fig%ting gods and &ater 5nowing t%at gods were testing %i"4 t%en ta5ing astras fro" t%e"4 p&eading Bord S%iva to get t%e 'as%upata4 D%i"a defeating t%e $irawata of 3ndra are accounts of t%eir divine ro"ance and t%eir <uest for trut%. T%eir conse<uent p%(sica& victor( is an account of %ow d%ar"a was esta6&is%ed. T%ese stories narrate a "ora& action fo&&owed and inspired 6( a spiritua& rea&isation. 3n fact t%e great -a%a6%arata war fo&&owed a great discource on cos"ic "ec%anis" and its spiritua& princip&e4 D%agavad 9ita. (art of Virat (urusha@ a cosmic conce$tionH evata is infinite and universa&. evata is depicted as a part of t%e Unviersa& Deing or Virat 'urus%a. $&so4 in t%e wors%ip of eac% devata t%e devata is e<uated to t%e Virat 'urus%a 1i"se&f. 3t is said t%at t%e word KdevaK app&ies up to 'ara"at"a4 t%at is eac% devata is not on&( a part of 6ut a&so represents t%e w%o&e of t%e ;terna&. T%is is to sa(4 t%e a6so&uteAeterna& cou&d 6e rea&i8ed t%roug% wors%ip of an( devata. evata is 6ot% universa& and persona&. evata is said to grow w%en "an wors%ips. T%is is t%e persona& aspect. T%e growt% of devata in "an is t%e deve&op"ent and fu&fi&&"ent of "anLs 6eing4 "ateria&4 e"otiona&4 inte&&ectua& and spiritua&. Sri 2ris%na sa(s Kdevan 6%ava(atanena te deva 6%ava(antu va% paraspara" 6%ava(anta% sre(a% para" avaps(at%a SDg. 3.11TK. 9ods grow w%en "en wors%ip and p&ease t%e". T%e( in turn 6ring a6out "anLs we&&6eing. T%us t%e( "utua&&( %e&p eac% ot%er.

"e$resentative of a $ower of natureH T%e sound?for" of eac% devataLs energ( is represented 6( -antra. -antras are of "an( t(pes &i5e stri and purus%a "antras. T%e( %ave wa5ing and s&eeping ti"es. ;ac% "antra devata represents a KnadiK and t%e active and inactive ti"es of t%ose are represented 6( t%is. T%ere are a&so different ragas in Sangita4 w%ic% are said to p&ease different devatas );x. Sivaran/ani4 S%an"u5%a pri(a*. .ogicH evata is a (ogic s("6o& too. T%e various weapons and associate s("6o&s of devata represent "et%ods4 c&ues and instru"ents to awa5en %ig%er &eve&s of consciousness %idden in "an. T%e %eads4 %ands4 &egs of devata t%at are in different nu"6ers4 are a&so suc% suggestions. Va/ra(ud%a of 3ndra4 Dow& and 9ada in t%e %ands of 9a(atri4 t%e great Serpant t%at Vis%nu s&eeps on and Siva wears as adorn"ent4 9aruda and -a(ura t%e ve%ic&es of Vis%nu and 2u"araswa"( t%at are ene"ies of sna5es4 Vrs%a6%a t%e ve%ic&e of Union of Siva and Sa5ti4 2u"araswa"( %aving Six %eads4 are a&& exa"p&es. T%e( are a&& c&ues to (oga4 t%at t%e sus%u"na "arga in t%e spine cou&d 6e used to awa5en t%e %idden consciousness and union wit% t%e divine. AstronomicalH $&ternate&(4 evata is an astrono"ica& suggestion. ;ac% devata represents a star4 or a conste&&ation. T%e consorts4 ve%ic&es4 s("6o&s on f&ag4 can a&so 6e seen in t%is &ig%t. T%e star c&osest to anot%er star is depicted as an adorn"ent or consort. $ star w%i&e rising is fo&&owed 6( anot%er4 t%e &atter is said to 6e t%e ve%ic&e. ,%i&e setting t%e direction c%anges and t%e &atter gets a%ead of t%e for"er ? in t%is case t%e &atter 6eco"es s("6o& on t%e for"ers f&agstaff. 7or instance4 -it%una )9e"ini* is 'arvati?'ara"eswara -it%una. ,%en 9e"ini rises after sunset4 Vrs%a6%a )Taurus* rises /ust a%ead of it. T%en 'arvati?'ara"eswara 6eco"e Vrs%a6%a %va/a4 wit% Taurus as t%e s("6o& on t%eir f&ag. Defore sunrise w%en 9e"ini sets4 t%e positions are reversed and it appears a6ove Taurus. T%en Siva?'arvati are Vrs%a6%a vaa%ana4 Taurus 6eco"es t%eir ve%ic&e. urga as Si"%a va%ana )Virgo over Beo*4 2u"ara Swa"( as -a(ura va%ana4 9anes%a as -us%i5a Va%ana4 -an"at%a as -a5ara %wa/a are exa"p&es. $ devata 5i&&ing an asura is an astrono"ica& s("6o&is" too. 3f a c%aracter $ is said to 5i&& a c%aracter D4 it "eans t%at t%e star s("6o&ised 6( D sets at t%e ti"e at w%ic% t%e star s("6o&ised 6( $ rises. 3f it is an indirect 5i&&ing t%en it "eans t%at t%ese stars are not dia"etrica&&( opposite 6ut t%ere is a s"a&& ti"e difference 6etween t%e rise of $ and set of D. 3n genera&4 en"it( is to 6e seen as dia"etrica&&( oppositeness. $t t%e ti"e of t%e set of D4 t%e star nearest to $ is said to %ave %e&ped $ in 5i&&ing D. 3ndra 5i&&ing Vritra4 +a"a 5i&&ing +avana4 $r/una %itting D%is%"a wit% t%e %e&p of Si5%andi4 en"it( 6etween 9aruda and Sarpa4 are exa"p&es.

#.# 6antra =ee1a/ Dee/a is a sound?seed t%at represents energ(. Dee/as are found in t%e pre?Vedic ti"es too. 3n Vedic 'eriod we see t%e Dee/as encapsu&ated into "antras. ;ac% god?for" is identified wit% a particu&ar energ( for"4 represented 6( a 6ee/a. 6antra/ -antra is a centra& concept of 1induis". -antra is defined as >-ananaat tra(ate iti "antra"@4 "eaning t%e word t%at protects w%en reca&&ed repeated&(. ;ac% "antra %as a ris%i4 c%andas and devata. +is%i is t%e seer t%at revea&ed t%e "antra. 0%andas is t%e "eter of t%e "antra. evata is t%e diet( 6eing pra(ed to in t%e "antra. -antra is said to 6e t%e sound?for" of a god?for". ;ac% god %as a "u&a?"antra consisting of or e<uiva&ent to t%e energ( generated 6( t%e 6ee/as of t%at god?for". T%e entire universe is t%e p&a( of 'ri"a& +%(t%"ic ;nerg( and in its essentia& for" "atter is a&so energ(. Vi6rations co"prise t%e universe. Vi6rations produce sound and t%e 5ind of energ( generated and its effects depend on t%e nature of vi6rations. D( t%e repeated c%ant of a "antra t%e energ( represented 6( it can 6e invo5ed and directed towards specific purposes. 7or t%is reason scriptures prescri6e t%at t%e e&igi6i&it( of a person s%ou&d 6e ad/udged 6efore inducting )upadesa* into suc% practice )$nust%ana*. 3t s%ou&d 6e &earnt fro" a preceptor )guru* and practiced t%e wa( it is taug%t4 for i"proper practice can 6e %ar"fu& to t%e individua& as we&& as surroundings. 4a$a/ T%e repeated c%anting of a "antra is ca&&ed /apa. T%ere are t%ree "odes in w%ic% /apa is doneH 1. 0%anting t%e "antra &oud&( in a r%(t%" 2. =ot c%anting a&oud 6ut it in a &ow voice or si"p&( reca&&ing t%e "antra wit% &ip "ove"ent. T%is is ca&&ed 5$amsu /apa. 3. +eca&&ing t%e "antra wit%in4 wit%out "a5ing an( voice4 &ip "ove"ent or "ove"ent of tongue. T%is is ca&&ed Antar1a$a. T%is is t%e state 6est reco""ended. 6antra.Anusthana/ -antra?$nust%ana is an encapsu&ation of "antra /apa into t%e astanga (oga. T%e steps &i5e -ama4 ni-ama4 $rat-ahara are genera& ru&es. $ few of t%e" areH ;ac% devata is said to %ave specific ti"ings in t%e da( w%en t%e devata wa5esAs&eeps. Iapa is prescri6ed in t%e ti"e t%e "antra ad%idevata )deit( of t%e "antra* wa5es. One s%ou&d do /apa facing different directions w%en see5ing different resu&ts. Asana is t%e posture in w%ic% /apa is done. (rana-ama is t%e 6reat% regu&ation done 6efore /apa. Dharana is done t%roug% 3aran-asa and an an-asa4 t%is is invo5ing devata in t%e 6od(. Dh-ana s&o5a is c%anted

after t%at4 t%is is concentrating on t%e for" of devata. T%en /apa is started. One is said to get to Samadhi state wit% /apa. 6antra Siddhi/ T%e state w%ere t%e energ( represented 6( a god?for" can 6e invo5ed is ca&&ed "antra sidd%i. ;ver( devata is said to 6e "antra?6add%a4 t%at is4 t%e devata is o6&iged to fu&fi&& t%e purpose w%( t%e devata is invo5ed. Su3ta Su5ta )%("n* is a co&&ection of "antras on a specific diet( )god?for"*. Sam$uti3arana $ sa"puti5arana is a se<uence of "antras used for specific purposes co"6ined wit% specific procedures.

#.% 0a1na .a/na is t%e centra& concept of Vedic re&igion. .a/na "eans sacrifice. 3t invo&ves "a5ing an offering for a specific purpose. The Theor- of 0a1na $gni )t%e 9od of 7ire* is ca&&ed t%e face of a&& 9ods and is t%e centra& deit( for .a/na. O6&ations are offered in t%e fire and $gni is said to carr( t%ose )%avis* to t%e 9ods. 1avis is t%e food for 9ods. 9ods grow on %avis and 6ring t%e we&&?6eing of "en )t%roug% rains and so on*. T%us 9ods grow on "anJs offerings and "anJs e&evation is 6roug%t 6( t%e 9ods. >devan bhavayatanena
te deva bhavayantu vah parasparam bhavayantah sreyah param avapsyatha [Bg. 3.11] @

$&& &ife is said to 6e a (a/na. ;ver( action4 w%en "ade as an offering to t%e 9od4 is a (a/na. ,ors%ipping4 eating food4 fig%ting war4 creating wea&t%4 contri6uting to %u"an 5now&edge4 running fa"i&(4 eac% of t%ese is a (a/na. oing t%ese as offerings to derive so"et%ing greater4 "a5es t%ese actions (a/nas. ,%en t%ese actions are not done for "ateria& gain 6ut wit% a se&f&ess "otive4 t%at is t%e %ig%est for" of (a/na. Sacrifice 6rings transcendence. Transcendence t%roug% sacrifice is t%e "eaning of &ife in t%e Vedic re&igion. T%ere are two directions of "ove"ent in &ife4 pravritti and nivritti. 'ravritti is accu"u&ating and indu&ging. =ivritti is c&earing de6ts and transcending. 3n pravritti4 .a/na 6rings "ateria& possessions4 rig%teousness and %eaven&( 6&iss. T%is %e&ps "an fu&fi&& %is aspirations as we&& as contri6ute to socia& &iving. -an gradua&&( grows over desires and 6eco"es "ore i"persona&. T%is is %ow %e enters nivritti p%ase. uring nivritti4 (a/na is done wit%out an( desire4 "ere&( as a dut(. T%is %e&ps in c&earing past 5ar"a4 6ut t%is great&( %e&ps t%e we&&?6eing of surroundings )&o5a 5a&(ana*. T%is is t%e wa( rea&i8ed sou& perfor"s (a/na. 3n nivritti4 (a/na 6rings eterna& 6&iss. Dra%"andava&&i of t%e Taittiree(a Upanis%ad )c%apter !* expounds t%e gradation of %appiness experienced 6( "en4 "anes4 gods4 &ord of gods4 teac%er of t%e gods4 creator of gods and t%e creator of t%e universe in t%e ascending order4 increasing %undred fo&d for eac% &eve&. $t eac% &eve&4 t%e 6&iss is e<uated to t%at of a veda?wise person )srotri(a* w%o overca"e %is desire )5a"a %atas(a*. 3n pravritti one experiences t%e 6&iss of gods. 3n nivritti one grows over desires and experiences t%e 6&iss of Dra%"an. 3n nivritti4 (a/na 6rings &i6eration. Te)ts 'urva -i"a"sa dea&s extensive&( wit% t%e p%i&osop%( of (a/na. T%is is a&so ca&&ed 2ar"a -i"a"sa. Iai"ini gave t%e 'urva -i"a"sa darsana wit% 12 c%apters. 3t is pri"ari&( an in<uir( into t%e Dra%"ana portion of t%e Veda. 3t dea&s wit% various sacrifices4 t%eir purposes and "et%ods.

3t %as a four c%apter supp&e"ent ca&&ed san5ars%a 5anda4 6( Iai"ini. 3t is a&so ca&&ed -ad%(a"a -i"a"sa4 -ad%(a"a 2anda4 evata 2anda and Upasana 2anda. 3t dea&s wit% purpose of "antras4 t%e nature and essence of devatas4 purpose of wors%ipping devatas. 0a1na in Dail- life * The (anca 6aha0a1nas $ 9r%ast%a is supposed to do five (a/nas ever( da(. T%ese are ca&&ed panca "a%a(a/nas. T%ese are offerings to 9ods4 +is%is4 'itris )departed fat%ers*4 creatures and "en. T%e( are ca&&ed deva (a/na4 ris%i (a/na4 pitru (a/na4 6%uta (a/na and "anus%(a (a/na respective&(. $pasta"6a %ar"a Sutras "ention t%ese )1.13*. -an %as four de6ts4 to gods4 pitris4 ris%is and fe&&ow?"en. T%ese are ca&&ed deva runa4 ris%i runa4 pitru runa and "anus%(a runa. D( doing t%e a6ove (a/nas4 "an repa(s t%ose de6ts and fu&fi&&s %is purposes in &ife. D( pra(ing to gods and offering o6&ations to t%e"4 and t%roug% sacrifices one c&ears %is de6ts to gods. T%is is ca&&ed deva (a/na. D( gaining Vedic 5now&edge4 6( teac%ing4 s%aring and passing it on to su6se<uent generations one c&ears %is de6ts towards t%e seers. T%is is ca&&ed ris%i (a/na. D( offering o6&ations to pitris4 and 6( continuing t%e race 6( 6egetting progen(4 raising t%e" proper&(4 6( getting good na"e for t%e &ineage4 one c&ears %is de6ts towards t%e pitris. T%is is ca&&ed pitru (a/na. D( s%owing co"passion towards fe&&ow "en4 6( treating t%e guests we&&4 6( %e&ping t%ose in need4 6( excusing t%ose 6( w%ic% one %as 6een wronged4 6( doing actions t%at are 6eneficia& to "en4 one c&ears %is de6ts towards %is fe&&ow "en. T%is is ca&&ed "anus%(a (a/na. D%uta (a/na is s%owing co"passion towards &iving 6eings in genera&. T%is inc&udes a6staining fro" inf&icting vio&ence and 5i&&ing4 &iving as a part of nature wit%out %ar"ing it.

#.' Consciousness Studies ,%at "a5es t%e 1indu 5now&edge s(ste" uni<ue is t%e stud( of consciousness. ,e %ave t%e "ost co"pre%ensive science of consciousness. $fter rea&i8ing t%at p%eno"ena& wor&d is re&ativistic4 t%e next stage is rea&i8ing t%at t%e trut% in p%eno"ena& wor&d is deter"ined 6( state of consciousness of t%e o6server. T%ere 6egins t%e stud( of consciousness. T%us t%e stud( of consciousness is an advanced stage in "anJs pursuit of Trut%. 1indu science of consciousness dea&s wit% consciousness at a&& t%e &eve&s4 %u"an4 supra? %u"an and su6?%u"an. 3t expounds t%e various &eve&s of consciousness4 states of consciousness4 t%e nature of consciousness at eac% &eve&4 t%e nature of Trut% at eac% &eve& of consciousness and "et%ods to attain t%ose &eve&s. Terminolo -/ &o3as ;$lanes of consciousness< T%e various p&anes of consciousness are ca&&ed &o5as or wor&ds. T%ere are fourteen wor&ds4 seven ad%o &o5as )&ower* and seven urd%va &o5as )%ig%er*. ;art% )p%(sica& consciousness* is at t%e 6otto" of urd%va &o5as. T%e wor&ds 6e&ow it are su6conscious. T%e seven urd%va &o5as are 6%u%4 6%uva%4 suva%4 "a%a%4 /ana%4 tapa% and sat(a". T%ese can 6e grouped into t%ree4 %u"an?t%e interconnect?super%u"an. D%u%?6%uva%?suva% is t%e "atter?&ife?"ind trip&et. D%u% is eart% or p%(sica& consciousness. D%uva% is vita& consciousness. Suva% is t%e wor&d of "ind. -a%a% is t%e wor&d of pure idea4 t%us it is a&so ca&&ed vi/nana &o5a. T%is is t%e p&ane w%ere "an 6egins transcending fro" persona& to i"persona& consciousness. T%e princip&e of "anifestation can 6e understood t%roug% "a%at4 a %ig%er function of inte&&ect. Iana% is t%e wor&d of 6&iss4 ananda. Tapa% is t%e wor&d of penance4 c%it. Sat(a &o5a is t%e wor&d of Trut%. T%e t%ree %ig%er wor&ds are sat? c%it?ananda4 t%e fa"ous trip&et of Trut%?'er"anence?Deaut( or ;xistence?0onsciousness? D&iss. ,e find t%e "ention of t%ree wor&ds in t%e sa"%ita4 D%u%4 D%uva% and Suva% )+V Sa"%ita 1.34.!*. 3ndra is t%e &ord of t%e swarAsuva% wor&d. Dut we find t%e exp&icit "ention of t%e seven wor&ds in Taittiree(a $ran(a5a )1C.35.1*. Kosas ;sheaths of consciousness< 3n para&&e&4 a "an is said to &ive in five s%eat%s of consciousness. T%ese a&so ca&&ed t%e panca 5osas. T%e outer"ost is $nna"a(a 'urus%a4 t%e p%(sica& "an &iving in $nna"a(a 5osa. ,it%in it4 sustaining it and sustained 6( it is 'rana"a(a 'urus%a4 t%e vita& "an. ,it%in it is -ano"a(a 'urus%a4 t%e "enta& "an or "an &iving as a pure "ind?6eing. ,it%in it is Vi/nana"a(a 'urus%a4 t%e "an &iving in t%e wor&d of pure idea. ,it%in it is $nanda"a(a 'urus%a4 t%e 6&issfu&?6eing. ,it%in t%ese five s%eat%s or 5osas is said to &ive t%e eterna& 6eing4 t%e 'ri"a& 'urus%a. D( training %i"se&f to &oo5ing inwards and transcending t%e outer s%eat%s of consciousness one can rea&i8e t%e eterna& 6eing. D%rigu va&&i of t%e Taittiree(a Upanis%ad expounds t%e five 5osas. D%rigu see5s t%e 5now&edge of Dra%"an fro" %is teac%er and fat%er Varuna. Varuna as5s D%rigu to 5now t%e Dra%"an t%roug% penance. D%rigu 5nows $nna to 6e Dra%"an and co"es 6ac5. 1e is

