Republic of the Philippines

Supreme Court
Manila
En Banc
NATIONAL UNION OF 1OURNALISTS OF
THE PHILIPPINES (NU1P), PHILIPPINE
PRESS INSTITUTE (PPI), CENTER FOR
MEDIA FREEDOM AND
RESPONSIBILITY, MELINDA QUINTOS-
DE 1ESUS, ROWENA CARRANZA
PARAAN, ALWYN ALBURO, ARIEL
SEBELLINO AND THE PETITIONERS IN
THE e-PETITION http://www.nujp.org/no-to-
ra10175/
Petitioners,
- versus –
G.R. No. 203453
THE EXECUTIVE SECRETARY, ET AL.,
Respondents.
--------------------------------------------------
!o"# $e"tio"a"i, P"ohibition
an% &n'unction (ith
)pplication fo" &**e%iate
Rest"ainin+ ,"%e" an% ,the"
Et"ao"%ina"- .e+al an%
E/uitable Reliefs
MOTION FOR PARTIAL RECONSIDERATION
Petitione"s, th"ou+h un%e"si+ne% counsel, "espectfull- *o0e fo" pa"tial "econsi%e"ation of the
1ecision %ate% 23 !eb"ua"- 2024, an% cop- "ecei0e% 24 !eb"ua"- 2024, upon the follo(in+ +"oun%s#
A. Section 4(c)(4), which penalizes online libel, is
unconstitutional, not only in regard to those who
receive or react to a post, but also in regard to the
original author of the post.
2. &n its 1ecision, the 5ono"able $ou"t uphel% the constitutionalit- of online libel, b-
%ecla"in+ that section 46c7647, (hich penali8es online libel, is constitutional in "e+a"% to
the o"i+inal autho" of a post, thou+h not in "e+a"% to those (ho *e"el- "ecei0e the post o"
"eact to it. Petitione"s be+ a secon% loo9 upon the *atte".
2. )"ticle &&&, section 4 of the 2:34 $onstitution of the Philippines, (hich +ua"antees
f"ee%o* of speech, of ep"ession, o" of the p"ess, o" the "i+ht of the people peaceabl- to
asse*ble an% petition the +o0e"n*ent fo" "e%"ess of +"ie0ances, shoul% be "ea% in
con'unction (ith a"ticle 2: of the &nte"national $o0enant on $i0il an% Political Ri+hts, to
(hich the Philippines is a pa"t-. )"ticle 2: of the &$$PR si*ila"l- +ua"antees f"ee
speech.
3. &nte"national t"eaties that the Philippines "atifies, o" to (hich the Philippines acce%es,
such as inte"national hu*an "i+hts t"eaties, li9e the &$$PR, beco*e pa"t Philippine la(s
th"ou+h t"ansfo"*ation.
1
&t is a p"ocess un%e" a"ticle ;&&, section 22 of the $onstitution,
(hich p"o0i%es that <=n>o t"eat- o" inte"national a+"ee*ent shall be 0ali% an% effecti0e
unless concu""e% in b- at least t(o-thi"%s of all the *e*be"s of the ?enate.@
4. &nc"easin+l-, in its 1ecisions in0ol0in+ fun%a*ental f"ee%o*s an% hu*an "i+hts, this
5ono"able $ou"t has cite% an% "elie% on inte"national hu*an "i+hts t"eaties, an% the "ich
inte"national case la(, an% othe" inte"national %ocu*ents, eplainin+ the*, in
inte"p"etin+ counte"pa"t hu*an "i+hts p"o0isions in the 2:34 $onstitution of the
Philippines.
2
Petitione"s asse"t that this case calls fo" a si*ila" inte"p"etation of the 2:34
$onstitution of the Philippines.
5. &n this "e+a"%, a"ticle 2: of the &$$PR states in pa"t#
2. E0e"-one shall ha0e the "i+ht to f"ee%o* of ep"essionA this "i+ht shall
inclu%e f"ee%o* to see9, "ecei0e an% i*pa"t info"*ation an% i%eas of all
9in%s, "e+a"%less of f"ontie"s, eithe" o"all-, in ("itin+ o" in p"int, in the
fo"* of a"t, o" th"ou+h an- othe" *e%ia of his choice.
