The sources of occurrence of various pollutants from chemical process industries and there Harmful effects have been highlighted. Typical composition of wastewater from various sources presented. The methods of treatment of wastewater briefly discussed. Special attention has been paid to the biological treatment mentioning the drawbacks of the traditional methods. The relative advantages of various modern bioreactors working on immobilization technique have been projected. A comparative picture with respect to various modern bioreactors has been presented and the uniqueness of the activated sludge and the fluidized bioreactors in the treatment of wastewater has been emphasized.

CHAPTER 1 Introduction 1.1 General
The word pollution is derived from the Latin word pollutionem, meaning to defile or make dirty. Pollution is an undesirable change in the physical, chemical or biological characteristics of our basic aminities (air, land and water) causing harmful effect on our life or that of other desirable species and culture assets. Pollution can be defined as ―the addition of any foreign material like inorganic, organic , biological or radiological or any physical change occurring in nature which may harm or affect living organisms directly or indirectly , immediately or after a l ong time‖. There are various factors such as human population explosion, rapid industrialization, deforestation, unplanned urbanization, scientific and technological advancement etc., which are mainly responsible for the pollution crisis on earth. Pollution is usually brought about by waste products of human activity to the environment. When the waste products are not efficiently assimilated, decomposed or otherwise removed by natural, biological and physical processes of the biosphere, effects may results as the pollutants accumulate or get converted into more toxic substances. Thus, the materials which cause pollution of environment are called as pollutants. In other words we can say: ―Pollutants are undesirable substances which are present in the wrong place, at the wrong time and in the wrong quantity.‖ From ecosystem view point the pollutants may be classified as (a) biodegradable and (b) non-biodegradable. (a) Biodegradable pollutants: - These include domestic sewage. It can be radially decomposed by natural processes or by engineering systems. However, if these pollutants enter the environment in such large quantities that complete degradation of all cannot take place, and then these become biodegradable pollutants and thus pollute the environment. (b) Non-biodegradable pollutants:-There are many pollutants such as iron, mercury, salts, and phenolic compounds, aluminum and D.D.T.etc. Which are usually not present in the environment? These either do not degrade or degrade very slowly and there by pollute in the environment. Such pollutants are harmful even in low concentration. These pollutants not only

accumulate but are often biologically magnified as they move in biochemical cycles and along food chains. Hence, pollutants are residues of substances made by us, used by us and even thrown by us waste products which pollute the environment in one way or other. According to the environment the pollution may be categorized as (a) Water (b) Air (c) Soil pollution. Water pollution may be defined as the entry of foreign material in water to render it unfit for a specific use or alteration in physical, chemical and biological characteristic of water which may cause harmful effect on human and aquatic biota. It disturbs the normal uses of water for irrigation, agriculture, industries, public water supply and aquatic life. Water pollution may cause by: (1) Natural process – In which the decomposed vegetable, animal and weathered products are brought into main water resources. (2) Anthropogenic process- Such as industrial, agricultural, urban, domestic, radioactive, mining sources.

1.2. Environmental pollution
Environmental pollution is an emerging threat and of great concern in today’s context pertaining to its effect on the ecosystem. Water pollution is one of the greatest concerns now a day. In recent years, considerable attention has been paid to industrial wastes discharged to land and surface water. Industrial effluents often contain various toxic metals, harmful dissolved gases, and several organic and inorganic compounds. These may accumulate in soil in excessive quantities in long-term use, ultimately physiologically adverse effects on crop productivity. The worldwide rise in population and the industrialization during the last few decades haveresulted in ecological unbalance and degradation of the natural resources. One of the most essential natural resources, which have been the worst victim of population explosion and growing industrialization, is water. Huge quantity of wastewater generated from human settlement and industrial Sectors accompany the disposal system either as municipal wastewater or industrial wastewater. This wastewater is enriched with varied pollutants and harmful both for human being and the aquatic flora and fauna, finds it way out into the nearly flowing or stationary water bodies and thus makes natural sources of water seriously contaminated. It has been estimated that over 5 million chemical substances produced by industries have been identified and about 12000 of these are marketed which amount to around half of the total production. Due to discharge of toxic effluents long-term consequence of exposure can cause cancer, delayed nervous damage, malformation in urban children, mutagenic changes, neurological disorders etc. Various acid manufacturing industries discharge acidic effluent, which not only make the land infertile. But make the water of the river acidic also. The high acidity causes stomach diseases and skin ailments in human beings

CHAPTER 2 Literature Survey


The Great Stink of 1858 stimulated research into the problem of sewage treatment. In this caricature in The Times, Michael Faraday reports to Father Thames on the state of the river. Basic sewer systems were used for waste removal in ancient Mesopotamia, where vertical shafts carried the waste away into cesspools. Similar systems existed in the Indus Valley civilization in modern day India and in Ancient Crete and Greece. In the Middle Ages the sewer systems built by the Romans fell into disuse and waste was collected into cesspools that were periodically emptied by workers known as 'rakers' who would often sell it as fertilizer to farmers outside the city. Modern sewage systems were first built in the mid-nineteenth century as a reaction to the exacerbation of sanitary conditions brought on by heavy industrialization and urbanization. Due to the contaminated water supply, cholera outbreaks occurred in 1832, 1849 and 1855 in London, killing tens of thousands of people. This, combined with the Great Stink of 1858, when the smell of untreated human waste in the River Thames became overpowering, and the report into sanitation reform of the Royal Commissioner Edwin Chadwick,[3] led to the Metropolitan Commission of Sewers appointing Sir Joseph Bazalgette to construct a vast underground sewage system for the safe removal of waste. Contrary to Chadwick's recommendations, Bazalgette's system, and others later built in Continental Europe, did not pump the sewage onto farm land for use as fertilizer; it was simply piped to a natural waterway away from population centers, and pumped back into the environment.

Early attempts
One of the first attempts at diverting sewage for use as a fertilizer in the farm was made by the cotton mill owner James Smith in the 1840s. He experimented with a piped distribution system initially proposed by James Vetch[4] that collected sewage from his factory and pumped it into the outlying farms, and his success was enthusiastically followed by Edwin Chadwick and supported by organic chemist Justus von Liebig. The idea was officially adopted by the Health of Towns Commission, and various schemes (known as sewage farms) were trialled by different municipalities over the next 50 years. At first, the heavier solids were channeled into ditches on the side of the farm and were covered over when full, but soon flat-bottomed tanks were employed as reservoirs for the sewage; the earliest patent was taken out by William Higgs in 1846 for "tanks or reservoirs in which the contents of sewers and drains from cities, towns and villages are to be collected and the solid animal or vegetable matters therein contained, solidified and dried..."[5] Improvements to the design of the tanks included the introduction of the horizontal-flow tank in the 1850s and the radial-flow tank in 1905. These tanks had to be manually de-sludged periodically, until the introduction of automatic mechanical de-sludgers in the early 1900s.[6] The precursor to the modern septic tank was the cesspool in which the water was sealed off to prevent contamination and the solid waste was slowly liquified due to anaerobic action; it was invented by L.H Mouras in France in the 1860s. Donald Cameron, as City Surveyor for Exeter patented an improved version in 1895, which he called a 'septic tank'; septic having the meaning of 'bacterial'. These are still in worldwide use, especially in rural areas unconnected to large scale sewage systems.[7] Sir Edward Frankland, a distinguished chemist, who demonstrated the possibility of chemically treating sewage in the 1870s. It was not until the late 19th century that it became possible to treat the sewage by chemically breaking it down through the use of microorganisms and removing the pollutants. Land treatment was also steadily becoming less feasible, as cities grew and the volume of sewage produced could no longer be absorbed by the farmland on the outskirts. Sir Edward Frankland conducted experiments at the Sewage Farm in Croydon, England, during the 1870s and was able to demonstrate that filtration of sewage through porous gravel produced a nitrified effluent (the ammonia was converted into nitrate) and that the filter remained unclogged over long periods of time.[8] This established the then revolutionary possibility of biological treatment of sewage using a contact bed to oxidize the waste. This concept was taken up by the chief chemist for the London Metropolitan Board of Works, William Libdin, in 1887: ...in all probability the true way of purifying sewage...will be first to separate the sludge, and then turn into neutral effluent... retain it for a sufficient period, during which time it should be fully aerated, and finally discharge it into the stream in a purified condition. This is indeed what is aimed at and imperfectly accomplished on a sewage farm.[9]

From 1885 to 1891 filters working on this principle were constructed throughout the UK and the idea was also taken up in the US at the Lawrence Experiment Station in Massachusetts, where Frankland's work was confirmed. In 1890 the LES developed a 'trickling filter' that gave a much more reliable performance.[10] Contact beds were developed in Salford, Manchester and by scientists working for the London City Council in the early 1890s. According to Christopher Hamlin, this was part of a conceptual revolution that replaced the philosophy that saw "sewage purification as the prevention of decomposition with one that tried to facilitate the biological process that destroy sewage naturally."[11] Contact beds were tanks containing the inert substance, such as stones or slate, that maximized the surface area available for the microbial growth to break down the sewage. The sewage was held in the tank until it was fully decomposed and it was then filtered out into the ground. This method quickly became widespread, especially in the UK, where it was used in Leicester, Sheffield, Manchester and Leeds. The bacterial bed was simultaneously developed by Joseph Corbett as Borough Engineer in Salford and experiments in 1905 showed that his method was superior in that greater volumes of sewage could be purified better for longer periods of time than could be achieved by the contact bed.[12] The Royal Commission on Sewage Disposal published it's eighth report in 1912 that set what became the international standard for sewage discharge into rivers; the '20:30 standard', which allowed 20 mg Biochemical oxygen demand and 30 mg suspended solid per litre.[13] 2.1. Fresh Water Crisis Water is, literally, the source of life on earth. About 70 percent of the earth is water, but only one percent is accessible surface freshwater. The one percent surface fresh water is regularly renewed by rainfall and other means and thus available on a sustainable basis and easily considered accessible for human use. Water is the biggest crisis facing the world today. In India the crisis in terms spread and severity affects one in three people. As per an estimate in 2000, there were7, 800 cubic meters of fresh water available per person annually. It will be 5,100 cubic meters (51, 00,000 liters) by 2025. Even this amount is sufficient for human needs, if it were properly distributed. But, equitable distribution is not possible India, which has 16 percent of world’s population, 2.45 percent of world’s land area and 4 percent of the world’s water resources, has already faced with grave drinking water crisis. Water is the single largest problem facing India today. Years of rapid population growth and increasing water consumption for agriculture, industry and municipalities and other areas have strained Indian fresh water resources. In many parts of our country chronic water shortages, loss of arable land, destruction of natural habitats, degradation of environment, and widespread pollution undermine public health and threaten economic and social progress. By 2050 more than 50 percent of population is expected to shift to the cities and the drinking water scarcity will be acute. In the developed world, for example, the United Kingdom must spend close to $60 billion building wastewater treatment plants over the next decade to meet the new European water quality standards. The World Bank has estimated

that over the next decade between US $ 600 to 800 billion will be required to meet the total demand for fresh water, including that for sanitation, irrigation and power generation. A water short world is inherently unstable world. Now the world needs another revolution, i.e., a Blue Revolution for conservation and proper maintenance of freshwater.

2.2 Treatment Methods
The conventional methods of treatment of phenolic and nitrate-nitrogen wastewater are largely physical and chemical processes but these processes led to secondary effluent problems due to formation of toxic materials such as cyanates, chlorinated phenols, hydrocarbons, etc. These methods are mainly chlorination, ozonation, solvent extraction, incineration, chemical oxidation, membrane process, coagulation, flocculation, adsorption, ion exchange, reverse osmosis, electrolysis, etc. [2, 8, 9, and 19].In solvent extraction there is a danger of contamination of treated water by the solvent. The solvents used for phenol recovery are benzene, isopropyl ethyl and butyl acetate. In addition to the presence of solvent in treated water, the high cost of solvent is another disadvantage. In adsorption commonly activated carbon is used which is disposed by incineration. The process of incineration generates many new compounds such as dioxins and furans have very severe consequences on human health. Chemical oxidation requires a reactor, which operates at high temperature and high pressure, ultimately huge energy [2]. Aerobic and anaerobic biochemical treatment techniques are replacing these methods because of their inherent advantages.

2.4 Treatment and recycle Thus it is imperative to purify and recycle wastewater in view of reduced availability and deteriorating water quality. Phenol along with other xenobiotic compounds is one of the most common contaminants present in effluents from chemical process industries. Even at lower concentration these compounds adversely affect aquatic as well as human life [1-4,8-13]. Also these compounds form complexes with metal ions discharged from other industries, which are carcinogenic in nature. It is water soluble and highly mobile. This imparts medicinal taste and dour even at much lower concentration of 2 μg/l and it is lethal to fish at concentrations of 5 25mg/l [10]. The maximum permitted concentration level of phenol being 0.5-1 mg/l for industrial wastewater and 1μg/l for drinking water [15, 17]. So it is highly essential to save the water resources and aquatic life by removing these compounds from wastewater before disposal. The main sources of phenolic wastewater are coal chemical plants, oil refineries, petrochemical industries, fiber glass units, explosive manufacture, phenol-based polymerization process, pharmaceuticals, plastic, paints and varnish producing units, textile units making use of organic dyes, antiseptics, antirust products, biocides, photographic chemicals and smelting and related metallurgical operations, etc. [2,8-10,17,20].