again sent to 5now Dra%"an t%roug% penance. D%rigu goes repeated&( to 5now Dra%"an t%roug% penance and %e successive&( discovers anna4 prana4 "anas4 vi/nana and ananda to 6e Dra%"an respective&(. T%at is4 %e discovers a&& t%ese s%eat%s. 7ina&&( %e rea&i8es t%at ananda )D&iss* is Dra%"an. 3n t%is s%eat% )ananda"a(a 5osa* &ies t%e sat?c%it?ananda )Dra%"an*. Ba&ita Sa%asrana"a of t%e Dra%"anda 'urana praises t%e 9odess as >panca 5osantara st%ita@4 t%e one w%o resides wit%in t%e five 5osas. T%e sa%asrana"a is a&so ca&&ed .oga sa%asra4 t%e co"pendiu" of entire (oga and t%e stud( of consciousness. Avasthas ;states of consciousness< T%e -andu5(a Upanis%ad in $t%arva Veda expounds t%e states or avast%as of consciousness. T%ere are four states in w%ic% "an perceives t%e wor&d4 /agrut )wa5ing*4 swapna )drea"*4 sus%upti )drea"&ess s&eep* and turi(a )t%e fourt% state*. 3n t%e wa5ing state4 t%e 6eing ca&&ed Vaisvanara4 is outward&( cognitive and perceives gross o6/ects. 3n t%e drea" state4 t%e 6eing ca&&ed Tai/asa4 is inward&( cognitive and perceives su6t&e o6/ects. 3n drea"&ess s&eep4 t%e 6eing ca&&ed 'ra/na4 is 6&issfu&4 opening up to Sou&?consciousness. T%e 6eing in t%is state is and perceives t%e causa& wor&d. Turi(a4 is neit%er inward&( nor outward&( cognitive nor non?cognitive. 3t pervades a&& states of consciousness and not an( one of t%e". 3t is neit%er a co"6ination of t%ose nor void of t%ose. $&& t%e ot%er states and a&& p%eno"ena disso&ve in it. 3t is Dra%"an4 t%e $6so&ute. Ba&ita sa%asrana"a praises t%e 9odess as >supta pra/naat"i5a tur(a sarvavast%a vivar/ita@4 t%e one t%at is a&& t%e t%ree states and t%e one 6e(ond t%e states. Aaculties of 6ind T%ere are four facu&ties of "ind ? "ind?proper )-anas*4 inte&&ect )Dudd%i*4 ego )$%an5ara* and "e"or( )0%itta*. -anas is t%e 6ase of a&& "enta& cognition. $&& e"otions4 t%oug%ts and i"pressions originate and "anifest %ere. Dudd%i is inte&&ect. iscri"ination4 discerning and /udge"ent are t%e functions of Dudd%i. $%an5ara is t%e sense of >3@ or ego4 w%ic% is t%e source of a&& action at "ind?&ife?"atter. 0%itta is t%e i"pression of past experiences or "e"or(. Aaculties of Soul.Consciousness T%ere are four facu&ties of Trut%?0onsciousness )$t"a 0%aitan(a* too : intuition4 inspiration4 discri"ination and reve&ation. 3nspiration is t%e source4 intuition is t%e "eans4 discri"ination is t%e /udge and reve&ation is t%e destination in t%e see5ing of Trut%. T%e Veda treats t%ese facu&ties as god?for"s. Sara"a is intuition4 Saraswati is inspiration4 a5s%ina is discri"ination and 3&a is reve&ation. T%e Veda contains a&&egories to suggest t%ese4 &i5e Sara"a searc%ing and finding t%e %erds of reve&ationAdawn )+igveda sa"%ita 5.45.7*. &evels of concentration

T%ere are five &eve&s of concentration4 dispersed4 rest&ess4 concentrated4 stopping of "enta& activit( and t%e experience of a6so&ute. T%ese are ca&&ed 2s%ipta4 -ud%a4 Vi5s%ipta4 ;5agra and =irudd%a respective&(. $n untrained "ind is dispersed4 wit% no specific o6/ect of t%in5ing. 3t 6eco"es rest&ess w%en it is 6eing trained to t%in5 on a specific o6/ect. S&ow&( it 6egins to concentrate on an o6/ect. T%is is t%e state of concentration. De(ond t%is w%en trained to concentrate on t%e for"&ess4 and so"eti"es a&so due to purification of "ind in concentrated state4 one wi&& 6e a6&e to stop "enta& activit( and open up to sou&?consciousness. T%is state is ca&&ed c%ittavritti nirod%a. 3n t%is state %owever outward o6/ects exist4 w%i&e t%e 6eing is fu&&( trained in inward?&oo5ing. T%is is t%e 'raa/na state descri6ed 6( t%e -andu5(a Upanis%ad. De(ond t%is state one can experience t%e a6so&ute or Dra%"an. $&& t%e ot%er states and p%eno"ena are disso&ved in t%is state and one experiences t%e one wit%out t%e second. T%is state is ca&&ed =irvi5a&pa or Turi(a?avast%a. Consciousness Bualities T%ere are t%ree <ua&ities or gunas4 Satwa4 +a/as and Ta"as. Ta"as is dar5ness4 inertia. +a/as is inspiration4 t%e force of action4 creation. Satwa is 5now&edge4 no6i&it(4 sustenance. T%e p%eno"ena& wor&d is said to 6e t%e p&a( of t%ese t%ree <ua&ities. T%e fourt%4 t%e one 6e(ond t%e t%ree <ua&ities is ca&&ed Trigunaateeta or t%e a6so&ute. Ba&ita sa%asrana"a praises 9odess as >trigunat"i5a@ as we&& as >nistraigun(a@4 t%e one %aving t%e t%ree <ua&ities and a&so t%e one 6e(ond <ua&ities.

#.7 :indu View of (atriotism 3t is a uni<ueness of 1indus to treat &and as "ot%er and a goddess. +ig%t fro" Vedic da(s4 1indus %ave a&wa(s treated t%is &and as t%e D%arata vars%a. ;art% is t%e "ot%er of a&& t%e &iving 6eings. Our e&ders descri6e t%at eart% is t%e "ot%er of a&&4 and t%at we are a&& %er infant c%i&dren t%at feed on %er 6reast : a&& vegetation is t%e "i&5 t%at s%e feeds us. T%e Veda )D%u su5ta* praises eart% as a goddess. 'uranas descri6e t%e goddess eart% )D%udevi* as t%e consort of Bord Vis%nu. ;art% is one of t%e five pri"ordia& e&e"ents )panca "a%a 6%utas*. 3t is t%e e&e"ent wit% a&& t%e attri6utes sa6da4 rasa4 rupa4 gand%a and sparsa. ;vo&ution is descri6ed to 6e 6eginning fro" a5asa fro" w%ic% va(u co"es and so on4 and eart% is t%e fina& stage in t%at "anifestation. T%us4 eart% is t%e fu&&est "anifestation of "a(a in creation and it contains a&& t%e ot%er e&e"ents. 3f seen as a &o5a or p&ane of consciousness4 eart% is t%e p%(sica& p&ane. 3t is t%e 6ase of &ife. 3t is at t%e 6otto" of t%e urd%va &o5as and is t%e 6asis fro" w%ic% a&& t%e %ig%er p&anes can 6e ac%ieved. 7or "an to get to %ig%est p&anes of consciousness4 p%(sica& p&ane is t%e >eart%@. 3n our dai&( &ife4 treating eart% as "ot%er 6egins w%en we wa5e up. 1indus wa5e up re"e"6ering %er as >sa"udra vasane devi parvata stana "anda&e@ and apo&ogise for touc%ing %er wit% feet 6( sa(ing >pada sparsa 5s%a"asva"e@. Suc% out&oo5 i"p&ies and inspires respect for nature and surroundings. $nd peop&e wit% suc% out&oo5 &ive &i5e undifferentiated parts of creation and not as t%ose w%o %ave co"e to con<uerAru&e it. 3t is 6ecause suc% out&oo5 is wanting toda(4 t%at we see "an( pro6&e"s in societ( &i5e eco&ogica& i"6a&ance and "an tr(ing to exp&oit ot%er "en. 1aving t%is out&oo5 and tr(ing to &ive it ever(da(4 is t%e so&ution to t%ese pro6&e"s. 3t is not /ust &and4 6ut stateAsociet( is a&so praised as "ot%er?goddess 6( t%e Veda. T%e "ot%er sa(s >a%a" rastrii@ in t%e t%ird "antra of Vaagaa"6%rini su5ta )"anda&a 1C4 su5ta 25 of +igveda*. S%e furt%er sa(s s%e causes we&&6eing and prosperit( of t%e peop&es4 a&& actions of "en and gods are inspired 6( %er4 and s%e is t%e purpose of t%ose actions. 1indus %ave t%e concept of state and societ( rig%t fro" re"ote past. T%e concept of nation is not preva&ent in t%e wor&d a few centuries ago4 except in D%arat. Dut t%e sense was not po&itica&A "i&itar( in nature : it was cu&tura& and spiritua&. $ctions of ever( individua& affect t%e societ( and ever( c%ange in t%e societ( affects individua&s. T%e actions t%at are inspired 6( t%is awareness are 6eneficia& to individua&s as we&& as t%e societ(. 3f t%at awareness is &ac5ing4 t%en individua& interests a&one inspire peop&eJs actions and individua&sJ vision 6eco"es narrow. T%en4 t%oug% t%eir actions are apparent&( 6eneficia& in t%e s%ort run4 on a &ong run and at a societ( &eve& t%eir conse<uences can 6e %ar"fu&. T%e actions of peop&e treating societ( as a goddess do not suffer fro" suc% s%ortco"ings.

Treating t%at societ( %as &ife &i5e a person4 t%at t%e co&&ective inte&&ectua& &ife of its individua&s is t%e inte&&ect of t%e societ(4 t%at t%eir co&&ective actions and t%eir fruits as t%ose of t%e societ(4 is an advanced stage in t%e universa&i8ation of an individua&Js consciousness. Bi5e an individua&Js a societ( a&so %as a &ifec(c&e. =ationa& consciousness inc&udes and supersedes consciousness of individua&4 fa"i&(4 co""unit( and region. $ person4 w%o can ac%ieve it4 is as good as %aving universa& consciousness. 9rowing over it is t%e &ast stage in universa&i8ation. Si"p&( ignoring t%e 6oundaries of a nation is not universa&i8ing. =or is respecting t%ose 6oundaries and %aving patriotis" narrow? "indedness. Universa&i8ing "eans t%at t%e person treats identifies %i"se&f as t%e nation and vice?versa. One w%o identifies %i"se&f as %is fa"i&( does a&& %is actions for and inspired 6( t%e fa"i&( and not %i" as an individua&. 1e is t%e fa"i&( and fa"i&( is %e. T%ere is no ot%er identit( for %i". $s %e universa&i8es furt%er4 %e &ives as and wor5s for %is co""unit( or region. $t %ig%er stages %e 6eco"es %is nation %i"se&f. 9rowing furt%er and identif(ing %i"se&f wit% t%e universe4 is t%e fina& stage in t%e pat%. T%ere %e ac%ieves co"p&ete universa& consciousness. 3f t%is is interpreted in t%e ter"ino&og( of sad%ana4 an individua& treats t%e societ( as a goddess4 wors%ips 1er4 and 6eco"es one wit% 1er. 3n t%e ter"ino&og( of 5ar"a (oga4 t%e individua& gets sa&vation in t%e descri6ed wa( a6ove.

%. Individual and Social &ife %.1 Dharma %ar"a is a wide concept w%ic% can 6e roug%&( trans&ated as rig%teousness4 inc&usive of inc&ination and initiative towards rig%teous action. 1indu %ar"a4 %as at its 6asis t%e varna and as%ra"a. %ar"a is out&ined in t%e S"ritis4 specifica&&( t%e %ar"a Sastras. 2a&pa Sutras4 a Vedanga4 contain %ar"a Sutras4 Srauta Sutras4 9ri%(a Sutras and Su&6a Sutras. Of t%ese4 %ar"a Sutras out&ine %ar"a. Decause of t%e critica& i"portance of gr%ast%a as%ra"a to t%e societ(4 9ri%(a sutras )to 6e fo&&owed 6( 9r%ast%a* are separate&( "entioned. T%ese Sutras are specific to t%e ad%erents of eac% Veda S%a5%a. T%ere are "an( ot%er "etrica& codes written4 for instance 6( -anu4 'aras%ara and Vasist%a4 t%at serve t%e sa"e purpose. $part fro" t%ese4 t%e 3ti%asa and 'uranas detai& t%e nature of %ar"a and i&&ustrate t%roug% stories of w%at is %ar"a in various &ife situations. Sutras are guide&ines and not i"positions. 3t is a guide to persons desiring to go 6( a particu&ar pat% as to w%at 6enefits and w%at retards t%e" in t%e pat%. T%e >pra(asc%itta@ for deviation a&so4 on&( app&ies for so"eone wanting to go 6( a specific pat%. S"ritis4 for instance t%e -anus"riti are "ore of a record of w%at isAwas4 rat%er t%an a prescription. 3t is a state"ent of w%at 5ind of socia& setup existed and w%at are t%e nor"s fo&&owed. 'aras%ara s"riti4 6eing "ore recent4 is said to 6e app&ica6&e to 5a&i(uga. So t%e fo&&owing are t%e texts needed to understanding %ar"aH 1. Sutras ) %ar"a4 9ri%(a* 2. S"ritis a. -etrica& codes &i5e -anus"riti 6. 3ti%asa 'uranas T%ere are t%ree sources of 5now&edge of %ar"a )-anus"riti 2.6?16*H 1. T%roug% scriptures 2. T%roug% e&ders 3. D( o6serving t%e 6e%avior of no6&e "en in different situations T%e concepts invo&ved in understanding %ar"aH 1. Varna %ar"a 2. $s%ra"a %ar"a 3. 2ar"a 0oncept T%ese are over&apping and not exc&usive concepts. $&so4 t%ere are different 5inds of %ar"a for an individua&4 6ased on t%e different ro&es %e p&a(s as an individua& )v(a5ti*4 in a fa"i&( )5utu"6a*4 as a professiona& )varna*4 in a societ( )sa"a/a* and in exceptiona&Aa6nor"a& situations )apadd%ar"a*.

Varna Varna is a funda"enta& concept under&(ing t%e 1indu societ(. 3n fact4 it is not a socia& arrange"ent or segregationG it is rat%er a state"ent of %ow an( societ( is arranged. 3t does not sa( societ( s%ou&d 6e c&assified into c&asses4 it sa(s w%at c&asses or 5inds of peop&e exist in an( societ(. T%ere are four varnas4 6ased on t%e functions peop&e perfor" in an( societ(. =rahma One 6e&onging to t%is varna is ca&&ed a Dra%"ana. 1is function is to &earn4 s%are and preserve t%e eterna& 5now&edge of t%e race )in our case4 t%e Veda*. 3t is often "ista5en t%at Dra%"ana is t%e one wit% spiritua& rea&i8ation : %is function is sc%o&ars%ip "ore t%an rea&i8ation. +ea&i8ation is a resu&t of fo&&owing oneJs Varna d%ar"a )si"p&( put4 doing proper&( w%at one does4 and a Dra%"ana "a( a&so attain rea&i8ation*. $nd in Sanatana %ar"a4 ever( person is 6ound to get spiritua& rea&i8ation and &i6eration4 if %e proper&( does w%at %e does. T%is is irrespective of %is Varna. T%is is a uni<ue feature of 1induis". T%ere are specia&i8ations in t%is varna4 suc% as t%ose ta5ing to priest%ood4 t%ose ta5ing to /ust &earning and teac%ing t%e Veda4 t%ose ta5ing to &earning and teac%ing specific arsanas or Vedangas4 etc. 2now&edge is c&assified into "an( 5inds4 to serve "an( purposes. Of t%is t%e stud( of Veda4 is done on&( 6( a dwi/a )Dra%a"anaA 2s%atri(aA Vais(a*. T%is is for t%e purpose to 6e served 6( t%e Veda for t%e societ(4 and a&so 6ecause of t%e training re<uired to pursue t%e stud(. -ost of t%e ti"es t%ere is no co"pu&sion on w%o s%ou&d do t%e stud(4 6ut t%ere is a co"pu&sion on w%at is t%e prere<uisite to suc% stud(. Veda 6eing swara specific and a&so 6ased on "antra sastra4 pursuing it needs specia& training fro" c%i&d%ood and a&so needs an extre"e&( discip&ined &ifest(&e t%roug%out. T%is is t%e reason t%at "ost peop&e do not s%ow interest to ta5e t%is up. Dut t%e 5now&edge is not denied to an( c&ass4 t%oug% t%is particu&ar "ode of &earning is : t%e Vedic wisdo" is avai&a6&e t%roug% texts &i5e t%e 'uranas and ot%er s"ritis. T%roug% t%ese4 t%e vedic word is not 5nown : its essenceA"eaning is 5nown. T%e s"ritis and sastras can 6e studied 6( person of an( varna4 6ased on t%e purpose and on t%e occupation. T%e( cou&d a&so 6e studied irrespective of occupation4 provided one %as t%e interest and %as t%e acade"ic <ua&ification. Decause of t%e function t%at %e does4 a Dra%"ana is said to 6e of satwi5 nature. Kshatra 2s%atri(a is t%e one w%o 6e&ongs to 2s%atra varna. T%is is t%e "artia& c&ass and for"s t%e "i&itar( defense and ad"inistration of t%e societ(. $ 5s%atri(aJs functions are to ru&e and protect t%e societ(. T%e( a&so &earn a&& for"s of 5now&edge.