B. &n eplainin+ a"ticle 2: of the &$$PR, the Cnite% Nations 5u*an Ri+hts $o**ittee, the
bo%- cha"+e% (ith the %ut- to supe"0ise the i*ple*entation of the &$$PR, has state%#
44. 1efa*ation la(s *ust be c"afte% (ith ca"e to ensu"e that the- co*pl-
(ith pa"a+"aph 3, an% that the- %o not se"0e, in p"actice, to stifle f"ee%o*
of ep"ession. )ll such la(s, in pa"ticula" penal %efa*ation la(s, shoul%
inclu%e such %efences as the %efence of t"uth an% the- shoul% not be
applie% (ith "e+a"% to those fo"*s of ep"ession that a"e not, of thei"
natu"e, sub'ect to 0e"ification. )t least (ith "e+a"% to co**ents about
public fi+u"es, consi%e"ation shoul% be +i0en to a0oi%in+ penali8in+ o"
othe"(ise "en%e"in+ unla(ful unt"ue state*ents that ha0e been publishe%
in e""o" but (ithout *alice. &n an- e0ent, a public inte"est in the sub'ect
*atte" of the c"iticis* shoul% be "eco+ni8e% as a %efence. $a"e shoul% be
ta9en b- ?tates pa"ties to a0oi% ecessi0el- puniti0e *easu"es an%
penalties. Dhe"e "ele0ant, ?tates pa"ties shoul% place "easonable li*its on
the "e/ui"e*ent fo" a %efen%ant to "ei*bu"se the epenses of the
successful pa"t-. ?tates pa"ties shoul% consi%e" the %ec"i*inali8ation of
%efa*ation an%, in an- case, the application of the c"i*inal la( shoul%
onl- be countenance% in the *ost se"ious of cases an% i*p"ison*ent is
ne0e" an app"op"iate penalt-. &t is i*pe"*issible fo" a ?tate pa"t- to in%ict
a pe"son fo" c"i*inal %efa*ation but then not to p"ocee% to t"ial
epe%itiousl- – such a p"actice has a chillin+ effect that *a- un%ul-
1
Pharmaceutical and Health Care Association of the Philippines v Health Secretary, G.R. N,. 243034, :
,ctobe" 2004.
2
?ee, fo" ea*ple, Secretary of National Defense v Manalo, G.R. No. 230:0B, 4 ,ctobe" 2003A
an% Razon v Tagitis, G.R. No. 2324:3, 3 1ece*be" 200:.
2
"est"ict the ee"cise of f"ee%o* of ep"ession of the pe"son conce"ne% an%
othe"s.
3
6e*phasis ou"s7
4. Ehe CN ?pecial Rappo"teu" on the P"o*otion an% P"otection of the Ri+ht to !"ee%o* of
,pinion an% Ep"ession has cla"ifie% fu"the"#
42. Ehe ?pecial Rappo"teu" "e*ains conce"ne% that le+iti*ate online
ep"ession is bein+ c"i*inali8e% in cont"a0ention of ?tates@ inte"national
hu*an "i+hts obli+ations, (hethe" it is th"ou+h the application of eistin+
c"i*inal la(s to online ep"ession, o" th"ou+h the c"eation of ne( la(s
specificall- %esi+ne% to c"i*inali8e ep"ession on the &nte"net. ?uch la(s
a"e often 'ustifie% as bein+ necessa"- to p"otect in%i0i%uals@ "eputation,
national secu"it- o" to counte" te""o"is*. 5o(e0e", in p"actice, the- a"e
f"e/uentl- use% to censo" content that the Go0e"n*ent an% othe" po(e"ful
entities %o not li9e o" a+"ee (ith.
