Sexual Imagery on the "Phantasmagorical Castles" at Khajuraho

by Michael Rabe • Setting the stage. • The Artha of Temple KAma.

Setting the stage.

For one glorious century starting just before the year 1000 Vi rama !A.". #$%&' the political center of (orth )n*ia+s )mperial formation1 shifte* from Kanauj in the ,amuna-.angetic "oab !Mesopotamia&' south/ar*s to Khajuraho in the hea0ily-jungle* uplan*s the Vin*hyas. There' a succession of fi0e 1an*ella ings presi*e* o0er the final' but also finest efflorescence of the (Agara-or*er temple' an architectural style /hose origins are can be trace* to .upta-perio* prototypes in the same 2un*el an* region'3 an* /hose e4tinction as a 0ibrant creati0e tra*ition /as perpetrate* by iconoclastic )slam. ,et as Fate /oul* ha0e it !personifie* in the 5ri-6a Sm) consort of the 1an*ella *ynasty+s brief )mperium&'% geographic remoteness insure* the relati0ely intact sur0i0al of a *o7en masterpieces of (Agara temple architecture at Khajuraho.$ Apparently' they escape* notice of e0en SultAn Mahm8* himself' /ho lay futile siege to the impregnable 1an*ella fortress at Kalanjar' not 90 miles a/ay in A" 1033' on his 1$th pre*ation out of .ha7ni' Afghanistan.9 )t is true that in 1%$3 )bn 2attuta sa/ e0i*ence of muslim mutilations' on the consecrate* images at Khajuraho': an* the largest 5i0a-linga in (orth )n*ia' still in /orship in the MAtange70ara' suffers the in*ignity of t/o ;ersian inscriptions.< 2ut other/ise' especially in their o0er/helmingly figural outer fabrics =e.g.' ;late 1>' these temples sur0i0e* centuries of neglect !follo/ing the final collapse of 1an*ella po/er in 1%0?& /ith remar able integrity' an* soon after initial rediscovery by an @nglishman in 1?%?'? concerte* efforts to restore them /ere un*erta en' first by the local 1hatarpur rajas' an* since by the Archaeological Sur0ey of )n*ia. Returning to consi*eration of the site in the year 1000 Vi rama' it must ha0e seeme* a most propitious time for a hitherto insignificant tributary of the )mperial ;ratihAras to concreti7e *ynastic aspirations for genuine so0ereignty by the erection of a magnificent temple. As Ron )n*en

has note* in his brilliant reconstruction of the "eccan-base* imperial formation of the Rashtra utas'# the gran* finale of a tributary ing+s metamorphosis to o0erlor*ship in this perio*' eAui0alent to the ca ra0artin+s horse sacrifice of earlier times' /as often the construction of major temple. 8nfortunately' the 1an*ella+s earliest royal temple *e*ication is lost--all but a roughly 1+$B sAuare fragment of /hat must ha0e been an appro4imately 3+ 4 9+ slab.10 2ecause the fragment /as foun* near the VAmana' that temple may ha0e been the one *e*icate* therein by the 1an*ella ing CarSa*e0a'11 presumably after /resting the fable* Kalanjar fortress13 bac from the Rashtra uta in0a*er' )n*ra ))) an* restoring his feu*al liege Mah)pAla to the ;ratihAra throne in Kanauj. Co/e0er' since' atypically' its only o0ertly se4ual imagery appears in unpublishe* subsidiary niches of the roof-pediments'1% it can recei0e no further comment here.

CarSa*e0a+s son' ,a7o0arman' e4pan*e* the boun*aries of 1an*ella authority mostly at the e4pense of their Kalachuri ri0als to the south an* the imperial ;ratihAras' e0en forcing Mah)pAla+s successor' "e0apAla' to relinAuish a priceless palla*ium of VaiS(a0a ingship' a Vai u(Tha-ViS(u icon' an* built the suitably magnificent 6a Sman temple to house it. The icon' almost certainly gol*'1$ an* originating in Kashmir'19 has long since *isappeare*' but an 1an*ella-style facsimile in san*stone sur0i0es in its sanctum.1: The impressi0ely long *e*icatory inscription !in $# 0erses an* a prose colophon&' *etailing ,a7o0arman+s ancestry an* conAuests is actually a posthumous recor*' *ating from the year Vi rama 1011 !A.". #9$D9& in his son "hanga+s reign but any patron-specific references in the temple proper !or benefits accruing from its construction& clearly belong to the father. Rarely note* e0i*ence in support of this contention is that the father' ,a7o0arman is also title* 6a Sa0arman !00. %<' %#&' /hence *eri0es the temple+s tra*itional name in a slightly garble* form.1< Thus' precisely because it is the earliest *ate* temple at the site' any attempt to ma e sense of the se4ual imagery at Khajuraho must concentrate first an* foremost upon the 6a Sman comple4 =e.g.' ;late 3' *etail of 1>' complete* in #9$ /ith $ subsi*iary chapels an* a share* masonry terrace aroun* /hich the most notorious obscenities at the site appear.

2efore cutting to the nitty gritty' three other temples nee* intro*uction by 0irtue of association /ith inscriptions !t/o of them *ate*&' that name in*i0i*ual patrons. First the ;Ar70anAth' largest of the Eain temples on the east e*ge of Khajuraho =;late %>' must be nearly contemporary /ith the 6a Sman--in pro4imate sculpture style' together they represent the finest phase of the 1an*ella i*iom =;late $>. The ;Ar70anAth also bears a brief inscription *ate* to the same year' Vi rama 1011. Though recopie* in 1%th c. characters' it enumerates a gift of se0en gar*ens to the temple on a *ay eAui0alent to Mon*ay April 3' #99 A.".' gi0en by ;Ahilla' presumably a minister of state' Bhel* in honor by ing "hanga.B1? Much is often ma*e about the relati0e *iscreetness of se4ual imagery on Eain temples' but the /or* relative nee*s emphasis' /here e0en go**ess 6a Smi is not immune to ViS(u+s fon*ling' an* maithuna couples actually coupling appear in the ambulatory /ithinF King "hanga*e0a+s o/n panegyric !pra7asti&' *ate* eAui0alent to 1003' /as foun* in rubble at the base of a 5i0a temple no/ no/n as the Vi70anAth' an* is presume* to be its *e*ication.1# This temple too' li e the 6a Sman' /as built on an imperial scale' /ith subsi*iary chapels at the four corners of its high masonry terrace !just one of /hich sur0i0es&30. )ts primary icon' ri0aling in pe*igree his father+s gol*en Vai untha' /as an emeral* 5i0a-linga' calle* the Mara et70ara' *escen*e* it /as sai* from )n*ra+s hea0en.31 1oinci*entally as /ell' its e0en longer *e*ication !in :$ 0erses& is also posthumousG though e4plicitly cre*iting "hanga /ith construction of the temple' it procee*s in 0. 99 to commemorate his 0oluntary suici*e by *ro/ning in the sangam at ;rayAgG

46.3% Ihether or not in partial reference to his /i0es' female figures certainly pre*ominate in the iconography of "hanga+s Vi70anAth =.a7apAla+s K)rtti--singing yes' but also embo*ying' a 1an*ella ing+s FameJ Reunite* at long last' in cyber.Having lived for over a hundred years and protected this earth enclosed by the girdle of seas as its undisputed sovereign. .late 1> belongs to the earlier ing . The speculation is har*ly i*le' for *ramatic allusion to capti0e /omen in "hanga+s train is e4plicit grist for his panegyrist+s mill' engra0e* as fair notice on this 0ery templeG v.a7o0arman+s 6a 5man temple' is it not fitting to imagine one such as her being the 0isual analogue to the poet . the celebrated king Dhanga obtained liberation by abandoning this mortal frame at the confluence of the GangA and the YamunA. 47. with whetted curiosity. Thus' /ith the a*mitte* pro0iso that this illustrati0e figure =.late 9>' as in*ee* they *o in all the major temples at Khajuraho. whose lotus-eyes were wet with tears.late :' another *etail from . the sole friend of the learned! After wandering over the whole of *the+ universe. #ho and whose are you$ #hat for have you. " have come. come here$ " am the accomplished fame '%"rttir-aha() of the monarch Dhanga. to behold the beauty of the peaks of the high mountain ranges of . #ho are you$ #ife of the king of %Anc"! #ho are you$ &pouse of the chief of RADhA! #ho are you$ #ife of the king of Anga! &uch conversations took place amongst the imprisoned wives. of his enemies over whom he had gained victory! v.Angeya*e0a' of the ri0al Kalachuri *ynasty' at the same holy confluence some $0 years later. with his eyes closed and mind concentrated on and reciting the name of Rudra iva!33 Hne /on*ers if any /i0es accompanie* him in aAuatic sat" as *i* the 100 of ing .et un*eniably they are--cut literally from i*entical san*stone an* bon*e* as integral units. . resplendent as the moon.okAloka!3$ )ronically' though a translation of this inscription /as inclu*e* in the earliest publication on Khajuraho'39 these 0erses ha0e ne0er pre0iously been cite* as rele0ant to the site+s iconography.

isnu+ which rivals the peaks of the mountain of snow/ the golden pinnacles of which illumine the sky!!!at the sight of which the inhabitants of heaven.late <>' the myria*-pea e* sine -ua non of (Agara architecture' calle* the Kan*AriyA MahA*eo.The last temple to be intro*ucte* here is also the largest3: an* most perfectly proportione* =.3< Such a name is certainly appropriate' gi0en its /on*erful clustering of uru7Rnga replications' li e foothills an* lesser pea s' surroun*ing its tautly soaring primary 7i hara.irinda3# .irindasamaye navasura-samAgame varastr"nA( 1f the . Absent a more *efiniti0e etymology of the famous name ) parse it as poetic reference to 5i0a as .a7o0arman+s earlier inscription for the 6a SmanG v. met together on festivals.reat 6or* of the 1a0ernous .ea s. are struck with wonder!3? There is' ho/e0er' a tantali7ing single-line epigraph on a pillar of the interior /hich' accor*ing to Krishna "e0a' corroborates the attribution on stylistic groun*s of the Kan*AriyA MahA*eo to "hanga+s gran*son' Vi*yA*hara !c. Ihile' unfortunately' no *e*icatory pra7asti sur0i0es for the Kan*AriyA' the mountain metaphor' so recurrent in )n*ian architecture an* perfectly capture* here' is proclaime* in the . 42.arastr"s on *the occasion of the+ 2avasura-samAgama in the time of king .101?-1033&G rA0a. filled with increasing delight. He erected this charming splendid home!!!*of .