Decause of t%e 5now&edge gained a 5%atri(a is of satwi5 nature4 and 6ecause of t%e "artia& aspect %e is of ra/asic nature. T%us %e is satwi5?ra/asic. Vais-a Vais(a is t%e productive c&ass of t%e societ(4 and %is pri"ar( functions are trading and 6usiness. -a5ing t%e societ( prosperous is t%eir pri"ar( function. $ Vais(a generates wea&t%4 and distri6utes it for t%e socia& we&&?6eing. Since art%a is t%e predo"inant purus%art%a for a Vais(a4 %e is usua&&( of ra/asic?ta"asic nature. Sudra Sudra is t%e serviceAartisan c&ass and covers "ost of t%e occupations4 &i5e engineering4 agricu&ture4 "ining4 "eta& wor5 etc. Dased on t%ese te"pera"ents and functions4 t%e s"ritis out&ine d%ar"a for eac% of t%ese varnas4 t%eir dut( towards t%eir profession and t%eir ro&e in t%e societ(. Varna and Social :ealth 1ow %ea&t%( t%e societ( is4 depends on %ow we&& t%e peop&e 6e&onging to t%ese four varnas are perfor"ing t%eir functions. T%e societ( is %ea&t%(4 prosperous4 strong and free4 if a&& t%e four varnas prosper in t%eir respective functions. 3f Vais(a varna is suffering or wea54 t%e societ( wi&& 6e financia&&( wea54 and "a( &ose financia& independence as a societ(. 3f 2s%atra varna wea5ens4 t%e societ( wi&& 6e "i&itari&( and po&itica&&( wea54 and wi&& &ose po&itica& independence. 3f t%e Sudra varna wea5ens4 it wi&& &ose its existence as a societ(. 3f t%e Dra%"a varna wea5ens4 t%e societ( wi&& &ose its s(nt%etic )re/uvenating a6i&it(* strengt%4 its spiritua& identit( and inte&&ectua& independence. ,ea5ness of an( of t%e section can 6e used 6( t%e ene"ies to get %o&d of t%e entire societ(. $&so4 eac% varna contro&s certain aspects in t%e societ(. T%e societ( wi&& &ose its independence and contro& in t%ose aspects4 if t%at varna wea5ens. epending on t%e 5ind of contro& an ene"( wants to gain on anot%er societ(4 %e tries to wea5en t%ose aspects in t%e ene"( societ( so %e can start esta6&is%ing %is contro&. ExamplesH T%e 3s&a"ic aggressors %ave targeted and wea5ened t%e 2s%atra Varna4 since t%e contro& t%e( wanted was "ore p%(sica&. T%e Dritis% %ave targeted t%e Dra%"a varna "ore4 6ecause t%e( wanted a tota& contro& over t%e societ( and wanted our societ( to serve t%eir needs : so t%e( wanted to de"o&is% t%e inte&&ectua& c&ass. T%at is t%e reason we &ost inte&&ectua& s(nt%esis and independence a&ong wit% po&itica& independence. T%oug% it is not ver( re&evant to ta&5 of foreign attac5s %ere4 it exp&ains %ow t%e strengt% and wea5ness of different varnas affects t%e societ(. T%erefore we s%ou&d understand t%at for t%e societ( to 6e strong4 eac% of t%ese varnas s%ou&d 6e strong4 and eac% of t%ese "ust

fu&fi&& w%at t%eir functions are4 for t%e societ( to 6e peacefu&4 independent and prosperous. $&so wit%in t%e societ(4 t%e deve&op"ent wi&& 6e s5ewed if an( of t%e varna perfor"s its functions i"proper&( and anot%er varna perfor"s its functions 6etter. T%is resu&ts in a %andicap in t%e deve&op"ent over ti"e. 7or instance4 if Dra%"a varna does not prosper and Sudra varna prospers4 t%e societ( &ac5s direction in its evo&ution. 3f vice versa %appens4 t%e i""ediate wea&t% is a&so &ost. T%ere s%ou&d 6e a fine 6a&ance and "utua& respect a"ong t%ese varnas in order t%at t%e societ( rea&&( prospers. 1istor( %as a"p&e proof to sa( t%at t%e societ( tried to restore 6a&ance w%en it is &ost4 t%roug% peop&e of ot%er varnas ta5ing to t%ose professions t%at were suffering. 7or instance non?2s%atri(as too5 to fig%ting w%en t%e 2s%atra varna was wea5ened 6( 3s&a"ic invasions. T%is is /ust one exa"p&e4 t%ere were occasions w%en eac% of varnas was wea5ened and ot%ers strengt%ened t%e". 7or a "ore detai&ed exp&anation refer $ppendix >0o&&ectivis"@. Social 6obilit3n t%e 1indu societ( t%ere are "an( /atis )5u&aAcaste*. Iati is an endoga"ous cu&tura& unit. $ set of /atis are grouped to eac% Varna. So "o6i&it( is of "u&tip&e t(pes -o6i&it( cou&d 6e at individua&4 group or /ati &eve&. 7or an individua&H 1. 0%ange of VarnaH $n individua& wit% %is "erit4 %e can "ove to anot%er Varna. T%is depends on t%e "erit of t%e individua&4 t%e e&igi6i&it( to pursue t%e function of a Varna4 t%e teac%er %e see5s and so on. Exa"p&esH -an( ris%is 6orn as non?dvi/as4 Sudras &i5e Vidura ta5ing up "inistriesN -an( persons wit% stud( or (oga 6eco"ing teac%ers toda( -an( 6ra%"ins &osing t%eir varna 6ecause of not practicing t%eir varna d%ar"a 2. 0%ange of /atiH T%roug% inter?/ati "arriage an individua& can "ove fro" one /ati to anot%er. T%is %as so"e regu&ations. 3n a patriarc%(4 a wo"an "oves to t%e /ati of %er %us6and. 3n "atriarc%(4 it is t%e ot%er wa( round. T%ere are ver( few "atriarc%ic societies in 3ndia4 &i5e in 2era&a. T%is %owever does not c%ange t%e varnaAfunction of t%e individua&. ExamplesH $&& inter?/ati "arriages. 7or a groupH $n entire group of individua&s cou&d "ove to anot%er Varna4 6ecause of t%e ro&e t%e( p&a( in a socia& situation. ExamplesH -an( non?2s%atri(a /atis 6eco"ing 2s%atri(a /atis as t%e( too5 up "i&itar( defense during -us&i" invasions.

Ashramas $s%ra"a d%ar"a is funda"enta& to t%e 1indu societ(. 3t divides "anJs &ife into four stages and specifies w%at one s%ou&d do in eac% of t%e stages. 1istorica&&(4 it was on&( few Dra%"anas w%o were found to "a5e it t%roug% a&& t%e four as%ra"as. 2s%atri(as of (ore4 used to "a5e it to vanaprast%a. Vanaprast%a was even "ore a rare case in Vais(as. =rahmacar-a 3n t%is stage4 one does acade"ic &earning. 1e s%ou&d go to a guru and &earn w%at is prescri6ed for %i". $fter so"e 6asic education %e wou&d "ove to so"e specia&i8ation 6ased on %is interest and perfor"ance. T%is is a stage of &earning and ce&i6ac( )+u&es in -anus"riti 2.173?24#*. Upana(ana or initiation s%ou&d %appen at 5?16 (ears of age )-anu 2.36?4C*. Upon co"p&etion of stud(4 one s%ou&d ta5e up gr%ast%a as%ra"a )-anu 3.1?4*. +rhastha 9r%ast%a as%ra"a is t%e center stageG it is t%e p%ase w%ere a person contri6utes "ost to t%e societ(. 7or t%is reason4 t%e 2a&pa Sutras devote an entire 6oo5 9ri%(a Sutras4 for t%e %ouse%o&der. 1e sustains t%e societ(4 financia&&( and ot%erwise )-anu 6.!#?#C*. Un&ess in exceptiona& cases4 one is not per"itted to 6(pass t%is as%ra"a. One is supposed to 6ase %is pursuits on %ar"a4 and fu&fi&& %is desires. T%is is a stage of fu&fi&&"ent. Dot% purus%art%as $rt%a and 2a"a are to 6e served %ere4 6ased on %ar"a4 t%e first purus%art%a. T%is ensures t%e fourt%4 w%ic% is -o5s%a. 9r%ast%a s%ou&d perfor" five sacrifices ever( da( )panca "a%a (a/nas*4 to p&ease gods4 ris%is4 departed fat%ers4 fe&&ow "en4 and ot%er &iving creatures. One is said to 6e inde6ted to a&& t%ese. OneJs de6ts towards %is departed fat%ers are c&eared at t%e end of t%is as%ra"a. One is a&so prescri6ed eig%t activities a da(4 w%ic% can 6e c&assified into wors%ipping and pursuing professionAoccupation )-anus"riti c%apters 3?5*. 1aving &ived %a&f %is &ife4 one s%ou&d ta5e up vanaprast%a as%ra"a )-anu 5.16#*. Vana$rastha $t t%is stage one gives %is propert( to %is %eirs or donates it4 goes into sec&usion4 and does penance. One 6eco"es inward &oo5ing. 1e sti&& contri6utes wit% %is experience4 t%roug% advising and teac%ing. 1aving fu&fi&&ed %is desires in t%e previous as%ra"a4 one is expected to win over senses and sensuous p&easures. T%us %is wor5 is a&so "ore dispassionate and detac%ed4 as %e does not see5 an( specific resu&t fro" t%e wor5. 3t wi&& 6e for t%e 6enefit of societ( a&one. T%oug% one is supposed to ce&i6ate4 %e is not re<uired to renounce or &ive a&one. One can ta5e %is wife or &ive wit% an( ot%er person. One is a&so per"itted to earn %is &ive&i%ood t%oug% not to saveAaccu"u&ate. Dut un&ess t%ere is a specific need4 %e does not enter t%e cit( : usua&&( peop&e needing a vanaprast%iJs advice go to %i" instead of %i" visiting peop&e.

One sti&& %as de6ts towards ris%is and gods at t%is stage4 and does teac%ing as we&& as perfor"s sacrifices to propitiate t%e devatas. 1is pri"ar( de6t towards pitris is c&eared as %e o6tains progen( and raises t%e" in gr%ast%a as%ra"a4 t%oug% %e continues giving o6&ations to pitris during vanaprast%a )-anu 6.1?32*. San-asa 3n t%is stage one renounces t%e wor&d and detac%es fro" %is socia& and fa"i&( re&ations. One s%ou&d not earn in t%is stage4 or %ave an( "ateria& possession of %is own. ,%atever few attac%"ents %e %as wit% %is re&ations or socia& a"6itions are a&so given up. -an does a&& wor5 pure&( for "o5s%a at t%is stage. Tec%nica&&(4 a san(asi %as no de6ts4 and &ives on&( as &ong as %is 5ar"ap%a&a re"ains )-anu 6.33 ? !6*. 3n genera&4 Dra%"acar(a and 9r%ast%a as%ra"as are seen as 'ravritti d%ar"a. Vanaprast%a and San(asa are nivritti d%ar"a for "an.

%.2 Karma and "ebirth 2ar"a is anot%er funda"enta& concept in 1induis". T%is %as "u&tip&e &eve&s of app&ica6i&it(4 6ut approxi"ate&( it can 6e defined as t%e natura& order of action and its fruit. $s (ou sow4 so (ou reap is t%e gist of t%e t%eor(. ;ac% action %as a fruit and it depends on "an( factorsH sincerit( in action4 t%e purpose of action4 t%e "eans c%osen4 and rig%teousness of action ) %ar"a*. One reaps t%e fruit if oneJs actions. $part fro" t%e direct resu&t of action or its effect on t%e surroundings4 eac% action creates an i"pression on its doer. T%ese i"pressions accu"u&ate and constitute t%e 5ar"a of t%e individua&. $n( action done in t%e present is aided and affected 6( t%e i"pressions of previous actions. T%us %ar"a for"s 6asis for 2ar"a4 and "an( princip&es are conse<uent of t%e 2ar"a t%eor(4 &i5e 1. onJt %urt an(one 2. o unto ot%ers on&( w%at (ou want to 6e done unto (ourse&f 3. o t%ose actions t%at 6ring %appiness to onese&f and does good to ot%ers 4. o not spea5 %ars% 5. ,is% on&( good for ot%ers 6. o not %esitate to ta5e up cudge&s to protect d%ar"a4 even if it "eans to incur persona& sin 7. N ,%en "en are t%us good and cooperative to eac% ot%er4 socia& we&&?6eing is caused. 3f for so"e reason it is distur6ed4 it wou&d 6e restored sooner or &ater4 eit%er 6ecause "en rea&i8e t%e order going 6ad or 6ecause nature intervenes to restore t%e order. "ebirth T%ere is re6irt% )punar/an"a* according to Sanatana d%ar"a. T%e 6eing or at"an4 assu"es t%ree 6odies : gross )st%u&a*4 su6t&e )su5s%"a* and causa& )5arana*. ,it% t%ese t%ree one experiences gross4 su6t&e and causa& o6/ects as exp&ained in t%e -andu5(a Upanis%ad. On&( t%e gross 6od( is &eft during deat% and su6t&e 6od( is wit% at"an t%roug%out and assu"es new gross 6od( in t%e next &ife. T%e su5s%"a sareera carries t%e i"pressions of t%e experiences of previous &ives and acts as an accu"u&ator in t%e evo&ution. T%e accu"u&ated 6ac5&og of i"pressions fro" previous &ives is ca&&ed prara6d%a. Individual Karma 3n t%e c(c&e of its evo&ution4 t%e /iva %as two "ove"ents : pravritti and nivritti. uring pravritti i"pressionsAsa"s5aras are accu"u&ated. One is reco""ended to do no6&e actions so as to reap t%eir sweet fruits. uring nivritti4 one tries to get rid of prara6d%a and ex%aust 5ar"a 6( experiencing its fruits )5ar"a p%a&a* so as to 6rea5 t%e c(c&e of &ife and deat%. One is reco""ended to perfor" actions wit%out attac%"ent4 so t%at its fruit or i"pression does not add to t%e 6aggage of oneJs own 5ar"a. ,%en one perfor"s detac%ed actions4 %e on&( perfor"s action as &ong as %is previous 5ar"a p%a&a is not

nu&&ified. One perfor"s t%e %ig%est 5ind of action at t%is stage4 and suc% action a&wa(s resu&ts in t%e 6enefit of surroundings )&o5a 5a&(ana*. -o5s%a is t%roug% tota& 5ar"a nivritti and transcending t%e action?fruit c(c&e. T%is is possi6&e if one rea&i8es and discri"inates 6etween at"an and non?at"an )6od(4 "ind etc*. One can get 6e(ond t%e a"6it of 5ar"a 6( experiencing t%e One 6e(ond <ua&ities )6e(ond trigunas : satwa4 ra/as4 ta"as*. $5ar"a is a state w%ere an action is not 6ound 6( 5ar"aAp%a&a. T%is is t%e 5ind of action perfor"ed 6( a &i6erated person. $5ar"a is not inaction4 6ut steri&i8ed action. Areewill 7ate and freewi&& 6ot% are significant in oneJs actions. ,%i&e "an( factors &i5e daiva6a&a )destin( or 9od?wi&&*4 prara6d%a )oneJs own previous actions* affect t%e fruit of action4 it is %u"an effort )purus%a5ara* t%at predo"inates action. -an is said to 6e t%e "aster of %is actions )destin(*4 t%oug% not w%o&&( t%e owner of t%e fruits of t%e actions. 9od is said to 6e t%e witness of a&& action )5ar"a sa5s%i*. One wa(4 it is true t%at 9od is t%e one w%o inspires and drives a&& action4 and 6ears its fruit. Dut 1e does it t%roug% t%e instru"ents. -an is t%at instru"ent. 3n t%e "icrocos"4 daiva is said to fo&&ow purus%a pra(atna4 and in t%e "acrocos" it is t%e ot%er wa( round. +rou$ Karma ,%en a group of individua&s do actions t%at affect eac% ot%er4 it resu&ts in group 5ar"a. T%is cou&d 6e a co&&ectivit( or persons c&ose&( attac%ed to eac% ot%er. 3n t%e &atter case t%e group is ca&&ed a group sou& )(a5s%a*. 3n t%e for"er4 t%e persons do not get co"6ined as a group sou& 6ut reap t%e fruit of co&&ective action. T%is 5ind of 5ar"a drives t%e &ifec(c&e of a societ(. Te)tual "eferences T%e Veda Sa"%ita does not direct&( indicate or exp&ain t%e 5ar"a concept. 3n fact4 5ar"a is si"p&( e<uated to (a/na in t%e Veda. T%is is 6ecause in t%e Vedic sense a&& &ife and a&& action is .a/na4 and t%us 5ar"a Q (a/na. T%e Veda refers to 5ar"a in t%is sense4 t%roug%out. ExampleH T%e -ot%er 9odess urga is praised as t%e contro&&er and giver of t%e fruits of action4 >5ar"ap%a&es%u /usta"@ ) urga Su5ta"4 Taittiri(a $ran(a5a*. 2ar"a is anot%er funda"enta& concept in 1induis". T%is %as "u&tip&e &eve&s of app&ica6i&it(4 6ut approxi"ate&( it can 6e defined as t%e natura& order of action and its fruit. ;ac% action %as a fruit and it depends on "an( factorsH sincerit( in action4 t%e purpose of action4 t%e "eans c%osen4 and rig%teousness of action ) %ar"a*. One reaps t%e fruit if oneJs actions. $part fro" t%e direct resu&t of action or its effect on t%e surroundings4 eac% action creates an i"pression on its doer. T%ese i"pressions accu"u&ate and constitute t%e 5ar"a of t%e individua&. $n( action done in t%e present is aided and affected 6( t%e

i"pressions of previous actions. T%us %ar"a for"s 6asis for 2ar"a4 and "an( princip&es are conse<uent of t%e 2ar"a t%eor(4 &i5e !. onJt %urt an(one #. o unto ot%ers on&( w%at (ou want to 6e done unto (ourse&f 1C. o t%ose actions t%at 6ring %appiness to onese&f and does good to ot%ers 11. o not spea5 %ars% 12. ,is% on&( good for ot%ers 13. N ,%en "en are t%us good and cooperative to eac% ot%er4 socia& we&&?6eing is caused. 3f for so"e reason it is distur6ed4 it wou&d 6e restored sooner or &ater4 eit%er 6ecause "en rea&i8e t%e order going 6ad or 6ecause nature intervenes to restore t%e order. "ebirth T%ere is re6irt% )punar/an"a* according to Sanatana d%ar"a. T%e 6eing or at"an4 assu"es t%ree 6odies : gross )st%u&a*4 su6t&e )su5s%"a* and causa& )5arana*. ,it% t%ese t%ree one experiences gross4 su6t&e and causa& o6/ects as said in t%e -andu5(a Upanis%ad. On&( t%e gross 6od( is &eft during deat% and su6t&e 6od( is wit% at"an t%roug%out and assu"es new gross 6od( in t%e next &ife. T%e su5s%"a sareera carries t%e i"pressions of t%e experiences of previous &ives and acts as an accu"u&ator in t%e evo&ution. T%e accu"u&ated 6ac5&og of i"pressions fro" previous &ives is ca&&ed prara6d%a. Individual Karma 3n t%e c(c&e of its evo&ution4 t%e /iva %as two "ove"ents : pravritti and nivritti. uring pravritti i"pressionsAsa"s5aras are accu"u&ated. One is reco""ended to do no6&e actions so as to reap t%eir sweet fruits. uring nivritti4 one tries to get rid of prara6d%a and co"p&ete experiencing %is 5ar"a p%a&a so as to 6rea5 t%e c(c&e of &ife and deat%. One is reco""ended to perfor" actions wit%out attac%"ent4 so t%at its fruit or i"pression does not add to t%e 6aggage of oneJs 5ar"a. ,%en one perfor"s detac%ed actions4 %e on&( perfor"s action as &ong as %is previous 5ar"a p%a&a is not nu&&ified. One perfor"s t%e %ig%est 5ind of action at t%is stage4 and suc% action a&wa(s resu&ts in t%e 6enefit of surroundings )&o5a 5a&(ana*. -o5s%a is t%roug% tota& 5ar"a nivritti and transcending t%e action?fruit c(c&e. T%is is possi6&e if one rea&i8es and discri"inates 6etween at"an and non?at"an )6od(4 "ind etc*. One can get 6e(ond t%e /udiciar( of 5ar"a 6( experiencing t%e One 6e(ond <ua&ities )6e(ond trigunas : satwa4 ra/as4 ta"as*. $5ar"a is a state w%ere an action is not 6ound 6( 5ar"aAp%a&a. T%is is t%e 5ind of action perfor"ed 6( a &i6erated person. Areewill 7ate and freewi&& 6ot% are significant in oneJs actions. ,%i&e "an( factors &i5e daiva6a&a )destin( or 9od?wi&&*4 prara6d%a )oneJs own previous actions* affect t%e fruit of action4 it

is %u"an effort )purus%a5ara* t%at drives action. -an is said to 6e t%e owner of %is actions4 t%oug% not tota&&( t%e owner of t%e fruits of t%e actions. 9od is said to 6e t%e witness of a&& action )5ar"a sa5s%i*. One wa(4 it is true t%at 9od is t%e one w%o inspires and drives a&& action4 and 6ears its fruit. Dut 1e does it t%roug% t%e instru"ents. 3n t%e "icrocos"4 daiva is said to fo&&ow purus%a pra(atna4 and in t%e "acrocos" it is t%e ot%er wa( round. +rou$ Karma ,%en a group of individua&s do actions t%at affect eac% ot%er4 it resu&ts in group 5ar"a. T%is cou&d 6e a co&&ectivit( or persons c&ose&( attac%ed to eac% ot%er. 3n t%e &atter case t%e group is ca&&ed a group sou& )(a5s%a*. 3n t%e for"er4 t%e persons do not get co"6ined as a group sou& 6ut reap t%e fruit of co&&ective action. T%is 5ind of 5ar"a drives t%e &ifec(c&e of a societ(. Te)tual "eferences T%e Veda Sa"%ita does not direct&( indicate or exp&ain t%e 5ar"a concept. 3n fact4 5ar"a is si"p&( e<uated to (a/na in t%e Veda. T%is is 6ecause in t%e Vedic sense a&& &ife and a&& action is .a/na4 and t%us 5ar"a Q (a/na. T%e Veda refers to 5ar"a in t%is sense4 t%roug%out. T%e -ot%er 9odess urga is praised as t%e contro&&er and giver of t%e fruits of action4 >5ar"ap%a&es%u /usta"@ ) urga Su5ta"4 Taittiri(a $ran(a5a*.