43. Ehe ?pecial Rappo"teu" "eite"ates the call to all ?tates to %ec"i*inali8e
%efa*ation. )%%itionall-, he un%e"sco"es that p"otection of national
secu"it- o" counte"in+ te""o"is* cannot be use% to 'ustif- "est"ictin+ the
"i+ht to ep"ession unless it can be %e*onst"ate% that# 6a7 the ep"ession is
inten%e% to incite i**inent 0iolenceA 6b7 it is li9el- to incite such
0iolenceA an% 6c7 the"e is a %i"ect an% i**e%iate connection bet(een the
ep"ession an% the li9elihoo% o" occu""ence of such 0iolence.
4
6e*phasis ou"s7
3. Besi%es, in )%*inist"ati0e $i"cula" No. 03-2003, this 5ono"able $ou"t itself has %ecla"e%
an <e*e"+ent "ule of p"efe"ence fo" the i*position of fine onl- "athe" than i*p"ison*ent
in libel cases.@ Ehis 5ono"able $ou"t has thus inst"ucte% that# <)ll cou"ts an% 'u%+es
conce"ne% shoul% hencefo"th ta9e note of the fo"e+oin+ "ule of p"efe"ence set b- the
?up"e*e $ou"t on the *atte" of the i*position of penalties fo" the c"i*e of libel.@
:. Ehe penalt- of i*p"ison*ent fo" online libel un%e" section 46c74 0iolates f"ee speech, as
+ua"antee% b- a"ticle &&&, section 3 of the 2:34 $onstitution, "ea% in con'unction (ith
a"ticle 2: of the &$$PR. !u"the"*o"e, section 46c74 +oes a+ainst this 5ono"able $ou"t@s
o(n p"efe"ence fo" not i*posin+ a penalt- of i*p"ison*ent in libel cases, a p"efe"ence
pe"haps inspi"e% b- nothin+ less than the constitutional +ua"antee of f"ee speech. Ehe
/uestione% la( %epa"ts f"o* this 5ono"able $ou"t@s position t(ice o0e". Not onl- is the"e
a penalt- of i*p"ison*ent in the /uestione% la(, but this penalt- of i*p"ison*ent is
hea0ie" b- 200F than that fo" libel un%e" the Re0ise% Penal $o%e.
20. Ehe /uestione% la( has a pa"ticula"l- chillin+ effect on online 'ou"nalis*. Ehese %a-s,
not onl- (ill a 'ou"nalist@s (o"9 be publishe% usin+ t"a%itional *e%ia, but it (ill be *a%e
3
Cnite% Nations 5u*an Ri+hts $o**ittee, Gene"al $o**ent No. 34, 22 ?epte*be" 2022, CN 1oc
$$PRG$GG$G34. ?ee also Repo"t of the 5u*an Ri+hts $o**ittee 620237, CN 1oc )GB3G40 6;ol. &7.
4
Repo"t of the ?pecial Rappo"teu" on the P"o*otion an% P"otection of the Ri+ht to !"ee%o* of ,pinion
an% Ep"ession, !"an9 .a Rue, 2B Ma- 2022, CN 1oc )G5R$G24G24. Ehe ?pecial Rappo"teu" is an
in%epen%ent epe"t appointe% b- the CN 5u*an Ri+hts $ouncil to ea*ine an% "epo"t bac9 on his
specific hu*an "i+hts the*e. 5e ulti*atel- t"aces his autho"it- to the CN $ha"te", to (hich the
Philippines is a pa"t-.