These =sla0es girls>' instructe* by the parasites' /ho taught them =to gi0e> counsels etc.ha7ni to the siege of Kalanjar' reporte* matter of factly that Cin*u ings *efraye* military bu*gets /ith re0enues s imme* from temple prostitution'%1 but Khajuraho' ne0er a large metropolis an* lying consi*erably off beaten pilgrimage routes through religious centers li e Mathura' . Some among these =sla0e girls> sho/e* themsel0es eager for amorous intercourse at those occasions' an* the ing forsoo his goo* fortune by touching them /ith his o/n bo*y. Ce /orshippe* them' an* aban*oning his e4alte* position an* /ealth /as laughe* at by the people. .%3 As for the ceremonial conte4t name* in the Kan*AriyA epigraph' one possible scenario for imagining /hat navasura-samAgame' B/elcoming the ne/ go*B !J&' might ha0e entaile*' is preser0e* in Kalha(a+s history of Kashmir' /herein a slightly later ing CarSa !10?#-1101& /as plie* /ith sla0e girl goddesses by his courtiersG Hthers brought sla0e girls before him an* sai* they /ere go**esses.rayAg an* 2enares' /as more li ely the pri0ate preser0e of 1an*ella ings an* their courtiers. =preten*e* to ha0e obtaine*> from con0ersations /ith the go*s' confuse* his min*.Ihile granting that Virin*a may be an affectionate pet name for Vi*yA*hara' it is less certain /ho e4actly these varastr"s or choice women might ha0e been'%0 --royal /i0es as note* earlier' or commoner-accessible *ancers calle* *e0a*As)sJ The great Arab historian al-2iruni' /ho accompanie* Mahm8* of .

.. Far fetche* to be sure' but not /ithout sanction in te4ts' an* ) Auote but t/o. First' from the 2Rha*Ara(ya a 8paniSa* these famous linesG )n the embrace of his belo0e* a man forgets the /hole /orl*'--e0erything both /ithin an* /ithoutK in the same /ay' he /ho embraces the Self no/s neither /ithin nor /ithout. where the bridegroom and the bride meet becomes the place of 0unction *sandhik&etra+!%< . . Ihen he *esire* to gi0e magic perfection to his bo*y !pi2Dasiddhi& some "omba =lo/-caste laun*ress> ma*e him s/allo/ a *rin /hich he preten*e* /as an eli4ir ha0ing that po/er.%9 Secon*' from an Hrissan architectural treatise e4actly contemporary /ith Khajuraho+s imperial monuments'%: these 0ery components of the temple are correlate* in gen*ere* termsG 3he vimAna is the best bridegroom and the mukha4AlikA main hall is the bride! 3he place in front.' . Ihat respectable man coul* relate the other e0en more shameful practices of his /hich he follo/e* to obtain strength an* beautyJ%% Some/here in that spectrum' bet/een consorting /ith sla0e goddesses an* si**hiacAuiring practices too shameful for Kalha(a to mention' must figure the celebrate* group-clenches of the Kan*AriyA MahA*eo =e.%$ Thus it appears' !as a partial e4planation&' that three 0arieties of intimate engagement--se4ual' mystical an* architectural--o0erlay one another as mutually illuminating glosses.g.reat significance has been inferre* by Michael Meister an* "e0angana "esai from their *istincti0e location' e4clusi0ely on antarAla juncture /alls bet/een mahAma("apa /orship halls an* the 0imAna sanctuaries proper.As he /as an4ious to li0e for a 0ery long time' they =the goddesses> grante* him' /hen in his foolishness he as e* for a long life' hun*re*s of years to li0e. .late ?> an* their precursors on the 6a Sman an* Vi50anAth temples.

109# !A. Ihy' for e4ample' *oes the lusciously hip-shot poseur gingerly pinch at her s irt+s right upper hem' /hen the ominous scorpion is firmly plante* on her left legJ . 1003&' can be interprete* to ha0e t/o meanings.". So khar06ra-vAhaka =also> means scorpion bearer. The /ell. .ar*on the anachronism' but tal about strip-teaseF (ot /ishing to prolong suspense unnecessarily' ) hasten to cre*it "e0angana "esai /ith *isco0ery of a site-specific connotation of the scorpion at KhajurahoG %har06ra-vAhaka' the ancient name of Khajuraho' mentione* in King "hanga+s inscription of V. 2elur for e4ample =.late # is but one of se0eral figures on the Kan*AriyA MahA*eo that e4pose themsel0es on this prete4t an* there are other earlier e4amples at Khajuraho' but none else/here to my no/le*ge until later'%? at 13 c. Ihile she cites a sA*hana 0erse for Aghora 5i0a as /earing a nec lace of scorpions !ho/e0er' 0RSci a&$0 ) prefer' more *irectly to the point' to i*entify these s irt-she**ing /omen themsel0es as the eponymous Scorpion-bearers.$% That sai*' there is yet another 0ital facet to *isclose in the purport of these unner0ing surasundar"s' or *i0ine beauties /ith scorpions on their thighs.erhaps the site+s most i*iosyncratic motif is the varastr"5choice woman pro0ocati0ely sho/n in the act of *islo*ging a scorpion from her thigh by remo0ing her s irt.o*consciousness& ) *escen* to earthiness for a final intro*uctory sampling of the erotic pro0ocations on 0ie/ at Khajuraho.S.%# 2ut here our interpretations * meaning of the /or* khar06ra is *ate-palm tree' an* vAhaka means a carrier or bearer. 8nli e the later' more straight-for/ar* *epiction of s irt an* scorpion remo0e*' at Khajuraho the motif has an uncanny ambiguity.late #' one /oul* not be mista en to see hints of inebriation' for harj8ra is also a /or* for *ate /ine.$9 Ihy in*ee*' *oes she *elicately lo/er her garmentJ "ue to harj8ra fear or arousalJ These may be i*le /itticisms to some' but not' ) insist to the sculptor /ho car0e* this .$$ Seen in light of this punning 7leSa !a literary ornament much lo0e* by Sans rit poets&' her pose struc becomes a perfect 0isual analogue to the literary figure no/n to alaM Ari As as sandeha' intriguing doubt. 2ut the /or* khar06ra also means a scorpion. Cere it is rele0ant to note that the ol*est architectural structure at Khajuraho is a yogini precinct'$1 its si4ty-four niches *e0oi* of sculpture' ) suggest' because originally li0e /omen may ha0e figure* there in rites inten*e* to augur military 0ictories. Hr' if not eponyms /hence the site /as originally name*' at least they constitute namesa e allusions to it--they too are harj8ra-bearers. . So %har06ra-vAhaka can mean date-palm bearer' an* a later legen* associates the to/n /ith t/o gol*en harj8ra trees at its gate. 6oo ing again at the harj8ra-0Aha ) in .From these lofty heights of metaphoric fancy !buil*ing nuptials' .late 10>.$3 Thus the harj8raDscorpion bearing attribute may ha0e belonge* to a local manifestation of the preeminent go**ess of 0ictory' "urgA.

1bscene "dol Houses for such a purpose ha0e been reporte* in VajrayAna Tibet'90 but parallel intentions cannot be presume* /here se4ual motifs are concentrate* on e4terior /alls' to be glimpse* by one an* all *uring pra*a Sina circumambulation' rather than by senior a*epts un*ergoing final or*eals in emulation of prince Si**hartha+s encounter /ith Mara+s *aughters just before achie0ing 2u**hahoo*. Fortunately' the challenge to present *ay scholars is more one of feast than famine.$# (or' for a secon* rationale applicable else/here but not at Khajuraho' /ere *eliberately enticing images erecte* as a moral-filtration against /ea nee* aspirants still prone to lust. A great /ealth of potentially rele0ant *ocuments ha0e been i*entifie*' by T.. 3ouchstones of renunciation91 these are not. So there it isG lascivious iconography in abun*ance an* integral to the conception an* *esign of the (Agara or*er temples at Khajuraho. Thus' before e4amining four te4t-certifiable rationales for the plethora of se4ual imagery at Khajuraho' ) propose to clear a/ay fi0e other' less-cre*ible alternati0es. . (otice' lest there be lingering *oubt' that allusion to *rin ing is o0ertly mime* in the abhinaya gesture of the cuppe* thumb an* fingers of her left han*' presse*' moreo0er' against a breast as if it /ere the cup.$: #elcome to %har06ravAhaka' the 0arastr) suggesti0ely pantomimes' /ith both han*sF The rtha o! Tem"le K ma. 2hattacharya an* "e0angana "esai among others' an* their fin*ings are more than sufficient to start !or' rather' to continue& the /inno/ing process..late 11> an* prescriptions in se4 manuals li e the 13th century Ratirahasya'$? but *i0ergences in matter' e0en bet/een these relati0ely contemporary corpora' are far greater than their commonalties. First' an* not/ithstan*ing the eru*ition of Alain "anielou' the 0ariety of coital ban*has !clenches& or /ere not ren*ere* in stone for se4ual e*ucation of the general populace' ne/ly/e*s an* ku2Dalin" physiologists inclu*e*.masterful image of coAuettish se*uction. 2ut still the perennial bafflement remainsG /hate0er forJ 2y /hat criteria an* e0i*ence might genuine intentions of the architects' patrons an* clergy of the 1an*ella court be isolate* from the un/arrante* inferences of later apologists' present company not e4clu*e*J All one can really *o is amass collateral *ocuments of the perio* an* test their rele0ance against careful rea*ing of the monuments themsel0es accor*ing to one+s o/n best lights at any gi0en moment.$< True' matches may be foun*' as bet/een the stra**ling pose that tops the south antarAla of the Vi70anAth =.

late 19> among literally hun*re*s of 0ariations on the theme of feminine grace an* the preoccupations of /omen.Angeya*e0a' c. =. 1039-10$0. 2ut unli e 2orobu*ur' /here patently sinful acts are ju4tapose* /ith resultant punishments'93 the 6a Sman terrace lac s any in*ication of cautionary a*monition.late 1$> Fourth' an* not /ithstan*ing the inherent causalities bet/een se4 an* fertility' both in biology an* agrarian rituals since the neolithic'9$ the Khajuraho temple buil*ers /ere not primarily moti0ate* in their choice of iconography by *esires for offspring or har0est. Again' by contrast /ith earlier 2u**hist monuments /here fructifying ya Sis /ere so pre0alent' 7Alabhanji As beneath trees are conspicuous by their rarity at Khajuraho' an* maternal images e0en more so =e4ceptionally' . To the pro0erbial list of the go*s+ four *istinguishing features' a fifth coul* be a**e* for these surasun*ar)s--they rarely get pregnant.ar70anAth of the relati0ely circumspect Eains.9< This other/ise plausible scenario is at o**s both /ith the . The *iscounting of a any significant role of the latter monastic or*er comes as an a*mitte* *isappointment' gi0en the absorbing historical reconstruction of e0ents by .99 A fifth untenable e4planation for the se4ual imagery at Khajuraho is that they /ere *esigne* or *e*icate* for the use by any no/n Tantric sect li e the .lates 13' 1% to be *iscusse* belo/>--there an* no/here else at higher le0els of the temple proper.A7upathas' Kaula-KApAli As'9: KAlamu has' or e0en the Mattamay8ra Sai0a Si**hAntas no/n to ha0e been e4tremely influential in the neighboring ing*om of the Kalachuris of "AhAla. The presumption that they might arises from the appearance of bestiality an* group orgies on an outermost terrace frie7e of the 6a Sman temple =. (or can a *ichotomy be suppose* bet/een grosser e4terior 0ersus more ethereal interior formulations of religious e4perience9% /hen couples coupling !maithuna-mithuna & appear on inner sanctuary /alls' e0en in the .Thir*' there is no cre*ible basis to belie0ing that the Khajuraho temples /ere inten*e* to replicate a morally stratifie* uni0erse' li e the 2u**hist man*ala architecture e4emplifie* by 2orobu*ur in /hich *iminishing *egrees of carnality correspon* /ith spiritual attainment.oet7' to the effect that Mattamay8ra ascetics infiltrate* the 1an*ella court an* thus facilitate* !/ith *ebauchery& their territorial loses to Kalachuri .

Protection $ems The architectural treatise closest to the royal temples at Khajuraho' both in *ate an* region of composition' is the &amaranga2a-s6tradhAra' /ritten by . (ot that tantric beliefs an* practices /ere un no/n in 1an*ella circles--far from it--simply they /ere not foremost among the moti0ations of their buil*ers' as ) reconstruct them.aramAra ing 2hoja /ho suffere* a humiliating *efeat at the han*s of a 0assal of 1an*ella Vi*yA*hara' patron of the Kan*AriyA MahA*eo.upta-perio* reticence about lo0ing couples.:3 At the same time one can rea*ily accept Thomas "onal*son+s thorough-going argument /ith the Hrissan analogues in min*' that no categorical *ifferences in in* or probable intent *istinguish casually *ispose* mithunas from the more heate* maithuna couplings. 2ut by the same to en' their 0ery pre0alence at Khajuraho sets them apart as not responsi0e to those same gui*ing lights. Ceroes an* /omen gratifying their *esire for one another in se4-play' their pale bo*ies a*orne* /ith a fe/ choice ornaments' /ith their limbs slightly ener0ate* from se4ual in*ulgence.9# .:1 !(otice ho/ they hang in each other arms.& These graphic images of sensual aban*on contrast mar e*ly /ith the simpler prescriptions an* car0ings of earlier centuries' /hen temple *oor frames !primarily& /ere a*orne* /ith a 0ariety of auspicious motifs' mithunas not pre*ominant among them' an* rarely engage* in more than han* hol*ing.erhaps goose an* gan*er /ere recei0ing *ifferent alchemical sauces !as from abstinent *ealers of illicit *rugs any/here&' an* tantric a*monitions to secrecy coul* e4plain the relati0e *earth of o0ert se4ual imagery in the other/ise impressi0e stone-/or at pro0en Mattamay8ra sites li e 1an*rehi' 2ilhari an* .resumably the . The :th century 2Rhat-saMhitA is typical of the earlier perio* /hen it enjoins simply thatG The remaining part !of the *oorjambs& shoul* be *ecorate* /ith auspicious bir*s' s/asti a *esigns' 0essels' mithunas' lea0es' creepers etc. #.late 3 !the only mithuna in )n*ian art /ith pubic hair notation& /hen rea*ing the follo/ing e4hortationG =Temples> shoul* be *ecorate* /ith beautifully beje/ele* youths' their attracti0e limbs ent/ine* ma ing lo0e.urgi.strictly ortho*o4 tenor of the 1an*ella+s sur0i0ing temple *e*ications'9? an* the comparati0ely chaste iconography !an* epigraphic content& of pro0en Mattamay8ra temples an* monasteries.:0 2y happier coinci*ence' this is also the te4t that best correspon*s /ith iconography on the groun* in its aban*on of any lingering .:% . 1omparability in spirit' or rather in flesh' may be appraise*' for e4ample' by recalling .

ra A7a !).Ar70anAth =..e.late 1:> is easily charge* /ith intent-to-entice !an* thus to attract *i0ine fa0or& on the basis of this e4actly contemporary passage in the 5ilpa . For the promotion of structural integrity' the a0ersion of unto/ar* *isasters' the buil*ing is *resse* in auspicious ornaments' li e a person /ith magical amulets.uri&' ) prefer to speculate about ho/ e4actly apotropiac gems etc! !i. . cracks in the structure and other calamities. Thus a comple4' but single rationale applies to all such architectural embellishmentsG in them inheres a dual complementary symbolism of propitious and apotropaic -ualities.%#3-%#9&G . .' ala(kAras'inclu*ing se4ual motifs& /ere imagine* to /or . gems etc! were suitably fitted in the manner prescribed in the treatises on architecture!:: Rather than Auestion the rationality of such a belief' or e0en its *ubious antiAuity !in a te4t pertaining to the still-acti0e EagannAth temple' at . Since a 0ast literature on this an* allie* subjects is rea*ily a0ailable':9 ) merely *efen* one of the more risible claims to this effect /ith a proof te4t. An* for *eca*es a sole te4tual citation in support of this con0iction' ascribe* still to 7ilpins in the 30th century' has bounce* through the literature !though ne0er actually Auote*& as from the 8t ala hA("a !the 1rissa section&' se0ere* from its resi*ent te4t name' the S an*apurA(aG "n order to ward off strokes of lightning.:$ Ihether their efficacy' alternati0ely' is percei0e* in terms of attraction or re0ulsion' the un*erlying purpose' 0ery much from the architect+s perspecti0e' is protection. Hn the one han*' the architect responsible for gi0ing prominence to such alluring females as this *ancer from the .the (Ar)ban*ha =frie7e of /omen> is in*ispensable in architecture.*ifferences constitute mere *egrees in in* or sha*es from a single spectrum /hose pre*ominance at any gi0en moment can best be e4plaine* by the stan*ar* *ynamics of stylistic *e0elopment an* *esire for 0ariation on perennial themes. Much scoffing has been elicite* by the claim that erotic *isplay may protect a temple from lightning.i0en the Ve*ic go* )n*ra+s perennial an* pan-)n*ian i*entity as 0ajra-/iel*er par e4cellence' couple* /ith his eAually notorious affiliation /ith hea0enly *ancers--the apsarases /hom he both enjoys an* *ispatches to *ebauch alarmingly po/erful ascetics' one /on*ers /hether images' acts an* utterances of a fran ly se4ual nature are inten*e* to curry his interest or shame him a/ayJ Arguments can be ma*e for both alternati0es' an* not /ishing to lea0e any stone unturne*' here is one for each' applicable' perhaps' to *ifferent genres of temple iconography.. As a house /ithout a /ife' as frolic /ithout a /oman' so /ithout !the figure of& /oman the monument /ill be of inferior Auality an* bear no fruit.

1ontemplate* in 0arious postures' she is no/n as AlasA-!)n*olent& an* is *ecorating..<1 . These on the 6a Sman terrace almost certainly inclu*e tantrics' inclu*ing one /ho presi*es from a *ouble-occupancy be* o0er the preparation of some performance enhancing eli4ir =.a Sas' RA Sasas' .et there is an abun*ance of goo* humore* 0ariety' at the outermost pale of 6a Sa0arman+s precinct--i*eally situate*' ) infer' for repelling the e0il eye.riya& foun* else/here in )n*ia !much of it comically absur*' li e o0er-the-shoul*er self-fellatio:#&' the famous terrace reliefs of Khajuraho+s 6a Sma( may seem pretty tame =..:? (o surprises hereG images of beautiful /omen an* artful lo0ers are solicitous in*ucements for the go*s to be present. 1ompare* to the initially shoc ing range of transgressi0e per0ersions !bhraSTa. Ioman is the most beautiful' /hen a*orne* /ith all*har0as' .<% .late 1?>--reminiscent of the pills Muslims also sought to acAuire from sA*hus still resi*ent at KajjurA in the 1$th century.<3 )nterestingly' humor seems to be a consistent *e0ise to assuage the more fasti*ious 0ie/er..lates 1%' 1<>.late 13>--/hile a chil* abscon*s /ith his mount' ri*ing barebac . 2ut still the fact remains that oral se4 acts !aupariSTa a& are *isparage* in VAtsyAyana+s KAmas8tra'<0 an* in the se4 manual closest in *ate to the Khajuraho temples' *ismisse* entirely as un/orthy of comment. 1onsi*er' for e4ample the *ire conseAuences to a secon* sol*ier trying to coa4 his bu**y+s put-upon horse to open its mouth =.the /alls an* other parts of the mu ha7Ala !main hall&.annaga !(Agas&' Kinnaras become enchante* on seeing the graceful postures of /omen. 2ut on the other han*' /hat of the repellent capability of imagesJ Might not *eliberately obscene images be inten*e* to eep lightning stri ers' the e0il eye' an* any other unto/ar* spirits an* their atten*ant calamities at bayJ )n a /or*' yes' though here' in the absence of no/n proof te4ts the e0i*ence is some/hat hypotheticalG hypothetical' but not *epen*ent upon stan*ar*s of *ecency arbitrarily impose* from the outsi*e. )n the opinion of the KaulAcAras !Tantric authorities& it is al/ays a base' forsa en place' resembling a *ar abyss' /hich is shunned like the den of Death.:< =1on0ersely' moreo0er ))G 903b' 90%> A place /ithout lo0e-images ! Ama alA& is no/n as a "lace to %e shunne&. An* laity the /orl* o0er enjoy laughter at the e4pense of lecherous clergy e4pose*.

Thus' in summary of this first of four legitimi7ing purposes for lascivious iconography' ) say' the artha of a*harmic Ama is =not mo Sa' but> A0ar(a--i. (o systematic collection an* *ecipherment has yet been attempte*' to my no/le*ge' but from causal obser0ance of their orthography an* *istribution patterns in photographs' they appear contemporary /ith the temple+s unli e the numerous other mason marks an* sculptor names that 1unningham reporte* from throughout the site !often upsi*e *o/n' thus in*icati0e of engra0ing before assembly into the temple /alls&'<$ these seem to i*entify in*i0i*uals or generic types no/n to the court an* citi7enry of ancient Kharj8ra0Aha a.<< To any un/illing to accept such o0ert insinuation of royal prerogati0es into the functionL an* fabric of me*ie0al )n*ian temples' ) reiterate the o0er/helming prepon*erance of 0erses in *e*icatory inscriptions of the perio* that eulogi7e the ing' by contrast to the miniscule . .lates 1#' 1%' 1:>.' .g.<: 2.' .g. As note* earlier' for e4ample' sculptures of beautiful /omen !0araStr)& on the Vi70anAth correspon* implicitly /ith its *e*ication+s reference to the imprisone* /i0es ing "hanga ha* /reste* from other ings' *efeate* in battle.' shiel*ing from e0il spirits' /hile simultaneously attracting !/ith more *harmic' *ignifie* enticements& an encircling' protecti0e host of goo* go*s.lates ?' 11>' the labeling must ha0e been inten*e* to po e fun--again in the conte4t of apotropaic se4ual *isplay. 1orroboration of this hypothesis comes from the single reporte* *ecipherment of a label of this typeG beneath a *amage* maithuna couple at the /est en* of 6a Sman+s south antarAla /all !he ta ing her from behin*& is /ritten r" &Adhu 2andi %hapanakaG hol*ing a flagge*-staff' perhaps a rajohara(a duster use* by Eains to a0oi* injury to insects in their path' the male must represent a particular re0eren* k&apanaka or Eain men*icant' name* (an*i. 2oth for iconography an* /ritten e*ict' se4ual pro/ess /as a fa0orite metaphor' by /hich no/ing 0isitors to a royal temple /ere appraise* of the ruler+s /ell-merite* splen*or an* fame !tejas an* )rti&. Po'er Plays From the perspecti0e of yajamAna interests' that of the royal *onors' by contrast to that of the 7ilpa-buil*ers' a primary function of se4ual imagery on temples /as *eclaration of personal charisma an* capability to rule.e.<9 Since correspon*ing labels *o not accompany the more *ignifie* central groupings' mostly royal figures to ju*ge from their rich accouterments =e.Hne of the great unsol0e* mysteries at Khajuraho concerns the label inscriptions that appear on se0eral of the male participants in the group orgies =e.

?1 .fe/ that co0er the obligatory no*s to celestial *eities for /hose resi*ence the temple is being prepare*. removes the garments that shine brightly on the high bosoms of the maidens. . a fit dwelling for the goddess of victory. c!8899-8:. and easily dries the perspirations occasioned by sport from the brows of the fair!<# . A*mitte*ly' this may be terrible theology--not a fair portrait of me*ie0al Cin*uism in general' but li e it or not' the inscriptions an* temple iconography spea mainly of an* for ings' their buil*ers' an* not only at Khajuraho' of course.:). renowned in countless battles!!! Strange it is' that the fire of separation is e0er increasing in the hearts of the /i0es of his enemies' although it is incessantly sprin le* /ith the /ater of their tears. son of the .erfectly congruent /ith its imagery are these sentiments from a lan* grant inscription forty-four years laterG His son 'i!e!.late 31 is a gripping *etail from one of the comple4 center-panels of group se4' on the south antarAla e4terior of the 6a Sman' *. Royal temples concreti7e* their patron+s claim to centrality in a rAjama("ala or imperial formation as ing of other ings' the one most fa0ore* by Fortune' @arth an* Victory' among other go**esses an* their human eAui0alents. .et another pairing of 1an*ella te4t an* sculpture' ) present by /ay of insistence that something far more important than fri0olous he*onism is here at /or . having drunk. sei4es them by their beautiful tresses. like draughts of honey and curds. So long as he is the sole lor* of the earth' !only& the curls of the *amsels of the female apartments are loose'?0 there is sei4ure by the hair *only+ in amorous dalliance' har* are !only& the t/o breasts' croo e* !only& the bro/s =etc.. )n style an* subject matter--a ing *isrobing some girl--it is clearly 1an*ella' eloAuently embo*ying these sentiments of a late 1an*ella inscription at KalanjarG He '7aramArdi. red like the pomegranate. To be sure' they also ser0e* as places for /orship of consecrate* icons of *i0inity' but that /as a secon*ary gi0en' ) /oul* argue.ak&avarman) was the illustrious Dhangadeva.ak&man<s patron . #9$. "eity is the subject of only the first three out of $# 0erses belonging to the 6a Sman *e*icationK the final t/o i*entify poet an* engra0er--the remaining $$ pertain primarily to the ing. .>. the greatest of kings.late 30 represents an architectural fragment of untrace* pro0enance' no/ in the 1le0elan* Museum of Art..<? Cere is another propitious pairing of 1an*ella sculpture an* poetry earnestly *e0ote* to the portrayal of royal po/er in se4ual terms. the shining fame of 'other)kings. like the wind of the (alaya mountain 'king 7aramArdi) kisses sportively the lips of the maidens. his enemies!!!.

The )oga o! *hoga A canar* of alarming pre0alence in the apologist literature on )n*ian erotica is that yoga !*iscipline* action& an* bhoga !pleasure& are one.oga' cognate /ith yo e' means to harness !the 0ital breaths&' yes' to discipline by . %anyopAyanadAna /as the term use* for this means of cementing political alliances' often negotiate* in the terms of peace treaties follo/ing military engagementsF )n such a system' /ith the polity so thoroughly *epen*ent upon the /him an* 0igor of single in*i0i*uals' it is not improbable that pleasures of the royal be* chamber seeme* at times more li e /or ' bhoga more li e yoga. )n any e0ent the non-fri0olous character of this erotici7e* *isplay of royal authority nee*s to be stresse*. . )f not absur*' to my lights' such assertions are in*icati0e of gross negligence of nuance' for if there is anything tantric about the fame* maithuna couplings at Khajuraho then they stan* in eloAuent testimony to the *aunting ar*uousness of the left hand path !0AmamArga&. 2roa* an* easy it is not' though by no means straight an* narro/ either.This metaphoric relationship bet/een ing an* ing*om as that bet/een lo0er an* belo0e*!s& is certainly not uniAue to the 1an*ella court' an* perhaps the seemingly greater fi4ation on the theme at Khajuraho is un*uly e4aggerate* by the comparati0ely greater *e0astation suffere* by many of their contemporaries+ monuments. )t is true' yoga an* bhoga are freAuently ju4tapose* in Sans ritic sources' but the se*ucti0e appeal of their assonance /oul* ne0er arise /ere it not for an un*erlying antonymy. (.i0en the feu*al array of tributary states behol*en to one man' harems also functione* as 0irtual *epartments of state' *estinations to /hich 0assals' not al/ays un*er coercion' might /ish to *epute marriageable *aughters as sureties of allegiance to a su7erain. The harems of rAjA*hirAjas !paramount so0ereigns& /ere not just repositories of se4ual booty' nor only pleasure groun*s /here heirs essential to the regime+s perpetuation might be concei0e*. .

.ermit me to count the /ays this masterpiece /oul* ha0e us belie0e in his inor*inate capacities. =. )f the rea*er can re*irect her attention to pe*antry for a moment' ) fin* it ama7ing ho/ freAuently in the literature the /hole point of this foursome has been misse*.*enial of bo*ily impulse. 2hoga' pleasure' by contrast' arises from sensual gratification--from in*ulgence 0ersus *enial. Thus' the tric to be turne* in tantra is to hot/ire the system' to re0erse moti0es an* para*o4ically to practice *iscipline* in*ulgence of the flesh-resi*ent 0ital forces.late 3%> A *etail of the first /as alrea*y intro*uce* =. )n effect this sculpture conflates !or intensifies by re*uplicationJ&' t/o postures from the KAmas8tra calle* latA-sA*hana' clinging li e a 0ine to a tree' an* 0R SA*hir8"a a' the tree-climbing pose. Ihen a /oman' ha0ing place* one of her feet on the foot of her lo0er' an* the other on one of his thighs' passes one of her arms roun* his bac ' an* the other on his shoul*ers' ma es slightly the soun*s of singing an* cooing' an* /ishes' as it /ere' to climb up him in or*er to ha0e a iss' it is calle* an embrace li e the clim%ing o! a tree.?: Mean/hile' behin* her bac ' the bear*e* ing affirms consummation of the embrace by *isplaying an ascen*ing triko2amudrA' the term being a necessary neologism for the male triangle symbol in tantric yantras !by contrast an* in intersecting mesh /ith the in0erte* female triangle&. The first' from the earliest of the three temples upon /hich they are foun*' is semi-light hearte* =.ractices normally pleasurable !eating meats' *rin ing /ine' an* se4ual intercourse&' become sA*hana means of empo/erment' precisely if an* only if gratification as a moti0e can be *enie*' if conseAuences li e orgasm can be suppresse* !the hormones hopefully rechannele* up the spine& or at least *eferre* as long as possible.late 31> as an instance of sei7ure by the hair *uring good se= *surata-kr"DAsu+. Iith a Auic *isclaimer that e4perts can cite any number of e4ceptions to the abo0e generalities' the great *ifferences bet/een 2u**hist an* Cin*u formulations of tantric theory' to name only one'?3 ) propose to consi*er just t/o of the 1$ major maithuna panels of group se4 at Khajuraho?% as e4emplifying the yoga of bhoga. To me' at least' an* at present' .late 33>K the secon*' from among the latest set' is not.late 33 proposes an ans/er to this AuestionG ho/ great is their lo0eJ . So arousing are his presence an* amorous attentions that &he?$ sei7es his foreloc ' thro/s an arm aroun* his shoul*er' the better to climb for a iss.a7o0arman&' patron an* beneficiary of this templeJ .ut another /ay' ho/ great a lo0er is ing 6a 7a0arman !a a .?9 )n VAtsyAyana+s *efiniti0e /or*sG Ihen a /oman' clinging to a man as a creeper t/ines roun* a tree' ben*s his hea* *o/n to hers /ith the *esire of issing him an* slightly ma es the soun* of sut sut' embraces him' an* loo s lo0ingly to/ar*s him' it is calle* an embrace li e the t'ining o! a cree"er. This is a uniAue instance of such a gesture' so far as ) no/' though a si4-pointe* star signifying maleDfemale .

)n his absence a ApAli a ascetic' s ull-mounte* haT0Anga scepter in han*' spie* his beautiful /ife /hen approaching their house for alms an* cast a spell on her. So that<s ho/ strong Cis lo0e is--enough to e4cite other /omen in self-absorbe* re0ery an* to turn regretful hea*s of celibate mon s.ressing on' one may be permitte*' ) trust' a note of cynicism. Thus bereft of his magic po/ers the scoundrel tried to run/ but " drew my bow and killed him with a poisoned arrow' 1an*ras0Amin later tol* another ing !contemplating multiple-partner se4 also' but that+s another story&F 2efore turning to the eAually rele0ant 5ilpa . 1cean of &tory'#0 a young 2rahmin left to/n on some erran*. )s it humor or profoun* insight into gen*er *ifference that /hile the female prefers to loo a/ay' the male is arouse* /hile craning his nec to /atchJ . Co/ *ifficult can it ha0e been for a ing to shine as the supreme paramour /hen surroun*e* by hyper-stimulate*' un*er-gratifie* varastr"s' each pampere* /ith e0ery lu4ury sa0e e4clusi0e access to her man' an* ne0er too sure of her position in the pec ing or*erJ Some yoga. Then from out of the cro/* steppe* that ApAli a /ho resurrecte* her unscathe* /ith a han*ful of sacre* ash !5i0a+s 0ibh8ti&. Hn the ban s of the .angetic heartlan* of (orth )n*iaK e0en 2enares /as un*er 1an*ella control at the time.?? Rather' ) fear it cannot be *enie*' gi0en the masturbatory acti0ity of the poor Eain mon on the opposite si*e'?# that she is too. A great story first. At the 0ery outset ) confess to lac ing the temerity to attempt any *efiniti0e e4position of this group clench' -.ra A7a' let us consi*er for a moment the ama7ing parallels. About the yogic an* yes' e0en tantric' significance of the later e4ample' ho/e0er' there can be no *oubt =.not one that occurs among the sanghATa a ban*has of either the KAmas8tra or Rat)rahasya' ) might a**' chapters ). "espite /hat others may ha0e hope*' the na e* female /ith her bac against the ing is not shyly co0ering herself li e an ostensibly mo*est Venus . (ot only *o Soma*e0a+s story an* 1an*ella ing Vi*yA*hara+s temple both feature se4ual *esigns bet/een a primary couple an* t/o atten*ant /omen' but they both *ate from the 11th century an* are locate* in the . without whom " could not marry you. )mme*iately she /as struc *o/n by fe0er an* *ie* before e0ening. Hnce' as tol* in the 11th c. though " had obtained you 'by identical means).resenting 1an*ras0Amin+s /ife' the ApAli a e4alte*G &he. Still un*er a spell' ho/e0er' she accompanie* the ApAli a straight out of to/n' her husban* follo/ing in hot pursuit /ith his bo/ an* arro/s.ra A7a. Eust then 1an*ras0Amin jumpe* for/ar* to grab the ApAli a+s haT0Anga staff an* thro/ out into the ri0er. 2efore her husban* returne* home' grief stric en-relati0es ha* place* her bo*y on a funeral pyre.u*ica.antra. (o male coul* possibly contemplate such acrobatics /ith three /omen for bhoga alone.$ an* 10 respecti0ely.union is one of the best no/n of )n*ian symbols' especially as re*uplicate* fi0e times in !locus classicus& the 5ri . .late 3%>. has come into my possession/ and so my vow has been successfully accomplished. The young man' name* 1an*ras0Amin' arri0e* just as the flames starte* shooting into the night s y. At a minimum' it /oul* be foolish not to infer some common origin for both' an* more li ely' the story reflects common no/le*ge of the imagery at Khajuraho an*Dor lost eAui0alent images or practices from else/here in the . )nstea*' as an essential preliminary to some future article' ) offer t/o more rele0ant te4ts' one from fiction of the perio* an* the other from the tantric architectural treatise alrea*y utili7e*' RAmacan*ra KaulAcAra+s 5ilpa . .angetic "oab.anges they entere* a ca0e /here the ApAli a ha* alrea*y imprisone* t/o other /omen' *aughters of the ing of 2enares an* a merchant.?< 2ut /aitF There+s much more being sai* in this pra7asti to royal lo0e' in the guise of atten*ant figures.#1 Too much of a coinci*ence' e0en for me' is the fact that the name 1an*ella *enotes affiliation /ith 1an*ra' the moon' as *oes the 2rahmin hero+s name' 1an*ras0Amin.

ali Te4t Society "ictionary+s *efinition of vimAna !un*eniably the most common architectural term for the sanctuary structure proper&' they are BimmeasurablyB palatial resi*ences of the meritorious celestials !devatAs&' capable in myth of appearing su**enly or *arting off again at their occupants+ /ill' 8FHli e.otus ponds with cool waters invite to refreshing baths/ a host of birds mi= their songs with the strains of cymbals and lutes.antra' then it conceals another /orthy of the same name' 6o0e-art. )n fact' for our purposes it suffices to Auote but t/o' astonishingly re0ealing 0ersesG This yantra is utterly secret' it shoul* not be sho/n to e0eryone !to others&. Phantasmagorical Castles Hf all the metaphoric formulations of the Cin*u temple--mountain' palace' altar' *i0ine embo*iment' chariot--for me it is the last that pro0i*es the surest ey to unloc ing the mystiAue surroun*ing its se4ual imagery. For this reason a lo0escene !mithuna m8tri& has to be car0e* on the lines of the yantra. filling the atmosphere with a radiant light which shines from their bodies! 7eace and happiness reign . well-planned gardens!!!. The Amaban*ha is place* there to gi0e *elight to people.ra A7a' a leitmotif is the essential role of yantras' schematic geometries into /hich *eities are *istribute*' for the protection an* longe0ity of temples. )n /ry *eference to its author+s insistence on total secrecy' ) forgo the tas of summari7ing its constituent parts an* significance as *etaile* in 0erses 90?-9$1 of the te4t+s secon* pra A7a. )n the opinion of KaulAcAras it shoul* be ma*e on the lo0ely jAngha in the upper part of the /all. 4.late 3%>' ) as the rea*er+s in*ulgence to ma e this poetic leapG paraphrasing Mar T/ain on the *ispute* authorship of the Comeric epics' if this panel /asn+t inten*e* to conceal by *elight the Kama alA . Hne of the most important' incorporating far more participant beings than the panel in Auestion on the Kan*AriyA MahA*eo' but any/ay' is the KAma alA .#3 Returning for one last loo at the in0erte* ing in intercourse /ith one /omen /hile fon*ling t/o others =.)n the 5ilpa . @4actly li e the 1an*ellas planne* for their 0imAnas at KhajurahoG !!!these towering mansions *are surrounded+ by lovely. To e4pan* upon my fa0orite phrase to the .oga of 2hoga is being *emonstrate*' or rather' is being use* to camouflage /ith titillating flesh something still more esoteric an* inscrutable to the uninitiate*. An* if ) may be permitte* to *efer further e4position till such time as all 1$th Ama alA ban*has at Khajuraho can be stu*ie* as a corpus' ) ta e it as pro0en that some sort of .antra. played by heavenly musicians! Angelic maidens perform their dances.

idyAdhara.arastr"s are welcoming a new god. First' in the year 1000D01 a 1an*ella feu*atory name* Ko ala' /asG desirous of crossing the deep ocean 'i!e!. was famous on the earth.late 3$>. a (attamay6ra ascetic) was established a temple of iva *built+ to the north of the palace which was built by the illustrious *%alachuri king+ YuvarA0adeva and was like the shining peak of the %ailAsa mountain. 1han*ella inscription also appears& E. Meru-style* cousins of 1ambo*ian ings' or li e the pyrami*s of @gypt for that matter' as memorial ai*s for apotheosis of i*entifiable in*i0i*ual rulers. the lofty golden dome of which. Accor*ing to the MahAbhArataG 3housands of handsome Apsarases run up in haste to the hero who has been slain in battle *e=claiming+ be my husband!#? Accor*ingly' can /e not see special significance in the freAuent image of a temple apsaras applying kunkum to the center part of her hairJ Since 0ermillion po/*er there signifies a marrie* /oman' this must be the anticipatory gesture of these 0arApsarah' the choice nymphs of hea0en' preparing for nuptial union /ith the temple *onor upon his *ecease' an* by e4tension offering an alluring foretaste of para*ise to e0ery subseAuent 0isitor to Khajuraho.everywhere. caused wonder in the three worlds and acted like a stair-case to his fame marching towards heaven.#< A poignant fa0orite ) offer in closing' together /ith a matching sculpture type of great freAuency at Khajuraho =. temples for flying to heaven. )n the mysterious /or*s of the Kan*AriyA MahA*eo+s brief inscription'## . in the time of king . 1.' 9th century ruins at (achna' 2humara an* especially "eogarh !/here an 11th c.#: All that remains to flesh out here is the peculiar fi4ation upon se4ual gratification that ancient )n*ian te4ts promise* the hea0en-boun*. 1onsistently from the Ve*ic perio* the *ancing nymphs of hea0en calle* apsaras are sai* to be eagerly a/aiting ne/ arri0als.#$ "ifferences or similarities in structural components bet/een the prototypic heavenlyflyers of that te4t an* those on the groun* in Khajuraho !an* there are important instances of each& are less material here than commonalties of intention' as registere* by t/o epigraphic parallels.g. which *temple+ aspired to be as high as the peak of the &umeru mountain. because it is in contact with the fierce splendour of the sun. As *efine* by Ronal* )n*en' "magining "ndia !H4for*G 2asil 2lac /ell' 1##0& esp. Carle' Gupta &culpture !H4for*G 1laren*on .Iilliams' 3he Art of Gupta "ndia? Ampire and 7rovince .3 Reconstructions? 3he "mperial @ormation of the Rashtrakutas. ↩ 3. he caused to be erected this *temple. 2y /ay of te4tual authority for this a*mitte*ly bol* assertion' ) cite Krishna "e0a+s passing mention of an early 13th c *escription of svargAroha2a-prAsAda' lit. high like$+ the spotless great peaks of the mountain of snow.&K Eoanna . ch :.ress' 1#<$.aidyanAtha!#9 Secon*' an* at about the same time' in neighboring Kalachuri countryG >y him '7ra4Anta4iva.ottfrie*. became a spotless canopy for the glorious lord . @. +n&notes 1. the 0oys of such a vimAna cannot be e=pressed in words! 3his elysiam lasts for aeons!!!#% Shifting facets on this metaphoric je/el of inAuiry' ) /ish to a** that implicitly at least' royal temples on the or*er of those at Khajuraho /ere semi-funerary in function !their *e*ications t/ice posthumous' remember&' stan*ing li e their Mt. the abyss of mortality)!!!.

%3 an* %$ of Shobita . !reprint&G 2aro*aG Hriental )nstitute' 1#<:. ###' Mahmu* resol0e* to ma e annual forays into )n*ia an* *i* in fact un*erta e at least 1< *e0astating campaigns in the ne4t 3? years. c! :B. ↩ . 109# !A. :' 13-3:. Hf course' they ha* ne0er completely *isappeare* from regional consciousness' as confirme* by their mention in late me*ie0al balla* cycles. A major pilgrimage fair coinci*ing /ith 5i0a RAtri /as alrea*y !or still& flourishing there /hen Ale4an*er 1unningham ma*e his archaeological tours through the region in the mi*-1#th century. #9$&' an* "hanga*e0a+s of V. V))' N an* NN). !(e/ "elhiK (e/ .#%m in *iameter. ↩ %. )nfreAuently publishe*' it may be seen in figs. The MAtange70ara linga is a polishe* cream-san*stone cylin*er' loo ing for all the /orl* li e a recycle* Maurya pillar fragment' 3. (e/ "elhiG A))S' 1##1. )n*en' esp. ↩ ?.rincetonG . ↩ 1' @oundations of 2orth "ndian &tyle.ress' 1#?3&. 1<th c& about an original ?9 are specious.enguin 2oo s )n*ia' 1##3&.133' p.a7o0arman+s of Vi rama 1011 !A. ↩ 11. Muhamma* (a7im' 3he .S. )n their inscriptions )n*ian ings /ere freAuently beloved of Aarth and @ortune. Hn coming to po/er in A.lus half again as many minor shrines of the same perio*. Meister' is not yet complete an* the 0olume /ith co0erage of the major monuments at Khajuraho is still a/aite*G their antece*ents' ho/e0er' are /ell *ocumente* in Vol ))' 2orth "ndiaK . (aldive "slands and Ceylon+G translation an* commentary by Mah*i Cusain. 3n* e*. 2urt' 2engal @ngineers' A=tract from the Fournal of his travel in the hands of 3haker G Co. .1003&' to be intro*uce* belo/.art ) !1?%#& pp. 1aptain T..or G Vi ing by .ae /a*+s Hriental Series' no. 19#-1?$. ↩ 10. There is also e0i*ence in rubble piles for a han*ful of a**itional temples' but legen*s as recor*e* in the MahobA Khan* !c. !!!then we came to!!!%a0arrA where there is a great pond about a mile in length near which are temples containing idols which the (uslims have mutilated! )bn 2attuta !1%0$-1%<<&' 3he ReHla of "bn >a3363a *"ndia. This is the implicit inference of their e*itor' F. Kielhorn' "nscriptions from %ha0uraho' Apigraphia "ndica' 0ol.-E.!K . Michael I. The pre0iously cite* Ancyclopedia of "ndian 3emple Architecture' e*. To e4trapolate from parallels in orthography an* content /ith t/o subseAuent inscriptions' .. ) !1?#0-#1&G 131-19%. ↩ $.>!C!-A!D! 88. For critical appraisal of the late bar*ic tra*itions of 2un*el an*' Sisir Kumar Mitra' 3he Aarly Rulers of %ha0uraho !1alcuttaG Firma K6M' 1#9?&' pp.". /i0es of the most regal go*' ViS(u' of /hom they in turn /ere consi*ere* aMSas' fractional a0atars. An* to be fair' a four-line pilgrim+s recor* in *e0anAgari.!.ife and 3imes of &ultAn (ahm6d of Gha4na !6ahoreG Khalil' M 1o. .". 1unningham+s first 0isit' as reporte* in the Archaeological &urvey of "ndia Report' 0ol ))' /as in Eanuary 1?93K see also his subseAuent reports in 0ols. c! A!D! D. 1::. ↩ #. ↩ <.art 3' 7eriod of Aarly (aturity. p.9m high by.' 1#<%&. This attribution is hypothetical' pen*ing my o/n stylistic analysis of the monuments.". ↩ :.unja' Divine Acstasy? the &tory of %ha0uraho' photographs by Toby Sinclair. for the 7ress' 2engal Asiatic Society 0ol V))) .rinceton 8ni0ersity . 3$?.

1%9' 1%:.ratapa*itya . ↩ 1?. ↩ 30.oet7 !p.rantha' 1##9&' pp.a7o0arman+s inscription spea s of its acAuisition from 5i0a+s mythic mount KailAsa by a Tibetan ing /ho presente* it to the SAhi ings of the (orth/est /ho passe* it on to the .an*hi (ational 1entre for the Arts' (e/ "elhiK Mi**leto/n (EG .l. d"nArs. 10?. The gol* images /ere estimate* to be 19 feet in height an* so hea0y as to reAuire brea ing apart before /eighing. 1%<-1$<K for its translation Krishna "e0a' 1##0' 0ol 1' pp. )n the ne4t 0erse a secon* image of Si0a' presumably the san*stone linga still in situ' is mentione* as installe* !pratiSThitaC& by the same ing. Kielhorn'' &ome %ashmiri-style bron4es and problems of authenticity..9 by $: ft an* #1 in height. $? B.l. . %<&' /ith interposition !unnecessary in my opinion& of nAth' protector' a freAuent component of *eity an* temple names. Kielhorn' p. )V' pp. )n the opinion of Cermann .uy e*.' "ndian Art and Connoisseurship? Assays in Honour of Douglas >arrett' !Ahme*aba*G Mapin /ith )n*ira . 1#%' both follo/ing Krishna "e0a' 3he 3emples of %ha0uraho in Central "ndia. 0.rat)hAra ing CerambapAla in e4change for a contingent of elephants an* ca0alry.. ↩ 31. 1%$' 0. ↩ 1:. 330K an* Krishna "e0a' 3emples of %ha0uraho !(e/ "elhiG Archaeological Sur0ey of )n*ia' 1##0&' 0ol 1' p. ↩ 1<.B Krishna "e0a' 0ol.u*hiSThira an* !lastly&' /as installe* by the illustrious "hanga /ith *ue obeisance. 3<K Krishna "e0a' 0ol 3' . ↩ 1#. V fasc. 1' p. ↩ . Ancient )n*ia no. ↩ 19. idols of silver.1 !1#9?&G %9-$<K . Multi-hea*e* /ith VarAha-boar an* (arasimha-lion mas s protru*ing on either si*e of the central human hea*G 6al' . $1. 1elebrate* in the MahAbhArata an* purA(as' /ith .i0en the follo/ing recor* of loot Mahm8* of . :.lorious in the /orl* is the *i0ine lofty linga' ma*e of emeral* !mara ata& /hich /as /orshippe* by )n*ra' an* /hich ha0ing been obtaine* from him as a fa0our by Arjuna /as brought to the earth by him for /orship by .ha7ni sei7e* from much less politically po/erful Mathura' ) concurG 3he booty captured included five idols of gold. and a sapphire of unusually large si4e! (a7im' ' p. For e4amples of the presume* prototype' al/ays /ith a $th *emonic mas at the rear' see . 9<. ?:#?.13. Kan/ar 6al' "mmortal %ha0uraho !"elhiG Asia .. ↩ 1$.upta-perio* remains an* a natural ca0e i*entifie* /ith 5i0a as ()l a(Ta' the nec -staine* poison-*rin er..oet7'3he Historical >ackground of the Great 3emples of %ha0urAho' Arts AsiatiAues' t. ↩ 1%. 6a SanAth O 6a Sman =the epic Rama+s brother>' says . one of which was set with two rubies of the value of B. )))' pp.. The t/o are also surprisingly close in basic *imensionsG the 6a Sman being ?9 ft long by $$ ft in brea*th an* ?# ft in total height !inclu*ing a # ft terrace&' an* the Vi70anAth just slightly larger at ?<.ress' 1#:9&' p. $%. Kielhorn' no. 19' 2ulletin of the AS) !1#9?&' p. Eohn . %:?. %:%-%<0.

"elhiG Motilal 2anarsi*ass' 1#<0&. ↩ %0.or G Vi ing . .1.' /orthy not only of the more commonplace comparison /ith the Cimalayan a4is mun*i' but /ith mountains out of this /orl*.enguin 2oo sK (e/ . Vociferous *efense of the *e0a*As) hypothesis is ma*e by (ira* 1. samaranga2a-s6tradhara an* the much earlier artha4Astra of Kautilya' ibi*' pp.1.fon* of resi*ing at the foot of the holy fig at . !6on*onG 1#10& ))' p.9 ft an* reaching a height of 11:.ost aivite &ects !2er eleyG 8ni0ersity of 1alifornia . ↩ 3%. %$: ↩ 3#. Ra/son&. 6alit Kala 1-3 !1#99-9:&G 100' but rather the one *etaile* belo/.33. Though compose* in V. @. ↩ 39.elican Cistory of Art&.a7apAla' 0. Carle *eri*es A.he ha* foun* sal0ation there together /ith his hun*re* /i0es.ress' 1#<3& p.6. %<1. . %:3 !citing the then-unpublishe* opinion of . 10# 4 9#. 9:' an* 3he #onder that was "ndia !6on*onG Si*g/ic M Eac son' 1#9$&' p. reprint e*. 1hau*huri' 3he Continent of Circe? being an essay on the peoples of "ndia !6on*onG 1hatto M Iin*us' 1#:9& pp. %:?' /ith this note appen*e*G B6o Alo a is the legen*ary mountain outsi*e the earth+s sphere /here the Sun ne0er reaches. 2asham for positing lin age bet/een *e0a*Asi prostitution an* temple iconographyG respecti0ely 3he Art and Architecture of the "ndian &ubcontinent.. 3' Fig. 1' p.. For concurring 0ie/s an* . 19#-1?$.stri0ing after final beatitu*e. %:& infers *eri0ation from Mara et70ara' the @meral*-6or* of "hanga+s inscription' *espite the latter ha0ing been foun* at the Vi70anAth' 390m to its @ast.1003&' the inscription sur0i0es as recopie* !/ith t/o a**itional 0erses& 11$ years later' *uring the reign of Eaya0arman. For the transliteration' Kan*AriyA MahA*eo' ) follo/ Krishna "e0a. 1' p.enguin' 1#?:&' p. E. 3%?' n. Carmon*s/orthG . Krishna "e0a has foun* one or t/o not-terribly helpful te4tual citations from 2hoja+s 11th c.1. Southerlan*' !appen*e* to 2urt' ) !1?%#& pp. after kandaravat' containing ca0es' or 0alleys' an* kandara-kAra for mountain in MonierIilliams' A &anskrit-Anglish Dictionary !1??%.". )bi*' p. ↩ %1.oet7 !p.Angeya*e0a..rayAga. 1%#. 1?& projects a height of 113. Krishna "e0a+s scale* ele0ation *ra/ing !1##0' 0ol.1' p. ↩ 3:. 9#> means that his fame /ent /here e0en the Sun coul* not reach. :.ramo* 1han*ra' /hom he cites on another point *oes not !as implie*& subscribe to that attribution' in 3he %aula-%apalika Cults of %ha0uraho.B A minor AuibbleG ) ta e it to mean the temple here at Khajuraho is a metaphoric 6o Alo aG ie. Krishna "e0a' 1##0' 0ol . %<0' %<1. )n c.. 109# !A. Al-2iruni' %itab-ul-Hind' trans. !The . $1#.10$1 B.. Krishna "e0a' 1##0' 0ol.. %:#.. Kielhorn' Fabalpur Copper-7late "nscription of Yasahkarnadeva *A!D! 88::+' @pigraphia )n*ica' 3 !1?#$&' p.1. ↩ 3?.B F. The poet =name* KAyastha .9 ft' accor*ing to 1unningham' Archaeological &urvey of "ndia Report 0ol )) !1?<1&' p. 19<.9 ft' inclu*ing its 10 ft terrace. Sachau un*er Alberuni+s )n*ia' 3 0ol. 31<-330K appro0ingly cite* by "a0i* 6oren7en' 3he %ApAlikas and %AlAmukha? 3wo . Krishna "e0a' 1##0' 0ol. E. 1< abo0e& Fournal of the >engal Asiatic &ociety 0ol V))) .a thun*erbolt falling on the hea*s of enemies. ↩ 3<... ↩ 3$.

>!C!-8I. ↩ %?. Divine Courtesan or Celestial Dancer? "n &earch of the Historic DevadAs"' .E. 3:' p. ↩ $0. 3' pp. ##-10?. %%1-%$%K "e0angana "esai' Arotic &culpture of "ndia? a &ocio-Cultural &tudy !3n* e*.a Doctrine de la H>inunitH @tu*e Tra*itionelles' 1#%<' pp. %$:K Alain "anielou' An Approach to Hindu Arotic &culpture' Marg' 3G1'3 !1#$<&' p.. <#.ramo* 1han*ra' 3he &culpture of "ndia? I.ra ashan' 1#?<& 0ol. Meister' Functure and Con0unction? 7unning and 3emple Architecture.. RAmacan*ra KaulAcAra' ilpa 7rakA4a' Alice 2oner an* Sa*asi0a Rath Sarma' trans. Mathura figure fragment' is more li ely a li7ar* =go*hi A>' /ith all *ue respect to . >RhadAra2yaka 6pani&ad )V. time frame&G "onal*son' pp. 4i4&' ) accept Thomas "onal*son+s 10th century *ate for the latter as most li ely for the te4t !rather than the translators+ broa*er #-13th c. ??K Allan Iatts' photographs @liot @lisofon' Arotic &pirituality? 3he . Krishan' 3he Arotic &culptures of "ndia' Artibus Asiae %$ !1#<3&' pp. "esai' 1#?<' p.allery of Art' Iashington' ".%. 309.ision of %onarak !(e/ . .erspecti0e !"elhiG American )nstitute of )n*ian Stu*ies an* Manohar' 1##%&' pp. ↩ %%. 1$$-1?0..ress an* (ational .rinters 6t* 1#?<&' p. (agaraja Rao !"elhiG Agam Kala .a*mA0at)' at Kalanjar in 113#K 1unningham' Archaeological &urvey of "ndia Report 0ol NN) !1??9&' p %$.eorge Kliger' e*. ↩ %3.31. $33' $3%.R. First art historian to cite this passages' Anan*a 1oomaras/amy' .anguage at %ha0uraho' KusumanjaliG (e/ )nterpretation of )n*ian Art M 1ultureG Sh. A!D! !1ambri*geG MA' Car0ar* 8ni0ersity .' 1#?9&' fig. ↩ %#. ↩ %:.' 2harata (atyam in 1ultural ..or G Macmillan' 1#<1&' p. !6ei*enG @. M. Artibus Asiae N6) !1#<#&G 33:-33?K "e0ananga "esai' 7uns and "ntentional .> "arshan 6all' %ha0uraho !(e/ "elhiG 2hrijbasi .much *ocumentation see also .S. 2rill' 1#::&G as the temple components it prescribes are best e4emplifie* by the VarAh) at 1aurasi !p. bhuanga ey8ara*haram sarpahAropa0)tinam D gonasam aTis8tram ca gale 0R7ci amAli Am DD . &e=ual &lave.. 1. The so-calle* scorpion beneath a 9th c. reprint "elhiG Motilal 2anarsi*ass' 1#<#& 0ol 1' pp. ↩ %<.' p. #0K an* in the final paragraph of the most han*somely illustrate* of all boo s on the subject' Krishna "e0a' photographs by =Ms. ↩ %9. %99' %9:. .irgin.9#9b' 9#:aK trans. Kahla(a' RA0atarangi2" V))' 113#-%9' trans. Michael I. Stein !1#00.1. ilpa 7raka4a ))..ublishing 1orp' 1#?<& an* "a0i* Kopf' Dancing . 3' p. A rare non-royal temple *onation /as jointly ma*e by a palace guar* !pratihAra& an* prima *ancer !mahAnAcan)&' . 3?#-%01K then in turn by Stella Kramrisch' 3he Hindu 3emple !1alcuttaG 8ni0ersity of 1alcutta' 1#$:&' 0ol. ↩ %$.A. (e/ "elhiG Munshiram Manoharlal' 1#?9&K Thomas "onal*son' %amadeva<s 7leasure Garden? 1rissa !"elhiG 2. 111. %?$. Si0aramamurti commemoration 0olume' e*' M.

A 3antric 3radition !(e/ "elhiG (ational Museum' 1#?:&.ero/' A Glossary of "ndian @igures of &peech !The CagueG Mouton' 1#<1&' p.3. For *etails' Vi*ya "ehejia' Yogin". Hb0iously' its location is i*eal for emanations from a primary *eity to ma e their entrance' unbe no/nst' perhaps' to some no/ing only of the temple+s 0isible north entrance.iterature !Cosiarpur' Vish0esh0aranan* Ve*ic Research )nstitute' 1#<9&' pp. ?# in <#-#1lK see also Mul Raj Anan*' 1f %Ama %alA' of &anskrit . ↩ $1. of every possible form of se=ual en0oyment.' "a("in' %AvyAdar4a . Hf course' te4tual sources lea0e no *oubt that actual /omen !at times coerci0ely& /ere presse* into ser0ice for tantric rites of all in*s. $1<. . @. Cis ?th of 10 pronouncementsG !!!&e=ual education through images.ity-aghore tRt)yo ru*raCK AparA0itapRcchA 313'19 an* almost 0erbatim in R6pama2Dana )V.alla0a port that "a("in is no/n to ha0e 0isite* in c.3:' cite* by @*/in Mahaffey .' Sir Eohn Ioo*roffe' akti and akta :th e* !Ma*rasG . ↩ $:. :<-?$ ↩ $<. :1< ff on three classes of /omen for pancatatt0a secret ritualG /i0es an* among non-/i0es' a& those for bhogya enjoymentK b& those for p8jya 0eneration !only&. B)f =/hile he stan*s> she sits in his han*s /ith her arms roun* his nec an* her legs roun* his /aist' mo0ing herself by putting the toes of one foot against the /all' thro/ing herself about' crying out an* gasping continually' this is the suspen*e* position !a0alambita a&. is a useful means of mental clarification!!! Alain "anielou' An Approach to Hindu Arotic &culpture Marg' 3G1'3 !1#$<&' p. 6est thin )+m o0er reaching' a 0erse from "a("in+s %AvyAdar4a is Auote* in a 1an*ella inscriptionG in a still-unpublishe* monograh ) *iscuss numerous 0isual analogues to alaM Ari a figures of speech at MAmallapuram' the . ↩ $9. ) infer recourse to li0ing yogin"s' not only from the absence of stone images !not /ithstan*ing % that /ere foun*--not matching as parts of a set&' both also from the peculiar passage/ay' just 30B /i*e' cut through the south en* of the rectangular precinct' besi*e the principal shrine. ↩ $3.1#$. ↩ $%. :0.:. Monier-Iilliams >rahmanism and Hinduism.g.roupings of :$ an* ?1 yogin)s are ine4tricably lin e* /ith permutations of nava-*E+ DurgAs' an* other groupings of one central *eity an* ? A0ar(a atten*ants. This /as its remembere* purpose among local 2rahmins in the 1#th centuryG 1unningham !1?<1&' p. 1' p. Cult and 3emples. 6u*/i Sternbach' "ndian Riddles? a @orgotten Chapter in the . )n*ee*' accor*ing to Krishna "e0a' !1##0' 0ol. 3:&the earliest among fourteen other yogin) temples no/n in (orth )n*ia' mostly clustere* in regions surroun*ing Khajuraho. harj8r) !from the *ate-palm&K $ common palm !tAl)&' 9 coconut !nAri ela&K : i Su !sugar cane&K < the MA*h0) a plantK ? saira !long pepper&K # arishTa !soap-berry&K 10 mA*h8 a !2assia 6atifolia&K 11 . :0#-:10.1::' %13. @.ulastyaG 1 panasa !brea*fruit' jac -liAuor&K 3 *rA shA !grapes&K %.g. ↩ $$. )n effect the figure is performing a chara*e' an antarAlApa prahelikA in the terminology of Sans rit alaM Ari As.B .anesh M 1o' 1#:9&' pp. p. ↩ $?. <00. Thir* among t/el0e 0arieties of liAuor sai* to be enumerate* by .au"i or Maireya !rum from molasses&K an* 13 surA !arrac from rice or other grain&.

1 -1:. ??. K. after being honoured by gifts of wealth.ress' 1#99&' 3 0ols. % !1#9#-:0& 10$ f =still on or*er>' after *isco0ery of a label inscription beneath one such' i*entifying him as r" sAdhu 2andi %hapanaka' i.Ko o a' Ratirahasya' Ale4 1omfort trans. of %ailAsa.<?#&. especially a Faina mendicant who wears no garments !M2h i.' Mirashi' 3he aiva AcAryas of the (attamay6ra Clan' )n*ian Cistory Puarterly 0ol. ↩ 9?. Tripathi' 3he Arotic &cenes of %ha0uraho and 3heir 7robable A=planation' 2harati 0ol. Attributes 1han*ra belie0e* to mar Sai0a ascetics !chiefly tonsure' an* a scepter li e implement /ith a flaring -hea*& ha0e subseAuently been pro0en to *enote Eain mon s' hol*ing the picchi A' peacoc -feather /his for clearing sentient beings from their path.V. 1$0. 1003G 0. ↩ 91. ↩ 9%. 3%K an* V. Iithout correspon*ing citations' se0eral other sculpture groups are assigne* Sans rit nomenclature by R. ↩ 90. 9%G B>enevolent >rahmins of pure lineage. cattle and land!B Krishna "e0a' 1##0' 0ol. :' p. ↩ 93. 3: !1#90& pp.". as 3he %oka &hastra !(e/ .rincetonG . @. busy with the si= functions. 10<-10#.1 !1#9?&G %9-$<. %:# ↩ 9#. like the peaks. ↩ 9$.rinceton 8ni0ersity . 1ontra. "anielou+s poetic phrase for his rationale no. 1oomaras/amy' Arts and Crafts of "ndia and Ceylon !6on*on' 1#1%&' pp. @lse/here' of course' apsaras *o gi0e birth' after )n*ra sen*s them to se*uce o0erly po/erful ascetics. This correct i*entification /as first ma*e by 6. 8rmila Agar/al' 3he (ithunas? #hy <1bscene< &culptures$' Hriental Art N)V !1#:?&' p.' a k&apa2akaH' accor*ing to Monier-Iilliams' !!! a religious mendicant. grain. ↩ 9<.' .e.late $<# b. Thus illustrating causal la/s from a te4t calle* the (ahAkarma-vibhanga? Ceinrich 5immer' Art of "ndian Asia' !.ramo* 1han*ra' 3he %aula-%apalika Cults of %ha0uraho 6alit Kala 1-3 !1#99-9:& #?-10<. Accor*ing to the (ahAbhArata (ala-"amayanti story' the go*s appear *isguise* as men they still *on+t blin ' s/eat' cast sha*o/s or Auite touch the groun*.' in "hanga+s pra7asti of A. 2anerji' R. spotlessly clean though their bodies were smoky due to the smoke from the sacrifices undertaken. high. :%-:9. Accor*ing to 1omfort' in a lengthy note' p. (ath Art of %ha0uraho !(e/ "elhiG Abhina0' 1#?0&' plates 16N-16NN). These are thoroughly sur0eye* by "esai in her chapter :' &e= in Religion? (agico-Religious >eliefs and 7ractices! ↩ 99. . ↩ .3:0' citing Carrison Foreman' 3hrough @orbidden 3ibet !6on*on' 1#%:&' pp. were settled by him in mansions.oet7' 3he Historical >ackground of the Great 3emples of %ha0urAho' Arts Asiati-ues' t. !The same ing /ho too 100 /oman /ith him' 0ia *ro/ning ' abo0e' n. 3he Haihayas of 3ripuri and their (onuments (emoirs of the Archaeological &urvey of "ndia' no. )' p.". %%& Cermann .or G Stein M "ay' 1#:9&' p. 1$0. V fasc.g. ↩ 9:. ↩ $#.

↩ :1. %#3 vinA ca lalanA( loke k"rtir0Ayeta ni&phalA 5 gandharvayak&arak&A(si pannagAH kinnarAsstathA 55 %#% dar4anAt tatra muhyanti nAgar"bhaGgimuttamAm 5 6ttamA( rama2"( 0urhAt sarvAla(kArabh6&itAm 55 %#$ 2AnAbhaG0"samAhAri alsA sA vidh"yate GavAk&e 4ikhare vApi mukha4AlaGgama2Dane 55 %#9 ↩ :?. Tagare !"elhiG Motilal 2anarsi*ass' 1##$&' V' p. Thomas "onal*son' 7ropitious-Apotropaic Aroticism in the Art of 1rissa' Artibus Asiae %9 !1#<9&G <9-100. ↩ ::. . ↩ :3. ↩ :9.ublishing' 1#?<&' an* "e0angana "esai+s chapter V)' &e= in Religion? magico-religious beliefs and 7ractices' Arotic &culpture of "ndia? A &ocio-cultural &tudy 3n* e*. After ha0ing the temerity to in0a*e spheres of 1an*ella hegemonyK to be fleshe* out from S. !(e/ "elhiG Munishram Manoharlal' 1#?9&. Hayasir&a-pancarAtra..R.V.oukike kathito nAr"bandhaH 4ilpasamudbhavaH 5 vinA nAr"( yathA vAsaH kr"DA nAr"( vinA yathA 55 )). . &kanda 7urA2a )). . &amaranga2a-s6tradhAra %$G %3-%$a. ??. (ayamatam an* ilparatnam are cite* by 2hattacharya. Settar' 3he Hoysala 3emples? &tudy on the art and architecture of temples .ii. See also' "onal*son+s boo -length stu*y' %amadeva<s 7leasure Garden? 1rissa !"elhiG 2.K. 139 ↩ :<. &thAna( kAmakalAh"na( tyaktama2Dalamucyate 55 )). ↩ :$. Mitra' p. 903 %aulAcAramate h"na( sarvadA tyakhama2Dalam 5 %Alakak&asama( tyakta( tatsthAna( gahanopamam 55 90% ↩ :#. 33-3$K an* again in his Canons of "ndian Art' !1alcutta' 1#3:&' p. e&a( maGdalyavihagaiH 4r"vRk&aiH svastikairgha3aiH 5 mithunaiH patravall"bhiH pramathai4copa4obhayet 55 VarAhmihira' >Rhatsa(hitA' 9:. at 2agali an* else/here in Karnata a especiallyK "esai' Arotic &culpture of "ndia' plate 13$K an* S.31'$9 va0rapAtAdibhaGgAdivAr2Artha(yathocitam 5 4ilpa&Astre&uma2yAdivinyasyapauru At 55 trans.:0.' p. )bi*. BkumArakai4ca kr"DadbhiryuktA lalitabAhubhiH 5 vAsadhAmni nive4yante vicitrAbhara2AmbharAH 55 I: ratikr"DAparA nAryo nAyakastu yadRcchAyA 5 ApA2DudehacchavayaH svalpacAruvibh6&a2AH 55 II kiFcitpratanubhirgAtraiH kAryAH suratalAlasAH 5 IJaB Translate* here for the first time' though first cite* in part by Tarapa*a 2hattacharya' &ome 2otes on the (ithuna in "ndian Art' Rupam' !Ean' 1#3:& pp. ↩ :%.19 This an* similar citations from the Agni 7urAna . 33. 31#' 333' 0. 3%0. <9K @) ) pp.

T..aksamana 3emple.. Ars Hrientalis 0ol. ↩ <3. % !1#9#-:0& p. . ↩ <9. 1onsi*er South )n*ian parallels' for e4ample' /here temple names typically subsume the patron+s' li e 1ola RAjaRaja )+s RAjarAje70ara at TanjA08r' )n*ia+s largest temple e0er' built e4actly at the same time as the Kan*AriyA MahA*eo. Abo0e' n. Arbuthnot' 3he %ama &utra of .33 ff. 31: but e4cise* from 1omfort+s translation' 3he %oka &hastra. king of (a<bar--pills which the latter was to take for strengthening his pleasure of love! Among the ingredients of the pills were iron filings! 3his effect pleased the sultAn. and his own inclination!B KAmas8tra )). For earlier instances of this pattern' see my chapter' Royal 3emple Dedications of the 7allava Dynasty' "onal* S. 1unningham' %ha0uraho in Archaeological &urvey of "ndia Report 0ol. 3?. Ioo*/ar*' 3he . $30-$%<. ))' pp. @.utnam+s Sons' 1#:<& p.:: Auote* by "esai' p. The same term in a compoun*' Avar2a-devatA' is stan*ar* for the name* protecti0e *eities that are commonly assigne* niches' aligne* /ith the car*inal *irections. 3 0ol. B3he fear of the evil eye among the Dravidians is most easily e=plained by this fear of evil spirits!!!3he placing of obscene figures and carvings on idol cars and temples is often e=plained in the same way!B ↩ <%. . Ratirahasya V))).-8II9 !2angalore G Kala . ↩ <?.g. who took them in more than necessary -uantity and died!B 3he ReHla of "bn >a3363a' p. ↩ <1. because it is a low practice.#. ↩ <$. #%K an* cite* by others inclu*ing' Ciram I. @lmore' Dravidian Gods in (odern Hinduism !1#19' reprint (e/ "elhiG Asian @*ucational Ser0ices' 1#?$&'pp. @. %$. and "ts (eaning. 1$3-1$$. trans.atsyanana !(e/ . B3he Acharyas are of the opinion that this Auparishtaka is the work of a dog and not of a man. everybody should act according to the custom of his country. ↩ <:.F. 1::.constructed during the reign of Hoysalas.atra ..ublications' c1##1-1##3&.' I. Tripathi' 3he Arotic &cenes of %ha0uraho and 3heir 7robable A=planation' 2harat 0ol.' platesK 3:3' 3<0' 3<1' %10. 1:&' )bn 2aTT8Ta 0isite* %a0arrA in 1%$3G BAt the four corners of the pond 'a mile long) are cupolas in which live a body of the 0ogis who have clotted their hair and let them grow so that they became as long as their bodies and on account of their practicing asceticism their colour had become e=tremely yellow! (any (usalmans follow them in order to take lessons from thenB Ce goes on to report in this conte4t that Bone of 'these yogis.g.or G . in far &outh "ndia) made pills for &ultAn GhiyAs ud-d"n ad DAnghAn". 8. and opposed to the orders of the Holy #rit!!! 'though later conceding.AtsyAyana has declared it as utterly detestable$B %okkoka.K.. 11?. Sir Richar* 2urton an* F. ↩ <<. ↩ <0. B#hy should we concern ourselves about oral congress when . 6. As note* earlier !n. %ha0uraho. )!!!in all these things connected with love. The evil eye per se is more /i*ely reporte* from South )n*ia' /here' not coinci*entally' bhraSTa se4 acts are a ubiAuitous accouterment car0e* on the /oo*en temple rathas !chariots&.. 1# !1#?#&' p.

%$<.6ope7' e*. (. C. ↩ ?#.".or G "ouble*ay' 1#9:&' p..' e*.&' %athasaritsagara. NV) !1??<&' pp. 1%0. For an e4cellent intro*uction to tantra in all its *i0ersity' see Mircea @lia*e' Yoga? "mmortality and @reedom 3n* e*.ractice' .or G 2ollingen Foun*ation' 1#:#&' chapters' :-?. Kielhorn' 3hree Chandella Copper-7late Grants )n*ian AntiAuary 0ol. NN) !1??9&' p. ↩ ?9. )N' pp. 2engalbase* . ↩ ?:. ↩ ?1.en7er !"elhi G Motilal 2anarsi*ass' =1#:?>&' 0ol. 39 an* 3< of a large bac stone insi*e the ()la a(Tha temple' *. ↩ #1.angeyA*e0a an* Karna*e0a in the mi*-11th century !as note* earlier' no. Kenneth 1lar ' 3he 2ude? A &tudy in "deal @orm !(e/ .' !(e/ . :?-<0. 1301&' emphasis supplie*' trans. 00.. %1%K reprinte* by 1unningham Archaeological Sur0ey of )n*ia Report 0ol. For citations on the former' Stella Kramrisch' 3he Hindu 3emple' 0ol. ↩ ??.rinceton 8ni0ersity . Soma*e0a 2hatta !11th cent. NV)) !1?%?&' p. 6ieutenant Maisey' >engal Asiatic &ociety Fournal' 0ol. ↩ .' p. F. Ihence "hanga+s (Anyaura copper plate A /as issue* in ##?K F. %<.' 3he 1cean of &tory' 1. Vi rama Sam0at 139? !A.Alas /ere also acti0e in the area as /ere the Kalachuris' especially un*er . tasya r" DhaGgdevoKbh6tKputraH pAtra( 0aya-4riyaH 5 asa(khya-sa(khya-vikhyAtaH khaDga-dhArA-parAkramah55 Citra( yad-ari-nAr"2A( hRdaye virah-AnalaH 5 a0asramKa4ru-pAn"ya-sicyamAnoKpi varddhate55 >haGgoKntaHpurik-Alake&u surata-kr"DAsu ke4a-grahaH kA3hinya( kucayorKbhruvoH!!! emphasis supplie*G (Anyaura . ↩ #0. %%&. For a rea*ily accessible commentary' Ceinrich 5immer' (yths and &ymbols in "ndian Art and Civili4ation e*.or G Carper Torchboo s' 1#$:&. . NV) !1??<&' pp.' Religions of )n*ia in .e. 3' p. alternati0ely twisted' crimped' by contrast to negati0e connotations of QbhangaQ in terms of social or*er or polityK see also the translators note 1:. 2urton trans. Tell-tale picchikA' or ra0ohara2a' /his toppe* /ith peacoc feathers' in han*.it is all the same--@0ery/oman.Eoseph 1ampbell !(e/ . ↩ ?%. #$. Aueen' go**ess' courtesan.ress' 1##9&G 3%9-3$%. ↩ ?3. Ta/ney+s trans.rinceton Rea*ings in Religion series' !. ↩ <#. ↩ ?<. Kielhorn' 3hree Chandella Copper-7late Grants )n*ian AntiAuary 0ol.late A of "hanga' *ate* eAui0alent to (o0ember :' ##?K trans. 301-30$. i. (amely the 0ertical sets of t/o each on the anatArala /alls of the 6a Sman' an* three each at the same locations on the Vi70anAth an* Kan*AriyA MahA*eo ↩ ?$. 30%' 30$. M. ↩ ?0.

1%%.#3. ↩ #%. %0?. Rhys "a0i*s an* Iilliam Ste*e !1hipstea*' SurreyG .".H. %:9<K Muir trans' p. "ha y an* . ↩ . 11' p. Such is the title of a sole reco0ere* chapter from the &iddhArtha pRicchA' as reporte* in the . 9' pp. 33 !1#%%-%$&' 0. ?#. VG 3 !1#:<-:?&G 1#1-1#?' by M. ↩ #$. Kielhorn' "nscriptions from %ha0uraho' no.A. ↩ #9. 10:. Iith emphasis supplie*' to the phrase gahanottArArthinA. ↩ ##. ) !1?#0-#1&G 193.%#.' Amster*amG Hriental .' Eohn Muir' @urther -uotations from the hymns on the sub0ect of paradise and future punishment' Hriginal Sans rit Te4ts !6on*onG 1?:?-1?<%K reprint %r* e*. %%. T. 2anerji' 3he Gurgi "nscription of 7rabodhasiva' @pigraphia )n*ica 0ol. 9%?' 9%#K trans. V' Apigraphia "ndica' 0ol.. @mphasis supplie* to the phrase' yatKsvargga( vra0atas tad"ya-yasa*4a+saH sopAnamArggAyateK R.ali Te4t Society' 1#39&' $ 0 !in 1&' p. SompuraK cite* in passing by Krishna "e0a in 3emples of %ha0uraho 0ol.ress' 1#:<& 0ol. For full citations on the retention of se4ual capacity in hea0en' from the Rg an* Athar0a Ve*as' 5atapatha 2rAhma(a an* the 8paniSa*s' etc.ujarati journal &vadhyaya 0ol. ↩ #?. . 1' p.arApsaraH-sahasrA2" 46ram Ayodhane hatam 5 tvaramA2A<bhidhAvanti mama bhartA bhaved iti 55 (ahAbhArata N)). ↩ #<. Abo0e' n. p. 3he 7ali 3e=t &ociety<s 7ali-Anglish Dictionary e*. %09-%1%. I. Ihich of the Khajuraho temples he *e*icate* to Si0a as =healer> Vai*yanAth is un no/nG the inscription is no/ preser0e* in the Vi70a(ath' attribute* by most to ing "hangaK F. ↩ #:. ilpa 7rakA4a' )).

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