%.! (urusharthas * +oals of &ife 3n Vedic wor&dview4 t%ere are four 'urus%art%as or goa&s of %u"an &ife : rig%teousness )d%ar"a*4 generation of wea&t% )art%a*4 fu&fi&&"ent of oneJs desires )5a"a*4 and &i6eration )"o5s%a*. $ person %aving fu&fi&&ed a&& t%ese is said to %ave &ived a co"p&ete &ife. Dharma %ar"a is t%e 6asis4 and it is 6ot% t%e driving force and deter"inant of a&& action. 3t can 6e trans&ated as rig%t action4 inc&uding propensit( to c%oose rig%t action4 and initiative to do it. %ar"a is not /ust doing dut(4 t%oug% doing oneJs dut(Afu&fi&&ing responsi6i&ities is a part of oneJs d%ar"a. %ar"a can a&ternate&( 6e defined as natura& order4 and it is rig%teousness. -ora&it( is a superficia& definition to d%ar"a4 since "ora&it( is "ost&( at "ind &eve&. 1owever it is inc&uded. 3t is t%e course of action c%osen 6( t%e se&f4 and is defined and exp&ained 6( seers w%o %ave rea&i8ed t%e true nature of se&f )/iva*. T%us >$t"a =irdesa@ is t%e u&ti"ate sourceAaut%orit( of d%ar"a. Dut since co""on "an is in t%e pat% to rea&i8ing se&f rat%er t%an driven 6( se&f direct&(4 t%e d%ar"a sastras given 6( seers stand as advises for %i". %ar"a is said to 6e eterna&4 and t%e rig%t is defined as >rita"@. +ig%teousness is t%e d(na"ic or app&ied aspect of Trut% : True?+ig%teous is as Sat(a"?+ita". $part fro" doing oneJs d%ar"a4 oneJs t%oug%ts s%ou&d 6e d%ar"ic too. One s%ou&d train onese&f to do t%ings according to d%ar"a4 w%i&e si"u&taneous&( training oneJs "ind to %ave t%e >rig%t@ e"otions and t%oug%ts. T%us d%ar"a is t%e first goa& of &ife. $&& ot%er goa&s of &ife are to 6e pursued 6ased on d%ar"a. 3n fact4 %aving fo&&owed oneJs d%ar"a conscious&(4 one auto"atica&&( fu&fi&&s a&& ot%er goa&s. %ar"a app&ies to a&& four as%ra"as and four varnas4 and it is defined separate&( for eac% Varna and as%ra"a. T%ere is a sa"an(a d%ar"a4 )genera& code* vises%a d%ar"a )specia& code* and apadd%ar"a )e"ergenc(*. $&so4 a person %as different d%ar"as at different capacities in w%ic% %e operates : as an individua& )v(a5ti*4 as a "e"6er of fa"i&(4 co""unit( and societ( )sa"isti*. T%is purus%art%a w%en fu&fi&&ed ensures proper order4 peace4 %appiness in t%e societ( and t%e individua&. Artha $rt%a is t%e second 'urus%art%a. T%is trans&ates as generation of wea&t%. $&t%oug% it appears t%at generation of wea&t% and production is t%e /o6 of v(s(a and sudra varnas4 it is not /ust for t%e". $n( for" of "ateria& wea&t%Aprosperit( is art%a. 3t is pri"ari&( t%e function of v(s(a and sudra4 6ut ot%ers are not pro%i6ited fro" earningAgeneration of wea&t%. T%oug% t%ere are differences in t%e professions prescri6ed for different varnas4 eac% gr%ast%a irrespective of %is varna s%ou&d support %is fa"i&( as we&& as offer sustenance to t%e societ(. 9r%ast%a is t%e 6asis of societ(4 and 6ra%"acaris and san(asis and "an( ot%er sections of peop&e depend on gr%ast%a. T%is is possi6&e t%roug% earning wea&t%4 art%a. T%us art%a is an i"portant purus%art%a4 a goa& of &ife. S%aring4 distri6uting t%e wea&t% is necessar( a&ong wit% earning. T%is 'urus%art%a ensures sustenance and prosperit( of societ(. 3n a prosperous societ(4 one s%ou&d not need to t%in5 of surviva& in

future. 9r%ast%a spendsAdistri6utes part of %is wea&t% for t%e 6enefit of ot%ers. $nd as %e ta5es to next as%ra"as4 t%e societ( supports %i". ;ven a suffering gr%ast%a gets support. T%us surviva& s%ou&d never 6e a pro6&e". T%us accu"u&ating is not t%e idea4 support4 %e&p and circu&ation of wea&t% is t%e idea. 1owever earning s%ou&d 6e done t%roug% rig%teous "eans. One s%ou&d not covet ot%ersJ wea&t%. Under exceptiona& conditions &i5e distress unrig%teous "eans can a&so 6e used for supporting fa"i&(. Kama 7u&fi&&ing oneJs own desires t%roug% rig%teous "eans is t%e next goa& of &ife. T%e desire cou&d 6e sensuous or e"otiona& or ot%erwise. 7u&fi&&"entAsatisfactionA%appiness of t%e individua& is a&wa(s t%e i"p&icit purpose. 1owever4 t%is is not seen as t%e on&( goa&4 and t%e ot%er goa&s are t%e ones t%at differentiate "an fro" ot%er ani"a&s. 3t is t%e defau&t tendenc( of ever( person to tr( and fu&fi&& %is desires. Su6/ecting t%ese to d%ar"ic "eans and t%eir fu&fi&&"ent is a wa( to su6&i"ate desires. $&so it is said t%at one can gain t%e "axi"u" fruit and fu&fi&& %is desires t%e 6est4 w%en it is 6ased on d%ar"a. 3t is in t%is context t%at t%e definition of d%ar"a as natura& order "a5es good sense to us. 1owever4 5a"a as desire is a genera& definition4 and t%e specific definition is sexua& desireAsensuous p&easure. 7u&fi&&ing sexua& desire4 6egetting progen( and extending t%e race is a prescri6ed goa&. T%is fu&fi&&"ent too4 s%ou&d 6e d%ar"ic : 6ot% in t%e sense t%at it s%ou&d 6e &egiti"ate and in t%e sense t%at it s%ou&d fo&&ow t%e natura& order. T%e %ig%est &eve& of content"ent in sexua& &ife is said to co"e t%roug% co""it"ent to one partner4 since t%is not on&( gives sensuous 6ut e"otiona& securit( and %appiness. On&( gr%ast%a is per"itted to t%is4 and it is t%e dut( of a gr%ast%a. 3t is independent of varna. 6o3sha Bi6eration is t%e u&ti"ate goa& of &ife. T%oug% t%ere is an exp&icit wa( to t%is4 fo&&owing oneJs varna and as%ra"a d%ar"a and 6asing art%a and 5a"a on d%ar"a is said to ensure "o5s%a. -o5s%a is irrespective of varna. 1owever4 t%ere are "an( factors t%at deter"ine w%at goa&s t%e person s%a&& fu&fi&& in a &ife4 suc% as experiences in previous &ives4 5ar"a. So"eone ai"s at "o5s%a direct&( t%roug% san(asa4 as %e wou&d %ave fu&fi&&ed t%e ot%er purus%art%as in %is previous &ives. -ost s%ou&d go t%roug% a&& t%e as%ra"as4 fu&fi&&ing eac% goa& w%ic% is t%e wa( it is usua&&( ai"ed and prescri6ed.

%.# ,omen (rinci$le of DualitT%e status4 treat"ent and ro&e of wo"an in an( societ( co"e fro" t%e wor&dview of its p%i&osop%(Acivi&i8ation. 3n t%e 1indu wor&dview4 p%eno"ena& wor&d is dua&istic. T%ere are two princip&es in t%e creation of universe itse&f. T%ere are "a&e and fe"a&e princip&es under&(ing our entire p%i&osop%(4 seen as t%e essence and t%e "anifestation4 root and t%e spreading. T%ese two princip&es are insepara6&e and co"p&e"entar(. ;ssentia&&( 6ot% are sa"e4 6ut t%e( are two aspects of t%e rea&it(. T%us if princip&e of existence is seen as "a&e4 t%en princip&e of creation4 pervasion is t%e fe"a&e princip&e )t%e Siva?Sa5ti s("6o&is"*. T%e( are insepara6&e &i5e seed and t%e tree4 word and its "eaning4 energ( and its potentia& to wor5. T%ese two <ua&ities are represented 6( two co&ors4 w%ite and 6&ac5. T%e for"er s("6o&i8es pure existence4 t%e &atter pervasiveness. 3n fact t%e entire universe is a p&a( of t%e dua&s : consciousness and energ(. $nd at different &eve&s dua&it( governs t%e entire creation : eterna&?p%eno"ena&4 "anifest?un "anifest4 "ass?energ(4 &ife?non &ife4 "a&e?fe"a&e. 6an and ,oman T%e "a&e and fe"a&e princip&es in t%e %u"an societ( too4 i.e.4 "an and wo"an4 are co"p&e"entar( aspects. T%e under&(ing princip&e is not e<ua&it(G it is essentia& oneness and natura& diversit( conse<uent of "anifestation. =ature is two?fo&dH spiritua&&(4 ps(c%o&ogica&&( and 6io&ogica&&(. $nd t%e understanding of t%is fact under&ies t%e design of individua&4 fa"i&( and socia& functions of "an and wo"an. -an 6eing t%e representative of t%e essentia& princip&e of existence4 %is spiritua& rea&i8ationAfu&fi&&"ent co"es t%roug% detac%ing fro" t%e apparent and rea&i8ing t%e deeper rea&it(. ,o"an 6eing t%e representative of "anifestation4 %er fu&fi&&"ent co"es t%roug% fu&fi&&"ent of natura& functions. T%us "an is prescri6ed four as%ra"as4 w%ere %e &earns and ce&i6ates first4 t%en sta6i&i8es and fu&fi&&s %is fa"i&( and socia& responsi6i&ities4 and t%en t%roug% penance and renunciation %e rea&i8es t%e spiritua& root. 3f t%ere is an( &apse in t%is4 %e s%ou&d identif( and correct %i"se&f : for t%is %e %as exp&icit expiation rites. T%ere is no se&f?correcting "ec%anis". $ wo"anJs ro&es go 6( %er natura& tendencies : %er fa"i&( ro&e etc. S%e 6eing nature %erse&f4 %er wa(s are t%e natura&. S%e %as a se&f?correcting "ec%anis" in t%e for" of %er natura& c(c&e. $nd w%at s%e does4 is natura&Ad%ar"ic. 3f w%at s%e does is a6nor"a&4 it is seen conse<uent of an a6nor"a&it( in t%e surroundings )sa( 6e%avior of peop&e around %er or t%ings &i5e t%at* to w%ic% %er a6nor"a& action is an indicatorAreactionAcorrection. T%is is t%e reason s"ritis do not specific prescriptions or expiation rites for wo"en. T%is is t%e status accorded to wo"en. T%us it is not 6ecause wo"an is not considered i"portant t%at t%e s"ritis "ention &ess a6out %er. 3t is 6ecause s%e does not need a &ot of prescription to get sa&vation. S%e is

given ver( few instructions4 suc% as regarding %er %us6and prior to an(t%ing e&se. T%at guarantees %er sa&vation. 3t is not t%e case wit% "anG %e needs specific conditioning of %is "ind4 and needs to fo&&ow specific pat%s to sa&vation. $nd errors can detract %i"4 so t%ere are exp&icit corrective actions for %i". 1owever4 wo"an does a&& t%at t%e "an does4 sa( fo&&owing as%ra"a d%ar"a or doing (a/nas4 in a different wa(. -anus"riti 2.67 sa(s t%at "arriage is t%e Upana(ana for t%e wo"an4 serving %er %us6and is &i5e serving guru and &earning at guru5u&a4 %ouse%o&d wor5 is &i5e t%e two (a/nas done in t%e "orning and t%e evening. 3t is a&so 6ecause of t%e te"pera"ent t%at it is often said wo"an does not %ave freedo" and "an %as. 7reewi&& in action and conse<uent responsi6i&it( of t%e action4 6ot% are in "anJs natura& wa( : not in a wo"anJs natura& wa(. $&so4 "an is said to 6e responsi6&e and pa( for t%e actions of %is wife. T%us if seen proper&(4 a&& t%ose t%ings t%at apparent&( cause disco"fort for a wo"an or are seen as %er &i"itations4 suc% as natura& surrender4 p%(sica& wea5ness and 6io&ogica& &i"itations4 are %er strengt%s in %er spiritua& pat%. $nd a&& t%e apparent strengt%s of a "an are %is wea5nessesAt%ings t%at 6ring %i" down in %is spiritua& pat%. T%us we can see t%at getting over ego is given a &ot of i"portance in t%e 1indu s(ste". ;it%er it is t%roug% a direct surrender to t%e divine or in ter"s of respecting and o6e(ing e&ders4 %u"i&it( and attri6uting oneJs success to w%at caused t%e success4 suc% as guidance fro" e&ders or disowning t%e credit ca&&ing t%e success as god given. T%e arrange"ent a&so ensures t%at "an( natura& tendencies of "ind t%at affect oneJs downward "ove"ents4 suc% as /ea&ous(4 %atred4 anger are 5ept in c%ec5. -anus"riti for instance )2.11!?13#* instructs w%o is respecta6&e and in w%at wa(s one s%ou&d express %u"i&it( and respect towards e&ders. 3n a societ( t%at puts spiritua& cause a6ove "ateria&4 priorit( is attac%ed to practices t%at cause spiritua& e&evation. $nd a societ( t%at puts "ateria& a6ove spiritua&4 ai"s at "ini"i8ing "ateria& disco"forts. $nd 1indu societ( ai"s at t%e for"er. T%us t%e goa& of %u"an &ife is t%e sa"e for "an and wo"an4 6ut t%e "et%ods prescri6ed suit t%eir natura& tendencies. S$iritualitSpiritua& practices &i5e (oga are said to 6e easier for wo"an t%an for "an. One reason for t%is is t%at un&i5e "an w%o dwe&&s into t%e p%i&osop%( of t%ings t%an t%ings in t%e"se&ves4 wo"an 6( nature is "ore oriented towards >t%ings in t%e"se&ves@. 3t is often said t%at "an %as "ore aptitude in t%e t%eor( of )inte&&ectua&* t%ings )sastra vis%a(a* and wo"an %as "ore aptitude in wor&d&( 5now&edge and experientia& t%ings. $s a resu&t wo"an is 6( defau&t tuned to first %and experience4 w%et%er it is spiritua& or ot%erwise. $nd natura&&( spiritua& experience too4 is an easier 6et for t%e wo"an. $not%er reason is t%e natura& sense of surrender4 w%ic% a&&ows %er to a tota& surrender to t%e divine. -an %as a 6igger o6stac&e of ego. T%is does not "ean a wo"an does not %ave

an( ego : 6ut it is easier for %er in t%e wa5e of t%e fact t%at s%e is "ore oriented towards surrender t%an "an. $nd since ego is one of t%e 6iggest o6stac&es in spiritua& rea&i8ation4 t%e pat% and t%e goa& are co"parative&( easier for wo"an t%an "an. Aunctions of a woman T%e functions specified for a wo"an4 fo&&ow fro" t%e a6ove p%i&osop%(. T%e fo&&owing are prescri6ed for a wo"an4 t%roug% w%ic% s%e is deriving t%e fruit of %aving done ever( no6&e action4 and u&ti"ate&( sa&vation )-anus"riti 5.147?16!*. 1. Sing&e point devotion to %us6and 2. ;fficienc( and capa6i&it( in "anaging t%e %ouse and finance. 3n t%e %ouse4 s%e is in t%e center stage. $ wo"an can get sa&vation even if s%e does not %ave c%i&dren4 if s%e &eads %er &ife in a proper wa(. S%e is direct&( responsi6&e in "o&ding t%e offspring4 continuing t%e &ineage. 1owever4 t%e 6iggest ro&e of a wo"an is t%at of a "ot%er. 3n ever( re&ation t%at s%e %as wife4 "ot%er4 sister4 daug%terN4 at so"e stage s%e natura&&( assu"es t%e ro&e of a "ot%er. ,o"an is ca&&ed /aa(a4 6ecause %er %us6and is ta5ing 6irt% in %er wo"6 in t%e for" of offspring. DonCts 0ertain <ua&itiesA%a6its are discouraged for a wo"an )-anu #.!C?!3*. T%ese inc&ude 1. rin5ing. 2. Of crue& nature. 3. 9oing against %er %us6andJs interests. Decause %e is %er pri"ar( re&ation a&wa(s. 4. 1urting or 6eing rude to servants. Decause s%e is t%e one "anaging and instructing t%e" a&&. 5. Deing spendt%rift. Decause s%e is t%e one contro&&ing t%e entire finance of %ouse. 3t can 6e noted t%at t%ese direct&( go against w%at is prescri6ed for %er. ,oman and her husband 1us6and is t%e pri"ar( and "ost inti"ate re&ative of a wo"an. 3n t%eor( and for a&& practica& purposes t%e( are one after "arriage. $n( person dea&ing wit% eit%er of t%e" is as good as dea&ing wit% >t%e one@. ,o"an is divine %e&p"ate of t%e "an4 in a&& %is ritua&s. 3t s%ou&d 6e understood t%at ever( activit( in &ife is a (a/na in t%e Vedic sense4 and t%us "an and wo"an partner eac% ot%er in a&& t%at t%e( do. 3t actua&&( suffices if it is said t%at one is t%e ot%erJs partner4 since partners%ip is a&wa(s "utua&. $ "an is not per"itted to do a %o"a a&one )$pasta"6a %ar"a Sutras 2.15.1!*. T%e wife gives t%e fire wit% w%ic% a %o"a s%ou&d start. $n( ritua& at t%e %ouse%o&d &eve& and %ig%er4 s%ou&d 6e done 6( t%e coup&e toget%er. 3n a&& t%e (a/nas ot%er t%an individua& /apaAdevatarcana4 wife and %us6and 6ot% %ave co"p&e"entar( ro&es. T%e wife s%ou&d offer 6a&i to t%e 6%utas )pri"ordia& e&e"ents* in t%e evening4 and "an in t%e "orning )-anu 3.121*4 t%is wa( Vaisvadeva s%ou&d done 6(

t%e coup&e ever(da(. 3n case one is a6sent4 t%e dai&( ritua&s s%ou&d 6e done 6( t%e one w%o is %o"e4 and specia& ritua&s cannot 6e done. 2eeping %is wife %app( is t%e pri"ar( responsi6i&it( of a "an )-anus"riti 3.45*. T%e %ouse w%ere %us6and and wife 5eep eac% ot%er %app( wi&& prosper )-anu 3.6C*. $nd a devoted wo"an wi&& ac<uire a&& t%e good <ua&ities of %er %us6and )-anu #.1?1C3*. Sing&e pointed devotion is "andator( 6etween "an and wo"an )-anu 4.1344 5.151*. $nd un&ess t%ere is a good reason t%e( are supposed to 6e toget%er4 and t%ere is expiation if t%e( separate even for a s"a&& duration4 w%en t%e reason is not good enoug% )$pasta"6a %ar"a Sutras 1.2!.1#4 2C*. T%ere is no separation 6etween wife and %us6and4 and it is not a&&owed to treat t%e" as separate )$pasta"6a %ar"a Sutras 2.14.16?2C*. $&& t%e propert( t%e( own 6e&ongs to t%e coup&e4 and t%ere is no distri6ution 6etween %us6and and wife. T%e wife and %us6and4 %ave t%e rig%t to spendA&endAgive t%e wea&t%4 6ut on&( wit% eac% ot%erJs consent. 3n t%e a6sence of eit%er4 t%e ot%er %as entire responsi6i&it( and rig%t over t%e wea&t% )$pasta"6a %ar"a Sutras 2.2#.3*. +e"arriage is not reco""ended for a wo"an4 w%i&e it is for a "an. T%is s%ou&d 6e understood in t%e &ig%t of two pointsH 1. T%is ru&e app&ies "ore in a patriarc%(. 3n case of "atriarc%(4 5s%etra is pri"ar( and 6ee/a is secondar( )"an is ca&&ed t%e 6ee/a and wo"an4 5s%etra*. 1owever -anu %o&ds t%at 6ot% are e<ua&&( i"portant. 2. 9r%ast%a as%ra"a is exact&( for one fourt%s of oneJs &ife4 and re"arriage is specifica&&( for 6egetting c%i&dren. 3n case of a wo"an widowed wit%out c%i&dren4 s%e is per"itted to 6eget c%i&dren4 t%oug% wit%out "arr(ing again. Debts $ wo"an is not inde6ted to an(one except %er %us6and. 1er %us6and and son are inde6ted to %er. 1er fat%er is responsi6&e to raise %er we&& and get %er "arried. 1er %us6and is responsi6&e to 5eep %er %app( t%en on. 1er son is responsi6&e after %is fat%erJs vanaprast%a )$pasta"6a %ar"a Sutras 2.2!.#*. Treatment of ,oman $ wo"anJs safet( and %appiness are given %ig% i"portance. ,o"en are t%e source of %appiness4 in t%e sense t%at a %app( wo"an 5eeps %er surroundings a&wa(s %app( and prosperous. -anu insists on t%is in "an( wa(s. )3.56* ? w%ere wo"en are respected devatas wi&& 6e %app(. ,%ere wo"en are not respected4 no t%e ritua& or wors%ip wi&& 6e of an( use. )3.57* ? 3f wo"en are un%app(4 t%e c&an of t%ose w%o cause it wi&& 6e destro(ed. 3f wo"en are %app(4 t%e %ouse and c&an wi&& prosper. )3.5!* : 3f a wo"an is insu&ted4 t%e entire c&an )of t%ose causing t%e insu&t to %er* wi&& 6e destro(ed. )3.5#* : T%ose w%o want to 6e %app(4 s%ou&d 5eep wo"en %app(4 respect %er and treat %er we&&. )3.62* : 3f wo"an is %app(4 t%e entire c&an wi&& 6e %app(. 3f s%e is not4 t%e entire c&an wi&& suffer.