3
a0ailable on the inte"net. Eh"ou+h the inte"net, the people a"e able to "espon% an% %iscuss,
usin+ a 0a"iet- of social platfo"*s, such as faceboo9 an% t(itte". Ehe i*po"tance of the
inte"net as an inte"acti0e *e%iu* fo" 'ou"nalists has stea%il- +"o(n. &t has beco*e a
po(e"ful tool b- (hich 'ou"nalists can en+a+e the people as pa"tne"s in the sea"ch fo" the
t"uth. Ehe ?pecial Rappo"teu" has state% in this "e+a"%#
2:. ;e"- fe( if an- %e0elop*ents in info"*ation technolo+ies ha0e ha%
such a "e0olutiona"- effect as the c"eation of the &nte"net. Cnli9e an- othe"
*e%iu* of co**unication, such as "a%io, tele0ision an% p"inte%
publications base% on one-(a- t"ans*ission of info"*ation, the &nte"net
"ep"esents a si+nificant leap fo"(a"% as an inte"acti0e *e%iu*. &n%ee%,
(ith the a%0ent of Deb 2.0 se"0ices, o" inte"*e%ia"- platfo"*s that
facilitate pa"ticipato"- info"*ation sha"in+ an% collabo"ation in the
c"eation of content, in%i0i%uals a"e no lon+e" passi0e "ecipients, but also
acti0e publishe"s of info"*ation. ?uch platfo"*s a"e pa"ticula"l- 0aluable
in count"ies (he"e the"e is no in%epen%ent *e%ia, as the- enable
in%i0i%uals to sha"e c"itical 0ie(s an% to fin% ob'ecti0e info"*ation.
!u"the"*o"e, p"o%uce"s of t"a%itional *e%ia can also use the &nte"net to
+"eatl- epan% thei" au%iences at no*inal cost. Mo"e +ene"all-, b-
enablin+ in%i0i%uals to echan+e info"*ation an% i%eas instantaneousl-
an% inepensi0el- ac"oss national bo"%e"s, the &nte"net allo(s access to
info"*ation an% 9no(le%+e that (as p"e0iousl- unattainable. Ehis, in tu"n,
cont"ibutes to the %isco0e"- of the t"uth an% p"o+"ess of societ- as a (hole.
B. Sections 14, 15, 24 and 26(a) do violate separation
of powers, as judicial and legislative powers are
unduly delegated to the Secretary of 1ustice, PNP,
NBI and CICC.
2. &n its 1ecision, this 5ono"able $ou"t foun% no un%ue %ele+ation of po(e"s. But
$on+"ess, in enactin+ the $-be"c"i*e .a(, unconstitutionall- %ele+ate% po(e"s to
"espon%ents ?ec"eta"- of Hustice, Philippine National Police an% National Bu"eau of
&n0esti+ation, that $on+"ess itself %oes not possess.
2. Respon%ents PNP an% NB&, collecti0el- "efe""e% to as <la( enfo"ce*ent autho"ities,@ a"e
%ele+ate% 'u%icial po(e"s un%e" section 24 to issue <o"%e"6s7 "e/ui"in+ an- pe"son o"
se"0ice p"o0i%e" to %isclose o" sub*it subsc"ibe"@s info"*ation, t"affic %ata o" "ele0ant
%ata in hisGits possession o" cont"ol (ithin se0ent- t(o 6427 hou"s f"o* "eceipt of the
o"%e" in "elation to a 0ali% co*plaint.@ ?uch an o"%e" (oul% pa"ta9e of the natu"e of a
subpoena, (hich is a 'u%icial p"ocess.
3. Respon%ent $-be"c"i*e &n0esti+ation an% $oo"%inatin+ $ente" is +i0en the po(e" to
fo"*ulate an% i*ple*ent the national c-be"secu"it- plan un%e" section 24. Ehe"e a"e no
pa"a*ete"s, no" stan%a"%s, to +ui%e "espon%ent $&$$ in fo"*ulatin+ it. ?uch a %ele+ation
is unconstitutional, fo" it a*ounts to an ab%ication of the le+islati0e po(e" to fo"*ulate
polic- in fa0o" of an a%*inist"ati0e a+enc-, (hich (oul% onl- be *an%ate% to enfo"ce
an- such polic-.
4
Dhe"efo"e, it is "espectfull- p"a-e% that the 1ecision be "econsi%e"e%, an% online libel in section
46c74 be %ecla"e% unconstitutional in "e+a"% to the o"i+inal autho"A an% sections 24, 25, 24 an% 2B6a7 be
si*ila"l- in0ali%ate% fo" 0iolatin+ sepa"ation of po(e"s, as un%ue %ele+ation of 'u%icial an% le+islati0e
po(e"s. Petitione"s p"a- fo" othe" "elief 'ust an% e/uitable un%e" the p"e*ises.