Simplified process flow diagram for a typical large-scale treatment plant

Process flow diagram for a typical treatment plant via subsurface flow constructed wetlands (SFCW)

Process overview[edit] Sewage can be treated close to where the sewage is created, a decentralized system (in septic tanks, biofilters or aerobic treatment systems), or be collected and transported by a network of pipes and pump stations to a municipal treatment plant, a centralized system (see sewerage and pipes and infrastructure). Sewage collection and treatment is typically subject to local, state and federal regulations and standards. Industrial sources of sewage often require specialized treatment processes (see Industrial wastewater treatment).

Sewage treatment
The objective of sewage treatment is to produce a disposable effluent without causing harm to the surrounding environment, and prevent pollution.[1] Sewage treatment is the process of removing contaminants from wastewater and household sewage, both runoff (effluents), domestic, commercial and institutional. It includes physical, chemical, and biological processes to remove physical, chemical and biological contaminants. Its objective is to produce an environmentally safe fluid waste stream (or treated effluent) and a

solid waste (or treated sludge) suitable for disposal or reuse (usually as farm fertilizer). Using advanced technology it is now possible to re-use sewage effluent for drinking water, although Singapore is the only country to implement such technology on a production scale in its production of NEWater.[2]

Sewage treatment generally involves three stages, called primary, secondary and tertiary treatment.

Primary treatment consists of temporarily holding the sewage in a quiescent basin where heavy solids can settle to the bottom while oil, grease and lighter solids float to the surface. The settled and floating materials are removed and the remaining liquid may be discharged or subjected to secondary treatment. Secondary treatment removes dissolved and suspended biological matter. Secondary treatment is typically performed by indigenous, water-borne micro-organisms in a managed habitat. Secondary treatment may require a separation process to remove the micro-organisms from the treated water prior to discharge or tertiary treatment. Tertiary treatment is sometimes defined as anything more than primary and secondary treatment in order to allow rejection into a highly sensitive or fragile ecosystem (estuaries, low-flow rivers, coral reefs,...). Treated water is sometimes disinfected chemically or physically (for example, by lagoons and microfiltration) prior to discharge into a stream, river, bay, lagoon or wetland, or it can be used for the irrigation of a golf course, green way or park. If it is sufficiently clean, it can also be used for groundwater recharge or agricultural purposes.

0.1 BASIC PROCESSES OF WATER TREATMENT The purpose of waste water treatment is to remove the contaminants from the water so that the water can meet the acceptable quality standards. The quality standard usually depends upon whether water will be reused or discharged into a receiving stream. Available waste water treatment can be broadly classified as physical, chemical or biological. These processes, which consist of series of unit operation, are applied in different combination and sequence depending upon the prevailing situations of influent concentration, composition and condition and specification of the effluent. Physical processes are based on exploitation of the physical properties of the contaminants and are generally the simplest forms of treatment. These principally comprise screening, sedimentation, flotation and filtration. Chemical processes utilize the chemical properties of the impurities or of the added reagents. Commonly used chemical processes such as air stripping, carbon absorption, oxidation and reduction, ion exchange and membrane processes like reverse osmosis and electro dialysis are also important in certain particular cases. Biological processes utilize biochemical reaction; typical examples are biological filtration and the activated sludge process. The waste water treatment processes are generally grouped according to the water quality they are expected to produce. These processes are usually grouped as the primary treatment, the secondary treatment, and the tertiary or the advanced waste treatment. Primary treatment removes identifiable suspended solids and floating matter. In the secondary treatment, also known as the biological treatment, organic matter that is soluble or in the colloidal form is removed. Advanced waste treatment may involve physical, chemical or biological processes or there various combinations depending on the impurities to be removed. These processes are employed to remove residual soluble non-biodegradable organic compounds, including surfactants, organic nutrients and salts, trace contaminants of various types, and dissolved inorganic salts. The advanced waste treatment processes are expensive, and are used only when water produced is required to be of higher quality than that produced by conventional secondary treatment so that the treated water can be reclaimed and put to some form of direct re-use. Pretreatment[edit] Pretreatment removes all materials that can be easily collected from the raw sewage before they damage or clog the pumps and sewage lines of primary treatment clarifiers. Objects that are commonly removed during pretreatment include trash, tree limbs, leaves, branches, and other large objects.

The influent in sewage water passes through a bar screen to remove all large objects like cans, rags, sticks, plastic packets etc. carried in the sewage stream.[20] This is most commonly done with an automated mechanically raked bar screen in modern plants serving large populations, while in smaller or less modern plants, a manually cleaned screen may be used. The raking action of a mechanical bar screen is typically paced according to the accumulation on the bar screens and/or flow rate. The solids are collected and later disposed in a landfill, or incinerated. Bar screens or mesh screens of varying sizes may be used to optimize solids removal. If gross solids are not removed, they become entrained in pipes and moving parts of the treatment plant, and can cause substantial damage and inefficiency in the process.[21]:9 Grit removal[edit] Pretreatment may include a sand or grit channel or chamber, where the velocity of the incoming sewage is adjusted to allow the settlement of sand, grit, stones, and broken glass. These particles are removed because they may damage pumps and other equipment. For small sanitary sewer systems, the grit chambers may not be necessary, but grit removal is desirable at larger plants. [21] Grit chambers come in 3 types: horizontal grit chambers, aerated grit chambers and vortex grit chambers. Flow equalization[edit] Clarifiers and mechanized secondary treatment are more efficient under uniform flow conditions. Equalization basins may be used for temporary storage of diurnal or wet-weather flow peaks. Basins provide a place to temporarily hold incoming sewage during plant maintenance and a means of diluting and distributing batch discharges of toxic or high-strength waste which might otherwise inhibit biological secondary treatment (including portable toilet waste, vehicle holding tanks, and septic tank pumpers). Flow equalization basins require variable discharge control, typically include provisions for bypass and cleaning, and may also include aerators. Cleaning may be easier if the basin is downstream of screening and grit removal.[22] Fat and grease removal[edit] In some larger plants, fat and grease are removed by passing the sewage through a small tank where skimmers collect the fat floating on the surface. Air blowers in the base of the tank may also be used to help recover the fat as a froth. Many plants, however, use primary clarifiers with mechanical surface skimmers for fat and grease removal.

Primary treatment
In the primary sedimentation stage, sewage flows through large tanks, commonly called "presettling basins", "primary sedimentation tanks" or "primary clarifiers".[23] The tanks are used to settle sludge while grease and oils rise to the surface and are skimmed off. Primary settling tanks are usually equipped with mechanically driven scrapers that continually drive the collected

sludge towards a hopper in the base of the tank where it is pumped to sludge treatment facilities.[21]:9–11 Grease and oil from the floating material can sometimes be recovered for saponification.

In this step, the settleable solids are removed by gravitational settling under quiescent conditions. The sludge formed at the bottom of the tank is removed as underflow either by vacuum suction or by raking it into a discharge point at the bottom of the tank for withdrawal. The clear liquid produced is known as the overflow and it should contain no readily settle able matter. If the sedimentation tank is poorly designed the overflow may contain solid particles or the underflow may be diluting than desired. The sedimentation operation in waste treatment application may be carried out in rectangular horizontal flow, circular radial flow, or vertical flow basins. Figure1.1 shows the three main types of arrangements. In rectangular tanks, feed is introduced at one end along the width of the tank and the overflow is collected at the surface, either across the other end or at different points along the floating material into a screen through while it also pushes the settled solids into a sludge hopper. In the circular radial flow tanks, the feed is introduced through a center well and the clarified effluent is collected at weirs along the periphery of the tank. Sludge removal is effected by means of a rotary sludge scrapper which forces the settled sludge down a slopping bottom into a center hopper, from which it is withdrawn. Scum is removed by a surface skimming board, which is attached to the rottery mechanism and positioned in such a manner that the scum can be collected into a through situated at the surface. Vertical flow tanks are often used in small treatment plants where the feed is applied at a point along the bottom, and clarified effluent is collected at the top. A sludge blanket is maintained in the lower part of the tank through which the suspensions rises. It is important to control the sludge withdrawal and bleed carefully to avoid losing the blanket, which acts as a filter for small particles. FLOTATION Flotation may be used in place of sedimentation, primarily for treating industrial waste water containing finely divided suspended solids and oily matter. Flotation technique is used in paper industry to recover fine fibers from the screened effluent and in the oil industry for the clarification of oil-bearing waste. It is also used treating effluent from tannery, metal finishing, cold rolling, and pharmaceutical industries. An increasingly important application is the thickening of the sludge obtained from activated sludge process.

Particles of density very close to that of water are very difficult to settle in normal sedimentation tank and take a long for separation. In such cases, the separation can be speeded up by aerating the effluent where by air bubbles are attached to the suspended matter. This has the effect of increasing the buoyancy of the particles; as a result, the process, chemical coagulants such aluminum and ferric salts or polymer coagulant aids are often used. These chemicals increasing the flocculent structure of the floated particles so that they can easily entrap the air bubbles. Two methods of flotation are currently available: (1) dispersed-air flotation, and (2) dissolved-air flotation. In dispersed-air flotation, air is introduced directly into the liquid through a revolving impeller or through diffusers. The air bubbles are generated in dispersed-air flotation systems are normally about 1mm in diameter and they are usually cause turbulence which breaks up fragile floc particles. Due to this, dispersed-air flotation is not a favored technique in the treatment of municipal waste water, although it finds a limited application in treating industrial waste containing oil, grease and fine powders. In dissolved-air flotation, air is intimately brought into contact with the waste water at a pressure of several atmosphere when air is dissolved. The pressure on the liquid is reduced to atmospheric level through a back pressure valve, thereby releasing micron-sized bubbles. Suspended solids and oil are carried to the surface of the flotation tank by these minute air bubbles. A typical flotation system is illustrated in fig.1.1. Here, the entire flow is pressurized and held in the retention tank so that the air gets dissolved in the liquid. This is also known as the total pressurization or once through system. The intense mixing of air and wastewater in the pressurization system often degrades flocculent suspensions or oil emulsion following chemical treatment. A portion of the clear effluent is recycled for pressurization (fig1.1) to prevent such degradation. Compressed air is introduced into the discharge of the recycle pump and intimate contact is achieved in the retention tank. The recycled flow is then returned through the back pressure valve (where the pressurized air is released) and mixed with the influent for flotation. The amount of pressurization flow is based on the air to solids ratio required for treatment. Ratios ranging from 0.01 to 0.05 have been found to be effective and a design valve of 0.02 is appropriate for many applications. The residence time in the flotation tank is about half an hour.

Sir Edward Frankland, a distinguished chemist, who demonstrated the possibility of chemically treating sewage in the 1870s. It was not until the late 19th century that it became possible to treat the sewage by chemically breaking it down through the use of microorganisms and removing the pollutants. Land treatment was also steadily becoming less feasible, as cities grew and the volume of sewage produced could no longer be absorbed by the farmland on the outskirts. Sir Edward Frankland conducted experiments at the Sewage Farm in Croydon, England, during the 1870s and was able to demonstrate that filtration of sewage through porous gravel produced a nitrified effluent (the ammonia was converted into nitrate) and that the filter remained unclogged over long periods of time.[8] This established the then revolutionary possibility of biological treatment of sewage using a contact bed to oxidize the waste. This concept was taken up by the chief chemist for the London Metropolitan Board of Works, William Libdin, in 1887: ...in all probability the true way of purifying sewage...will be first to separate the sludge, and then turn into neutral effluent... retain it for a sufficient period, during which time it should be fully aerated, and finally discharge it into the stream in a purified condition. This is indeed what is aimed at and imperfectly accomplished on a sewage farm.[9] From 1885 to 1891 filters working on this principle were constructed throughout the UK and the idea was also taken up in the US at the Lawrence Experiment Station in Massachusetts, where Frankland's work was confirmed. In 1890 the LES developed a 'trickling filter' that gave a much more reliable performance.[10] Contact beds were developed in Salford, Manchester and by scientists working for the London City Council in the early 1890s. According to Christopher Hamlin, this was part of a conceptual revolution that replaced the philosophy that saw "sewage purification as the prevention of decomposition with one that tried to facilitate the biological process that destroy sewage naturally."[11] Contact beds were tanks containing the inert substance, such as stones or slate, that maximized the surface area available for the microbial growth to break down the sewage. The sewage was held in the tank until it was fully decomposed and it was then filtered out into the ground. This method quickly became widespread, especially in the UK, where it was used in Leicester, Sheffield, Manchester and Leeds. The bacterial bed was simultaneously developed by Joseph Corbett as Borough Engineer in Salford and experiments in 1905 showed that his method was superior in that greater volumes of sewage could be purified better for longer periods of time than could be achieved by the contact bed.[12] The Royal Commission on Sewage Disposal published it's eighth report in 1912 that set what became the international standard for sewage discharge into rivers; the '20:30 standard', which allowed 20 mg Biochemical oxygen demand and 30 mg suspended solid per litre.[13]

Secondary treatment is designed to substantially degrade the biological content of the sewage which are derived from human waste, food waste, soaps and detergent. The majority of municipal plants treat the settled sewage liquor using aerobic biological processes. To be effective, the biota require both oxygen and food to live. The bacteria and protozoa consume biodegradable soluble organic contaminants (e.g. sugars, fats, organic short-chain carbon molecules, etc.) and bind much of the less soluble fractions into floc. Secondary treatment systems are classified as fixed-film or suspended-growth systems.