)-anu 5.147?16!4 #.1?1C3* ,o"an is not reco""ended to &ive a&oneG s%e s%ou&d &ive wit% %er parents in c%i&d%ood4 wit% %er %us6and after "arriage and wit% %er c%i&dren in case s%e is widowed. $nd s%e is to 6e treated we&&4 6( %er fat%er4 %us6and c%i&dren and protected in a&& situations. S%e gets %er due fro" t%e". 3dea&&(4 s%e s%ou&d never need to do "an( t%ings &i5e supporting t%e fa"i&(. 1owever if s%e %appens to &ive a&one 6ecause not proper arrange"ents are not "ade for %er )6( %us6and etc.* s%e s%ou&d "a5e %er earningA&iving t%roug% so"e specified wa(s t%at 5eep %er safe. 1owever it is wort% noting t%at a "an is a&one in t%ree as%ra"as : 6ra%"acar(a4 san(asa and vanaprast%a )t%is is optiona& t%oug%*. 9r%ast%a and in so"e cases vanaprast%a are t%e on&( as%ra"as w%ere wife and %us6and are toget%er. Defore and after t%at t%e( are not. Sti&&4 wo"an is not &eft a&one w%i&e "an is. T%is is 6ecause wo"an is t%e pri"ar( sustainer of societ(. T%e fu&fi&&"ent and detac%"entArenunciation approac%es t%at are "entioned ear&ier4 exp&ain t%is. -ost of t%e ti"es "an does %is dut( detac%ed. $s a reason4 %e is not a sustaining e&e"ent of societ( in a&& p%ases of %is &ife. 1e is not t%e one w%o 5eeps peop&e intact. 3t is t%e wo"an w%o 5eeps peop&e intact4 in t%e for" of a fa"i&(. T%is is t%e reason it is said t%at t%ere is no 6eaut( in a %ouse t%at does not %ave a wo"an. 7or t%is reason4 wo"an is to 6e given i"portance. Dut for t%e sa"e reason s%e s%ou&d not 6e a&one : in fact s%e wi&& not 6e a&one 6( %er nature. $nd for t%e sa"e reason %er freedo" is a&so constrained. $nd if it s%ou&d said t%at wo"an is not given freedo"4 it is 6ecause s%e is precious rat%er t%an an(t%ing e&se. .ou tend to protect w%at is precious to (ou4 t%oug% it "eans disco"fort to w%o (ou are protecting. 1owever4 it s%ou&d 6e noted t%at t%is does not "ean dependenc( or &ac5 of freedo" in t%e sense it is nor"a&&( understood. ependenc(4 if it s%ou&d 6e ca&&ed4 is two?wa(4 as "an depends on wo"an and vice versa. 3n a "ore positive sense t%is is t%e co"p&e"entariness : "utua& reinforce"ent t%roug% diversit( of functions. ,%at is ignored in understanding of t%is arrange"ent is t%e e&e"ent of trust t%at eac% one satisfies %isA%er responsi6i&it( and t%e ot%er %as to 6ot%er a6out %isA%er. 3t 6eco"es a dependenc(4 w%en t%e sense of "utua& reinforce"ent goes and one 6eco"es ato"ic. T%e 1indu s(ste" t%at does not ai" at ato"i8ing individua&s puts diverse responsi6i&ities on eac% individua&4 and t%e entire s(ste" functions we&& if eac% individua& perfor"s %isA%er functions. T%ese functions wi&& 6e defined according to t%e natura& tendencies of persons in eac% position. 1owever4 t%ere wi&& a&wa(s 6e exceptions : 6ut a societ( wi&& not 6e designed for exceptions. $nd sa(ing t%at design s%ou&d not 6e t%ere 6ecause of exceptions4 is defeating t%e entire purpose of societ(. 1owever4 exceptions s%ou&d %ave a wa( out of t%e s(ste". T%e( a&wa(s %ave. S"riti is a guide&ine4 w%ic% on&( reco""ends. $nd %aving said w%at is not to 6e done4 s"riti a&so treats t%at peop&e exist in t%e societ( t%at do not go 6( t%e practices4 and inc&udes t%e". 3n fact societ( %as a&& 5inds of practices : w%at is 6est is reco""ended 6( s"riti4 and idea& and deviant cases are a&wa(s s"a&& in nu"6er. T%erefore s"riti covers a&& cases w%i&e %ig%&ig%ting w%at is 6est. T%is is t%e spirit in w%ic% s"riti s%ou&d 6e read. T%us4 for instance4 %aving said w%at 5ind of "arriage is idea& )6etween sa"e Varna*4 it covers a&& co"6inations of varnas. 1aving said wo"an s%ou&d not 6e &eft to &ive a&one4 it

sa(s w%at s%e s%ou&d do if s%e is a&one. 1aving said one s%ou&d not %ave extra"arita& re&ation4 it sa(s w%at s%ou&d 6e &ega&&( done in cases of suc% re&ation and offspring of suc% re&ations )suc% as propert(4 in%eritance*. 3n fact t%is is t%e purpose of s"riti4 s%owing w%at is good and in w%at wa(. Knowled e ,%i&e t%e professions ordained 6( t%e Varna d%ar"a do not app&( to wo"an 6ecause %er functions are ot%erwise4 5now&edge of an( for" is not denied. Of &ate wit% socia& c%anges wo"en are 5ept outside t%e fo&d of Vedic stud(4 6ut stud( of Veda was not denied for wo"en. +is%i5as &i5e $pa&a are a"ong Vedic seers4 not /ust sc%o&ars. Dut t%en it was not a prescri6ed profession for wo"en : it is optiona&. 2now&edge of sastras on t%e ot%er %and %as a&wa(s 6een avai&a6&e to wo"en. 1owever4 t%is was not done 6( guru5u&a s(ste". $ wo"an is supposed to do t%e &earning fro" %er fat%erAe&ders at %o"e4 or an( ot%er &earned person visiting %er p&ace. S%e can a&so aut%orA engage in tec%nica& de6ates. Dut a&& t%is is "ore optiona& t%an to 6e done as a necessit(4 un&i5e for "an w%et%er t%ere is a "ini"a& prescri6ed stud( 6ased on Varna. Diversit-. manDwoman T%in5ing &i5e a "an and doing t%ings &i5e a "an4 is not t%e wa( a wo"an can 6e individua&istic or independent. 3t is 6( retaining %er wo"an ness4 and in a setup t%at respects wo"an ness and gives scope for &iving it4 t%at we can sa( wo"an is respected or treated on par wit% "an. Treating on par wit% "an is not reducing wo"an to a "an. So w%ere %er functions are designed according to %er natura& tendencies4 is t%e s(ste" t%at rea&&( respects wo"en. =ot t%e one t%at si"p&( sa(s s%e is free to do an(t%ing and i"p&icit&( forces %er to &ive &i5e a "an and generous&( offer %er t%e freedo" of doing an(t%ing a "an does. Social (ractices ,o"an not wor5ing or an( ot%er t%ing is not a scriptura& instruction4 6ut an arrange"ent "ade for socia& convenience and to suit socia& conditions and ti"es. Often4 it is t%e i"portance s%e is given and a conse<uent expectation4 t%at "a5es us fee& s%e is i&&?treated.

%.% Institutions 1indu societ( cou&d 6e seen as a co&&ection of institutions. 0o&&ectivities evo&ve at eac% stage of %u"an &ife. Traditiona&&( wo"an is a&wa(s a part of a /ati. -an %owever4 does not a&wa(s 6e&ong to t%e sa"e co&&ectivit(. 3n t%e four as%ra"as t%ere are different co&&ectivities %e 6e&ongs to. uring 6ra%"acar(a t%ere is no esta6&is%ed group %e 6e&ongs to4 except %is guru5u&a. 9uru5u&a is t%e v(avast%a for 6ra%"acaris. 3n gr%ast%a as%ra"a %e 6e&ongs to t%e varna %e pursues and t%e /ati %e is 6orn in. 3n vanaprast%a t%ere is no co&&ectivit(. uring san(asa %e is ver( "uc% a&one4 6ut t%ere is a s(ste"Afra"ewor5 wit%in w%ic% %is activities are faci&itated. 7a"i&( is t%e 6asic unit of t%e societ(. -arriage is t%e arrange"ent t%at ena6&es t%is. Iati is t%e cu&tura& unit t%at 6inds fa"i&ies. Varna is an a6straction t%at diversifies and arranges /atis in t%e societ(. 9uru?sis%(a para"para is rea&&( t%e corner stone of t%e societ(4 w%ic% ena6&es 5eeping re&igiousAp%i&osop%ica& pursuits of a person separate fro" t%e re"aining socia& s(ste". $6sence of t%is is t%e reason w%( re&igions in t%e west %ave penetrated into socio? econo"ic?po&itica& s(ste" and %ave not rea&&( re"ained re&igions. Droad&(4 t%ese are t%e institutions t%at for" t%e foundation of 1indu societ(H 1. 7a"i&( )5utu"6a* 2. 0aste )/ati* 3. Viva%a )"arriage : ver( "uc% covered in t%e a6ove two* 4. Varna )an a6straction over /ati* 5. 9uru5u&a v(avast%a )vague&( education s(ste"* 6. 9uru?Sis%(a para"para )"aster : discip&e s(ste"* 7. San(asi V(avast%a !. 7inance #. 'u6&ic ad"inistration 1C. 9overnance 11. 'o&it( 12. Iudiciar( )!?12 are necessari&( interre&ated and not separate s(ste"s %.%.1 +uru.Sish-a (aram$ara 9uru?Sis%(a 'ara"para is t%e teac%er?discip&e institution. Deing a civi&i8ation t%at respects experientia& 5now&edge4 we %o&d %ig% respect for t%e teac%er of suc% 5now&edge. 3t is separated fro" t%e socio?po&itica& structure and spans across socia&Apo&itica& divisions since suc% 5now&edge is 6e(ond t%ose divisions. T%is is t%e institution t%at 5ept re&igion and t%eo&ogica& practices and 6e&iefs fro" occup(ing p&ace in governance4 and a&so 5ept t%e ad"inistrative structure fro" interfering wit% t%e institution of 5now&edge. 2now&edge 2now&edge is of two 5inds4 deductive and experientia&. ,%i&e t%e student gets initia& guidance and understanding of t%e su6/ect fro" t%e teac%er to understand t%e pre"ises

and continue stud( wit% %is discri"ination4 experientia& 5now&edge is supposed to 6e pursued in a different wa(. 1ere t%ere is needed an unwavering fait% in t%e teac%er4 and a deter"ination to fo&&ow %is word on t%e pat%4 irrespective of %ow it sounds to %is discri"inator( &ogic. T%is is a pri"ar( difference in t%e pursuit of sastras and spiritua& practice. &inea e of +urus Bi5e an( ot%er institution 9uru?Sis%(a para"para is a&so said to %ave co"e fro" t%e eterna&. ;ver( 9uru?Sis%(a tradition c&ai"s its origin in t%e eterna&. 3n ever( tradition t%e &ineage of teac%ers is given a sa&utation. 7or instance %ere is t%e sa&utation s&o5a of advaitinsH Ksadasiva sa"ara"6%a" san5aracar(a "ad%(a"a" as"ad acar(a par(anta" vande guru para"para"K -eaningH sa&utation to t%e &ineage starting wit% &ord Sadasiva4 wit% $di San5ara in t%e "idd&e and continuing up to "( i""ediate teac%er. 1ere is anot%er oneH Knara(ana sa"ara"6%a" v(asa san5ara "ad%(a"a" as"ad acar(a par(anta" vande guru para"paraa"K -eaningH sa&utation to t%e &ineage starting wit% &ord nara(ana4 wit% V(asa and $di San5ara in t%e "idd&e and continuing up to "( i""ediate teac%er. SivaAVis%nu are said to 6e t%e first teac%ers. Veda V(asa is said to 6e t%e first %u"an teac%er4 w%o is an incarnation of Vis%nu %i"se&f. T%is is t%e reason %is 6irt% da( is ce&e6rated in re"e"6rance of 9urus )V(asa 'urni"a is ca&&ed 9uru 'urni"a*. Usua&&(4 first guru in an( &ineage sets t%e goa&s and 6road&( gives pat%s to ac%ieve t%ose. )Ba5s%(a =irdesa* T%e su6se<uent ones define pat%s t%at suit t%e ti"es4 in a wa( t%at t%e( &ead to t%e goa&s set 6( t%e first teac%er and are not in conf&ict wit% t%e p%i&osop%( of t%e tradition )-arga =irdesa*. 9uru4 t%e teac%er Teac%er is accorded %ig%est respect4 and is e<uated to 9od. T%e fa"ous verse goes t%usH Kgurur6ra%"a gururvis%nu1 gurudevo "a%eswara1 guru sa5s%at para6ra%"a tas"ai sri gurave na"a1K -eaningH 9uru is Dra%"a4 Vis%nu and -a%es%a4 in fact guru is 'ra6ra%"a %i"se&f4 t%e Dra%"an4 t%e $6so&ute. Sa&utations to suc% guru. 9uru is treated wit% suc% %ig% respect4 6ecause it is 6e&ieved t%at %e i"parts t%at 5now&edge w%ic% cannot ot%erwise 6e gained t%roug% "ere&( reading 6oo5s. 3n spiritua& discip&ines t%is app&ies "ore4 and %ere is %ow t%e i"portance of teac%er is exp&ainedH

Kd%(ana "u&a" guror"urti1 pu/a "u&a" guro1 pada" "antra "u&a" gurorva5(a" "o5s%a "u&a" guro1 5ripaK -eaningH 9uruLs "urtiAido&A6od( is t%e o6/ect of "editation4 %is feet t%e o6/ects of wors%ip4 %is words t%e o6/ects of c%anting. $&& t%is is 6ecause in %is grace &ies t%e source of &i6eration. 9uru is said to 6e wort%( of suc% respect and unwavering trust of t%e discip&e4 since %e ta5es t%e responsi6i&it( for "o&ding t%e discip&e into w%at %e s%ou&d 6e. T%e discip&e t%at fo&&ows 9uruLs word wit% fait%4 is supposed to 6e assured of reac%ing t%e goa&s )so"eti"es irrespective of t%e persona& "erit of t%e teac%er*. 5$adesa T%e 9uru accepts discip&es t%at %e dee"s fit for t%e education t%at %e is i"parting. T%ere is scriptura& guidance for suc% <ua&ification4 6ut t%e fina& decision on t%is is of t%e 9uru and no one e&se. 2now&edge is usua&&( not su6/ect to socia& divisions4 6ut pursuing a su6/ect as a prere<uisite for a career is su6/ect to socia& convention and e&igi6i&it( of t%e student. 1owever4 t%e socia& convention is a&so on&( a factor and not t%e decisive force. T%e 9uru in case %e is convinced of t%e genuineness and <ua&ification of t%e student4 does accept t%e student wit% necessar( initiation )in so"e cases 6( c%ange of t%e studentLs Varna as needed in t%e case*. T%is is %ow 2arna 6eca"e t%e student of rona4 w%o does not ot%erwise teac% an(one w%o is not fro" t%e +o(a& c&an. 1owever t%e teac%er decides w%at is t%e a"ount of wisdo" %e s%ou&d i"part 6ased on t%e aptitude4 "aturit( and rig%teousness of t%e discip&e. T%is is w%(4 2arna was accepted as a discip&e 6( rona even t%oug% %e is not t%e son of a 5ing 6ecause of %is aptitudeG %e was not given Dra%"astra 6ecause %e is fi&&ed wit% negative i"pu&ses &i5e %atred. T%oug% t%ere is curricu&u" defined for an( stud(4 t%e 9uru defines w%at t%e curricu&u" is for t%e <ua&ification and interest of eac% discip&e. $nd for w%at t%e discip&e is not e&igi6&e4 t%ere cannot 6e an( force on t%e 9uru to i"part suc% 5now&edge. T%us it is not /ust a "atter of curiosit( 6ut a "atter of socia& interest w%ere 5now&edge never goes into t%e %ands of "en t%at can "isuse it. $nd it is t%e responsi6i&it( of ever( 9uru to ensure t%at no student is deprived of 5now&edge w%ere %e is e&igi6&e and no student gains 5now&edge t%at %e eit%er does not <ua&if( for or %e is not "ature enoug% to %and&e. +uruda3shina $fter ac<uiring 5now&edge fro" t%e 9uru4 t%e discip&e is supposed to repa( %i" for t%e teac%ing. T%e 9uruLs KfeesK is ca&&ed guru da5s%ina. 3t is usua&&( offered 6( t%e student4 t%en t%e teac%er as5s w%at %e wants as %is fees and t%e student pa(s it. 1owever t%e student owes to a guru "uc% "ore t%an fees. 9uruda5s%ina on&( gives ad%i5ara on t%e vid(a4 t%at is t%e student on&( 6eco"es e&igi6&e to use t%e 5now&edge %e &earnt 6( pa(ing t%e fees. T%at does not a6so&ve %i" of t%e de6t to t%e 9uru. 7or t%at to %appen %e s%ou&d do two t%ings t%roug%out %is &ifeH putting t%e 5now&edge to good use and getting good na"e for t%e teac%erG and i"parting and spreading t%e 5now&edge 6( teac%ing it to

su6se<uent generations of students. >)am$les K T%ere are "an( 9uru?Sis%(a para"paras in Sanatana %ar"a4 w%ic% %ave co"e down uninterrupted over "i&&ennia. $&& t%e Vid(as and &iterature &i5e Vedas4 Vedangas4 arsanas and %ar"a sastras %ave co"e down as 9uru?Sis%(a para"paras. T%e various f&avors of si"i&ar 5now&edge4 for instance different 6ranc%es of Veda %ave co"e down as 9uru?Sis%(a para"paras. K Various sc%oo&s of spiritua& p%i&osop%( suc% as $dvaita and vaita4 %ave co"e down as 9uru?Sis%(a para"paras. K $&& t%e re&igions in D%arati(a 0ivi&i8ation4 w%et%er t%e Vedic ones suc% as Vis%nava and Saiva4 and a&so outgrowt%s &i5e Dudd%is"4 %ave co"e down as 9uru?Sis%(a para"paras. Desides4 various variants of t%e re&igions deve&oped in t%e sa"e fra"ewor5 of 9uru?Sis%(a para"para. T%e different sc%oo&s of practices &i5e Tantra4 S"arta are 9uru?Sis%(a para"paras. K San(asa too contains 9uru?Sis%(a para"paras. K T%e &earning of various sastras and vid(as4 re&igious or secu&ar4 suc% as ad"inistration and engineering4 %as "an( diverse sc%oo&s t%at are 9uru?Sis%(a para"paras. T%us entire 5now&edge and re&igious structure in 1induis" stands on 9uru?Sis%(a para"para. T%is is t%e institution t%at caused uninterrupted f&ow of 5now&edge over generations4 its growt% and spreading