Iue8on $it- fo" ManilaA 22 Ma"ch 2024.
FREE LEGAL ASSISTANCE GROUP
(FLAG)
$ounsel fo" Petitione"s
1OSE MANUEL I. DIOKNO
PABLITO V. SANIDAD
RICARDO A. SUNGA III
BJ#
R&$)R1, ). ?CNG) &&&
Roll No. 4003B
&BP No. :5B524, I$, 2-B-24
PER No. :33032:, I$, 2-B-24
M$.E Ee*ption No. &; 00024:, Pasi+, 2-04-22
Cnit 403 )$. ?uites
42 23
th
)0enue $ubao Iue8on $it- 220:
E*ail "ica"%oKsun+aL-ahoo.co*
$ellula" MB3:243542224
$op- fu"nishe%#
THE SOLICITOR GENERAL
$ounsel fo" all Public Respon%ents
234 )*o"solo ?t"eet, .e+aspi ;illa+e
Ma9ati $it-
ATTY. LOUIS BIRAOGO
G.R. No. 2032::
cGo Be0e"l- ;illa+e E"uc9in+ $o"po"ation
No. 232 Bana--Bana- ?t"eet
$abu-ao, .a+una
RENTA PE CAUSING SABARRE CASTRO
AND ASSOCIATES
G.R. No. 20330B
Cnit &, 23B3 H.B. Roas ?t"eet co"ne" .eon Guinto ?t"eet
Malate, Manila
DISINI & DISINI LAW OFFICE
G.R. No. 203335
320 ?ocial ?cience $ente"
$o**on(ealth )0enue
1ili*an, Iue8on $it-
GANA ATIENZA AVISADO LAW OFFICE
G.R. No. 20335:
3
"%
!loo", 5P. Buil%in+
5
No. B0 ?en. Gil H. Pu-at )0enue
Ma9ati $it-
ROQUE & BUTUYAN LAW OFFICE
G.R. No. 203343
2:04 )ntel 2000 $o"po"ate $ente"
222 ;ale"o ?t"eet, ?alce%o ;illa+e
Ma9ati $it-
NATIONAL UNION OF PEOPLES LAWYERS
G.R. No. 2033:2
3
"%
!loo", E"-th"ina Buil%in+
No. 2 Maa"alin co"ne" Matata+ ?t"eets
$ent"al 1ist"ict, Iue8on $it-
ATTY. MELENCIO STA. MARIA ET AL.
G.R. No. 203440
)teneo 5u*an Ri+hts $ente"
GG! )teneo P"ofessional ?chools Buil%in+
20 Roc9(ell 1"i0e, Roc9(ell $ente", Ma9ati $it-
ATTYS. PAUL CORNELIUS CASTILLO AND RYAN ANDRES
G.R. No. 203454
B
th
!loo", Euscan Buil%in+
224 ;.). Rufino ?t"eet, Ma9ati $it-
ATTY. KRISTOPHER 1AMES PURISIMA
G.R. No. 2034B:
B
th
!loo", .E) Buil%in+
223 Pe"ea ?t"eet, .e+aspi ;illa+e, Ma9ati $it-
SOLIS MEDINA LIMPINGCO & FA1ARDO
G.R. No. 203502
220B East Eo(e", Philippine ?toc9 Echan+e $ente"
Echan+e Roa%, ,"ti+as $o**e"cial $ente"
Pasi+ $it-
ATTY. EDSEL TUPAZ
G.R. No. 20350:
42 N. Ro*ual%e8 ?t"eet, B! 5o*es ?ub%i0ision
2220 Iue8on $it-
ATTY. MICHAEL MELLA
G.R. No. 203525
Cnit 220B, P"esti+e Eo(e", !. ,"ti+as H". Roa%
,"ti+as $ente", Pasi+ $it-
ATTY. RENECIO ESPIRITU 1R.