Fixed-film or attached growth systems include trickling filters, biotowers, and rotating biological contactors, where the biomass grows on media and the sewage passes over its surface.[21]:11–13 The fixed-film principle has further developed into Moving Bed Biofilm Reactors (MBBR), and Integrated Fixed-Film Activated Sludge (IFAS) processes. An MBBR system typically requires smaller footprint than suspended-growth systems.[24] Suspended-growth systems include activated sludge, where the biomass is mixed with the sewage and can be operated in a smaller space than trickling filters that treat the same amount of water. However, fixed-film systems are more able to cope with drastic changes in the amount of biological material and can provide higher removal rates for organic material and suspended solids than suspended growth systems.[21]:11–13

Roughing filters are intended to treat particularly strong or variable organic loads, typically industrial, to allow them to then be treated by conventional secondary treatment processes. Characteristics include filters filled with media to which wastewater is applied. They are designed to allow high hydraulic loading and a high level of aeration. On larger installations, air is forced through the media using blowers. The resultant wastewater is usually within the normal range for conventional treatment processes.

activated sludge process A generalized schematic of an activated sludge process. A filter removes a small percentage of the suspended organic matter, while the majority of the organic matter undergoes a change of character, only due to the biological oxidation and nitrification taking place in the filter. With this aerobic oxidation and nitrification, the organic

solids are converted into coagulated suspended mass, which is heavier and bulkier, and can settle to the bottom of a tank. The effluent of the filter is therefore passed through a sedimentation tank, called a secondary clarifier, secondary settling tank or humus tank. Activated sludge systems can be transformed into aerobic granular sludge systems (aerobic granulation) which enhance the benefits of activated sludge, like increased biomass retention due to high sludge settlability. Surface-aerated basins (lagoons)[edit] Many small municipal sewage systems in the United States (1 million gal./day or less) use aerated lagoons.[25] Most biological oxidation processes for treating industrial wastewaters have in common the use of oxygen (or air) and microbial action. Surface-aerated basins achieve 80 to 90 percent removal of BOD with retention times of 1 to 10 days.[26] The basins may range in depth from 1.5 to 5.0 metres and use motor-driven aerators floating on the surface of the wastewater.[26] In an aerated basin system, the aerators provide two functions: they transfer air into the basins required by the biological oxidation reactions, and they provide the mixing required for dispersing the air and for contacting the reactants (that is, oxygen, wastewater and microbes). Typically, the floating surface aerators are rated to deliver the amount of air equivalent to 1.8 to 2.7 kg O2/kW·h. However, they do not provide as good mixing as is normally achieved in activated sludge systems and therefore aerated basins do not achieve the same performance level as activated sludge units.[26] Biological oxidation processes are sensitive to temperature and, between 0 °C and 40 °C, the rate of biological reactions increase with temperature. Most surface aerated vessels operate at between 4 °C and 32 °C.[26]

So far, only those materials were considered that might be removed by some type of physical or mechanical action. Since much of the organic matter in waste water is colloidal and dissolved, the primary treatment processes are largely inffective in removing it. This organic material still represents a high demand for oxygen which

must reduce further so that the effluent may be rendered for discharge into the water bodies.

Role of Microorganisms
A variety of microorganisms, mainly bacteria, is used in the stabilization of the organic matter. Thee microorganisms convert the colloidal and dissolved carbonaceous organic matter into various gases and into cell tissue known as protoplasm. Since the density of the protoplasm is slightly higher than that of water, it can be removed from the treated liquid by gravity setting. It is necessary to remove the cell tissue from the solution, otherwise, the tissue, which itself is organic in nature will be nature, will be measured as BOD in the effluent.

Decomposition of Organic Waste
There are two important methods by which the organic matter could be decomposed: 1. Aerobic process, in which oxygen is used by the microorganisms for the decomposition. 2. Anaerobic process, in which oxygen is not used by the microorganism for the decomposition. In aerobic decomposition, in wide spectrum of organic matter could be oxidized by the microorganisms resulting in very stable end products include CO 2, H2O and new cell tissue. Most aerobic organisms are capable of high growth rates resulting in the generation of the large amounts of biological sludge. Aerobic decomposition is suitable for large quantities of dilute waste water whose BOD is generally less than 500mg/l. For high strength wastewater (BOD less than 1000 mg/l), aerobic decomposition is not recommended and anaerobic decomposition may be preferred method. Anaerobic decomposition is basically a two –step process. In the first step, complex organic compounds are break down and converted to low molecular weight fatty acids, the most common of which are acetic and propionic acids. The microorganisms responsible for this conversion are facultative in nature and are

identified as ―acid formers‖. In the second step, methanogenic bacteria which are strict anaerobes, convert the organic acids formed in the cell production is relatively low resulting in low sludge generation. Anaerobic method is usually used to stabilize the sludge produced during the aerobic decomposition.

Aerobic Biological Treatment
Biological or secondary treatment, as it is commonly referred to, is very similar in concept to the natural biodegradation of the organic matter by aerobic bacteria. In biological treatment, oxygen supplied to the bacteria is consumed under controlled conditions so that most of the BOD is removed in the treatment plant rather than in the water course. Thus, the principal requirement of a biological waste treatment process are an adequate amount of bacteria that feed on the organic material present in wastewater, oxygen, and some means of achieving contact between the bacteria and the organics. Two of the most commonly used systems for biological waste treatment are the activated sludge system and biological-film system. In the activated sludge system the waste water is brought into contact with a diver group of microorganisms in the form of a flocculent suspension in an aerated tank. Whereas in the biological –film system, also known as trickling filters, the waste water is brought into contact with a mixed microbial population in the form of a film of slime attaché to the surface of a solid support medium. In both cases the organic matter is metabolized to more stable inorganic forms. The most popular means of treating domestic sewage has been the biological-film system because of its ease of operation. However, the activated sludge process is gaining popularity for handling large volumes of wastewater, and because of the high degree of treatment achieved.
Activated sludge[edit]
The development of secondary treatments to sewage in the early twentieth century led to arguably the single most significant improvement in public health and the environment during the course of the century, the invention of the 'activated sludge' process for the treatment of sewage.

The Davyhulme Sewage Works Laboratory, where the activated sludge process was developed in the early 20th century. In 1912, Dr. Gilbert Fowler, a scientist at the University of Manchester, observed experiments being conducted at the Lawrence Experiment Station at Massachusetts involving the aeration of sewage in a bottle that had been coated with algae. Fowler's engineering colleagues, Edward Ardern and William Lockett,[14] who were conducting research for the Manchester Corporation Rivers Department at Davyhulme Sewage Works,[15] experimented on treating sewage in a drawand-fill reactor, which produced a highly treated effluent. They aerated the waste-water continuously for about a month and were able to achieve a complete nitrification of the sample material. Believing that the sludge had been activated (in a similar manner to activated carbon) the process was named activated sludge. Their results were published in their seminal 1914 paper, and the first full-scale continuous-flow system was installed at Worcester two years later. In the aftermath of the First World War the new treatment method spread rapidly, especially to the USA, Denmark, Germany and Canada. By the late 1930s, the activated sludge treatment was the predominant process used around the world.[16]

Origins of sewage[edit]
Sewage is generated by residential, institutional, commercial and industrial establishments. It includes household waste liquid from toilets, baths, showers, kitchens, sinks and so forth that is disposed of via sewers. In many areas, sewage also includes liquid waste from industry and commerce. The separation and draining of household waste into greywater and blackwater is becoming more common in the developed world, with greywater being permitted to be used for watering plants or recycled for flushing toilets. Sewage may include stormwater runoff. Sewerage systems capable of handling storm water are known as combined sewer systems. This design was common when urban sewerage systems were first developed, in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.[17]:119 Combined sewers require much larger and more expensive treatment facilities than sanitary sewers. Heavy volumes of storm runoff may overwhelm the sewage treatment system, causing a spill or overflow. Sanitary sewers are typically much smaller than combined sewers, and they are not designed to transport stormwater. Backups of raw sewage can occur if excessive infiltration/inflow (dilution by stormwater and/or groundwater) is allowed into a sanitary sewer system. Communities that have

urbanized in the mid-20th century or later generally have built separate systems for sewage (sanitary sewers) and stormwater, because precipitation causes widely varying flows, reducing sewage treatment plant efficiency.[18] As rainfall travels over roofs and the ground, it may pick up various contaminants including soil particles and other sediment, heavy metals, organic compounds, animal waste, and oil and grease. (See urban runoff.)[19] Some jurisdictions require stormwater to receive some level of treatment before being discharged directly into waterways. Examples of treatment processes used for stormwater include retention basins, wetlands, buried vaults with various kinds of media filters, and vortex separators (to remove coarse solids).

Activated Sludge Process
The process flow diagram for a typical activated sludge plant is given in fig. the essential features of the process is: an aeration stage, solids-liquid separation following aeration and a sludge recycle system. Waste water after primary treatment enters an aeration tank where the organic matter is brought into intimate contact with the sludge from the secondary clarifier. This sludge is heavily laden with microorganisms which are in an active state of growth. Air is introduced into the tank, either in the form of bubbles through diffusers or by surface aerators. The microorganisms utilize the oxygen in the air and convert the organic matter into stabized-low energy compound such as NO3, SO4, CO2, and synthesize new bacterial cells. The effluent from the aeration tank containing the flocculent microbial mass, known as the sludge, is separated in the settling tank, sometimes called a secondary settler or a clarifier. In the settling tank the separated sludge exists without contact with the organic matter and become activated. A portion of activated sludge is recycled to the aeration tank as seed; the rest is wasted if all the activated sludge is recycled, and then the bacterial mass would keep increasing to the stage where the system gets clogged with solids. Therefore, necessary to waste some of the microorganisms, and this wasted sludge is the one which is processed and disposed.

Efficiencies of activated Sludge process
The activated sludge process including pretreatment and primary settling is an efficient means of removing suspended solids and organic matter from waste water. Table 1.1. Present typical primary and secondary effluent characteristic. As is seen from the table most of the suspended solids and BOD materials are removed after secondary treatment. However, the activated sludge process does of a poor job in removing both nitrogen and phosphorus from waste water. The total nitrogen contain is reduced by approximately one third. The influent ammonia is oxidized by nitrifying bacteria and this reduction is partially balanced by production of ammonia by the sludge mass. The net result is that there is slight reduction in ammonia concentration Typical wastewater (mg/l) 230 200 18 30 13 383 Primary effluent (mg/l) 85 135 16 25 11 276 Secondary effluent (mg/l) 20 20 15 20 10 99

Suspended solids BOD Ammonia nitrogen Total nitrogen Phosphorus Ultimate oxygen demand

Primary sedimentation in conventional treatment settles only a small percentage of the phosphorous present in waste water, since its major part is dissolved. In the activated sludge process of the microbial floc takes the soluble phosphate as a nutrient but removal efficiency is small (less than 30percent), so that most of the phosphorous remains unaffected by the secondary treatment. The ultimate oxygen demand (UOD) is reduced by about 75 percent in the conventional secondary treatment. Most of this reduction is due to the oxidation o the organic carbonaceous material and the remainder is due to removal of ammonia. The extended aeration process may be expected to raise the removal efficiency of UOD to about 99 percent.

Trickling filter
Filter beds (oxidizing beds)[edit] Main article: Trickling filter In older plants and those receiving variable loadings, trickling filter beds are used where the settled sewage liquor is spread onto the surface of a bed made up of coke (carbonized coal), limestone chips or specially fabricated plastic media. Such media must have large surface areas to support the biofilms that form. The liquor is typically distributed through perforated spray arms. The distributed liquor trickles through the bed and is collected in drains at the base. These drains also provide a source of air which percolates up through the bed, keeping it aerobic. Biological films of bacteria, protozoa and fungi form on the media’s surfaces and eat or otherwise reduce the organic content.[21]:12 This biofilm is often grazed by insect larvae, snails, and worms which help maintain an optimal thickness. Overloading of beds increases the thickness of the film leading to clogging of the filter media and ponding on the surface. Recent advances in media and process micro-biology design overcome many issues with trickling filter designs. Constructed wetlands[edit] Constructed wetlands (can either be surface flow or subsurface flow, horizontal or vertical flow), include engineered reedbeds and belong to the family of phytorestoration and ecotechnologies; they provide a high degree of biological improvement and depending on design, act as a primary, secondary and sometimes tertiary treatment, also see phytoremediation. One example is a small reedbed used to clean the drainage from the elephants' enclosure at Chester Zoo in England; numerous CWs are used to recycle the water of the city of Honfleur in France and numerous other towns in Europe, the US, Asia and Australia. They are known to be highly productive systems as they copy natural wetlands, called the "kidneys of the earth" for their fundamental recycling capacity of the hydrological cycle in the biosphere. Robust and reliable, their treatment capacities improve as time go by, at the opposite of conventional treatment plants whose machinery age with time. They are being increasingly used, although adequate and experienced design are more fundamental than for other systems and space limitation may impede their use. Soil bio-technology[edit] A new process called soil bio-technology (SBT) developed at IIT Bombay has shown tremendous improvements in process efficiency enabling total water reuse, due to extremely low operating power requirements of less than 50 joules per kg of treated water.[27] Typically SBT systems can achieve chemical oxygen demand (COD) levels less than 10 mg/L from sewage input of COD 400 mg/L.[28] SBT plants exhibit high reductions in COD values and bacterial counts as a result of the very high microbial densities available in the media. Unlike conventional treatment plants, SBT plants produce insignificant amounts of sludge, precluding the need for sludge disposal areas that are required by other technologies.[29]

In the Indian context, conventional sewage treatment plants fall into systemic disrepair due to 1) high operating costs, 2) equipment corrosion due to methanogenesis and hydrogen sulphide, 3) non-reusability of treated water due to high COD (>30 mg/L) and high fecal coliform (>3000 NFU) counts, 4) lack of skilled operating personnel and 5) equipment replacement issues. Examples of such systemic failures has been documented by Sankat Mochan Foundation at the Ganges basin after a massive cleanup effort by the Indian government in 1986 by setting up sewage treatment plants under the Ganga Action Plan failed to improve river water quality. Biological aerated filters[edit] Biological Aerated (or Anoxic) Filter (BAF) or Biofilters combine filtration with biological carbon reduction, nitrification or denitrification. BAF usually includes a reactor filled with a filter media. The media is either in suspension or supported by a gravel layer at the foot of the filter. The dual purpose of this media is to support highly active biomass that is attached to it and to filter suspended solids. Carbon reduction and ammonia conversion occurs in aerobic mode and sometime achieved in a single reactor while nitrate conversion occurs in anoxic mode. BAF is operated either in upflow or downflow configuration depending on design specified by manufacturer.

Schematic of a typical rotating biological contactor (RBC). The treated effluent clarifier/settler is not included in the diagram. Rotating biological contactors[edit] Main article: Rotating biological contactor Rotating biological contactors (RBCs) are mechanical secondary treatment systems, which are robust and capable of withstanding surges in organic load. RBCs were first installed in Germany in 1960 and have since been developed and refined into a reliable operating unit. The rotating disks support the growth of bacteria and micro-organisms present in the sewage, which break down and stabilize organic pollutants. To be successful, micro-organisms need both oxygen to live and food to grow. Oxygen is obtained from the atmosphere as the disks rotate. As the microorganisms grow, they build up on the media until they are sloughed off due to shear forces provided by the rotating discs in the sewage. Effluent from the RBC is then passed through final

clarifiers where the micro-organisms in suspension settle as a sludge. The sludge is withdrawn from the clarifier for further treatment. A functionally similar biological filtering system has become popular as part of home aquarium filtration and purification. The aquarium water is drawn up out of the tank and then cascaded over a freely spinning corrugated fiber-mesh wheel before passing through a media filter and back into the aquarium. The spinning mesh wheel develops a biofilm coating of microorganisms that feed on the suspended wastes in the aquarium water and are also exposed to the atmosphere as the wheel rotates. This is especially good at removing waste urea and ammonia urinated into the aquarium water by the fish and other animals. Membrane bioreactors[edit] Membrane bioreactors (MBR) combine activated sludge treatment with a membrane liquid-solid separation process. The membrane component uses low pressure microfiltration or ultrafiltration membranes and eliminates the need for clarification and tertiary filtration. The membranes are typically immersed in the aeration tank; however, some applications utilize a separate membrane tank. One of the key benefits of an MBR system is that it effectively overcomes the limitations associated with poor settling of sludge in conventional activated sludge (CAS) processes. The technology permits bioreactor operation with considerably higher mixed liquor suspended solids (MLSS) concentration than CAS systems, which are limited by sludge settling. The process is typically operated at MLSS in the range of 8,000–12,000 mg/L, while CAS are operated in the range of 2,000–3,000 mg/L. The elevated biomass concentration in the MBR process allows for very effective removal of both soluble and particulate biodegradable materials at higher loading rates. Thus increased sludge retention times, usually exceeding 15 days, ensure complete nitrification even in extremely cold weather. The cost of building and operating an MBR is often higher than conventional methods of sewage treatment. Membrane filters can be blinded with grease or abraded by suspended grit and lack a clarifier's flexibility to pass peak flows. The technology has become increasingly popular for reliably pretreated waste streams and has gained wider acceptance where infiltration and inflow have been controlled, however, and the life-cycle costs have been steadily decreasing. The small footprint of MBR systems, and the high quality effluent produced, make them particularly useful for water reuse applications.[30] Secondary sedimentation[edit]

Secondary sedimentation tank at a rural treatment plant. The final step in the secondary treatment stage is to settle out the biological floc or filter material through a secondary clarifier and to produce sewage water containing low levels of organic material and suspended matter.

Tertiary treatment[edit]
The purpose of tertiary treatment is to provide a final treatment stage to further improve the effluent quality before it is discharged to the receiving environment (sea, river, lake, wet lands,ground, etc.). More than one tertiary treatment process may be used at any treatment plant. If disinfection is practiced, it is always the final process. It is also called "effluent polishing." Filtration[edit] Sand filtration removes much of the residual suspended matter.[21]:22–23 Filtration over activated carbon, also called carbon adsorption, removes residual toxins.[21]:19 Lagooning[edit]

A sewage treatment plant and lagoon in Everett, Washington, United States. Lagooning provides settlement and further biological improvement through storage in large manmade ponds or lagoons. These lagoons are highly aerobic and colonization by native macrophytes, especially reeds, is often encouraged. Small filter feeding invertebrates such as Daphnia and species of Rotifera greatly assist in treatment by removing fine particulates. Nutrient removal[edit] Wastewater may contain high levels of the nutrients nitrogen and phosphorus. Excessive release to the environment can lead to a build up of nutrients, called eutrophication, which can in turn encourage the overgrowth of weeds, algae, and cyanobacteria (blue-green algae). This may cause an algal bloom, a rapid growth in the population of algae. The algae numbers are unsustainable and eventually most of them die. The decomposition of the algae by bacteria uses up so much of the oxygen in the water that most or all of the animals die, which creates more organic matter for

the bacteria to decompose. In addition to causing deoxygenation, some algal species produce toxins that contaminate drinking water supplies. Different treatment processes are required to remove nitrogen and phosphorus.
Nitrogen removal[edit]

The removal of nitrogen is effected through the biological oxidation of nitrogen from ammonia to nitrate (nitrification), followed by denitrification, the reduction of nitrate to nitrogen gas. Nitrogen gas is released to the atmosphere and thus removed from the water. Nitrification itself is a two-step aerobic process, each step facilitated by a different type of bacteria. The oxidation of ammonia (NH3) to nitrite (NO2−) is most often facilitated by Nitrosomonas spp. ("nitroso" referring to the formation of a nitroso functional group). Nitrite oxidation to nitrate (NO3−), though traditionally believed to be facilitated by Nitrobacter spp. (nitro referring the formation of a nitro functional group), is now known to be facilitated in the environment almost exclusively by Nitrospira spp. Denitrification requires anoxic conditions to encourage the appropriate biological communities to form. It is facilitated by a wide diversity of bacteria. Sand filters, lagooning and reed beds can all be used to reduce nitrogen, but the activated sludge process (if designed well) can do the job the most easily.[21]:17–18 Since denitrification is the reduction of nitrate to dinitrogen gas, an electron donor is needed. This can be, depending on the wastewater, organic matter (from faeces), sulfide, or an added donor like methanol. The sludge in the anoxic tanks (denitrification tanks) must be mixed well (mixture of recirculated mixed liquor, return activated sludge [RAS], and raw influent) e.g. by using submersible mixers in order to achieve the desired denitrification. Sometimes the conversion of toxic ammonia to nitrate alone is referred to as tertiary treatment. Many sewage treatment plants use centrifugal pumps to transfer the nitrified mixed liquor from the aeration zone to the anoxic zone for denitrification. These pumps are often referred to as Internal Mixed Liquor Recycle (IMLR) pumps. The bacteria Brocadia anammoxidans, is being researched for it's potential in sewage treatment. It can remove nitrogen from waste water.[31] In addition the bacteria can perform the anaerobic oxidation of ammonium and can produce the rocket fuel hydrazine from waste water.[32][33]
Phosphorus removal[edit]

Each person excretes between 200 and 1000 grams of phosphorus annually. Studies of United States sewage in the late 1960s estimated mean per capita contributions of 500 grams in urine and feces, 1000 grams in synthetic detergents, and lesser variable amounts used as corrosion and scale control chemicals in water supplies.[34] Source control via alternative detergent formulations has subsequently reduced the largest contribution, but the content of urine and feces will remain unchanged. Phosphorus removal is important as it is a limiting nutrient for algae growth in many fresh water systems. (For a description of the negative effects of algae, see Nutrient removal). It is also particularly important for water reuse systems where high

phosphorus concentrations may lead to fouling of downstream equipment such as reverse osmosis. Phosphorus can be removed biologically in a process called enhanced biological phosphorus removal. In this process, specific bacteria, called polyphosphate-accumulating organisms (PAOs), are selectively enriched and accumulate large quantities of phosphorus within their cells (up to 20 percent of their mass). When the biomass enriched in these bacteria is separated from the treated water, these biosolids have a high fertilizer value. Phosphorus removal can also be achieved by chemical precipitation, usually with salts of iron (e.g. ferric chloride), aluminum (e.g. alum), or lime.[21]:18 This may lead to excessive sludge production as hydroxides precipitates and the added chemicals can be expensive. Chemical phosphorus removal requires significantly smaller equipment footprint than biological removal, is easier to operate and is often more reliable than biological phosphorus removal.[citation needed] Another method for phosphorus removal is to use granular laterite. Once removed, phosphorus, in the form of a phosphate-rich sludge, may be stored in a land fill or resold for use in fertilizer

As mentioned earlier, the second commonly used biological waste treatment process is the trickling filter method. It has good adaptability to handle peak shock loads and the ability to function satisfactory after a short period of time. However, like all biological units, trickling filters are affected by temperature; therefore, cold weather slows down biological activity in the filter. Milk processing, paper mill and pharmaceutical wastes are among those treated by trickling filters. Conventional trickling filters normally consist of a rock bed, 1 to 3 meters in depth, with enough opening between rocks to allow air to circulate easily. The influent is sprinkled over the packing which is coated with a biological slime. As the liquid trickles over the packing, oxygen and the dissolved organic matter

diffuse into the film to be metabolized by the microorganisms in the slime layer. End products such as CO2, NO3 etc., diffuse back, out of the film and appear in the filter effluent. As the microorganisms utilize the organic matter, the thickness of the slime layer or biofilm increase. Typical film thicknesses range from 100 micrometer to 2 millimeter. If the biofilm thickness is large enough, all of the oxygen may be depleted at some point in the film before the solid surface reached. This creates anaerobic conditions at the base of the film. As a result microorganisms near the support media enter into an endogenous decay and loose their ability to cling to the solid media, and the film gets detached from the surface. This process is known as sloughing. A settling tank following the tricking filter removes the detached bacterial film and some suspended matter. A portion of the clarified wastewater is recalculated to the top of the trickling filter, usually to dilute the high strength influent waste water and to provide even distribution of waste water over the packing material thereby increasing the contact efficiency. Conventional rock filters have been designed based on hydraulic and the organic loading, and classified as ―standard or low rate‖ or ―high rate ―trickling filter. Low rate filters have low hydraulic and organic loadings, while these are significantly higher for high rate filters. Low rate filters are suitable for treating weak waste water whereas high rate systems are used for partial or `roughing` treatment of wastes before the waste is sent for further treatment. The low rate filters are usually single stage rock media units but the high rate filters may be single stage or two stage system. The two stage filters must employ recirculation to achieve good effluent quantity.

Sludge Treatment and Disposal
Handling and disposal of sludge from biological wastewater treatment plants is an important problem and represents about half the cost of most sewage treatment plants. The concentration of solids in the primary sewage is about 5 percent the activated sludge contains less than 1 percent solids; and the sludge from trickling filters has about 2 percent solids. This means that the sludge is composed almost entirely of water and volume reduction is the key to economic disposal. In addition

to reducing its high water content, the sludge must be stabilized so that its biological activity and tendency towards putrefaction are reduced drastically. The common unit operation of sludge treatment and disposal involve concentration or thickening, digestion, conditioning, dewarting, oxidation and safe disposal.

The purpose of concentration or thickening is to remove water from the sludge and reduce its volume as much as possible so that the sludge can be handled more efficiently. The common method for thickening is gravity settling and flotation. In gravity thickeners the sludge is subjected to gentle agitation by means of a slow stirrer which enhances settling.in this manner the combined sludge from primary and secondary settlers can be thickened so as to contain 5 to 9 percent solids. Often the thickening of activated sludge is complicated by anaerobic action, particularly under warm condition when the bacteria in the sludge decompose organic matter and release gases. This also creates settling and odours problems. The sludge can also be thickened by air flotation, particularly the secondary sludge, which keeps the system aerobic. The flotation technique can concentrate the sludge to bring its solids content to 4 percent.

After concentration, the sludge is stabilized by digesting it under aerobic o anaerobic conditions. Anaerobic digestion is the most common method in which the organic content of the sludge disposes to give mainly methane and carbon dioxide and at the same time the bound water is released from the sludge. Properly digested sludge is back with a faint smell of tar, and is stable. In a typical sludge digester, shown in fig 1.1, raw sludge is fed into the active digestion zone and the gas lifts the sludge particles and other materials which from supernatant layer on the top of the digestion zone. The gas is collected the top and the digested sludge is withdrawn from the bottom. The normal detention period in standard digesters varies from 30 to 70 days depending upon the temperature conditions. Aerobic digestion is also used, and it may be considered similar to extended aeration. The sludge is aerated in a tank for about 20 days at ambient temperatures.

During the processes of bacterial cells are destroyed and substantial portion of the sludge is oxidized resulting in the reduction of the solid content by about 30 percent. Sometimes, shallow lagoons are employed as digesters. Large land areas are required for such lagoons and odour problems may occur frequently.

The sludge after stabilization may be conditioned to improve its dewarting characteristics. This is down by adding chemicals like iron salts, alum, lime and polyelectrolytes. These chemicals bind the sludge particles together and encourage the release of absorbed water. Physical conditioning methods such as heat treatment are becoming popular. The sludge is heated under pressure and after a period of time the gel structure of the sludge is breaks down so that the water is released. Heat treatment has the advantages of sterilizing the sludge; at the same time the sludge is partially oxidized and completely stabilized.

The thickened is departed for efficient handling and disposal. Dewarting is accomplished by mechanical method, the most common being centrifugation and filtration, which includes pressure filtration and vacuum filtration. In centrifugation, conditioned sludge is added to a rotating bowl that separates the sludge into a cake and a dilute stream. The solid cake is transported within the bowl and is removed by a screw conveyor at one end of the bowl; the liquid is removed at the opposite end. Centrifugation is a compact method which requires careful control of process variables. Filtration, using plate-and frame pressure filters or rotary drum vacuum filters, is widely used for dewarting digested sludge. In pressure filtration, the sludge is pumped slowly with increasing pressure into filter plates supporting a cloth, which returns the solids. It is a batch process, and after the dewarting period the plates are separated and the sludge cake is removed. Pressure filtration can produce a cake with a solid content of 25-50 percent. In contrast to pressure filtration, vacuum filtration is a continuous process where a rotating drum, which is coved with filter cloth, is partially submerged in the sludge. On applying vacuum

of 80-90 kpa inside the drum, the liquid is sucked into the drum. Vacuum filtration yields a dewarting sludge with a solid contain of about 25 percent. Drying beds are also commonly used for dewarting. The bed consists of a filtering medium on which the sludge is applied to a depth of up to 250mm, depending on the solids content. Dewarting takes place by a combination of drainage and evaporation. Removal of dried sludge I carried out mechanically. Another technique, heat drying may be utilized in application where the sludge is to be incinerated or when a saleable commodity can be produced. A major problem associated with this process is the control of gases and ash particles which may be generated in drying.

Before the final disposal, some sludge may be oxidized to reduce the organic content, with the consequent destruction of bacteria and a significant reduction in their volumes. Incineration and wet oxidation are the two common methods employed for sludge oxidation. Incineration is usually performed in a multiple hearth furnace, although fluidized bed or flash dryers may also use, in the multiple hearth furnace the sludge passes downwards through a series of hearth. Vaporization of moisture occurs in the upper hearths, followed by incineration in the lower ones. The combined efficiency of evaporation and incineration in multiple hearth furnaces is about 55 percent. The fluidized bed systems consist of a bed of fluidized air. When the sludge is introduced, the sludge particles are dried almost instantly as they are dispersed, and are oxidized. Wet oxidation is a process in which the sludge is ground, mixed with air in stoichiometric proportion, and then subjected to high temperature and pressure in a reactor (fig 1.1) which exits the reactor. Under the conditions of high temperature (2600c and more) and high pressure (8000-12000 kpa) there is no vaporization of the sludge liquid. Initially, the external heat is applied to start the oxidation of the organic matter in the sludge. The rate of oxidation increases until it reaches an equilibrium value. The products from the top of the reactor are passed through heat exchangers to recover heat which in turn is utilized by the incoming feed.

Ultimate Sludge Disposal

Several methods are employed for the ultimate disposal of sludge. Wet digested sludge may be sprayed onto cropland where it functions as a fertilizer. It may be lagooned; however, when the lagoons fill they must be abandoned. Dried sludge may be used as a landfill or a solid conditioner. Wet or partially departed sludge or ash from incineration may be transported from the shore to dumping grounds at sea.

The effluent from a typical secondary treatment plant still contains 20-40 mg/l suspended solids and 20-40 mg/l BOD, which may be objectionable in some streams. Suspended solids, in addition in contributing to BOD, may settle on the streams bed and inhibit certain forms of aquatic life. The BOD, if discharged into the stream with low flow, can cause damage to aquatic life by reducing the dissolved oxygen content. In addition, the secondary effluent contains significant amounts of plant nutrients and dissolved solids. If the wastewater is of industrial origin, it may also contain traces of organic chemicals, heavy metals and other contaminants. The recent trends towards the formulation of regulations for the discharge of specific compounds and the increased emphasis on recovery of valuables from industrial wastewater have created the need for treatment beyond the conventional secondary treatment sludge. Advanced treatment processes are expensive at the present level of the their development. Their need in a particular situation should, therefore. Be assessed in the light of the circumstance relevant to that situation. A wide variety of methods are used in advanced wastewater treatment to satisfy any of several specific goals, which include the removal of (1) suspended solids, (2) BOD, (3) plant nutrients (4) dissolved solids, (5) toxic substances. These method’s may be introduced at any stage of the total treatment process as in the case of industrial wastewater or may be used for complete removal of pollutants after then secondary treatment. In this section only a few representative methods are discussed to illustrate the problems and the potential solutions associated with advanced waste treatment.

9.4.1 Removal of suspended solids

Removal of suspended solids in the advance treatment implies the removal of those materials that have been carried over from a secondary settler. Of the several methods proposed, the two methods most commonly utilized in this application are micro straining, and chemicals coagulation followed by settling and mixed –media filtration.

Microstraining utilizes a rotating drum type filter to screen suspended solids. The filtering media consist of a finely woven stainless steel fabric with a mesh size of 23 to 35 microns. The fabric is mounted on the periphery of the drum and water is allowed to pass from inside to the outside as shown in fig. Back washing is accomplished by high pressure water jets placed at the highest point of the drum. The solids which are retained on the fabric are washed into a trough, which recycles the solids to the sedimentation tank. Micro strainers can handle high flow rates of influent but cannot handle fluctuations in solids content and shocks loads. Furthermore, the removal of suspended solids depends on their filterability characteristics; colloidal suspensions usually pass through the unit unhindered.

Waste water sampling and analysis from an important part of any water pollution control program because the identification of the pollutants and pinpointing their concentration are vital to the selection of a proper treatment process. The sampling method used should be one that gives a representative picture of the quality of the waste stream; otherwise, the time and effort involved in the analysis will be completely wasted.

Generally, two types of samples can be taken: (1) the grab sample, and (2) the composite sample. The grab sample shows only the prevailing condition at the time of sampling and cannot represent average conditions. Hence, it should not be used as a basis of treatment. However, grab samples are useful in determining the effects of extreme conditions of the waste water flow are intermittent. Composite samples provide more meaningful data when the composition of the waste varies with either flow. A composite sample can be obtained by collecting individual samples at frequent intervals and mixing them together.

Composite samples can be collected either manually or with automatic samplers on the basis of flow or time. When wastewater flow and composition are relatively uniform, grab samples of a fixed volume can be manually taken at given time intervals and composite samples obtained. If the flow rate varies, the volume of the grab sample collected is proportional to the flow. Usually, the flow rate of waste water at sampling point is determined with a flow meter each time a portion of the composite sample is determine with a flow meter each time a portion of the composite sample is collected. Manual sampling is particularly advantageous when visible changes such as colour variation, suspended solids, floating oil, etc., occur in the waste stream. When such changes do take place, operating personnel can collect grab samples and analyze the effect of these changes on the waste stream. Automatic device can be used to obtained composite samples, particularly when there is need to collect waste water samples at regular, frequent intervals throughout the day. Some of these devices continuously collect one large composite sample, while other collect small samples in individual containers. In automatic devices the samples pickup line is generally placed below the surface of the water to obtained as representative a sample as possible. Any container which might form a stratified layer in the waste stream is completely missed by such devices. Depending on the type of analysis to be performed, a minimum volume of 1 to 2 liters is collected in grab sampling, while the total composite volume is between 2 and 4 liters. However, it is better to obtain a sample that is too large rather than one that is too small as the analyst may wish to run additional tests or check the reliability of his earlier results. The time allowed between collections and analysis of a sample depends on the nature of the sample, the type of analysis to be made and the conditions of storage. This ensures that the characteristics to be analyzed are not changed between collection and analysis. Table 1.1 Preservation of waste water samples. Parameter Preservation method Maximum holding period

Refrigeration at 40C 6hours 2ml H2SO4/l 7 days 0 Refrigeration at 4 C 24 hours 24 hours pH of the sample raised to 10 1.0 g CuSO4/l+H3PO4 to lower pH 24 hours to less than 4; refrigeration at 40C Odours Refrigeration at 40C 7 days Nitrogen Ad 40 mg, HgCL2/l 7 days Sulphide 2 ml zinc acetate/l 7 days The sample from industrial waste waters should be representative of the industry. For example, in case there are great variations in flow and characteristic, the sampling frequency should be so adjusted as to obtain a representative sample. Often, industries find it desirable to continuously monitor water quality of rivers and lakes which are used as sources for water supply or for disposal of waste effluents. In the latter case, monitoring is done so that the quality of the discharge can be proportioned according to the assimilative capacity of the water body and for maintaining its quality standards. Several municipalities also use continuous monitoring systems for their treatment facilities. Many continuous monitors are so sophisticated that not only the analyses can be performed automatically and continuously, but also the analytical data can be processed and translated by computer for further use and application. BOD COD Colour Cyanide Phenol

Various methods are available for analyzing waste waters. These methods largely involve standardized procedures that are often complicated and time consuming. Sometime simpler rapid methods can be substituted with little, if any, loss in either precision or accuracy. Test procedures often followed in practice are illustrated here briefly for specific constituents.

Dissolved Oxygen (DO)
Surface waters of good quality should be saturated with dissolved oxygen. A fall in DO level in water level is one of the first indications that a water body is polluted by organic matter. The DO level in depends on physical, chemical and biochemical

activities prevailing in the water body. It is usually determine by Winker`s method, which is based on the reaction of dissolved oxygen with manganese ions to form a precipitate of manganese dioxide. Mn2++O2 …………… (1)

The manganese dioxide is then treated with iodine ions where iodine is liberated in an amount chemically equivalent to the original dissolved oxygen. MnO2+2I-+4H+=Mn2++I2+2H2O ………... (2) The liberated iodine is determined, usually by titrating it with sodium thiosulphate. 2S2O32-+I2=S4O62…..……. (3) +2I-

The presence of nitrates of iron in +2 oxidation states in the solution can interfere with the original DO determination. To eliminate these interferences, several modifications of the basic method have been proposed. These include the use of azide, permagnate and the alum to remove interferences due to nitrate, ferrous iron and suspended solids, respectively. The interference problems can also be overcome by using DO analyzers with membrane electrodes. The plastic membrane has the selective ability of allowing oxygen to diffuse through but preventing interfering irons, such as nitrates. The dissolved oxygen, after diffusing through membrane, react with the metal electrode and causes a cell current which is directly proportional to the oxygen concentration in the sample. The analyzer is calibrated by measuring the DO of a sample of known oxygen content, which is determined by the Winker`s method.

Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD)
BOD- The quantity of oxygen required by the microorganisms for the stabilization of the biological decomposable organic matter. BOD tests measure the molecular

oxygen utilized during specified incubation duration for the biochemical degradation of organic material and the oxygen used to oxidize inorganic material such as ferrous iron and sulfids. The most common BID test consist of a 5 days period in which a sample is placed in an airtight bottle under controlled condition temperature (200C), keeping any light from penetrating the sample to prevent photosynthesis. The dissolved oxygen (DO) in the sample is measured before and after the 5 day incubation period, and BOD can be considered a more ―natural‖ test in determining the required to oxidize organic matter. 2.4. DETERMINATION OF BIOCHEMICAL OXYGEN DEMAND (BOD) 2.4.1. PRINCIPLE: The BOD test measure the biodegradable organic carbon, under certain condition the oxidisablenitrogen present in the waste water .The BOD by the definition is the quantity of oxygenrequired by the microorganism for the stabilization of the biologically decomposable organicmatter in the aerobic condition in waste water at specific condition. 2.4.2. APPARATUS REQUIRED : BOD incubator. BOD bottles with stopcock (300 ml capacity)Burette, 50 ml. Pipette, 1ml,5 ml,10 ml.Measuring cylinder, 1000 ml, 250 ml, 100 ml, 50 ml. Aeration bottle, pumpsDistilled water with wash bottle. 2.4.3. REAGENTS REQUIRED : 1. Phosphate buffer:-Dissolve 8.5 g KH2PO4, 21.75 g K2HPO4, 33.4 Na2HPO4.7H2O and 2. 78 NH4Cl in distilled water and dilute 1 lit .Adjust pH to 7-2. 2. Magnesium Sulphate: Dissolve 82.5 g MgSO4.7H2O and dilute to 1 ltr. 3. Calcium Chloride. Dissolve 27.5 g anhydrous CaCl2 and dilute to 1 ltr. 4. Ferrichloride: Dissolve 0.25 g FeCl3.6H2O and dilute to 1 ltr.

5. Stock Sodium thiosulphate (0.1 N) dissolve 24.82 g of Na2S2O3.5H2O in freshly boiledcooled distilled water and dilute to 1000 ml. Preserve it by adding 5 ml chloroform perLiter. 6. Standard sodium thiosulphate (0.025N) dilute 250 ml stock Na2S2O3 solution to 1000 mlwith freshly boiled and cooled distilled water . preserve by adding 5 ml chloroform perliter .This solution has to be standardized against standard dichromate solution for eachset of titration. 7. Alkaline iodide azide reagent:-Dissolve 500 g NaOH and 150 g KI. Add 10 g NaN3dissolved in 40 ml distilled water ,dilute to 1000 ml. 8. Manganous sulphate solution : Dissolve 480 g of Manganous Sulphatetetrahydrate,MnSO4.4H2O and dilute to 1000 ml .filter if necessary . 9. Conc . H2SO4 10. Starch indicator :-prepare paste or solution of 0.5 starch powder in distilled water .pourthis solution of 0.5 g starch in distilled water .pour this solution in 100 ml boiling water.Allow to boil for few minutes. Cool then use. preserve it with a pinch of mercury iodide. 2.4.4. PROCEDURE PREPARATION OF DILUTION WATER Aerate the required volume of distilled water in a container by bubbling compressed airfor 4-5 hour to attain dissolved oxygen saturation. Try to maintain the temperature clossto the experimental temp. Add 1 ml each of phosphate buffer, magnesium sulphate, calcium chloride and ferricchloride solution for each liter of dilution water .mix well.In the case of waste which are not expected to have sufficient bacterial population and tothe dilution water. Generally 2 ml settle sewage is considered sufficient for 1000 ml ofdilution water. DILUTION OF SAMPLE 1. Neutralise the sample to pH around 7.0 if is highly alkaline or acidic.

2. The sample is made free from residual chlorine by using Na2S2O3 solution as follows.Take 50 ml of sample and acidic with adding 10 ml 1:1 H2SO4.Add about 1 g of KI.Titrate against 0.025 N Na2S2O3 using starch as indicator. Calculate the volume ofNa2S2O3 required for ml of sample and add accordingly, to the sample to be tested forBOD .3. Sample having high DO content i.e. 9 mg/l due to either algal growth or some otherreason, reduce the DO content by agitating the sample. 4. Make several dilution of the prepared sample so as to obtain 50% depletion of DO indilution water but not less than 2 mg and the residue oxygen after 5 day or 3 day ofincubation should not be less than 1 mg/l. 5. Siphone out seeded diluted water into a measuring cylinder half of required volume. Addthe required quantity of sample carefully. Make up to the desired volume with seededdilution water . mix it carefully so that with seeded dilution water. Mix it carefully so thatno air bubbles arise during mixing. 6. Prepare 2 to 3 dilution sample of each original sample and transfer each set of dilutionsample to two number BOD bottle. Out of these samples one is kept for incubation andDO measured after incubation period. The other one is used for the measuring of DOimmediately.

Chemical oxygen test determine the oxygen required for chemical oxidation of organic component as well as the number of inorganic component with the help of strong oxidant i.e. potassium dichromate. In the COD test, the oxidizing bacteria of the BOD test is replaced by a strong oxidizing agent under acidic condition. A sample of the waste water containing organic material is mixed with an excess of potassium dichromate and sulphuric acid and the mixture is heated under total reflux conditions for a periode of 2 hours. During digestion, the chemically oxidizable organic material reduces a

stichiometrically equivalent amount of dichromate; the remaining dichromate is titrated with standred ferrous ammonium sulphate solution. The amount of potassium dichromate reduced gives a measure of the amount of oxidizable organic material. Dichromate has advantages over other oxidants in oxidizing power and applicability to a wide variety of sample.

The purpose of disinfection in the treatment of waste water is to substantially reduce the number of microorganisms in the water to be discharged back into the environment for the later use of drinking, bathing, irrigation, etc. The effectiveness of disinfection depends on the quality of the water being treated (e.g., cloudiness, pH, etc.), the type of disinfection being used, the disinfectant dosage (concentration and time), and other environmental variables. Cloudy water will be treated less successfully, since solid matter can shield organisms, especially from ultraviolet light or if contact times are low. Generally, short contact times, low doses and high flows all militate against effective disinfection. Common methods of disinfection include ozone, chlorine, ultraviolet light, or sodium hypochlorite.[21]:16 Chloramine, which is used for drinking water, is not used in the treatment of waste water because of its persistence. After multiple steps of disinfection, the treated water is ready to be released back into the water cycle by means of the nearest body of water or agriculture. Afterwards, the water can be transferred to reserves for everyday human uses. Chlorination remains the most common form of waste water disinfection in North America due to its low cost and long-term history of effectiveness. One disadvantage is that chlorination of residual organic material can generate chlorinated-organic compounds that may be carcinogenic or harmful to the environment. Residual chlorine or chloramines may also be capable of chlorinating organic material in the natural aquatic environment. Further, because residual chlorine is toxic to aquatic species, the treated effluent must also be chemically dechlorinated, adding to the complexity and cost of treatment. Ultraviolet (UV) light can be used instead of chlorine, iodine, or other chemicals. Because no chemicals are used, the treated water has no adverse effect on organisms that later consume it, as may be the case with other methods. UV radiation causes damage to the genetic structure of bacteria, viruses, and other pathogens, making them incapable of reproduction. The key disadvantages of UV disinfection are the need for frequent lamp maintenance and replacement and the need for a highly treated effluent to ensure that the target microorganisms are not shielded from the UV radiation (i.e., any solids present in the treated effluent may protect microorganisms from the UV light). In the United Kingdom, UV light is becoming the most common means of disinfection because of the concerns about the impacts of chlorine in chlorinating residual organics in the wastewater and in chlorinating organics in the receiving water. Some sewage treatment systems in Canada and the US also use UV light for their effluent water disinfection.[35][36]

Ozone (O3) is generated by passing oxygen (O2) through a high voltage potential resulting in a third oxygen atom becoming attached and forming O3. Ozone is very unstable and reactive and oxidizes most organic material it comes in contact with, thereby destroying many pathogenic microorganisms. Ozone is considered to be safer than chlorine because, unlike chlorine which has to be stored on site (highly poisonous in the event of an accidental release), ozone is generated onsite as needed. Ozonation also produces fewer disinfection by-products than chlorination. A disadvantage of ozone disinfection is the high cost of the ozone generation equipment and the requirements for special operators.

Odor control[edit]
Odors emitted by sewage treatment are typically an indication of an anaerobic or "septic" condition.[37] Early stages of processing will tend to produce foul smelling gases, with hydrogen sulfide being most common in generating complaints. Large process plants in urban areas will often treat the odors with carbon reactors, a contact media with bio-slimes, small doses of chlorine, or circulating fluids to biologically capture and metabolize the noxious gases.[38] Other methods of odor control exist, including addition of iron salts, hydrogen peroxide, calcium nitrate, etc. to manage hydrogen sulfide levels. High-density solids pumps are suitable for reducing odors by conveying sludge through hermetic closed pipework.

Package plants and batch reactors[edit]
To use less space, treat difficult waste and intermittent flows, a number of designs of hybrid treatment plants have been produced. Such plants often combine at least two stages of the three main treatment stages into one combined stage. In the UK, where a large number of wastewater treatment plants serve small populations, package plants are a viable alternative to building a large structure for each process stage. In the US, package plants are typically used in rural areas, highway rest stops and trailer parks.[39] One type of system that combines secondary treatment and settlement is the cyclic activated sludge (CASSBR). Typically, activated sludge is mixed with raw incoming sewage, and then mixed and aerated. The settled sludge is run off and re-aerated before a proportion is returned to the headworks.[40] SBR plants are now being deployed in many parts of the world. The disadvantage of the CASSBR process is that it requires a precise control of timing, mixing and aeration. This precision is typically achieved with computer controls linked to sensors. Such a complex, fragile system is unsuited to places where controls may be unreliable, poorly maintained, or where the power supply may be intermittent. Extended aeration package plants use separate basins for aeration and settling, and are somewhat larger than SBR plants with reduced timing sensitivity.[41] Package plants may be referred to as high charged or low charged. This refers to the way the biological load is processed. In high charged systems, the biological stage is presented with a high organic load and the combined floc and organic material is then oxygenated for a few hours

before being charged again with a new load. In the low charged system the biological stage contains a low organic load and is combined with flocculate for longer times.

Sludge treatment and disposal[edit]
Main article: Sewage sludge treatment The sludges accumulated in a wastewater treatment process must be treated and disposed of in a safe and effective manner. The purpose of digestion is to reduce the amount of organic matter and the number of disease-causing microorganisms present in the solids. The most common treatment options include anaerobic digestion, aerobic digestion, and composting. Incineration is also used, albeit to a much lesser degree.[21]:19–21 Sludge treatment depends on the amount of solids generated and other site-specific conditions. Composting is most often applied to small-scale plants with aerobic digestion for mid sized operations, and anaerobic digestion for the larger-scale operations. The sludge is sometimes passed through a so-called pre-thickener which de-waters the sludge. Types of pre-thickeners include centrifugal sludge thickeners[42] rotary drum sludge thickeners and belt filter presses.[43][44]

Anaerobic digestion[edit]
Main article: Anaerobic digestion Anaerobic digestion is a bacterial process that is carried out in the absence of oxygen. The process can either be thermophilic digestion, in which sludge is fermented in tanks at a temperature of 55 °C, or mesophilic, at a temperature of around 36 °C. Though allowing shorter retention time (and thus smaller tanks), thermophilic digestion is more expensive in terms of energy consumption for heating the sludge. Anaerobic digestion is the most common (mesophilic) treatment of domestic sewage in septic tanks, which normally retain the sewage from one day to two days, reducing the biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) by about 35 to 40 percent. This reduction can be increased with a combination of anaerobic and aerobic treatment by installing Aerobic Treatment Units (ATUs) in the septic tank. Mesophilic anaerobic digestion (MAD) is also a common method for treating sludge produced at sewage treatment plants. The sludge is fed into large tanks and held for a minimum of 12 days to allow the digestion process to perform the four stages necessary to digest the sludge. These are hydrolysis, acidogenesis, acetogenesis and methanogenesis. In this process the complex proteins and sugars are broken down to form more simple compounds such as water, carbon dioxide and methane.[45] One major feature of anaerobic digestion is the production of biogas (with the most useful component being methane), which can be used in generators for electricity production and/or in

boilers for heating purposes. Many larger sites utilize the biogas for combined heat and power, using the cooling water from the generators to maintain the temperature of the digestion plant at the required 35 ± 3 °C.

Aerobic digestion[edit]
Aerobic digestion (a subset of the activated sludge process) is a bacterial process occurring in the presence of oxygen. Under aerobic conditions, bacteria rapidly consume organic matter and convert it into carbon dioxide. The operating costs used to be characteristically much greater for aerobic digestion because of the energy used by the blowers, pumps and motors needed to add oxygen to the process. However, recent technological advances include non-electric aerated filter systems that use natural air currents for the aeration instead of electrically operated machinery. Aerobic digestion can also be achieved by using diffuser systems or jet aerators to oxidize the sludge. Fine bubble diffusers are typically the more cost-efficient diffusion method, however, plugging is typically a problem due to sediment settling into the smaller air holes. Coarse bubble diffusers are more commonly used in activated sludge tanks (generally a side process in waste water management) or in the flocculation stages. A key component for selecting diffuser type is to ensure it will produce the required oxygen transfer rate.

Composting is also an aerobic process that involves mixing the sludge with sources of carbon such as sawdust, straw or wood chips. In the presence of oxygen, bacteria digest both the wastewater solids and the added carbon source and, in doing so, produce a large amount of heat.[21]:20

Incineration of sludge is less common because of air emissions concerns and the supplemental fuel (typically natural gases or fuel oil) required to burn the low calorific value sludge and vaporize residual water. Stepped multiple hearth incinerators with high residence time and fluidized bed incinerators are the most common systems used to combust wastewater sludge. Cofiring in municipal waste-to-energy plants is occasionally done, this option being less expensive assuming the facilities already exist for solid waste and there is no need for auxiliary fuel.[21]:20–21

Sludge disposal[edit]
When a liquid sludge is produced, further treatment may be required to make it suitable for final disposal. Typically, sludges are thickened (dewatered) to reduce the volumes transported off-site for disposal. There is no process which completely eliminates the need to dispose of biosolids. There is, however, an additional step some cities are taking to superheat sludge and convert it into small pelletized granules that are high in nitrogen and other organic materials. In New York City, for example, several sewage treatment plants have dewatering facilities that use large centrifuges

along with the addition of chemicals such as polymer to further remove liquid from the sludge. The removed fluid, called "centrate," is typically reintroduced into the wastewater process. The product which is left is called "cake," and that is picked up by companies which turn it into fertilizer pellets. This product is then sold to local farmers and turf farms as a soil amendment or fertilizer, reducing the amount of space required to dispose of sludge in landfills. Much sludge originating from commercial or industrial areas is contaminated with toxic materials that are released into the sewers from the industrial processes.[46] Elevated concentrations of such materials may make the sludge unsuitable for agricultural use and it may then have to be incinerated or disposed of to landfill.

Treatment in the receiving environment[edit]

The outlet of the Karlsruhe sewage treatment plant flows into the Alb. Many processes in a wastewater treatment plant are designed to mimic the natural treatment processes that occur in the environment, whether that environment is a natural water body or the ground. If not overloaded, bacteria in the environment will consume organic contaminants, although this will reduce the levels of oxygen in the water and may significantly change the overall ecology of the receiving water. Native bacterial populations feed on the organic contaminants, and the numbers of disease-causing microorganisms are reduced by natural environmental conditions such as predation or exposure to ultraviolet radiation. Consequently, in cases where the receiving environment provides a high level of dilution, a high degree of wastewater treatment may not be required. However, recent evidence has demonstrated that very low levels of specific contaminants in wastewater, including hormones (from animal husbandry and residue from human hormonal contraception methods) and synthetic materials such as phthalates that mimic hormones in their action, can have an unpredictable adverse impact on the natural biota and potentially on humans if the water is re-used for drinking water.[47][48][49] In the US and EU, uncontrolled discharges of wastewater to the environment are not permitted under law, and strict water quality requirements are to be met, as clean drinking water is essential. (For requirements in the US, see Clean Water Act.) A significant threat in the coming decades will be the increasing uncontrolled discharges of wastewater within rapidly developing countries.

Effects on biology[edit]
Sewage treatment plants can have multiple effects on nutrient levels in the water that the treated sewage flows into. These effects on nutrients can have large effects on the biological life in the

water in contact with the effluent. Stabilization ponds (or treatment ponds) can include any of the following:

Oxidation ponds, which are aerobic bodies of water usually 1–2 meters in depth that receive effluent from sedimentation tanks or other forms of primary treatment.

Dominated by algae

Polishing ponds are similar to oxidation ponds but receive effluent from an oxidation pond or from a plant with an extended mechanical treatment.

Dominated by zooplankton

Facultative lagoons, raw sewage lagoons, or sewage lagoons are ponds where sewage is added with no primary treatment other than coarse screening. These ponds provide effective treatment when the surface remains aerobic; although anaerobic conditions may develop near the layer of settled sludge on the bottom of the pond.[17]:552–554 Anaerobic lagoons are heavily loaded ponds.

Dominated by bacteria

Sludge lagoons are aerobic ponds, usually 2 to 5 meters in depth, that receive anaerobically digested primary sludge, or activated secondary sludge under water.

Upper layers are dominated by algae [50]

Phosphorus limitation is a possible result from sewage treatment and results in flagellatedominated plankton, particularly in summer and fall.[51] At the same time a different study found high nutrient concentrations linked to sewage effluents. High nutrient concentration leads to high chlorophyll a concentrations, which is a proxy for primary production in marine environments. High primary production means high phytoplankton populations and most likely high zooplankton populations because zooplankton feed on phytoplankton. However, effluent released into marine systems also leads to greater population instability.[52] A study carried out in Britain found that the quality of effluent affected the planktonic life in the water in direct contact with the wastewater effluent. Turbid, low-quality effluents either did not contain ciliated protozoa or contained only a few species in small numbers. On the other hand, high-quality effluents contained a wide variety of ciliated protozoa in large numbers. Because of these findings, it seems unlikely that any particular component of the industrial effluent has, by itself, any harmful effects on the protozoan populations of activated sludge plants.[53] The planktonic trends of high populations close to input of treated sewage is contrasted by the bacterial trend. In a study of Aeromonas spp. in increasing distance from a wastewater source, greater change in seasonal cycles was found the furthest from the effluent. This trend is so strong

that the furthest location studied actually had an inversion of the Aeromonas spp. cycle in comparison to that of fecal coliforms. Since there is a main pattern in the cycles that occurred simultaneously at all stations it indicates seasonal factors (temperature, solar radiation, phytoplankton) control of the bacterial population. The effluent dominant species changes from Aeromonas caviae in winter to Aeromonas sobria in the spring and fall while the inflow dominant species is Aeromonas caviae, which is constant throughout the seasons.[54]

Sewage treatment in developing countries[edit]
Few reliable figures exist on the share of the wastewater collected in sewers that is being treated in the world. In many developing countries the bulk of domestic and industrial wastewater is discharged without any treatment or after primary treatment only. In Latin America about 15 percent of collected wastewater passes through treatment plants (with varying levels of actual treatment). In Venezuela, a below average country in South America with respect to wastewater treatment, 97 percent of the country’s sewage is discharged raw into the environment.[55] In a relatively developed Middle Eastern country such as Iran, the majority of Tehran's population has totally untreated sewage injected to the city’s groundwater.[56] However, the construction of major parts of the sewage system, collection and treatment, in Tehran is almost complete, and under development, due to be fully completed by the end of 2012. In Isfahan, Iran's third largest city, sewage treatment was started more than 100 years ago. In Israel, about 50 percent of agricultural water usage (total use was 1 billion cubic metres in 2008) is provided through reclaimed sewer water. Future plans call for increased use of treated sewer water as well as more desalination plants.[57] Most of sub-Saharan Africa is without wastewater treatment.[citation needed]

1.5.1. Biodegradation
Biodegradation is a biological treatment method and is attractive due to the potential to almost degrade phenol and overcomes the disadvantages posed by other processes .It produces producing innocuous end products, reduced capital and operating costs, maintain phenol concentrations below the toxic limit.

• It is the most potential method to degrade phenol below the toxic limits • No harmful byproducts • Simple to install • Low capital and operating cost • Self regulating

Disadvantage: • Degradation mechanism hardly known • Difficult to control • Slow response time Features: • Removes hydrocarbons and BOD/COD in contaminated water through an attached growth biological treatment technology. • Uses oxygen transfer with a large protected biofilm attachment area to achieve high removal rates. • Incorporates neutrally-buoyant Media Pac. Benefits: • Increases the efficiency of the biological treatment process by increasing the amount of surface area. • Capable of treating a variety of flow rates and contaminants. • Minimal maintenance compared to other biological treatment systems. • The FBBR Media Pac incorporates high surface area and large void spaces that are aggressively sloughed to eliminate biofilm growth and fouling.

The most efficient Pseudomonas Putida is capable of using phenol as the sole source of carbon and energy for cell growth and metabolism degrade phenol via met pathway. That is the benzene ring of phenol is dehydroxylated to form catechol derivative and the ring is then opened throughmeta-oxidation. The final products are molecules that can enter the tricarboxylic acid cycle. The most common Bio-reactors are (1) Aerated lagoon, (2) Oxidation Ditch, (3) Activated sludge system, (4) Anaerobic digestion system, (5) Oxidation pond, (6) Trickling filters, (7)Rotating discs biological reactors, (8) Basket type bioreactors, (9) Hollow fiber membrane bioreactor, and (10) Fluidized bed bioreactors [1,2,4].Aerobic processes have several advantages, including a large range of wastewater that can be treated, high degree of BOD removal, acceptability of toxic conditions, simultaneous nitrogen and phosphorous removal, better chlorinated organic contaminants degradation, low solids retention time, and feasible small plants.

1.5.2. Aerobic Degradation The aerobic biodegradation process is represented by the following equation CxHy + O2 +(microorganisms / nutrient) ----------→ H2O + CO2 + biomass. Aerobic treatment of waste is thedegradation and purification process in which bacteria that thrive in oxygen-rich environmentsbreak down and digest the waste. The mixed aerobic microbial consortium uses the organiccarbon present in the effluent as their carbon and energy source. The complex organics finallyget converted to microbial biomass (sludge) and carbon dioxide. 1.5.3. Digestion Pathway During this oxidation process, contaminants and pollutants are broken down into end productssuch as carbon dioxide, water, nitrates, sulphates and biomass (microorganisms). In theconventional aerobic system, the substrate is used as a source of carbon and energy. It serves as an electron donor, resulting in bacterial growth. The extent of degradation iscorrelated with the rate of oxygen consumption in the same substrate. Two enzymes primarilyinvolved in the process are di and mono-oxygenases. The latter enzyme can act both aromaticand aliphatic compounds, while the former can act only on aromatic compounds. Another classof enzymes involved in aerobic condition is peroxidases, which are receiving attention recentlyfor their ability to degrade lignin. 1.5.4. Characteristics of aerobic bioreactors A large range of waste water can be treated. Purification and resettling required. Can handle lowto high CODs. Suitable for both cold and warm effluent. Acceptable to toxic presence of toxicmaterials to certain extent. Neutralization of alkaline wastewater required. Operated incontinuous mode with less stability and control. High oxygen requirement. Degree of BODremoval is also high. Simultaneous nitrogen and phosphorous(nutrients) removal is possible.Posses high degradation rate to Chlorinated organic contaminants. When carrier material is usedleads to clogging danger. Volumetric loading rates and solids retention time is low. Maintenancerequired for aeration systems, sludge treatment. Has odour problems if open systems used.Sludge production is high. Investment cost low to medium. High costs for aeration (power),nutrients, sludge disposal. Small plants are possible. Aerobic treatment produces greater amount of CO2 which is let out in the environment toincrease the atmospheric green house gas (GHG) content. For aerobic treatment the total, theTotal output is 2.4 kg CO2/ kg COD ( 1.4 kg CO2/ kg COD due to oxidation of hydrocarbons

andrest due to degradation of the pollutants in the wastewater). CIS 1, 2 Dichloroethene (DCE) andvinyl chloride concentrations reduced by an average of 80% in aerobic bioreactor. From thestudy of the effect of toxic chemicals (inhibitory compounds), namely CrCl3, FeCl3, NaBO3,NaCl, NaNO2, NaNO3, and CHCl3, it is found that the oxygen utilization reduced by the biomassduring the metabolism in the aerobic bioreactors. In dye wastewater treatment azo dyes arecleaved to aromatic amines. These amines mineralized by means of aerobic treatment bynonspecific enzymes through hydroxylation and ring opening giving rise to CO2, H2O and NH3under aerobic conditions. For treatment of tannery water aerobic bioreactors superior in terms ofloading and presence of toxic chemicals and sludge produced contaminated only to a smallfraction with chromium. Studies carried out with wastewater from a poultry slaughterhouseshowed that COD removal ratio was generally higher in the aerobic bioreactor. Successfullytreats the Ploychlorinated Dibenzo Dioxin (PCDD) and Ploychlorinated Dibenzofuran (PCDF).A large number microorganisms that includes Pseudomonas sp., degrade alkanes; mono and polyaromatics, benzene, toluene etc. a part of petroleum hydrocarbon pollution.The drawbacks are huge amounts of sludge and carbon dioxide production, less stability andcontrol of process, maintenance of aeration and sludge disposal systems, high costs for aerationand sludge disposal, clogging danger when carrer material is used and odour problem in opensystem. 1.5.5. Advancement of Aerobic Bioreactors in Wastewater Treatment Over the conventional type free-culture bio-reactors the immobilization cell bioreactors likeCSTR, PFR, fluidized bed, air lift type, etc. has the following advantages like continuous reactoroperation at any desired liquid throughput without risk of cell washout, protection of cells fromtoxic substrates, higher growth rate gives high concentration of cells in the reactor, easy celltreatedwater separation, enhanced gasliquid mass transfer rate, plug flow operation bymaintaining the immobilized cells as a stationary phase [1,2,8-10,14,15,17]. The fluidized bedbioreactors are superior in performance due to immobilization of cells on solid particles reducethe time of treatment, volume of reactor is extrmely small, lack of clogging of bio-mass andremoval of phenol even at lower concentrations [1,2,4-6,9-19]. 1.5.6. Fluidized Bed Bioreactor Fluidized-bed bioreactors (FBR) have been receiving considerable interest in wastewatertreatment. A fluidizedbed bioreactor consists of microorganism coated particles suspended inwastewater which is sufficiently aerated to keep the gas, liquid and the solid particles thoroughlymixed. An FBB, on the other hand, is capable of achieving treatment in low retention timebecause of the high biomass concentrations that can be achieved .A bioreactor has beensuccessfully applied to an aerobic biological treatment of industrial and domestic wastewaters.Biological fixed films exhibit properties that make them preferable to suspendedcell systems fora wide variety of wastewater treatment applications. These properties include

high cellconcentrations, enhanced cell retention due to cell immobilisation and an increased resistance tothe detriment effects of toxic shock loadings. Fig .2 Schematic Diagram of Fluidized Bed 1.5.7. Fluidized bed bioreactor for wastewater treatment This reactor had been successfully applied in the treatment of several kinds of wastewater suchas ammonia-nitrogen containing wastewater, photographic processing wastewater, phenolicwaste water, coke oven wastewater, and other domestic and industrial wastes. Also usedsuccessfully for the reductive biotransformation of mercuric ions to elemental mercury present inthe effluents from industrial amalgam process, combustors and power stations [1,2,4-6,9,11-15,18,19].A fluidized bed bioreactor (FBB) is capable of achieving treatment in low retention time becauseof the high biomass concentration. FBB offers distinct mechanical advantages, which allowsmall and high surface area media to be used for biomass growth [1,2,9,13-15]. Fluidizationovercomes operating problems such as bed clogging and the high-pressure drop, which wouldoccur if small and high surface area media were employed in packed-bed operation. Rather thanclog with new biomass growth, the fluidized bed simply expands. Thus for a comparabletreatment efficiency, the required bioreactor volume is greatly reduced. A further advantage isthe possible elimination of the secondary clarifier, although this must be weighed against themedium-biomass separator [13,15].Conventional FBB are operated in two different ways. In a bioreactor with a heavy (matrixparticle density larger than that of liquid) biomass support (e.g. silica sand, coal), fluidization iscommonly conducted with an upward co current flow of gas and liquid through a bed ofparticles. Under fluidization conditions, the bed is fluidized with an upward flow of a liquidcounter to the net gravitational force of the particles. Once fluidized, each particle provides alarge surface area for biofilm formation and growth. The support media eventually becomecovered with biofilm and the vast available growth surface afforded by the media results in abiomass concentration approximately an order of magnitude greater than that maintained in asuspended growth system [13,15].A practical problem, which occurs in the operation of an FBB, is the excessive growth ofbiomass on support media. This can lead to the channeling of bioparticles in fluidized beds sincebiomass loading can increase to such extent that the bioparticles began to be carried over from abioreactor. The problem of over expansion of fluidized bed due to biomass growth has generallybeen solved by the removal of heavily biomassladen particles from bioreactor, followed by theaddition of biomass-free particles. However this solution complicates operation of a bioreactorand introduces the need for additional equipment external to the bioreactor, such as a vibratingscreen or an incinerator [1315].The degradation of phenolic type liquors, derived from coal processes, in a continuous stirredtankbioreactor (CSTB), packed-bed bioreactor (PBB) and FBB shown in [15]. The degradationrates of 0.087, 0.053 and 0.012 kg phenol/m3 were achieved in the FBB, PBB and CSTBrespectively.The nutrients for microbial growth are transported first from bulk phase to the surface of thebiofilm, and then transported to the inner regions of the biofilm via diffusion. The limiting masstransport rate controls the performance of the biofilm reactor [12,15]. From

literature it is seenthat the external resistance can be neglected in the case of a high fluidization flow rate [12]. In athree-phase fluidized bed bioreactor it is found reaction rate follows firstorder kinetics withrespect to oxygen and zero-order one with respect to phenol. For chemical and bio-chemicalprocess, where mass transfer is the rate-limiting step, it is important to know the gas hold-up asthis is related directly to mass transfer. The gas hold up at high pressures is always larger than that at low pressures, regardless of the liquid velocity and particle size in three-phase fluidization. 1.5.8. Activated sludge Activated sludge is a process dealing with the treatment of sewage and industrial wastewaters. Atmospheric air or pure oxygen is bubbled through primary treated sewage (or industrial wastewater) combined with organisms to develop a biological floc which reduces the organiccontent of the sewage. Activated sludge is also the name given to the active biological material produced by activated sludge plants and which affects all the purification processes.Fig. 3 Schematic diagram of an activated sludge process15 1.6. Pseudomonas putida Pseudomonas putida is a gram-negative rod-shaped saprotrophic soil bacterium. It is the firstpatented organism in the world. Fig .4 pseudomonas putida 1.7. Immobilization of Microbial Cells Cells of mixed culture collected from soils containing pollutants or specific culture (pure)isolated from the pollutant containing soil are immobilized in/on solid matrix. The specificcultures such as Pseudomonas Putida (NICM, Sp, MTCC, Q5, DSM, KT etc) eitherpsychotropic or mesophilic type, T cutaneum R57 used for biodegradation of phenol, Catechol,Azo dyes removal of ionic mercury etc., Pseudomonas spp. And Bacillus spp. used fordenitrification, green sulfur bacteria for sulfide removal etc. are used for immobilization [2,4-12].Acclimization of microorganismss is done by increasing the pollutant concentration (say ofphenol) gradually during culture preparation. The acclimized culture is used for theimmobilization in/on the solid matrix [8].Immobilization of cells means that the cells have been confined or localized so that it can bereused continuously. These exhibit totally different hydrodynamic characteristics thansurrounding environment. Living cells produce enzymes (biological catalysts) to catalyzecellular reactions vital to the organism. The microorganisms are normally immobilized onnatural and synthetic supports [10]. Various types of solid matrices like polyacrylamide gel, Caalginate, porous glass, plasic beeds, activated carbon, sand, charcoal, diatomaceous earth, cementballs made of coal ash, cellulose, polymeric materials, polymeric ions, chitosan, lignins, chitins,coal, collagens etc. have been used for immobilization of whole cells. In the recent years,the immobilization of biocatalysts with polyvalent salts of alginic acids has received

muchattention because of low cost of alginate and the mild conditions of immobilization[8].Techniques of immobilization are broadly classified into four categories namely covalentbonding, cross-linking (chemical methods), entrapment and adsorption (physical methods).Covalent binding most extensively used technique, where cells or enzymes are covalently linkedto the support through the groups in them or through the functional groups in the supportmaterial. In the cross-linking technique, the cells are immobilized through chemical cross-linkingusing homo as well as hetero-bifunctional cross-linking agents. Adsorption is the simplest ofalltechniques and does not alter the activity of the bound cells. Adsorption involves adhesion orcondensation of the cells to the surface of a carrier. The diving force causing immobilization isthecombined hydrophobic interactions, hydrogen bonding and salt bridge formation between theadsorbent and cells. Entrapment within gels or fiber is a convenient method for reactionsinvolving low molecular weight substrates and mainly used for immobilization of whole cells.This method is nothing but the polymerization of the unsaturated monomers in the presence ofCells results in the entrapment of the cells within the interstitial spaces of the gel.

See also[edit]
      

Aerobic granulation Composting toilet Waste disposal Water pollution Water reclamation Advanced oxidation processes Environmental Persistent Pharmaceutical Pollutant EPPP

1. 2. 3. 4. Jump up ^ Khopkar, S. M. (2004). Environmental Pollution Monitoring And Control. New Delhi: New Age International. p. 299. ISBN 81-224-1507-5. Jump up ^ PUB (Singapore National Water Agency)(2011). "NEWater: History." Jump up ^ Ashton, John; Ubido, Janet (1991). "The Healthy City and the Ecological Idea". Journal of the Society for the Social History of Medicine 4 (1): 173–181. Retrieved 8 July 2013. Jump up ^ Lewis Dunbar B. Gordon (1851). A short description of the plans of Captain James Vetch for the sewerage of the metropolis.

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Jump up ^ H. H. Stanbridge (1976). History of Sewage Treatment in Britain. Institute of Water Pollution Control. Jump up ^ P. F. Cooper. "Historical aspects of wastewater treatment". Retrieved 2013-12-21. Jump up ^ Martin V. Melosi (2010). The Sanitary City: Environmental Services in Urban America from Colonial Times to the Present. University of Pittsburgh Press. p. 110. Jump up ^ Colin A. Russell (2003). Edward Frankland: Chemistry, Controversy and Conspiracy in Victorian England. Cambridge University Press. pp. 372–380. Jump up ^ Sharma, Sanjay Kumar; Sanghi, Rashmi (2012). Advances in Water Treatment and Pollution Prevention. Springer. Retrieved 2013-02-07. Jump up ^ EPIDEMICS, DEMONSTRATION EFFECTS, AND MUNICIPAL INVESTMENT IN SANITATION CAPITAL Jump up ^ "Edwin Chadwick and the Engineers, 1842-1854: Systems and Antisystems in the Pipe-andBrick Sewers War Technology and Culture". 1992. Jump up ^ Tilley, David F. (2011). Aerobic Wastewater Treatment Processes: History and Development. IWA Publishing. Retrieved 2013-02-07. Jump up ^ FINAL REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONERS APPOINTED TO INQUIRE AND REPORT WHAT METHODS OF Treating and Disposing of Sewage. 1912 Jump up ^ Beychok, Milton R. (1967). Aqueous Wastes from Petroleum and Petrochemical Plants (1st ed.). John Wiley & Sons Ltd. LCCN 67019834. Jump up ^ Condensed History of Fine Bubble Diffused Air (FBDA) Jump up ^ Benidickson, Jamie (2011). The Culture of Flushing: A Social and Legal History of Sewage . UBC Press. Retrieved 2013-02-07. ^ Jump up to: a b Metcalf & Eddy, Inc. (1972). Wastewater Engineering. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company. ISBN 0-07-041675-3. Jump up ^ Burrian, Steven J., et al. (1999)."The Historical Development of Wet-Weather Flow Management." US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). National Risk Management Research Laboratory, Cincinnati, OH. Document No. EPA/600/JA-99/275. Jump up ^ Stormwater Effects Handbook: A Toolbox for Watershed Managers, Scientists, and Engineers . New York: CRC/Lewis Publishers. 2001. ISBN 0-87371-924-7. Chapter 2. Jump up ^ Water and Environmental Health at London and Loughborough (1999). "Waste water Treatment Options." Technical brief no. 64. London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine and Loughborough University. ^ Jump up to: a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o EPA. Washington, DC (2004). "Primer for Municipal Waste water Treatment Systems." Document no. EPA 832-R-04-001. Jump up ^ Roy F. Weston, Inc. (1971). Process Design Manual for Upgrading Existing Wastewater Treatment Plants. Washington, D.C.: EPA. Chapter 3. Jump up ^ Huber Company, Berching, Germany (2012). "Sedimentation Tanks." Jump up ^ Black & Veatch, Inc. leaflet at the Wayback Machine (archived October 26, 2010). Jump up ^ Maine Department of Environmental Protection. Augusta, ME. "Aerated Lagoons – Wastewater Treatment." Maine Lagoon Systems Task Force. Accessed 2010-07-11. ^ Jump up to: a b c d Beychok, M.R. (1971). "Performance of surface-aerated basins". Chemical Engineering Progress Symposium Series 67 (107): 322–339. Available at CSA Illumina website Jump up ^ Kadam, A.; Ozaa, G.; Nemadea, P.; Duttaa, S.; Shankar, H. (2008). "Municipal wastewater treatment using novel constructed soil filter system". Chemosphere (Elsevier) 71 (5): 975–981. doi:10.1016/j.chemosphere.2007.11.048. PMID 18207216. Jump up ^ Nemade, P.D.; Kadam, A.M.; Shankar, H.S. (2009). "Wastewater renovation using constructed soil filter (CSF): A novel approach". Journal of Hazardous Materials (Elsevier) 170 (2–3): 657–665. doi:10.1016/j.jhazmat.2009.05.015. PMID 19501460. Jump up ^ A documentary video detailing a 3 MLD SBT plant deployed at the Brihanmumbai Municipal Corporation for Mumbai city can be seen at "SBT at BMC Mumbai" on YouTube Jump up ^ EPA. Washington, DC (2007). "Membrane Bioreactors." Wastewater Management Fact Sheet. Jump up ^ B. Kartal, G.J. Kuenen and M.C.M van Loosdrecht Sewage Treatment with Anammox, Science, 2010, vol 328 p 702-3 Jump up ^ http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2005/11/1109_051109_rocketfuel.html Jump up ^ http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3264106/

34. Jump up ^ Black & Veatch, Inc. (1971). Process Design Manual for Phosphorus Removal. Washington, D.C.: EPA. p. 2-1. 35. Jump up ^ Das, Tapas K. (August 2001). "Ultraviolet disinfection application to a wastewater treatment plant". Clean Technologies and Environmental Policy (Springer Berlin/Heidelberg) 3 (2): 69–80. doi:10.1007/S100980100108. 36. Jump up ^ Florida Department of Environmental Protection. Talahassee, FL. "Ultraviolet Disinfection for Domestic Waste water." 2010-03-17. 37. Jump up ^ Harshman, Vaughan; Barnette, Tony (2000-12-28). "Wastewater Odor Control: An Evaluation of Technologies". Water Engineering & Management. ISSN 0273-2238. 38. Jump up ^ Walker, James D. and Welles Products Corporation (1976)."Tower for removing odors from gases." U.S. Patent No. 4421534. 39. Jump up ^ EPA. Washington, DC (2000). "Package Plants." Wastewater Technology Fact Sheet. Document no. EPA 832-F-00-016. 40. Jump up ^ EPA. Washington, DC (1999). "Sequencing Batch Reactors." Wastewater Technology Fact Sheet. Document no. EPA 832-F-99-073. 41. Jump up ^ Hammer, Mark J. (1975). Water and Waste-Water Technology. John Wiley & Sons. pp. 390– 391. ISBN 0-471-34726-4. 42. Jump up ^ IPEC Consultants, Ltd., Burnaby, BC, Canada. "IFT – Internally-fed – rotary thickener." Accessed 2012-06-16. 43. Jump up ^ Mine-engineer.com, Long Beach, CA. "Belt Filter Press, How Does It Work?" Accessed 201206-16. 44. Jump up ^ GlobalSpec, Inc., East Greenbush, NY. "How to Select Dewatering Equipment." Accessed 2012-06-12. 45. Jump up ^ Biomass – Using Anaerobic Digestion. esru.strath.ac.uk 46. Jump up ^ Langenkamp, H., Part, P. (2001). "Organic Contaminants in Sewage Sludge for Agricultural Use." European Commission Joint Research Centre, Institute for Environment and Sustainability, Soil and Waste Unit. Brussels, Belgium. 47. Jump up ^ Environment Agency (archive) – Persistent, bioaccumulative and toxic PBT substances at the Wayback Machine (archived August 4, 2006). environment-agency.gov.uk. Retrieved on 2012-12-19. 48. Jump up ^ Natural Environmental Research Council – River sewage pollution found to be disrupting fish hormones. Planetearth.nerc.ac.uk. Retrieved on 2012-12-19. 49. Jump up ^ Endocrine Disruption Found in Fish Exposed to Municipal Wastewater at the Wayback Machine (archived October 15, 2011). USGS 50. Jump up ^ Haughey, A. (1968). "The Planktonic Algae of Auckland Sewage Treatment Ponds". New Zealand Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research 2 (4): 721. doi:10.1080/00288330.1968.9515271. 51. Jump up ^ Edmondson, W.T. (1972). "Nutrients and Phytoplankton in Lake Washington." in Nutrients and Eutrophication: The Limiting Nutrient Controversy. American Society of Limnology and Oceanography, Special Symposia. Vol. 1. 52. Jump up ^ Caperon, J.; Cattell, S. A. and Krasnick, G. (1971). "Phytoplankton Kinetics in a Subtropical Estuary: Eutrophication". Limnology and Oceanography 16 (4): 599. doi:10.4319/lo.1971.16.4.0599. 53. Jump up ^ Curds, C.R; Cockburn, A (1970). "Protozoa in biological sewage-treatment processes—I. A survey of the protozoan fauna of British percolating filters and activated-sludge plants". Water Research 4 (3): 225. doi:10.1016/0043-1354(70)90069-2. 54. Jump up ^ Monfort, P; Baleux, B (1990). "Dynamics of Aeromonas hydrophila, Aeromonas sobria, and Aeromonas caviae in a sewage treatment pond". Applied and environmental microbiology 56 (7): 1999– 2006. PMC 184551. PMID 2389929. 55. Jump up ^ Caribbean Environment Programme (1998). Appropriate Technology for Sewage Pollution Control in the Wider Caribbean Region. Kingston, Jamaica: United Nations Environment Programme. Retrieved 2009-10-12. Technical Report No. 40. 56. Jump up ^ Massoud Tajrishy and Ahmad Abrishamchi (2005). "Integrated Approach to Water and Wastewater Management for Tehran, Iran." Water Conservation, Reuse, and Recycling: Proceedings of the Iranian-American Workshop. Washington, D.C.: National Academies Press. 57. Jump up ^ Martin, Andrew (2008-08-10). "Farming in Israel, without a drop to spare". New York Times.

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Wastewater treatment plants.

Interactive Diagram of Wastewater Treatment – "Go with the Flow" – Water Environment Federation, (available in English and Spanish and French).

[ Improved Modelling of Wastewater Treatment Primary Clarifier Using Hybrid Anns]https://pureapps2.hw.ac.uk/portal/files/2687114/IJCSAI10061_20121228_164131_8693_9 362.pdf

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