%.%.2 +uru3ula V-avastha . Schoolin S-stem 9uru5u&a V(avast%a trans&ates as sc%oo&ing s(ste". Selection of students and eli ibilitT%ere is scriptura& guidance for deter"ining t%e e&igi6i&it( of a student. 1owever t%e i""ediate and fina& decision on t%is is of t%e guru4 as %e cou&d deter"ine t%e e&igi6i&it( considering c%anging ti"es and situationa& needs a&ong wit% t%e studentLs attitude and aptitude. T%e se&ection for different vid(as wi&& 6e 6ased on aptitude and attitude of t%e student4 a&ong wit% %is Varna. T%ere cou&d 6e exceptions w%ere t%e guru "a( decide to dis<ua&if( a student in spite of %is Varna or aptitude4 for ot%er reasons &i5e t%e attitudeAintentions of t%e student. $nd t%ere cou&d 6e occasions w%en a student wi&& 6e accepted for a stud( t%at %is varna does not ot%erwise <ua&if( for. Stud- . instruction ;xcept on specific da(s4 instruction wi&& t(pica&&( %appen after dai&( ritua& in t%e ear&( "orning ti&& afternoon. 7or dwi/a students t%e curricu&u" inc&udes veda and associate texts &i5e vedangas and upangas. Desides4 eac% c&ass wi&& %ave a different curricu&u" ? 5s%atri(as wi&& pursue t%ings &i5e neeti sastra4 d%anurveda etc w%i&e 6ra%"anas wi&& continue to stud( t%e veda. Sudra students wi&& pursue varied su6/ects &i5e engineering and arc%itecture. Stud- . life in uru3ula $s t%e na"e itse&f indicates4 guru5u&a "eans extended fa"i&( of t%e guru. 9uru is t%e owner of t%e fa"i&(. Students s%ou&d raise food t%roug% a&"s and 6( co&&ecting woodAeata6&es etc fro" forests. T%e( s%ou&d surrender it 6efore t%e gurupatni )guruLs wife* and s%e distri6utes w%atever a&& t%e students co&&ected a"ongst a&& t%e students after guruLs s%are. Usua&&( t%e needs &i5e wood for %ouse%o&d fire are a&so got 6( t%e students. Aees 9uru s%ou&d not ta5e an( "one( fro" t%e students. T%e guru da5s%ina wi&& 6e paid in t%e end 6( t%e student4 and it wi&& 6e w%at t%e guru as5s for. "eferences T%e d%ar"a sastras4 especia&&( t%e %ar"a Sutras of 2a&pa )&i5e $pasta"6a and Daud%a(ana* and "etrica& codes &i5e -anus"riti &a( down t%e out&ine of 9uru5u&a V(avast%a4 %ow a guru s%ou&d 6e4 %ow a discip&e s%ou&d 6e4 %ow instruction s%ou&d 6e and so on.

%.%.! San-asi V-avastha

San(asa as%ra"a is one of t%e four stages of "anLs &ife. 1owever a san(asi is tec%nica&&( outside t%e socia& fo&d. 1e is outside socia& divisions or categories4 and its ru&es. 1e does not %ave an( socia& 6ond as suc%4 t%oug% %e can raise %is "ea& t%roug% accepting a&"s and 6( attending peop&eLs %ouses as a guest. $ san(asi is not supposed to sta( &ong in an( sing&e p&ace4 %e s%ou&d 6e continuous&( "oving so t%at %e is not attac%ed to an( person or p&ace. T%is is w%( a san(asi is in fact ca&&ed parivra/a5a4 one t%at roa"s and is never sett&ed in a p&ace. T%e sing&e point goa& of a san(asi is &i6eration4 and not%ing e&se. 1e s%ou&d %ave no desires4 te"ptations4 a"6itions4 ot%er t%an &i6eration. 1owever t%ere are p&aces w%ere a san(asi can &ive4 suc% as "at%as )"onasteries*. $ san(asi s%ou&d 6e "oving and s%ou&d not 6e &iving in t%e "onaster( t%roug%out t%e (ear4 and can 6e returning to it ever( (ear. T%ere are "an( traditions of "onasteries in 1induis". Droad&( t%e( agree upon renunciation4 detac%"ent concepts 6ut are diverse in practices. T%e different sc%oo&s %ave different traditions and different "onasteries. 7or instance San(asis fo&&owing Sri Vais%nava )&i5e Sri Iee(ar* fo&&ow different practices t%an t%ose fo&&owing advaita?s"arta &i5e 2anc%i $car(as. 3t is not necessar( for a san(asi to 6e affi&iated to an( of t%e "onasteries. 3dea&&( %e cou&d /ust 6e a&one4 a parivra/a5a4 wit% no fixed %o"e. San-asi and SocietSan(asi %as a pecu&iar 5ind of re&ation wit% t%e societ(. 1e can 6e dependent on it for %is food4 t%oug% not sett&ed wit% one set of peop&e. 1e can a&so teac% t%e" w%at %e 5nows. 1owever %e s%a&& not accept an( assets fro" an(one for %i"se&f and can on&( do it to donate it or putting it to use for t%e 6enefit of t%e societ( )&i5e doing (a/na or giving it for 6ui&ding a "onaster(Ate"p&eAsc%oo& etc*. 1e can accept as discip&es on&( san(asis. 1e can %owever teac% gr%ast%as )or 6ra%"acaris or vanaprats%is* t%oug% not ta5e t%e" wit% %i". San3ara 6athas $di San5ara gave a s"a&& set of five poe"s ca&&ed .ati panca5a4 to exp&ain %ow a San(asi s%ou&d 6e. 1e gave two docu"ents4 for intra and inter?"onaster( )as%ra"aA"at%* activities. T%e first is to prescri6e t%e wa( san(asis s%ou&d &ive in a "onaster(4 t%eir %ierarc%( and seniorit(4 %ow t%e( s%ou&d treat eac% ot%er4 %ow t%e "onaster( s%ou&d 6e organi8ed etc. T%e second is a6out t%e wa( different "onasteries s%ou&d dea& wit% eac% ot%er. 1e &aid down t%e dasana"i sa"prada(a4 w%ere a san(asi can 6e ta5ing one of t%e ten suffixes to %is na"e. T%e( are 6%arati4 sarasvati4 sagara4 tirt%a4 puri4 asra"a4 giri4 parvata4 aran(a and vana. 1e esta6&is%ed four "at%as ca&&ed $"na(a "at%as in our sides of t%e countr(4 at 'uri );ast*4 Sringeri )Sout%*4 vara5a ),est* and I(otir"at%a )=ort%*. T%e( are associated wit% +igveda4 .a/urveda4 Sa"aveda and $t%arvaveda respective&(. T%e dasana"i san(asins do not rea&&( %ave to 6e&ong to an( particu&ar "at%a and are arranged in to nu"6er of "at%as apart fro" t%e $"na(a "at%as. 1owever t%e na"es are distri6uted

wit%in t%e $"na(a "at%as asH vana and aran(a wit% 'uri4 6%arati4 puri and sarasvati wit% Sringeri4 tirt%a and asra"a wit% vara5aG sagara4 parvata and giri wit% I(otir"at%.

'. (o$ular "eli ion '.1 Tem$les ;i< Construction Te"p&e is one of t%e foundations on w%ic% 1induis" survives. T%e t%eor( of te"p&e4 its construction4 running it4 its ritua&s are ta5en fro" $ga"as. Vais%nava te"p&es fo&&ow Vais%nava $ga"as and so on. $&t%oug% t%ere are portions of $ga"as t%at are unvedic4 te"p&es at &east in t%eir present for"4 are 6ased on t%e Vedic portion of $ga"as on&(. $ Te"p&e can 6e &i5ened to a %u"an 6od(4 wit% t%e 9od p&aced w%ere Iiva resides in "an4 w%ic% is %eart. $ga"as extensive&( discuss t%e entire procedure for te"p&es4 inc&uding +outines for wors%ip and prescriptions for wors%ip of 9od in 1is various for"s Se&ection of site for Te"p&e -ateria&s for construction 3cono"etr(4 a&ong wit% si8es and proportions of ido&s and various parts of te"p&e $rc%itectura& detai&s4 designs4 <ua&ities expected in scu&ptor and director of t%e te"p&e pro/ect4 t%eir ro&es etc Socia& aspects4 suc% as t%e soi& for town 6ui&ding4 town p&an As$ects of Tem$le Construction T%ere are "an( aspects invo&ved in constructing a te"p&e. $car(a4 director for t%e te"p&e construction and si&pi )scu&ptor* p&a( "a/or ro&e in t%e construction of a te"p&e. T%oug% not as "uc% as si&pi4 acar(a is expected to 5now si&pa sastra. Te"p&e construction 6egins wit% searc% of a proper site. Soi& and &ocation are exa"ined 6( acar(a and si&pi. T%is is ca&&ed D%upari5s%a. T%is is fo&&owed 6( nagaraAgra"a nir"ana. 1ere4 t%e &a(out of town4 its si8e4 6readt% of different t(pes of streets4 &ocations and si8es of faci&ities &i5e water tan5s are deter"ined 6ased on t%e si8e of town. T%ere are different na"es for different si8es of towns4 &i5e gra"a4 5%eta4 5%arvata4 durga4 nagara. T%en t%e &ocation of te"p&e )6ra%"a st%ana* in t%e town is decided. Te"p&e is usua&&( in t%e center of vi&&age so t%at ever( vi&&ager %as access to it. T%e entire arrange"ent is ca&&ed gra"a vin(asa. T%en t%e si8e of te"p&e is deter"ined. 7or t%is4 si8e of t%e i"age of "ain deit( is to 6e 5nown4 since t%e si8e of a te"p&e is a&wa(s a fixed "u&tip&e of t%e si8e of i"age of "ain deit(. T%en woodA"eta&Astone is se&ected for t%e i"age. T%e icon %as t%ree parts4 "ain icon )vigra%a*4 pedesta& )peet%a* and p&atfor" )ad%ist%ana or upa peet%a*. T%e tests to deter"ine <ua&it( of stone are prescri6ed 6( t%e $ga"as. T%ere are t%ree 5inds of stone4 "a&e fe"a&e and neuter. ,%en %it wit% an iron rod if t%e stone produces good sound and spar54 it is "a&e and s%ou&d 6e used for t%e "ain icon. 3f it produces sound 6ut not spar5 it is fe"a&e and s%ou&d 6e used for pedesta&. 3f it produces neit%er4 it is neuter and s%ou&d 6e used for p&atfor". T%ere are various standards for t%e re&ative proportions of i"age4 gopura4 pra5ara etc. and a&so t%e re&ative proportions of various parts of t%e vigra%a. T%e

units for "easuring vigra%a are ta&a4 angu&a and (ava. Ta&a is a "u&tip&e of angu&a and angu&a is a "u&tip&e of (ava. -ore t%an t%e specific si8e of eac% unit4 t%e "u&tip&icit( and re&ative si8es are i"portant. T%e proportions of 1ead?Trun5?$r"s?Begs of i"ages are specified. T%e finer specifications &i5e nose4 nai&4 ears and t%eir s%apes are a&so "entioned. 9enera&&( t%e standard is to use dasata&a )ten ta&as* for t%e %eig%t of i"age of "a&e deit(4 navata&a )nine ta&as* for 1is consort and astata&a )eig%t ta&as* for 6%a5ta. uties of te"p&e ad"inistration are a&so specified in t%e $ga"as : organi8ing festiva&s4 encourage art for"s and conduct s%ows to encourage artists4 create acco""odation for pi&gri"s fro" ot%er towns4 run %ospita&s4 regu&ar&( conducting re&igious discourses etc. Town p&anning4 engineering4 arc%itecture4 fine arts4 civics4 and "an( ot%er su6/ects are dea&t in t%e aga"as4 w%ic% re&ate to t%e various interests of peop&e and invo&ve t%e" in different capacities and a&so direct t%eir wor5 towards a %ig%er goa&. Ste$s in Tem$le Construction T%e procedure for 6ui&ding a te"p&e is extensive&( discussed4 and it cou&d 6e expressed in s%ort as >2ars%anadi 'ratist%anta"@4 "eaning 6eginning wit% >2ars%ana@ and ending wit% >'ratist%a@. T%e detai&s of steps invo&ved var( fro" one $ga"a to anot%er4 6ut 6road&( t%ese are t%e steps in te"p&e constructionH 1. D%u pari5s%aH ;xa"ining and c%oosing &ocation and soi& for te"p&e and town. T%e &and s%ou&d 6e ferti&e and soi& suita6&e. 2. Si&a pari5s%aH ;xa"ining and c%oosing "ateria& )"eta&AstoneAwood* for i"age 3. 2ars%anaH 0orn or so"e ot%er crop is grown in t%e p&ace first and is fed to cows. T%en t%e &ocation is fit for townAte"p&e construction. 4. Vastu pu/aH +itua& to propitiate vastu devata. 5. Sa&(odd%araH Undesired t%ings &i5e 6ones are dug out. 6. $d(esta5aH Ba(ing down t%e first stone 7. =ir"anaH T%en foundation is &aid and &and is purified 6( sprin5&ing water. $ pit is dug4 water "ixed wit% navaratnas4 navad%an(as4 nava5%ani/as is t%en put in and pit is fi&&ed. T%en t%e te"p&e is constructed. !. -urd%esta5a st%apanaH '&acing t%e top stone over t%e pra5ara4 gopura etc. T%is again invo&ves creating cavities fi&&ed wit% ge"s "inera&s seeds etc. and t%en t%e pinnac&es are p&aced. #. 9ar6%an(asaH $ pot "ade of five "eta&s )panca&o%a 5a&asa st%apana* is insta&&ed at t%e p&ace of "ain deit(. 1C. St%apanaH T%en t%e "ain deit( is insta&&ed. 11. 'ratist%aH T%e "ain deit( is t%en c%arged wit% &ifeAgod?ness. Defore t%e te"p&e is opened for dai&( wors%ip4 t%ere are so"e preparator( ritua&s to 6e done4 &i5eH $nu/naH t%e priest ta5es per"ission fro" devotees and &ord 9anes%a to 6egin ritua&s -rit sa"gra%anaH 0o&&ecting "ud

$n5urarpanaH Sowing seeds in pots of "ud co&&ected and waiting ti&& t%e( ger"inate +a5s%a6and%anaH T%e priest 6inds a %o&( t%read of vow on %is %and to ta5e up t%e assign"ent. 'un(a%avacanaH 'urif(ing ritua& for t%e p&ace and invo5ing good o"ens 9ra"a santiH ,ors%ip for t%e good of vi&&age and to re"ove su6t&e undesired e&e"ents 'ravesa 6a&iH 'ropitiation of various gods at different p&aces in t%e te"p&e4 ra5s%og%na pu/a )to destro( asuric e&e"ents* and of specific gods &i5e 2s%etra pa&a5a )devata ru&ing t%e town* Vastu SantiH 'acif(ing pu/a for vastu )t%is %appens twice and t%is is t%e second ti"e* .agasa&aH Dui&ding t%e stage for %o"as4 a&ong wit% vedi5a. 2a&asast%apanaH 3nsta&&ing 5a&asa" Sa"s5araH 'urif(ing t%e (aga sa&a 2a&asa pu/a4 (agara"6%aH ,os%ipping t%e 5a&asa as god and propitiating deities t%roug% fire =a(anon"ee&ana4 'rati"ad%ivasaH Opening e(es of t%e god?i"age4 insta&&ing it and giving it &ife

T%en specific wors%ip is done to deit(4 as prescri6ed. 7or instance in t%e case of Siva4 t%is is fo&&owed 6( asta6and%ana and 5u"6%a6%is%e5a. "ituals T%ere are four 5inds of ritua&s conducted in a te"p&eH nit(a )dai&(*4 nai"itti5a )occasiona&*4 5a"(a )desirous or optiona&* and pra(asc%itta )expiation*. A$$endi) I * Collectivism Contents 0o&&ectivit( ? T%e T%eor( Section 1 : =eed for 0o&&ectivit( Section 2 : 0o"p&eteness and 0o&&ectivit( Section 3 : Beve&s of 0o&&ectivit( Section 4 : Denefits of 0o&&ectivit( Section 5 : 'ro6&e"s and 'itfa&&s in -anaging 0o&&ectivities Understanding 0onte"porar( Societies Section 6 : T%e 1indu Societ( Section 7 : 1indus in US Collectivit- * The TheorSection 1 * 2eed for Collectivit-

7or"ing groups4 fee&ing 6e&ongingness to t%e"4 representing t%ose groups in t%e societ(4 tr(ing to protect t%e interests of t%ose groups4 creating a group &eve& capita& 6e it "onetar( or %u"an resource4 %ow good or 6ad is t%isP Bet us exa"ine 6ot% sides of t%e coin. Bet us ta5e t%e case of an individua& in a societ(. 1e is given t%e rig%t to &ive t%ere. 1ow can %e survive t%ereP 1. $part fro" sa&ar( and %ouse4 %e needs a socia& circ&e to "ove. 1e can sa( t%e entire societ( is %is4 6ut o6vious&( %e does not >"ove@ wit% it. 1e needs so"e friendsAre&atives to "ove. 1e searc%es for t%e" and creates a circ&e for %i"se&f. 2. 1e confides in t%at circ&e4 "oves in it. 1e depends on t%e circ&e for w%at %e cannot do as an individua& : socia& dependence. T%is can 6e of different t(pes and &eve&s4 rig%t fro" %aving co"pan( to visit a restaurant to %aving so"e6od( to ta5e %i" to t%e doctor if %e %as an urgent "edica& pro6&e". T%ese can 6e 6ad exa"p&es 6ut t%ere wi&& 6e "an( ot%er needs. So %e creates a circ&e w%ere %e&p can 6e given and ta5en. T%is %e&p can 6e %u"an or "onetar(. 3n case of "onetar( %e&p %e tries to raise a fund wit%in t%e circ&e t%at can 6e used in case of need for an individua& or fa"i&( wit%in t%e circ&e. 3. T%en t%ere are aest%etic needs for w%ic% %e needs &i5e?"inded peop&e around %i". 1aving si"i&ar interests or wor5ing for a si"i&ar cause as %is4 resonating to t%e wave&engt% of %is t%oug%t4 t%ese are %ig%er needs for t%e individua&. 1e creates a circ&e for suc% interests. 4. T%ere is anot%er 5ind of need4 w%ic% is co"pati6i&it( of cu&ture &eve&. 1e needs %is circ&e to 6e of a si"i&ar cu&ture?&eve& as %is. =ot %is %a6its 6ut %is entire civi&i8ationa& trait4 inc&uding &i5es?dis&i5es of custo"s4 attire4 and &anguage &eve&4 5now&edge &eve&4 va&ue?set4 c%aracter &eve&4 persona&it( and p%i&osop%ica& traits. ;ac% person wants to "ove wit% t%ose persons w%o "atc% %i" in t%ese. ifferent aspects can 6e "atc%ing wit% different peop&e4 and t%e person c%ooses to &i"it %is interaction wit% ot%ers to t%ose aspects %e %as "atc% wit%. T%is is %u"an tendenc(. T%ere are ot%er needs for co&&ectivit( to a person4 6ut we can start wit% t%is initia& set. 3n fact a&& t%is need not 6e &isted even to a &a("an4 6ecause ever(one ac5now&edges t%ese i"p&icit&( and ta5es for granted >"an is a socia& 6eing %e needs a group to "ove wit%@. Dut our purpose is not conc&uding t%isG we want to go a 6it furt%er into t%e "atter. ,e want to find out w%at 5inds of needs of a "an are addressed 6( w%at 5ind of groups. Section 2 * Com$leteness and CollectivitDut 6efore t%at we need to address anot%er i"portant aspect4 w%at causes a "an to attac% "ore i"portance or &ess i"portance wit% co&&ectivities. ,%at "a5es "an "ore dependent or &ess dependent on co&&ectivitiesP 7or t%is we need to see w%at "an see5s in &ife. 1e see5s %appiness. T%en t%e <uestion is w%at 6rings %appiness. 3t is co"p&eteness t%at 6rings %appiness. T%ere is a vast &andscape of inco"p&eteness in "an. T%e "ore

successfu& %e is in fu&fi&&ing it and ac%ieving co"p&eteness4 t%e %appier %e is. T%ere are different wa(s to ac%ieve co"p&eteness. -ost wise peop&e sa( t%at %aving a goa& and wor5ing for it t%roug%out oneJs &ife is t%e wa( to ac%ieve t%is co"p&eteness. 3t is ai"&essness t%at causes inco"p&eteness to grow and it is goa& t%at fi&&s in t%at inco"p&eteness. 1aving said t%is4 it is rea&&( rare to find in a societ( so"eone w%o %as suc% goa& and spends %is &ife for it. -ost peop&e %ave ai"s4 a"6itions4 passions4 fancies4 princip&es4 drea"s4 visions4 6ut a goa& of t%e 5ind t%at offers suc% a fu&fi&&"ent is rare to find in "en. T%ere are "an( constructs "an creates to offer co"p&eteness : t%e 6iggest of t%e" is 9od. $ definition for 9odA ivinit( is >t%e 6e&ief t%at offers co"p&eteness to "an@. T%is is not a <ua&itative definition for 9od 6ut a te&eo&ogica& definition. $t %ig%er &eve&s it is not a 6e&ief 6ut a &iving presence wit% w%ic% %e needs no ot%er circ&e or societ( to offer %i" an(t%ing except %is 6asic p%(sica& needs )so"eti"es not even t%at*. T%e "ore a "an gets a6sor6ed into it4 t%e "ore co"p&ete %e gets and t%e &ess is t%e need for %i" to see54 create or "ove wit%in circ&es. T%is wa(4 a&oofness is 6roug%t a6out 6( a 5ind of co"p&eteness in "an. Dut t%ere is dic%oto"( in a&oofness : one w%o %as not 6egun t%e /ourne( for co"p&eteness and sti&& %as to fee& t%e need for circ&es and create t%e" and t%e one w%o %as /ourne(ed t%roug% it and fina&&( grew a6ove it 6( ac%ieving co"p&eteness fro" wit%in. T%us during %is /ourne( %e creates and sustains "an( &eve&s of co&&ectivities : t%is p%ase is ca&&ed pravritti. 3n pravritti "arga "an s(nt%esi8es and sustains t%e societ(. T%en %e &ocates t%e space wit%in %i" w%ere %e can attain co"p&eteness : t%en %e starts nivritti. T%at is4 %e wit%draws into %i"se&f. T%ere are "an( ot%er wa(s "an can ac%ieve co"p&eteness : art for"s4 researc%4 socia& activit( : in s%ort an( 5ind of s(nt%esis. S(nt%esis 6rings co"p&eteness. 3n traditiona& &anguage one transcends anna"a(a4 prana"a(a and "ano"a(a 5osas wit% s(nt%etic activit( and &ives in vi/nana"a(a 5osa. 1e t%en "oves furt%er in4 to ananda"a(a 5osa and wit%in t%at to ac%ieve tota& co"p&eteness. Dut in t%is stage of transcendence %e does t%ings t%at do not re&ate to t%e su6/ect of %is s(nt%etic activit(. 7or instance4 a scientist stops spea5ing a6out &aws of science and starts dwe&&ing in p%i&osop%(. $n artist no "ore t%in5s of s5i&& 6ut on&( expresses %is deepest experiences. $ socia& activist no "ore represents %is co""unit( or cause or princip&e 6ut 6eco"es instru"ent in t%e universa& cause. 3n t%is stage %e does continue to s(nt%esi8e 6ut it is entire&( different 6ot% in content and <ua&it( fro" w%at %e does ear&ier. T%is is t%e %ig%est for" of s(nt%esis and offers t%e %ig%est fu&fi&&"ent for "anJs &ife. T%e dependence a "an %as wit% co&&ectivit( 6egins as %e steps into pravritti4 grows wit% it4 and starts co"ing down w%en %e starts nivritti. $s %e co"p&etes nivritti %e %as not%ing to do wit% an( 5ind of co&&ectivit( : fa"i&(4 co""unit(4 societ( or nation.

Section ! * &evels of Collectivit1aving seen %ow "anJs &ife c(c&e "aps wit% need of co&&ectivit(4 we can now exa"ine w%at &eve&s of co&&ectivities %e e"6races in w%at stages of %is &ife and for w%at needs. $s an individua&4 %is pravritti 6egins wit% 6irt% and continues as %e accu"u&ates "ateria& possessions and re&ations. $s %e 6egins to retire fro" a&& t%ese and ceases to fee& owners%ip over t%ese4 %is nivritti 6egins. $s %is nivritti co"p&etes4 %is &ifec(c&e ends. T%e 6asic unit of co&&ectivit( for a "an is %is fa"i&( t%at offers %i" "ost of w%at needs. 3t is t%is unit to w%ic% %e owes "ost direct&(. 1is existence4 surviva&4 &iving is 6ecause of %is fa"i&( ti&& %e ac%ieves t%e a6i&it( to do a&& t%ese %i"se&f. T%en %e wi&& 6e responsi6&e for t%e surviva& of %is fa"i&(. $nd t%ere wi&& 6e so"eone e&se )t%e next generation is read( to ta5e it up* to do t%at. 1is dependenc( on %is fa"i&( is t%e %ig%est w%en %e does not even rea&i8e t%at t%ere is so"et%ing ca&&ed fa"i&(. $nd as %e 6eco"es se&f?sufficient4 %is need for fa"i&( decreases and fa"i&(Js need for %i" increases. T%en %is nivritti starts. $nd w%en t%e next generation ta5es it up and %is need is fu&fi&&ed4 %is nivritti co"p&etes and vanaprast%a 6egins )%is ro&e in fa"i&( ends*. $&"ost w%en "anJs nivritti in fa"i&( 6egins4 %e starts 6e%aving &i5e an individua& in %is societ(. Defore t%at %e is not responsi6&e for %is actions in t%e societ( and %e does not face its conse<uences direct&( as t%e fa"i&( faces t%e conse<uences of "an( if not "ost of %is actions. Dut fro" t%en on %e %as to face t%e conse<uences of %is actions and t%e actions of ever( one in t%e fa"i&(. T%en %e starts 6ui&ding an i"age of t%e fa"i&( in t%e societ( and creates a new interface wit% t%e societ(. 1e tries to conso&idate %is position in t%e societ( 6( representing different &eve&s of co&&ectivit( : %e is 5nown t%roug% %is contacts4 %is co""unit( and %is region apart fro" %is persona& <ua&ities. 1e rea&i8es t%at %is co""unit(Js strengt% 6eco"es %is strengt% if %e uses %is 6e&ongingness to t%e co""unit(. Si"i&ar&( t%e strengt%s of %is region re&igion4 nation are %is strengt%s. $nd t%e wea5nesses of t%ose are %is wea5nesses. T%ere is a tendenc( in %i" to disown t%ose co&&ectivities w%en it co"es to wea5nesses and own it w%en it co"es to strengt%s. 3n stronger individua&s t%is "anifests as a refor"ative tendenc( to own t%e co&&ectivit( as it is and t%en wor5 to overco"e t%e wea5ness. Defore %e starts contri6uting to t%e societ( 6ut sti&& depends on it %e is in pravritti a&one. ,%en %e starts repa(ing w%i&e sti&& depending on it %e is in 6ot% pravritti and nivritti4 6ut %is nivritti starts. ,%en %e starts giving it wit%out ta5ing fro" it )or ta5ing t%e 6are "ini"u"* %e is in nivritti a&one. 3n t%e %ig%est stage of evo&ution discussed ear&ier "an wi&& 6e in t%is stage. 0o"ing to %is needs discussed in t%e first section4 "an &earns a6out %is cu&ture fro" %is fa"i&( and %is co""unit(. 3t is %is co""unit( wit% its set of uni<ue cu&tura& traits suc% as custo"s4 protoco& of interactions and code of conduct t%at is %is cu&tura& unit. 1e depends on it for %is own cu&ture. 1is own stature and %ow we&& %e carries %is cu&ture on )t%at is4 %ow we&& %e sustains it*4 is w%at %e gives 6ac5 to it. -an( "eans of fu&fi&&ing %is aest%etic needs are a&so &earnt fro" %is cu&tura& unit. T%e sa"e person can 6ot% persona&&( and i"persona&&( re&ate %i"se&f to %is cu&tura& unit. $t a co""unit( &eve& w%ere %e resonates wit% individua&sJ needs and contri6utes to t%ose %e is persona&&( re&ated. $t a

deeper &eve& )suc% as cu&tura& and aest%etic* %e is "ore i"persona&&( re&ated to %is cu&tura& unit. T%e 6igger t%e &eve& of co&&ectivit( %e represents or see5s to wor5 for4 t%e %ig%er is t%e c%ance for %i" to transcend t%e outer 5osas and dwe&& in inner 5osas. T%e "ore i"persona& %e gets in %is wor5 t%e %ig%er t%is c%ance is. ;ven wit%in t%e co""unit( a person usua&&( re&ates %i"se&f "ore to t%ose persons w%o resonate wit% %is wave&engt% of t%oug%t or 6e&ong to %is econo"ic stature or confor" to custo"s to t%e sa"e extent as %i"se&f. $nd if %e finds so"eone outside %is cu&tura& unit t%at "atc%es to so"e of t%ese4 %is circ&e wi&& inc&ude t%ose persons. Suc% circ&e wi&& not usua&&( over&ap wit% %is cu&tura& unit. T%is wa( t%e person is si"u&taneous&( a "e"6er of different co&&ectivities : suc% as %is p&ace of wor54 %is friend circ&e4 %is cu&tura& unit4 %is fa"i&(4 %is region4 t%e circ&e %e participates in for %is aest%etic needs or t%e circ&e w%ere %e tries to ac%ieve t%e goa& of %is &ife4 and so on. epending on %is stage of evo&ution and %ow co"p&ete or inco"p&ete %e is4 %e re&ates "ore to so"e of t%ese co&&ectivities and &ess to ot%ers. 7or instance4 a person wit% %is 6asic and aest%etic needs a&read( satisfied is not found in a circ&e "eant for fun a&one. T%e 5ind of co"p&eteness %e ac%ieves is far "ore t%an w%at a friend circ&e "eant for fun can offer. 3f %e %as friends t%e( are not for an( specific reason. 7or suc% a person a friend "eans si"p&( a 5nown person w%o s%ares good and 6ad "ost&( for t%e sa5e of s%aring t%an %e&ping. ,e on&( find circ&es w%ere %is aspirations are co&&ective&( ac%ieved. The 6acro View $&& t%is is discussed "ost&( in t%e "icro perspective4 i.e.4 fro" t%e individua&Js perspective. T%e 6e&ongingness of a person to a nation or a civi&i8ation s%ou&d 6e seen fro" t%e "acro perspective. Iust t%e wa( t%e individua& is 6enefited 6( t%e co&&ectivit(4 co&&ectivit( is sustained and affected 6( t%e individua&s. 3n a %ea&t%( societ( t%e individua&s contri6ute according to t%e pravritti and nivritti d%ar"as at a&& t%ese &eve&s of co&&ectivit(. Suc% a societ( wi&& 6e se&f?refor"ative and %ence &ong &iving. 3t wi&& %ave a nice 6a&ance 6etween su6/ective and non?su6/ective. T%at is4 6a&ance 6etween t%e c%oices of individua&s and t%e needs of societ(. T%e societ( sees pro6&e"s if t%is 6a&ance is &ost for so"e reason4 6e it co"ing in contact wit% ot%er societies or &oss of ge&&ing 6etween different &a(ers of co&&ectivities. 3n a %ea&t%( societ( t%ese different &eve&s of co&&ectivities %ave a proper context in t%e individua&sJ &ives. $nd it %as a "ec%anis" to rediscover t%is 6a&ance w%en it is distur6ed. Section # * =enefits of CollectivitT%e needs of co&&ectivit( and reasons w%( co&&ectivities are sustained is a&read( under discussion. $part fro" t%ese4 t%ere are "an( ot%er 6enefits t%at co&&ectivities offer. 1. 3t offers a "uc% needed 6uffer for individua&s and fa"i&ies. ,%en a person fa&&s sic5 in a fa"i&(4 ot%ers contri6ute to co"pensate for %is wor5 or contri6ution. Si"i&ar&( w%en an individua& or a fa"i&( suffers4 t%e 6igger co&&ectivit( sa( co""unit( or region ta5es up

supporting t%e" in a %ea&t%( societ(. T%is 6uffer can 6e "onetar( or %u"an %e&p or so"et%ing e&se. 2. 3t offers confidence to t%e individua&s in t%e group. T%e strengt% of t%e group is t%e confidence of its "e"6ers. 3. 0o&&ectivities give t%e scope to %and&e events or pro6&e"s of sca&e 6e(ond individua&s. ,%at an individua& or fa"i&( cannot face or ac%ieve4 can 6e done 6( s"a&&er and effort&ess contri6utions 6( t%e". 3t can 6e so"et%ing &i5e %and&ing a group of rowdies to running a Vedic sc%oo&. 4. 0o&&ectivities give t%e scope for surviva& in a&ien conditions. 3ndividua&s or fa"i&ies cannot retain t%eir cu&tura& identit( un&ess t%e( &ive in groups. 7or exa"p&e "an( 9nostic and 'agan traditions vanis%ed in t%e west 6ecause t%e( &ived as spiritua& traditions 6ut not as socia& and cu&tura& units. D( contrast 1indus are surviving in t%e west 6ecause t%e( &ive as socia& and cu&tura& units in t%e west. Section % * (roblems and (itfalls in 6ana in Collectivities ,%at pro6&e"s do co&&ectivities poseP T%e first is a c&as% of co&&ectivities. T%is is of two for"s4 a conf&ict 6etween groups and a friction 6etween two &eve&s of co&&ectivities 6ecause of not stri5ing a 6a&ance 6etween t%ose. $n exa"p&e for t%e for"er is so"et%ing &i5e two /atis ra&&(ing for power. ,%i&e t%e strengt% generated 6( t%e two groups is usefu& to 6ot% groups and t%e societ( overa&&4 t%e strengt% used 6( t%ese groups against eac% ot%er da"ages t%e groups and t%e societ(. T%e tradeoff 6etween s%ort and &ong ter" interests of t%e groups %as to 6e "ade %ere. T%ere are riva&ries t%at arise 6etween groups 6ecause of t%e nature of t%eir ver( purpose. T%ese can 6e avoided 6( a good design of t%e societ(. ,%en t%e societ( is designed in a wa( t%at opposite purposes are co"p&e"entar( instead of conf&icting4 t%is can 6e avoided. $not%er 5ind of riva&r( is one t%at arises 6etween groups in course of ti"e not necessari&( 6ecause of t%eir purposes conf&ict 6ut 6ecause of te"pora& reasons. $s &ong as t%e individua& groups %ave t%e strengt% to wit%stand t%ese and endure t%e situation4 t%ese are "ere&( ups and downs t%at are natura& to t%e societ(. Dut w%en t%e groups and societ( in genera& is not strong enoug% to endure t%ese4 it poses t%reat to t%e ver( socia& design. T%e societ( t%en c%ooses to disso&ve t%ose groups to co"e out of t%is crisis. $ "ore s(nt%etic societ( c%ooses to create or appea& to anot%er &eve& of co&&ectivit( a6ove t%ese groups4 so t%at t%e %ig%er &eve& of co&&ectivit( appea&s "ore 6efore w%ic% t%e conf&ict 6etween s"a&&er &eve& of co&&ectivities appears s"a&& and eventua&&( fades out. $n exa"p&e to t%is is appea&ing to re&igion in context of caste conf&icts in 1induis". T%e second 5ind of c&as% is a friction 6etween different &eve&s of co&&ectivities. 3n t%e "icro perspective4 s"a&&er &eve&s of co&&ectivit( appea& "ore to individua&s t%an 6igger &eve&s of co&&ectivities. 3ndividua& c%oice prevai&s over fa"i&(4 fa"i&( over co""unit( and co""unit( over societ(. 3n t%e "acro perspective4 %ig%er &eve&s of co&&ectivities are needed 6( t%e societ( for t%eir &onger &ife. T%ese two tendencies in t%e societ( pose a

c%a&&enge : %ow to organi8e a societ( in a wa( t%at t%is friction decreases. T%is depends on "an( factors &i5e %ow t%e individua&s are trained 6( t%e societ(Js cu&ture and w%at t%e societ(Js out&oo5 to &ife is4 %ow good t%e experience of t%e societ( wit% &ife. T%ese deter"ine %ow suc% an arrange"ent can 6e "ade. $ we&& experienced societ( "a5es an arrange"ent w%ere different &eve&s of co&&ectivities preexist in a wa( t%at it does not need creation of co&&ectivities te"pora&&(. $nd if co&&ectivities %ave to 6e "ade te"pora&&( it ensures t%at t%e( wou&d on&( 6e needed in situations of crisis and t%at t%e( go t%e "o"ent t%eir need is over. T%is re<uires a &ong &asting arrange"ent of individua&4 fa"i&(4 co""unit( %ierarc%(. $ societ( w%ere individua&s or fa"i&ies are t%e 6asic units does not satisf( co""unit( &eve& needs. $nd co""unities if created te"pora&&( wi&& over&ap4 c&as% over ti"e since t%eir arrange"ent is "ade on&( in view of t%e current individua& needs. $nd if t%ere is an arrange"ent w%ere co""unities preexist4 individua&s wi&& not need to create te"porar( and ad %oc arrange"ents for co""una& needs. Dut to "a5e suc% a socia& arrange"ent t%e societ( needs &ong and en&ig%tening experience wit% &ife. 3t "ot on&( needs to create co""unities t%at do not c&as% wit% eac% ot%er4 6ut needs to p&ace t%e" in t%e societ( in a wa( t%at a t%e persona& c%oice of &ife of individua&s is &east affected and at t%e sa"e ti"e t%e individua& in %is nor"a& &ife contri6utes 5nowing&( or un5nowing&( towards sustaining t%e arrange"ent. $&so4 a co""unit( offers on&( a 6ase for t%e individua& and an exce&&ing individua& a&wa(s transcends t%e &i"itation of %is environ"ent and t%e societ( gives scope for it. $n experienced societ( creates suc% an arrange"ent itse&f. T%e advantage of suc% arrange"ent is t%at it offers scope for surviva& of s"a&& co""unities in t%e "idst of 6ig ones4 wit%out extinction. 3n a >free@ societ( t%at %as no suc% arrange"ent4 t%ere is no concept of cu&tura& units and t%erefore uni<ueness of so"e unit is not possi6&e to 6e retained over ti"e. T%is is %ow ver( s"a&& co""unities "anage to survive in t%e 1indu societ( and succeed in retaining t%eir uni<ueness. T%is is t%e arrange"ent t%at offers diversit( in a societ(. 3f one %as suc% arrange"ent it is necessari&( 6( 6irt% t%at a person 6e&ongs to so"e unit4 since w%atever preexists acco""odates t%e individua&s fro" 6irt%. 3t is not possi6&e to %ave a co""una& setup t%at does not app&( fro" 6irt% and co"es up fro" air so"e%ow. T%erefore4 socia& "o6i&it( is an i"portant factor wit%out w%ic% t%ese units do not &ive &ong. -o6i&it( 6etween co""unities exists on&( at an individua& &eve&4 suc% as t%roug% "arita& re&ations. To ensure "o6i&it( of co""unities or parts of co""unities4 t%e societ( needs a %ig%er &eve& arrange"ent over t%ese co""unities4 w%ic% is an a6straction. T%is wa( t%e co""unit( as a w%o&e transfor"s itse&f into a %ig%erA&ower cu&tura& unit. $not%er aspect needed for suc% an arrange"ent to &ive &ong is t%at it creates scope for individua&s in eac% of t%ese a6stractions and co""unities to ac%ieve t%e co"p&eteness discussed a6ove. T%at is possi6&e if t%ere is a prescri6ed "et%od of s(nt%esis for individua&s of t%ese units t%at does not suits t%e functions of t%e individua&4 %is situation in t%e societ( and %is cu&tura& 6ac5ground. T%is does not enforce t%e "et%od on t%e individua& since it app&ies on&( on t%e a6straction and not on t%e co""unit(4 and a&so since t%is is on&( a guide&ine and not a dut(. Dut since practica&&( socia& pressure and environ"ent of up6ringing does inf&uence t%is4 t%e individua& does not usua&&( get to

transcend t%is &i"itation un&ess %e %as wider exposure or %as exceptiona& "erit. $&so4 t%ere is a&wa(s a difference 6etween occupationa& and aest%etic pursuit. T%is arrange"ent so"eti"es needs individua&s to 5eep t%e" dis/oint since %aving a specific occupationa& pursuit is not a&wa(s a "atter of c%oice for individua&s in t%e societ(. Dut t%e individua& a&wa(s reserves 6ot% scope and rig%t to pursue %is interests in t%e ot%er for". Second&(4 c%oice of occupationa& pursuit is not a co""unit( decision "ost of t%e ti"es : t%ere is a situation?peerAfa"i&( pressure?socia& convention a&wa(s acting on eac% individua& t%at deter"ines it in t%e presence or a6sence of co""unit(. $nd t%is is a forced persona& c%oice inf&uenced under a&& t%ese pressures4 especia&&( w%en t%e societ( is undergoing a transfor"ation. )$ s"a&& exa"p&e is t%at "ost peop&e opting for software /o6s do not do it for an( reason ot%er t%an t%e "one( in it and &ac5 of prospects in ot%er &ines of career. T%e tec%nica& c%a&&enge or t%e co"p&eteness it offers is next to not%ing. 3t is certain&( t%e individua&Js decision4 6ut forced 6( convention and socia& situation. $nd "ost of t%e ti"es t%e co""unit( decisions on t%is are wiser4 since it %e&ps create a &o66( to pursue t%ose.*. 3n suc% an arrange"ent if t%ere is a distur6ance t%at causes t%ese units to c&as%4 6e it due to resource crisis in t%e societ( or an externa& factor4 t%e societ( s%ou&d 6e a6&e to appea& to a %ig%er &eve& of co&&ectivit( t%at 6inds t%ese co""una& units. T%at is t%e cu&tureAcivi&i8ationa& uni<ueness of t%e societ( it retains 6e(ond t%e diversit( of custo"s of t%e units. 3t can a&so 6e a geograp%ic unit suc% as nation4 6ut t%at does not appea& as "uc% as t%e cu&tura& unit does. T%e first reason is4 nation is a ver( new concept w%ic% did not exist a few %undreds of (ears ago. =ext reason is t%at cu&ture is so"et%ing a personJs ever( da( activit( ref&ects. +egiona& appea& "a( wor5 on&( in case of a po&itica&A"i&itar( aggression on t%e societ(4 6ut in case of co""una& conf&icts it is t%e cu&tura& unit( t%at appea&s. Dut "ore i"portant&(4 w%at s%ou&d 6e re"e"6ered is t%at it is after a&& %u"ans t%at &ive t%e s(ste" and %owever "eticu&ous t%e s(ste" is its 6enefits are deter"ined 6( 1. 1ow worse can t%e societ( 6e wit%out t%e s(ste"4 and %ow 6etter t%e s(ste" is given t%e sa"e %u"an tendenciesP 2. 1ow e&evated can a person 6e 6ecause of t%e s(ste"4 t%at is4 w%et%er t%e s(ste" acco""odates for t%e %ig%est reac%es of %u"an natureP 3. ,%at is t%e nor"a& stature of %u"an expected 6( t%e s(ste" and w%ere does it ai" to ta5e it toP 1ow successfu& it is in doing soP $nd since %u"an nature is not a straig%t &ine 6ut "oves in a c(c&e &i5e seasons4 t%e s(ste" a&so sees its &ifec(c&e of %ig%s and &ows. $&so4 t%e s(ste" is not responsi6&e for %u"an wea5nesses. $ s(ste" idea&&( ai"s at an arrange"ent w%ere t%e societ( does not co&&apse 6ecause of t%ose wea5nesses4 6ut t%e wea5nesses cannot 6e re"oved 6( t%e arrange"ent. T%e downward tendencies can on&( 6e de?prioriti8ed 6( t%e s(ste" 6ut t%e( 5eep s%owing up. T%erefore it is not arrange"ent 6ut "en t%at u&ti"ate&( %ave to fig%t wit% t%ose tendencies and t%e arrange"ent can on&( %e&p t%eir t%in5ing in t%at direction. $nd "an( factors &i5e contact wit% ot%er societies and p%i&osop%ica& deve&op"ent p&a( a ro&e in t%e extent to w%ic% it succeeds.

5nderstandin Contem$orar- Societies Section ' * The :indu SocietT%e previous section dea&s wit% %ow an experienced societ( organi8es itse&f. -ost of it app&ies direct&( to t%e 1indu societ(. 3t %as a&& t%e e<uip"ent needed : experience4 out&oo54 cu&tura& 6ac5ground and 5now&edge s(ste" to arrange itse&f t%e 6est wa(. $nd it %as t%e e<uip"ent to create an arrange"ent t%at %as a&& t%e aspects discussed a6ove. Iati is t%e cu&tura& unit in our societ(. Varna is t%e a6straction t%at directs )upward* "o6i&it( for t%ese units. $s &ong as t%e varna contro&&ed /ati4 t%e s(ste" ca"e down <uite we&& wit%out "uc% friction 6etween /atis. Dut as /atis started 6e%aving as uncontro&&ed units 6( t%e"se&ves4 t%e societ( started seeing pro6&e"s. T%e first c%a&&enge to varna ca"e fro" Dudd%is". Dudd%is" did not offer a socia& "ode&G in fact it does not app&( to societies. Dut "ore peop&e started ta5ing to Dudd%is" w%o did not ta5e to san(asa 6ut re"ained in t%eir socia& fo&d wit%out &iving t%eir tradition. Since Dudd%is" neit%er offered an a&ternate "ode& nor fo&&owed t%e t%en existing socia& setup t%e societ( suffered &oss. 3nstead of >e&i"inating t%e c&assification@ t%e( on&( succeeded in creating su6sections in a&& t%e existing sections t%at did not fo&&ow t%e ru&es of t%ose 6igger sections. T%us t%e( on&( succeeded in creating poc5ets t%at do not co"p&( wit% t%e varna s(ste". Dudd%is" %owever did not succeed in countering /ati. Iatis re"ained t%e units4 6ut t%e contro& of varna over /ati is w%at t%e( succeeded in %ar"ing. T%is not on&( fai&ed in i"proving socia& situation 6ut %ar"ed it. $s a resu&t4 conf&icts 6etween /atis did arise and varna s(ste" was not strong enoug% to reso&ve t%ose. T%e &esson is t%at attac5ing varna 6efore addressing /ati wi&& on&( %ar" t%e societ(. T%e next 6iggest %ar" is done 6( t%e Dritis% and t%e 0%ristian "issionaries 6( "a&igning varna. T%e( created an opinion t%at so"e varnas do"inated t%e ot%ers and so"e are oppressed in t%e societ( 6ecause of varna v(avast%a. $s an exa"p&e t%e( s%owed t%e feuda& setup. Dut t%e rea&it( on ground is t%at it is not varnas t%at oppressed : varna in itse&f is t%e contro&&ing &eve& t%at prevents friction and not t%e p%(sica& power t%at can 6e used to oppress. 3t is t%e i"6a&ance created in power and "one( due to continuous externa& attac5s and t%e distur6ance caused in our societ( t%at gave strengt% to certain /atis and wea5ened t%e ot%ers. ,e can see %ow so"e groups %ig% in t%e varna %ierarc%( got into "isera6&e conditions during t%e -us&i" attac5s and are toda( ca&&ed sc%edu&ed tri6es. ,%at t%e Dritis% did is t%e( "apped t%is /ati riva&r( over t%e varna s(ste" and "ade 3ndians 6e&ieve t%at t%at is 6ecause of t%e varna %ierarc%(. $&& t%e pro6&e"s in t%e societ( across sections are due to t%e varna4 t%is is w%at t%e( wanted us to 6e&ieve. estro(ing our fait% and confidence in an(t%ing 1indu and "a5ing us fee& inferior a6out our tradition is w%at t%e Dritis% wanted us to do in order to %ave t%eir do"inance on us. $nd "ost of us are t%e victi"s of t%is "isinfor"ation. ,%at we stud( in our text 6oo5s toda( after 6C (ears of po&itica& independence is t%e sa"e. ;ducation s(ste"4 &aw and order4 ad"inistration4 t%ere is virtua&&( not%ing rea&&( 3ndian a6out w%at we %ave toda( and t%is

is 6ecause of t%e inferiorit( we %ave a6out our own s(ste". T%e &ac5 of aggression we see toda( in 3ndians in front of t%e wor&d is great&( 6ecause of t%is4 6e it cric5eting or dip&o"ac(. 'ost?independence is t%e next and current p%ase w%ere we see t%at t%e t%eor( of caste oppression of Dritis% is 6eing used and "isused to encourage caste riva&r( and %atred and t%ere6( gain po&itica& "i&eage. Toda( it is no "ore an anguis% or disp&easure due to socia& situation4 toda( it is a co"petition for power 6etween units. Start a "ove"ent4 appea& to t%e age?o&d varna and s"riti t%at is not 6eing fo&&owed4 conduct a %ate ca"paign over t%ose w%o stand for t%e"4 get a >"odern@ and an >e<ua&it(@ 6rand )gain e<ua&it( t%roug% %ate ca"paignsU* (ourse&f. Use /argons and 6u88?words4 no 6od( 5nows w%at t%e( rea&&( "ean : t%e( sound 6ig and good. $ttac5 t%ose w%o do not %ave strengt% and can 6e attac5ed and 6rand t%e" as t%e representatives of t%e c%auvinistic4 %ege"onic and oppressive s(ste" : t%ese two "oves wi&& get (ou credi6i&it(. Use t%at to get so"e nu"6ers and 6e a6&e to %ave so"e inf&uence in governance. T%at gets (ou power. T%is is t(pica&&( w%at %appens toda(. T%is %as not%ing to do eit%er wit% varna : t%is is si"p&( a ra&&( for power. $nd in fact it is a ca"paign against varna. T%e wor5 t%at is done si&ent&( at t%e ground &eve& to overco"e t%e inf&uence of t%e %ate? ca"paigns to ac%ieve so"e s"oot%ness 6etween t%e units4 wit% t%e 5now&edge of 6ot% tradition and of t%ese attac5s4 is a&"ost unnoticed. =ot on&( 6ecause it is not done 6( "an( : 6ut rat%er 6ecause credi6i&it( to suc% wor5 is %ar"fu& to %as power "ongering t%at &ive on %atred and socia& friction. T%eir existence is w%at gets t%e" a ra&&(ing point. Dut a&& t%is said4 t%ere is a positive side of t%e coin. Iati toda( offers a socia& capita&. T%e 6uffer t%at an individua&Afa"i&( cannot afford co"es fro" t%e co""unit(. 0o""unities wor5 as co""unities to generate %uge a"ount of %u"an and "onetar( resources. So"e of t%is certain&( goes into t%e power ra&&(ing or /ati?riva&r(4 6ut a great a"ount of socia& capita& is constructive&( used too. ,e see peop&e of sa"e co""unities co"ing up in groups4 generating wea&t%4 contri6uting a great dea& to t%e econo"( and socia& strengt%. T%e wisdo" of societ( &ies in recogni8ing t%is4 using it proper&( and "ini"i8ing its "isuse )%ate4 riva&r( or w%atever*. Iati is a cu&tura& unit and /atis are t%e representatives of 1indu cu&ture. T%ese are t%e ones t%at preserved a cu&ture so diverse in custo"s4 approac%es and occupations. 3n fact t%e /ati s(ste" offers surviva& to s"a&& cu&tura& units and a&&ow t%e" retain t%eir cu&tura& uni<ueness over a &ong period of ti"e. $not%er w%ip used to 6eat 1induis" is untouc%a6i&it(. T%ere are two aspects in t%is. One : peop&e using it against 1induis". Two : 1indus confused a6out it. ,%i&e "ost peop&e t%in5 varnaA/ati is direct&( re&ated to untouc%a6i&it(4 trut% is t%at its so&ution &ies in %and&ing it independent of varna. 3rrespective of t%e &eve& of casteis" and caste?%atred4 we do not see untouc%a6i&it( in ur6an areas as "uc%. 3t %as "ore to do wit% so"et%ing ot%er t%an varna s(ste". 2eeping aside its %istoric evo&ution we %ave to accept t%at it is fast going down. ,e a&so %ave to ad"it t%at it is a&"ost gone in p&aces w%ere its re&evance is gone. T%e rest &ies in transfor"ing t%ose p&aces w%ere it sti&& exists. One part

of it is raising t%e &iving conditions. Second part of it is "a5ing t%e peop&e t%ere aware of its o6so&eteness. $&so4 t%ose w%o 5now a6out 1induis" and its %istor( agree t%at "an( practices in 1induis" co"e and go in ti"e : t%e( are te"pora&. $nd 1induis" %as t%e a6i&it( to create and s%un practices t%at suit ti"es. ,e do not get to see "ost of t%e "ediaeva& practices toda(. -ost peop&e &ac5 t%is proportion and tend to overreact. $not%er i"portant t%ing needed in understanding our societ( is t%at it is a %uge4 co"p&ex and o&d societ( and it does not ta5e up or s%un an(t%ing in %aste. T%e ti"esca&e for c%anges in suc% a societ( is "uc% &arger t%an t%e &ifespan of a "an and t%is is w%( "ost peop&e t%in5 t%at 1induis" is too s&ow in refor"ing itse&f. 3n fact it is ver( fast in doing t%at. -ove"ents needed co"e in no ti"e &oo5ing at its si8e and co"p&exit(4 t%oug% it "a( appear too &ong for peop&e. +ea&i8ing t%is and sti&& wor5ing to discard o6so&ete practices is entire&( different fro" using t%ose to "a&ign and %ar" t%e societ(. Ot%er for"s of co&&ectivit( exist in 1induis" too. T%ere %ave 6een "an( "ove"ents t%at "o6i&i8ed %uge "asses and &asted for &ong. $n( 6%a5ti "ove"ent t(pica&&( sees a &ot of success in t%e 1indu societ(. +e&igion is t%e %eart of 3ndia4 and an( appea& to re&igion gets a %uge response. T%e sca&e and success of 2u"6% "e&a or +at%a (atra in 'uri stand for t%is. T%ose "ove"ents &ast rea& &ong. 'er"anence is t%e pri"ar( re<uire"ent and 1indus tend towards t%ose setups and "ove"ents t%at ai" at it. T%at is t%e reason w%( institutions &i5e fa"i&(4 caste4 re&igious sa"prada(as co"e down for "i&&ennia. Section 7 * :indus in the 5S T%e 1indus in t%e US organi8e t%e"se&ves as co""unities. 3t is geograp%( t%at deter"ines t%ese units4 6ut t%ere are "an( ot%er aspects &i5e cu&ture t%at deter"ine t%ese. 3n p&aces w%ere t%ere are few t%ousands of 1indus t%e( for" a few co""una& units. 3n p&aces w%ere t%e 1indu popu&ation is dense and 6ig4 t%e( organi8e t%e"se&ves in "u&tip&e units and suc% grouping invo&ves "ore factors &i5e &anguage4 caste4 custo"s and econo"(. $s t%e unit is s"a&&4 t%ese do not factor "uc% and as units grow in si8e a&& t%ese start co"ing into t%e picture. T%ese units 6e%ave &i5e cu&tura& units and &i5e poc5ets of 3ndian cu&ture wit%in t%e US. T%eir interface wit% t%e native US co""unit( )sa( native for t%e sa5e of convenience4 t%is "eans t%e ,%ites and not t%e +ed 3ndians* is not "uc% and is &i"ited to "ini"u" "ost of t%e ti"es. T%e fact t%at t%e $"erican societ( is &oose&( 6ound and individua&s are ato"i8ed4 a&&ows t%e 3ndians to &ive &i5e co""una& units wit%in t%e US wit%out "uc% interference or assi"i&ative pressure fro" t%e $"erican societ( itse&f. T%is wa( t%e( retain t%eir cu&tura& uni<ueness. ,e "a( as5 >%ow cu&tura&&( 3ndian are t%e 3ndians sett&ed in USP T%irdAfourt% generation 3ndians in US are as good as $"ericans an(wa(s@. Dut we %ave to ac5now&edge t%at t%eir ties wit% t%e 3ndian units t%ere are stronger t%an t%e "ore recent 3ndians sett&ed t%ere. $nd t%e socia& units do survive t%ere. $&so4 t%e cu&tura& aspects t%at are not direct&( re&ated to geograp%( and &oca& &ife are retained 6( t%e 3ndians t%ere 6ecause of t%eir co&&ective &iving. Second&(4 t%e socia& need and inco"p&eteness can 6e seen "ore 6( o&der sett&ers sa( 6e(ond 4 generations t%an recent ones 6ecause of t%eir experience4 %ence

t%eir greater participation in suc% units. T%us4 w%i&e t%e recent ones sti&& %ave t%e cu&tura& string towards t%ese units4 t%e o&der ones %ave a need string. $&so since t%eir inf&uence on t%e $"erican societ( is greater4 t%ese groups depend "ore on t%e" for a 6ase.