G.R. No. 203523
?uite B02 Rich*on%e Pla8a 5otel
22 ?an Mi+uel )0enue, ,"ti+as $ente", Pasi+ $it-
ATTY. 1AMES MARK TERRY RIDON
G.R. No. 2033:2
3: N-4 ?t"eet, Na*ias, Iue8on $it-
ATTY. KELVIN LESTER LEE
G.R. No. 203523
Cnit 305 Oa0ie"0ille ?/ua"e, Oa0ie"0ille )0enue
Iue8on $it-
B
EXPLANATION FOR SERVICE BY REGISTERED MAIL
Ehis Petition (as se"0e% on the "espon%ents b- "e+iste"e% *ail because of ti*e, pe"sonnel an%
+eo+"aphical conce"ns an% const"aintsA %istance in0ol0e% as (ell as lac9 of *anpo(e" to cause se"0ice b-
pe"sonal %eli0e"- const"aine% counsel to cause se"0ice b- "e+iste"e% *ail.
RICARDO A. SUNGA III
4
AFFIDAVIT OF SERVICE
&, KKKKKKKKKKKKKKK, of le+al a+e, %o he"eb- state un%e" oath that# ,n KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK, &
se"0e% copies of the Motion fo" Reconsi%e"ation in <National Cnion of Hou"nalists of the Philippines, .uis
;. Eeo%o"o, Ro(ena $a""an8a Pa"aan, )"iel ?ebellino, et al. 0. Ehe Eecuti0e ?ec"eta"-, et al.@ b-
"e+iste"e% *ail on the follo(in+, as sho(n b- the "especti0e "e+ist"- "eceipt %etails#
THE EXECUTIVE SECRETARY
Malacanan+ Palace, Manila
REG. RE$E&PE N,.
P,?E ,!!&$E#
1ate#
THE SECRETARY OF 1USTICE
1epa"t*ent of Hustice
Pa%"e !au"a ?t"eet, E"*ita, Manila
REG. RE$E&PE N,.
P,?E ,!!&$E#
1ate#
THE SECRETARY OF THE INTERIOR
AND LOCAL GOVERNMENT
1epa"t*ent of the &nte"io" an% .ocal Go0e"n*ent, ). !"ancisco
Gol% $on%o*iniu* &&, E1?) co"ne" Mapa+*ahal ?t"eet, Iue8on
$it-
REG. RE$E&PE N,.
P,?E ,!!&$E#
1ate#
THE DIRECTOR GENERAL
PHILIPPINE NATIONAL POLICE
5ea%/ua"te"s, Philippine National Police
$a*p $"a*e, Iue8on $it-
REG. RE$E&PE N,.
P,?E ,!!&$E#
1ate#
THE DIRECTOR, NATIONAL BUREAU
OF INVESTIGATION
5ea%/ua"te"s, National Bu"eau of &n0esti+ation, Eaft )0enue,
Manila
REG. RE$E&PE N,.
P,?E ,!!&$E#
1ate#
THE CYBERCRIME INVESTIGATION
AND COORDINATING CENTER
cGo Ehe Eecuti0e 1i"ecto", &nfo"*ation an% $o**unications
Eechnolo+- ,ffice, N$$ Buil%in+, $.P. Ga"cia )0enue, 1ili*an,
Iue8on $it-
REG. RE$E&PE N,.
P,?E ,!!&$E#
1ate#
THE SOLICITOR GENERAL
234 )*o"solo ?t"eet, .e+aspi ;illa+e
Ma9ati $it-
REG. RE$E&PE N,.
P,?E ,!!&$E#
1ate#
Iue8on $it-, KK Ma"ch 2024.
KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK
E&N P
&ssue% onGat
?CB?$R&BE1 )N1 ?D,RN E, befo"e *e this KK %a- of Ma"ch 2024, affiant ha0in+
p"esente% to *e co*petent p"oof of i%entit- as in%icate% abo0e.
1oc. No.
Pa+e No.
Boo9 No.
?e"ies of 2024.
3

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful