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Objectives Scope and Limitations Overview Single Line Diagram First Private Pole
What’s inside the Substation
At the end of the lecture, the participants should be able to:
Identify the basic parts of First Private Pole
Visualize the typical substation installation that SM has. Identify the major elements of a substation.
Know the basic monitoring and operation procedures.
Know the standard maintenance program and procedures.
SCOPE AND LIMITATIONS This presentation is limited to: First Private Pole SM’s Typical Indoor Substation What’s inside a Substation .
Classification According to Requirement: Transformer Substation Switching Substation Power Factor Correction Substation Frequency Changer Substation Converting Substation Industrial Substation .Substation A.
Classification According to Construction Features: Outdoor Substation Indoor Substation Underground Substation .Substation B.
SMCL’S 5MVA INDOOR SUBSTATION .
Aerial view .
which is the connecting and disconnecting of transmission lines or other components to and from the system Used to switch generators.Definition Electrical Substation: a subsidiary station of an electricity generation. equipment.pdf . transmission and distribution system where voltage is transformed from high to low or the reverse using transformers Performs switching. and circuits or lines in and out of a system SM Calamba Electrical SLD-feb2012-SHORT-B.
pdf SLD of LBS 11 | SM Indoor Substation | 17 Oct 2012 | CPDelosReyes Actual Photo of LBS on FPP .Typical Single Line Diagram SM Calamba Electrical SLD-feb2012-SHORT-B.
5kV lines from Meralco a b c Suspension Insulators Termination Kit XLPE (to substation) .Closer Look of the FPP Incoming 34.
34.Closer Look of the FPP LBS Power Fuse: 150E. S&C Electric Co.5kV. . Cat# 134250R4 .
What’s inside the Substation? MVSG2 T2 LVSG2 T1 LVSG1 MVSG1 .
and protective devices. MVSG Medium Voltage Switchgear. and conversion of electric power. used primarily in connection with the generation. rated 34.Switchgear A switching and interrupting device combined with associated control. distribution. directly linked to the quality of the electricity supply . regulating. metering. transmission.5kV Used to connect or disconnect a part of a medium-voltage power system.
MVSG 280cm T1 250cm 173cm 17 | SM Indoor Substation | 17 Oct 2012 | CPDelosReyes .
MVSG: inner view
Representation of vaccum interrupter Chamber in VCB
with rated current up to 3000 A, interrupts the current by creating and extinguishing the arc in a vacuum container For 34.5kV
have longer life expectancies between overhaul than do air circuit breakers.
VA. apparent power. True RMS monitoring of Ia. varh. Ic. and VA. Vca. power factor. W. Vbn. voltage/current unbalance. vars. Vbc. Van. and demand readings for A. energy use. voltage. Vab. Vcn. power factor. In. real power. line frequency. Wh. cost of power. and frequency. . watts. Ib.MVSG Metering Devices PQMII PQ Meter provides metering for current. vars. reactive power. VAh.
MVSG Metering Devices Feeder Protection Relay: Features Time delay overcurrent either phase or ground fault Instantaneous overcurrent Thermal Image Protection .
Transformer Oil Immersed Power Transformer transforms voltage from high to low or the reverse with the windings immersed in a highlyrefined transformer oil that remains stable at transformer operating temperature Instantaneous overcurrent .
Ambient temperature must not exceed 40°C and minimum -5°C .Transformer Oil Immersed Power Transformer indoor or outdoor. normally for temperature no lower than -5°C.
Cut-away view: three-phase oil-cooled transformer with oil reservoir visible at the top. . radiative fins aid the dissipation of heat.
Transformer The operation of the transformer is based on electromagnetic theory proposed by Lenz and further developed by Maxwell. a magnetic field is produced. This principle provides the basis for transformer action. . When a current flows through a conductor. The transformer transfers power by electromagnetic induction between circuits at the same frequency. a voltage is induced in that conductor. but at different voltage and current. By placing another conductor within that magnetic field.
Heinrich Lenz The induced current in the copper ring creates its own magnetic field that opposes the magnetic field that created it .
The change could be produced by changing the magnetic field strength. rotating the coil faradays-law_en. No matter how the change is produced. the voltage will be generated.Any change in the magnetic environment of a coil of wire will cause a voltage (emf) to be "induced" in the coil.jar relative to the magnet. etc . moving a magnet toward or away from the Michael Faraday coil. moving the coil into or out of the magnetic field.
Static magnetic fields lines ALWAYS form closed loops. They encircle moving charges according to the right hand rule. James Clerk Maxwell .
when either of those fields changes with time: Changing magnetic fields is a source of electric fields Changing electric fields are a source of magnetic fields James Clerk Maxwell The fields produced by this change are called dynamic or induced fields .There is another source of electric and magnetic fields.
Vs/Vp = Ns/Np Ip/Is = Ns/Np Where: Vp = primary voltage Vs = sec. voltage Ns/Np = turns ratio AC in one circuit induces an AC in a second circuit Ip/Is = current ratio Transfers power between the two circuits Doesn’t transfer charge between the two circuits .
Step down transformer: Ns < Np Others: Step-down transformer Autotransformer .
8 7 6 1 2 4 1 Filling & pressure relief cap 2 oil level 3 air breather 4 thermometer 5 drain valve 6 gas relay 7 mv bushings 8 lv bushings 9 tap changer 5 .
7 8 9 .
7 8 9 .
second stage operates on the sudden rise in oil pressure in the main tank caused by faults of a major nature. and the second stage is used for trip. etc. such as internal flash overs. loose connections. short circuited turns. The first stage is used for alarm.Gas Relay or Buccholz relay mounted on the pipe connecting the highest part of the transformer tank and the conservator first stage detects the slow accumulation of gas generated from an incipient or minor fault. 36 | SM Indoor Substation | 17 Oct 2012 | CPDelosReyes . etc. such as damaged winding or core insulation.
Inner view of LVSG 38 | SM Indoor Substation | 17 Oct 2012 | CPDelosReyes .
39 | SM Indoor Substation | 17 Oct 2012 | CPDelosReyes .
tie breaker ATS Normal CB Emergency CB Feeder CBs Capbank CB Metering devices .LVSG Used to connect or disconnect a part of a low-voltage power system.
ATS and Tie CB .
ATS and Tie CB .
ATS SLD .
000 A trip characteristics are often fully adjustable including configurable trip thresholds and delays. Common Brand installed: GE (Powerbreak II and Entelliguard) . though some models are microprocessor controlled via an integral electronic trip unit.Air Circuit Breakers rated current up to 10. Usually electronically controlled.
Air Circuit Breakers for LVSG .
Normal & Emergency .Entelliguard: Tie.
Power Break II: Feeder CBs .
Power Break II: Manual Operation The circuit breaker closing spring is energized by the size operation of the retractable pump handle Depress the “PUSH ON” button – to close the breaker contact The circuit breaker opening spring are automatically charged when the breaker is closed Depress the “PUSH OFF” button – to open the breaker contact .
Power Break II: Manual Operation ON/OFF INDICAT OR MAIN BREAKER CONTACTS CHARGING SPRING INDICATOR DISCHARGED CHARGED CONDITION OF CHARGING SPRING DISCHARGED NEXT PERMISSIBLE OPERATING FUNCTION CLOSING SPRINGS MAY BE CHARGED CONTACTS MAY BE CLOSED CONTACTS MAY BE OPENED. OR CLOSING COIL MAY BE CHARGED OFF OFF OPEN OPEN FULLY CHARGED DISCHARGED FULLY CHARGED ON CLOSED DISCHARGED ON CLOSED CHARGED CONTACTS MAY BE OPENED CLOSING SPRING MAY BE DISCHARGED WITHOUT CLOSING CONTACTS BY DEPRESSING OFF BUTTON WHILE PUSHING ON BUTTON OFF OPEN CHARGED FULLY CHARGED .
E.G. Substation Monitoring Communication Wire (Twisted Pair) Feeder (MVT) Meter & Relay Multinet Concentrator Multilink PMCS/CIMPLICITY Enervista Viewpoint Monitoring .
kW. ave and max values) Trending reports (graph of the parameters) Per minute. Currents kVA. hourly.What data do we get from the substation monitoring? Phase and Line Voltages. kWH (with min. daily Trip unit set points/settings .
Sample data .
high temp. Substation electricians shall log / monitor the following: MVSG and LVSG readings – phase and line currents. water leak. busted pilot lamps Housekeeping . kW.Substation Monitoring Though there is Enervista. kWH. kVA. pf Daily kwH reading of Main Meter and feeder meters inside substation CB tripping Fluctuations Interruptions Abnormalities: oil leak. burnt bus bars/wires.
How to start the Genset in Auto using MVSG Toggle selector to “TRIP”. toggle to “CLOSE” to normalize Used during Genset load test Used only when there is a need to isolate the normal supply Note: no synchronizing panel for gensets .
How to start the Genset in Auto using LVSG Select Emergency to “AUTO” Toggle Normal to “Test” Used only during no load test Note: no synchronizing panel for gensets .
one transformer is down) When to use the tie CB at Emergency Power At night. when load is too low to be supplied by all two gensets (e.When to use the tie CB at Normal Power When one Bank is down (no power supply to one MVSG.g. for a substation with two banks) When one genset is down .
How to use the tie CB (Emergency Power) Select the flow of the power on the tie CB (e. then select which among the feeders you desire to energize . from LVSG 1 to LVSG 2) Unlock the LOTO of the tie CB Open Normal CB of LVSG 2 Select “Manual” for the Emergency Selector Charge the tie CB Depress button “CLOSE” of tie CB Note: you may also turn-off all CBs of bank 2 before energizing the tie CB.g.
g.How to return to Select the flow of the power on the tie CB (e. then select which among the feeders you desire to energize . from LVSG 1 to LVSG 2) Unlock the LOTO of the tie CB Open Normal CB of LVSG 2 Select “Manual” for the Emergency Selector Charge the tie CB Depress button “CLOSE” of tie CB Note: you may also turn-off all CBs of bank 2 before energizing the tie CB.
Cap Banks Semi-annual Thermal Scanning Retightening / correction to be done only when critical hotspot is detected Cleaning to be done only when dirty along with the retightening . LVSG.Substation Preventive Maintenance MVSG. Transformer.
Substation Preventive Maintenance Transformer Annual DGA Correction to be done only when anomaly is observed on DGA result .
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