This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
SQUARE
The square is
as high and as wide
as a man with his arms
outstretched. In the oldest
writings and in the rock inscriptions
of early man, it signifies the idea of
enclosure, of home, of settlement.
Enigmatic in its simplicity, in the
monotonous repetition of four
equal sides and four equal
angles, it creates a series of
interesting figures ...
BRUNO
MUNARI
The wording of the first edition has been kept to high
light the sources used by Munari and lo renew our grati 
tude.
Author and publi shers would like to thank all the pub
li shing houses li sted on the last page for their contribu
tions, parti cul arl y Einaudi and Bompiani ; and Arn::tra De
Angeli s, Fra nco Potenza, the Museum of Natural Hi story
in Milan, the Pi sa Touri st Board, Max Bill and the archi 
tect Katzky Jwabuci.
BRUNO MUNARI THE SQUARE
THE SQUARE
The square i s as high and as wide as a man
with his arms outstretched. Jn the oldest writ
ings and in the rock inscripti ons of ea rl y man,
it signifi es the idea of encl osure, of home, of
settl ement.
Enigmatic in its simplicit y, in the monotonous
repetiti on of four equal sides and four equal
angles, it creates a seri es of interesting fi gures:
a whole group of harmonic rectangles, from the
Jl emidiagon to the Si xton, generate the Golden
Secti on and the logarithmi c spiral found in na
ture in the organic growth of plants and animal
parts.
Its strucr ural possibiliti es have helped arti sts
and archit ecrs of all generations and st yles by
giving rhem a harmonic skeleron to whi ch to
apply an arti stic construction. Accordingl y, it is
presenr in all st yles of all peopl es in all ages,
borh as a structural element and as a surface
rhat supports and determines a parti cular deco
ration.
It is stati c if il stands on its side and dynamic
if it stands on an edge. ll i s magic if fill ed
with numbers and it ca n even be diabolic and
satani c when these numbers retain the same
relati onship even when squared or cubed . Ir
is found in nature in many minerals. Accord
ing to Peano it i s a curve. It ca n be !urned
into tri angles or rectangles onl y by making the
right cut s and moves. In ancient times it had
the power to drive out the plague. ft has gi ven
shape to famous ancient cit ies and even mod
ern buildings: Babyloni a, Tell el Amarna, rhe
Parthenon, rhe arch of Septimius Severus, the
Duomo of Pi sa, Palazzo Farnese, Le Corbusi er 's
museum of unlimited extendibility ... The bays
of Brunellc.:schi 's Porti co degli Innocenti are
square. In the ground pl ans of many churches
the square space beneath the hemispheri ca l
dome is the most logi cal shape. In the same
way, the square of the photograph coincides
with the round lens, without waste or distor
tion. Phidi as used a square module for his l acu
nari a. Al the Acropoli s of Olympi a the Palestra,
the Theocol eon, the Leonidaeum and other
buildings had square pl ans ..
Many anci ent games still played tod ay are
based on the square: chess, checkers, the 15
game with its ten trilli on possibl e combinations,
dice, pussinthecorner. .. and then there are
the famous cowboy Square Dances.
Jn the Eastern Chin dynast y it gave Chinese
writing a stabl e square form. It gave structure
to the leners of our alphabet and to the He
brew one and others. A small square of cloth
is a handkerchi ef the world over. Two square
mats are the basic unit for the traditi onal Japa
nese house. Twentyeight squares cover the sur
face of a bri ck. According to an ancient Chinese
saying the infinite is a square without angles.
"The square is the finest expression of a spat ial
idea compl ete in itself. It represents an order
of charged spiritual symbolism. All other rect
angles, with their different sides, deri ve from
the square but rel ax its l aw by expanding in
height or width".
D
Horologion
0 10 20 30 40
7
AGO RA
Portn Nord
N
\
Pl an of the Agora of Ephesus in the Helleni sti c
period.
JOSEF ALBERS
Homage to the "twili ght " square. 1951.
L T I ~ OF THE HOLOCAUSTS
"And thou shalt make an altar of shittim wood,
five cubi ts long, and five cubits broad; t he altar
shall be fou rsquare ... "
Second book of Moses  Exodus 27.
8
AAGARD A DERSE
Bl ack and white i mage on a surface of 48
squares.
ANAGUTA
Pi ctures from Ameri ca n petroglyphs al Ana
guta.
ANCI ENT EGYPT
In ancient Egypt art was based on geometr y
and on the fi xed rul es of a canon. The square
was at the basis of thi s canon. Since the time
of the Old K ingdom, as the third dynast y tomb
9
of King Zoser at Sakkara shows, the arti sts who
were to decorate a wa ll began by dividing it up
into a network of squares so as to be abl e to
ca lculate the proporti ons. Traces of these grids
were also found in other tombs at Sakkara and
in the tombs of the New Kingdom at Thebes.
In sculpture the square inspired the socalled
cubic statues in which the human figure, usu
all y a person of rank, was arranged so that it
remained set within the coordinates of a cube.
A t ypi cal example o f thi s is the statue of the
architect Senmut of the X VIII dynast y, in the
Museum of Ca iro.
The square i s central to the pyr amid and, in
the Gnosti c peri od, mysti cal and symbological
interpretati ons associ ated with it became wide
spread. With its four sides, the square was seen
as the symbol of the four elements and there
fore of "materi alit y ", subordinate to the triangle
whose three sides, symbol of the spirit, al so
determine a schemati c ri sing fl ame: pyr, fire,
thus pyramid.
A box kite of two simple parts.
ROMAN ARCH
'
'
_ : : < ~    , __
/
// \
   7       \.    
/ \
/
Proporti ons of Septimius Severus Arch in
Rome.
JO
MAYAN ARCHITECTURE
Detai l of a fri eze at the Templ e of Uxmal , Yu
catan. The structure of all Mayan buildings is
based on mathemati cal l aws, units and exact
proportions.
BABYLONIA
Babylonia is a square cit y, says Herodotus, and
each side measures one hundred and twent y
stadia. The city i s full of three or fourstorey
houses and it i s crossed by straight parall el
streets perpendicular to the river and is divided
into t wo part s. On one side is the palace and
on the other the Zeus Belo sanctuar y with its
bronze doors, measuring t wo stadi a square. I n
the middl e of the sa nctuar y there stands a mas
sive tower with a square base measuring one
st adium per side. Thi s tower support s other
towers, one on top o f the other in decreas
ing order. I n all there are eight towers. On the
last tower there i s a great templ e and in the
templ e a ri chl y adorned bed and, beside thi s, a
tabl e made of gold. o deity nor human being
l i ves in thi s pl ace, except one woman chosen
by God.
BAMI OM
LJ
Brahmin char acter, phoneti c value: ba. T he
sa me sign in Korean script has the phoneti c
value: miom.
BET
[)0[]
Egyptian hieroglyphi cs, phoneti c va l ue: bet.
II
GREEK BASRELIEF
/
/
/
Proporti ons of a Greek basrelief, Athens.
 
1111
1111
II
..
.. :. ii!
11 m II
I ~
· ~
•••

BAUHAUS
Ex periments w ith different groupings of nine
squares. The Bauhaus, Weimar.
BELLO LI
the fi eld
square
the square
square
the city
square
the pri son
square
the tomb
square
the tent
square
the ski n
square
t he pupil
square
the square
i s
societ y.
From poems o n elementa r y geometr y, Basi e
1959
13
BAAL SHAMIN
r
I
• , .I .... • · .;'.it.:·.'.
Axonometri c v iew of the monumental buildings
of the templ e of Baa l Sharnin at Palmyra (re
constructi on).
MAX BI LL
Field with eight groups, 1956.
14
Monument to the Unknown Politi ca l Pri soner
1952.
White el ement, oi l on canvas, 68x68 cm d iago
nal.
MOUTH
Chinese ideogram meaning "mouth".
HOUSE
The word " house" in Sumeri an ideographic
script.
MASUZAWA' S HOUSE
Home of the architect Masuzawa in Tokyo, 1952.
16
GOTHIC CATHEDRAL
Proporti ons of Chalons sur Marne cathedral ,
crosssecti on, Querschnin.
ELECTRONIC BRAIN
CHURCH OF SANTA SOPHIA
Santa Sophia, Constantinople. The plan consists
of a series of units based on a central square
surrounded by rectangles w ith one side mea
suring ~ 2 times the other.
FIVE TIMES
Given a square, execute another one fi ve times
l arger.
18
CHURCH OF SAN LORENZO
· ·· ···· · ·· · ~
The Church of San Lorenzo, Turin, by Guarino
Guarini . The whole compositi on is based on
the square which is in turn divided into squares
and golden rectangles.
SHELLS
The organic growth of many shell s develops
according to the curve of the logarithmi c spiral ,
which derives from the square.
COMPOSITI ONS
Composition with four squares.
Composition with eight squares.
20
CONCAVE CONVEX
';,+'
Model obtained by bending a square of metal
netting unti l the corners touch at preestab
lished points on the surface. The expl anator y
diagrams show the vari ous stages in the devel
opment of the model. The points of anchorage
are establi shed on the surface of the square
in harmonic proportions. The nets, cur ved in
this way, ca n be hung from the ceiling so that
their transparent mobil e shadows decorate a
wall of the room, g iving it a cross hatched
effect. Munar i. 1948.
21
SOLAR ENERGY CONCENTRATOR
Thi s concentrator i s used in Ameri ca to har
ness sol ar energy. It i s composed of 180 adjust
able square mirrors, each about 50 cm square.
22
AGAINST THE PLAGUE
In ancient times the square was considered
to have magica l properti es, among whi ch the
power to wa rd off the pl ague, and it was cus
tomary to hang a sil ver pendant, with a square
engraved on it , around the neck .
ROMA ESQUE CROSS
Notre Dame du Pon , Clermont Ferrand, elev
enth century.
CRETE
t! l2J
Characters from a Minoan inscripti on, Crete.
HOOF COVERING
23
These hyperbolic paraboloid roofa are produced
by di storting a flat square.
The shape of the roof changes depending on
how the four basic elements are joined.
PEANO'S CUHVE
One of the ca rdinal principl es of geometr y
is that points have no dimensions and that a
curve has onl y one dimension and can there
fore never fi ll an area. Thi s is another firm be
l ief that has to be shattered because " Pea no's
curve", whi ch bel ongs to the supreme type of
pathologi ca l curves, does indeed fi ll an area.
Not onl y does it occupy the whole i nside of a
square but it climbs into the space of a whole
cubic box. The subsequent stages of thi s curve
are shown in the following figures:
Take any point of the square or the cube. It
can be demonstrated that, when compl eted, the
curve will pass through thi s point. An I since
the same reasoning ca n be extended to any
other point, the logica l conclusion is that the
curve must fill the whol e of the square and the
whole of the cube. Mathematicians once held
that ever y curve had to have a tangent because,
they claimed, thi s property is sel fevident. But
in 1890 Peano, to the amazement of the math
emati cians, devised a curve that cl id not all ow
for tangents at any o f its points, a curve that
fill ed the whole area of a square, and as such
could onl y be represented by a square black
24
mark. Since then mathematicians have been fa
mili ar with curves without tangents.
CH EC KEHS
Checker players in the open air at Bour
nemouth.
I SLAMI C DECORATION
Thirteenth century Isl amic mural decoration.
DIAGONAL
Given the diagonal , construct the square.
DI AGONALS
The di agonals of these two shapes are equal.
26
DI ATOM
Mi croscopic algae are of vari ous forms, some
of them square.
DI STORTIONS
Distorti ons of a square surface, keeping the two
medi ans the same.
DOUBLE, TRIPLE
c=====::;1
I ;') .
r ·   71· I I
~        ~ . i i
. . i I I i
. I .
.  '1'
7
' 'i i
lffl
Given a square, make one double, tripl e, qua
druple the si ze, etc.
27
DUPLICATI ON
The probl em of duplicat ing the square was
easil y sol ved by the Greeks by constructing a
new square on the diagonal of the first. But
t hi s raised another problem: duplicati on of the
cube. Working on thi s problem Menaechmus
tri ed in vain to resolve it with a constructi on
of straight lines and arcs of circl es and w ith
other curves. After much work, instead of the
duplicati on of the cube, he discovered the el 
lipse, the parabol a and hyperbol a.
ALBRECHT DORER
I
I
I
i
,
I
'
\
'
"
I
'
'
,
/
 /
,
,
'x./
/ '
/

 /
',,
'
'
'
'
\
/
'
./<',
/
' /
,)<.
'
/
/
\
'
\
I
I
I
,
I
/
Proportions of the church of Santa Maria degli
Angeli , by DC1rer.
INTERNAL DIVISIONS
Divisions of the internal space of a square star t
ing from the principal combinati ons between
l i nes and curves deriving from the measure
ments of the square itself.
28
DUOMO OF PI SA
Proporti ons o f the fa<;;ade o f the Duomo o f
Pi sa.
GOD OF THE TEMPEST
Temple of Goel of the Tempest at Carchemi sh.
Its sanctuary was a perfect square.
VAN DOESBUHG
Arithmeti ca l composit ion. 1930.
30
HEXAGON
The proj ecti on of a cube with one of its edges
standing on the nat is a hexagon.
I VOHY LABELS
'1· .1
nt{nn
nnn '''
. •.
Ivory labels with numeri ca l markings, found in
the royal tomb attributed Lo Menes, founder of
the first Nagacl a dynasty, in Egypt.
EUCLI D
The square circumscri bing a given circle has
t wice the area o f the square inscribed in the
sa me circle.
SQUARE HANDKERCHI EF
A scene from Verdi 's Othell o.
31
FAUTRIEH
The Empt y Box, painting, 1954.
IRON
When a mass o f molten iron is cooling, the
transformati on from liquid to solid takes place
clue to t he formati on of cr ystall oicl nuclei in the
shape of cubes (as can be seen in a seri es of
microphotographs) that rapidly multipl y along
cr ystall ographic lines, until the whole mass has
been fill ed.
DITCH
[J
Character used in the writing of the Bamon
tribe (formerl y the German Ca meroons) to in
di cate " ditch". Simil ar characters are al so found
in ProtoSinaiti c writings.
FORMS DERfVED FROM THE SQUARE
Twodimensional compositi ons obtained from
combining, rotating or modifying square sur
faces.
0
32
FLUORfTE
Rightangl ed st ructure of fluorite cr ystal s.
WI NDMILL
Four cuts along the di agonal s of a square of
cardboa rd make up thi s simpl e toy.
GARDEN
The gardens at Villa Medici on the Pincio hill ,
Rome. Architect: Annibal e Lippi.
34
SUNFLOWER
The arrangement of the seeds of the sunfl ower
fol lows the curve of the logarithmi c spira I.
GAMES
Some of the games deri ved from the square:
chess, checkers, dominoes, pussinthecorner.
THE FIFTEEN GAME
1 2 3
5 6 7
The 15 game, call ed the "15 puzzle" by its in
ventor Sam Lloyd in 1878, was an incredibl e
success. Employers had to put up notices forbid
ding their staff to play the ga me during work
ing hours, under pain of di smi ssa l. A French
journalist at the time claimed that it was more
harmful than tobacco and alcohol , and respon
sible for headaches, neuralgia and neurosis.
Fabulous prizes were offered for the soluti on of
seemingly simple problems but no one ever won
them. The numbered squares ca n theoreti ca lly
be moved around the box in 20,922,789,888,000
different positions. But two America n mathema
ti cians, Johnson and Story, demonstrated that,
starting from a given position, onl y half of all
the possibl e positions can be reached. Thi s
meant that only ten trillion moves could be
made and that another te n trillion could not.
The fact that there were positions that coul d
36
not possibl y be reached explains why the gen
erous pri zes were never won, and chance had
it that the prizes were always offered for the
impossible positi ons.
GRADATION OF VALUES
••••••••••••••••
••••••••••••••••
••••••••••••••••
••••••••••••••••
••••••••••••••••
••••••••••••••••
••••••••••••••••
................
••••••••••••••••
••••••••••••••••
• •••••••••••••••
••••••••••••••••
••••••••••••••••
••••••••••••••••
••••••••••••••••
••••••••••••••••
Gradat io n of va lues of a surface obta ined by
di sto rting a grid pattern. Ulm School. 1957.
J APANESE TOYS
Numerous toys ca n be made hy the .J apanese
art of folding a square of paper in di fferent
ways. Some o f t he most fa mous are a bird
that moves its wings, a folding box, an object
shaped li ke four empty pyramids turned upside
down and attached toget her so that you ca n
put four fi ngers insi de.
INCOMMENSURABLE SIZES
Cont ra ry to the Pyt hagorea n conce1) t of the ex
tended point, incommensurable si zes, i .e. si zes
that have no common submultipl e, do exi st.
The di scover y of t he incommensurabil it y be
tween the si zes of t he side and di agonal of the
square woul d seem to have been made by Hip
pasus of Metapont um, a foll ower of Pythagoras,
who having been the first to make publi c the
37
theory of incommensurabl es, then peri shed in a
shipwreck because, according to legend, the in
expressibl e and unimaginabl e should have been
kept hidden forever. So the culprit who had
unwittingl y come across and revealed thi s truth
of nature, was taken back to his place of ori gin
to be t hrashed by the waves for ever.
The legend probabl y hides a real feeling of re
sentment about the fact that the results revealed
to the general publi c were unquesti onably ex
tremel y embarrassing because they showed that
Pythagoras was mi staken in his concepti on of
t he point. Thi s di scover y, in fact, led to a revi
sion of the fundamental concepts of geometry,
which in turn made way for the famous soph
isms of Zeno and, eventuall y, to the Elements
of Eucl id.
GOTHI C
Decorati ve Gothic motifs.
MAX HUBER
Composition on the square.
38
I !OMO QUADRATUS
In the theor y of Homo Quaclratus the number,
principle o f the uni verse, takes on a symboli 
cal signifi cance based on a seri <.:s o f numeri ca l
correspondences that are also aestheti c corre
spondences. Her<.: too the first concept s of the
theory had to do with music: t here are eight
musi cal tones  noted an anonymous Ca rthu
sian monk  because four were found by the
ancients and fo ur were added by the moderns
(he is relerring to the four authentic modes and
th<.: four plagal modes). The number four, ac
cord ing to ot her writ ers or to common beli ef,
is a key number, a powerful serial definer. Four
are the cardin;tl points, the principal w inds. the
phases o f the moon, the seasons, four i s the
constituti ve numb<.: r of Timaeus' tetrahedra l of
fire, four are the letters o f the name ADAM.
And, as Vi truvius teach<.:s, four is the number
of man hecaus<.: the w idth of a man wi th hi s
arms outstretched corresponds to hi s height .
thus forming the base and height of an ideal
square; and fou r i s the number of moral per
fection, since the mQra ll y battl e traim: d man
stands foursquare.
Pl IOTOG HAPH
Photograph of th<.: elements of a bridge, by Ma x
Huber.
OPTI CAL I LLUSI ONS
Opti cal illusions on square spaces by Hering
(or Helmholtz).
CUBIC LAMP
The shape of thi s l amp, cont ained w it hi n a
cube, makes it si mpl e to assembl e and di s
mount thanks to t wo diagonal metal frames.
Its simplicity makes it very inexpensive to pro
duce.
HOMANESQUE INITI ALS
From a twel fth century manuscript.
KAHL GEHSTNEH
Blueyell ow sequence on red. 195859.
40
INFI NITE
·The infinite is a square .. without corners". Old
Chinese proverb.
THE CHI NESE AND PYTHAGORAS
Ahout five centuri es before Pythagoras, the
Chinese knew the rel ationship bet ween the
sides of a ri ghtangled triangle. The demonstra
ti on found in the "Book of Ki ng Ci u PeiSuan"
i s not unlike that of Pythagoras.
Let a and h be two sides of a rightangled tri 
angl e (the sides of the right angle), place them
so as to have a single straight line. Construct
the square ABCD. Mark the meeting point of
the two segments a and h on all four sides
of the square at E, G, H, F. j oi n E wi th F and
G with 11 to divide the square ABCD into an
area that is the square of a, an area that i s the
square of b and two rectangles each of area ab.
Di vide each of these two rectangles di agonall y
and we have four equal ri ghta ngled triangles
with hypotenuse c.
Now place the four ri ghta ngled tri angles on
the area ABCD so that the ri ght angles of the
triangl es coincide with the ri ght angl es of the
square, and we obtain in t he middle an area
that is the square of hypotenuse c.
A
G
D
4 I
a E h
B
    H
F
c
c
KLEE
Studies by Klee on squares.
Dynamic transience of a given stati c.
42
LE CORBUSI ER
Museum of unli mi ted extendabili ty seen from
above. Constructi on on pi les, entrance in the
central square. I nfinite number of different in
ternal arrangements with prefabricated units.
MAZES
Layout of mazes in seventeenth cernury Itali an
vi ll a gardens.
.._
,..
....
...
•

I 1

I
...
43
LEONARDO
Human fi gure set within a square, for a study
of proporti ons .
In the world of Egyptian priesthood the initi
ates considered the square as the expression
of man, in that when man stands upright with
hi s arms outstretched, height and width are of
equal measure.
LEONARDO
VERENA LOEWENSBERG
Proportions of a profi le.
THE GREEK PATTERN
Composition 257. 195657.
44
THE EIGHT QUEENS
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Problem: pl ace eight queens on an ordinary
chessboard with 64 squares in such a way that
none of them can be taken by the one of the
others; this was proposed by Nauck in 1850
and resolved by him, and later by ot hers. There
are 92 possible solutions. Here are two of them,
the second of whi ch is symmetrical , i .e. it does
not change even w hen the chessboard is ro
tated by 180 degrees .
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
RI CHARD P. LOHSE
Hori zontal divisions. 194953.
45
KASIMIR MALEVlC
"When in 1913, in my desperate attempt to
free art from the useless burden of the obj ect,
I sought refuge in the form of the square and
exhibited a painting that represented nothing
other than a bl ack square on a whit e back
ground. The criti cs compl ai ned and with them
the publi c: "Everything we have loved has been
lost; we are now in a desert. Before us there is
not hing other than a bl ack square on a white
background". The perfect square seemed to
the criti cs and to the publi c incomprehensibl e
and threatening .. thi s was however to be ex
pected.
The climb to the top of non fi gurati ve an is
hard and full of torment... but sati sfying none
theless. Real things move further and further
back, objects disappear with each step back,
until at last the world of ordinar y ideas, in
whi ch we however li ve, va ni shes al together.
Away with pi ctures of reali ty, away with idea l
representati on  nothing but a desert'
But thi s desert is full of the spirit of nonobj ec
tive sensibilit y, wh ich penetrates ever ywhere.
I too felt a sort of shyness and I hesitat ed to
the point of angui sh because it mea nt aban
doning the " world of will and represent ati on"
in which I had li ved and created, believing in
its authenticity.
But the sense of sati sfacti on I felt at my li b
erati on of the obj ect carri ed me even further
into the desert , to t he point where not hing
was authenti c except for sensibilit y ... and that
is how sensi bi l ity became the ver y substance
of my life.
The square I had exhibited was not an empt y
square, but sensibility in absence of an object.
Painting has been surpassed for a long time,
and the painter is a prejudice of the past ...
Supremat ist compositi on, painting, 1915.
46
MONUMENT IN UDI NE
Monument to the Resistance, in Udi ne. Mod
el by arch it ects Va ll e and Marcori , seen fro m
above.
ENZO MARI
Experi mental swcly of colour on cuhic space.;.
CHINESE COINS
Chinese coins with square holes.
48
USELESS MACHI NE
II
•
•
..
•
._
Harmoni c sketch o f si x elements that make
up Munari 's "Useless machine 1956''. The si x
elements pl aced together on one level occupy
a space of t wo and a hal f squares. Hung on
nylon threads they move in infinite combina
ti ons. The obj ect is made of natu ral anodi sed
aluminium.
MODULOR
\
Le Corbusier 's modu !or is a unit of measure
ment based on the human fi gure and on math
ematics.
MONDRI AN
Composit ion wi th reel , pai nting, 1936.
50
TRADE MARKS
g
51
HALF
",
"
'
.· I . , '.
/ i ".\ \
./ · ! j '
Given a square, draw one that is half or three
quarters smaller.
NICAEA
The city of Nicaea, in Bithyni a (around 300 BC)
was formed of a square measuring about 700
metres a side, with two large roads that inter
sected at right angles and joined the four gates
of the city.
MUSICAL NOTES
A line of mus ic written in the eleventh cen
tury.
SPI RAL NEBULA
The logarithmi c spiral is found in some nebulae.
PI ER LUIGI AND A TONIO ERVI
"Pal ace of Work " in Turin.
52
NEGATI VE POSITI VE
Pi ctori al compostt1on without background, i n
white, bl ack and red. Munari 1951.
NI NTH ORDER
Magic square of the ninth order arranged ac
cording to Bachet's rul e.
The sum of the numbers in each verti cal column
or each hori zontal line is always the sa me.
77
28 69 20 61 12 53 4 45
36
68 19 60 11 52 3 44 76
67 27 59 10 51 2 43 75 35
26 58 18 50 42 74 34 66
57 17 49 9 41 73 33 65 25
16
48 8 40 81 32 64 24 56
47 7 39 80 31 72 23 55 15
6 38 79 30 71 22 63 14 46
37 78 29 70 21 62 13 54 5
NOTRE DAME
J
,,
"
I
'
' )
,'
~ l     ~       >      
Scheme of the fac;:ade of NotreDame.
OPERA QUADRATA
Ancient system of masonry in Etruri a and Lazio
whereby square blocks of marbl e or tufa were
placed on top of one another.
COUNTRY
l ~
Japanese ideogram for "country": an enclosure
(the frontiers) cont ains a mouth (the peopl e)
and a bow (the army).
54
PAVILI ON
CM. 260 11 2 60
CM. 65 x 65
·1
..... I
'+==+ ________ _ . .J
Textile pavi l ion at the eleventh Milan Tri ennal
ex hibiti on, designed by the architect Edoardo
Si anesi. Ground pl an and one of the four equal
sides.
SQUARE PYRAMI D
As shown in the photograph, a square of card
board with many alternat ing cuts, suspended
from the centre, spontaneously forms thi s three
dimensional fi gure.
PALACE OF THE ACHAEMENIDAE
General plan of the palace of the Achaemeni
dae at Persepoli s (reconstructi on).
PALLADI O
In Pall adi o's architecture, the use of the square
often determines the overall appearance of the
bui ldings. Vill a Foscarini at Stra has a square
ground pl an, while other architectural square
56
areas ca n be found at the Vill a Thi ene at Quin
to Vi centino, at the Pa l azzo l seppo de' Porti
in Vi cenza , and at Palazzo Thi ene also in Vi
cenza.
PARTHENON
Proportions of the fa<;:ade of the Part henon.
57
PLATO
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
.'
'
'
' .
I •
I /
/1
,.
I
I
I
I
I
/
I , .
I ,
/
I
, • .1'
, '
/ '
/ ,
"
,'
"We have divided the whole seri es o f num
bers into two classes: each numbe r that can
be fo rmed by multi plying two equal factors
we have represented in a figure with a square
and we have ca lled it a square and equil atera l
number".
PALAZZO FARNESE
G i,,(lYjt1
17) f.t. ti•
l7J 1:3 Hill f fJ
17) f.t.11•
0BH1Yf
1
J
17) f.t. tJ>
17JB H1Yf
1
1
(j) t.r.11•
0 LJH1Yf!J
58
JAPA ESE POETRY
whi te square of
inside the
white square of
inside the
white square of
inside the
white square of
inside the
whil e square
Katue K itasono
PROVERB
Those born square will not die round. Neapoli 
tan proverb.
P RSE
Leather purse. It is shut by folding the di ago
nals of che verti cal wa ll s of the cube.
59
PYRJTE
The shape of the cube in nat ure. In the pyrite
cubes on Elba.
PROPORTIONS IN GRAPHI CS
Uonard de Vinci 1509
Geoffroy Tcry lri 2A
'uan Y<' iar l MO
Serlio 1549
Studi es in proportions for the letters of the
alphabet: Leonardo 1509, Geoffroy Tory 1529,
Albrecht Dlire r 1525, Serli o 1549, Juan Yciar
1550, Pierre La Be 1601.
Albert Durer 152.)
Pierrt' La Bi 1601
60
PYTHAGORAS
Demonstrati ons of Pythagoras' theorem.
61
SQUARE  WINDOW
"A woman suffering from brain disease was un
abl e to copy a square, and it was clea r that the
figure mea nt nothing to her. When asked what
it was, she expl ained that it was a window.
After many exampl es, it became cl ear that she
could only ever copy models that seemed to
her to be concrete objects. When she was un
able to copy a model because it had no mea n
ing for her, she someti mes altered it so that it
took on the appearance of a concrete object.
Only then was she able to copy it.
When given a square she transformed it into
the foll owing:
When asked what these fi gures mea nt , she re
plied: 'The windows of a church'. She did not
draw squares with no meaning, but two church
windows in a positio n that could really have
existed. Evidently where we see an abstract
geomet ri c fi gure, the pati ent saw a concrete
obj ect".
MAGIC SQUARES
A magic square of the nth order is a square
divided, like a chessboard, into n
2
square cell s
where n i s the number of cell s in any side. A
number is then inserted so that the sum of the
numbers in any line, hori zontal , vertical or di
agonal is al ways the same. The sum is ca lled
the magic constant.
A magic square remains such if one of the fol 
lowing transformati ons, called simple transfor
mations, is appli ed to it:
a  rotation around the centre of one, two or
three right angles, clockwise for example.
b  symmetry to the horizontal or verti ca l
medi ans.
c  symmetry to either diagonal.
d  the substituti on of each number with its
compl ement in respect to n
2
+ 1.
Eight order 3 magic squares:
4 3
9 5
8
2 7 6
2 9 4
7 5 3
6 8
6 7 2
5 9
8 3 4
(I
6
3 5 7
4 9 2
62
2 7 6
9 5
4 3 8
8 3 4
5 9
6 7 2
4 9 2
3 5 7
8 6
6 8
7 5 3
2 9 4
Magic squares, which the old mathematici ans
of Indi a already knew how to construct, came
to Europe in around 1420. In the Middle Ages
magic squares were considered to have super
natural qualiti es and they were used as amulets
to ward off the evil eye, the plague and other
i llnesses. They had special signifi cance for as
trologers, and to Cornelius Agrippa the order
1 magic square symboli sed unit y and eternity,
w hil e the impossibilit y of the order 2 magic
square was a sign o f the imperfecti on of the
four elements: air, water, earth, fire. The sev
en magic squares of the third to ninth orders
represented the seven pl aners then known to
n1an.
16 3 2 13
5 10 11 8
9 6 7 12
4 15 14
The foll owing orde r 4 magic square is found in
a grotesque, e ntitl ed Mela ncholia, e ngraved by
Albrecht Dlirer in 1514; the yea r appea rs in the
middle of the bottom line.
In 1599, Diego Palomino published a work in
Madrid about magic squares but without pro
viding any indicati ons on how they should be
constructed. In 1612 C. G. Bachet published
a method fo r const ructing oddorde r ones. In
1691 , De la Loubere publi shed another o ne
and in 1693, Philippe De la Hire published a
method for constructing magic squares of even
orde rs, call ed the border method, found by B.
Frenicle De Bessy, who discovered 880 exa m
ples of magic squa res.
DIABOLIC SQUARES
Eul e r then discovered pa nmagic squa res in
whi ch the sum of the numbers situated in any
pair of comple me nta ry lines is also equal to
the magic constant , mea ning two para ll el lines
to a diagonal , one of k (k = 1, 2,.. nl) a nd
the ot he r of nk cell s. The following o rde r 4
square, for exa mpl e, is panmagic.
12 7 14
8 13 2 11
10 3 16 5
15 6 9 4
Between 1866 a nd 1886, several st udi es ap
peared o n what E. Lucas ca ll ed di abolic
squares, such as those by A. H. Frost a nd M.
63
Frolow. Di aboli c squares have the prope rt y to
remain magic whe n they a re broke n into two
recta ngles by a ny line parallel to the sides, and
these rectangl es are the n transposed. The fol
lowing is an orde r 4 diabolic square:
14 4 15
12 7 9 6
13 2 16 3
8 11 5 10
In 1894 E. Maill et publi shed hi s studies on a
general theory of magic squares based on the
general theory of the substitution of n lette rs.
G. Arnoux published his "Les es paces arithrne
tiq ues hypermagiques" in Paris in 1894, where
he devised a re ma rkable method for the con
structi on of order 1 magic squares. This meth
od was late r extended by A. Margossian in 1908
to the case of magic squa res of any composite
orde r.
SATANIC SQUARES
Inte resting studi es were also publi shed by A.
Aubr y in 1926 in "SpinxOedipe". lf re pl aci ng
each numbe r by its square in a magic square
produces anot he r magic square, it is said to be
a bimagic square; if replacing each number by
its square or cube in a magic square produces
anothe r magic square, the squa re is said to be
trimagic. These squares are also called satanic
or cabbali stic.
MILITARY SQUARE
Ranks of soldi ers in square formation.
MILITARY QUADRJLATERAL
Quadrangul ar area of l and defended by four
strongholds.
SQUARJNG THE CIRCLE
The most famous problem in the hi stor y of
mathematics is that of squaring the circl e. The
earliest elements of geometry were concerned
with the possibility of measuring a figure delim
ited by straight lines. In the Nile Valley, where
ever y year fl ooding erased all the boundari es
made by the fa rmers to indicate ownership of
their fi elds, geometry helped find them again.
The areas delimited by curved lines were hard
to calcul ate and so they tri ed to conta in the
problem by using straight li nes only to mark
out the areas. If a square could be constructed
that had the same surface area as a circle, by
measuring the square area one would also ob
tain the area of the circle. Thi s was the origin
of the expression: squaring the circle. But the
difficulty of squaring the circle lies in the na
ture of rr.
64
SQUARE  TRIANGLE
A square cut as shown and hinged at the points
indi cated, is transformed into an equil ateral tri 
angle by rotating it on the fl at.
FOUR POINTS IN SPACE
The four corner points are all you need to cre
ate the impression of a square.
•
•
•
ANCIENT ROME
According to an ancient tradition recorded by
several Greek authors, there appears to have
been a Roma Quadrata di stinct from the one
founded by Romulus, and older than it. By
comparing the accounts of vari ous hi stori ans
and archaeologists thi s Roma Quadrata woul d
seem to have been a square storeroom in front
of the Temple of Apollo, on the Palatine hi ll. It
served to house all the obj ects of good omen
for the founding of the city before the city was
actuall y founded, and it is said 10 have been
kept cl osed w ith a square stone.
Hence the tradition of a Roma Quadrata which
precedes that of Romulus. What was initi all y
nothing more than a storeroom later gave its
name to the whole city, call ed either Quaclrata
or Homulea, without di stincti on.
Fi gure deri ving from the rotati on of a cube.
66
RENAI SSANCE
Painted decorati on.
RAMSES IV
Proporti onal analysis of the pl an of Ramses I V's
tomb.
RI NG
PROPORTI ONAL RECTANGLES
Lowering the di agonal of a square onto the
extension of the base, we get a rectangle in
which, whatever the unit of measurement, the
rati o between the sides i s 1: ~ 2 . Continuing
the process, we get other rectangles with the
ratios: 1: ~ 3 1: ~ 4 i.e. an area of two squares,
1: ~ 5 and so on.
68
CHESS I N MOSCOW
Opening of the Twelfth World Chess Cham
pi onship at t he Cent ral Theatre of the Soviet
Army in Moscow.
KNOWLEDGE
The ancients represented Fortune seated on a
round stone and Knowledge on a square one,
showing that the former is changeable, whi le
the seat of the other is steadfast.
69
DERIVED RECTANGLES
Hectangles obtained from the square by proj ect
ing its own measurements.
• Raphael  The Marriage of the Virgin.
Signs pa inted in blackblue and linearred, of
the oldest series, found at Cachao da Rapa or
Curra! das Letras, Braganza. Simil ar signs are
also found in paleoBabyloni an, north Semitic
and America n protolndi an writings.
THE KNIGHT'S TOUR
The puzzle in which the object is to move the
knight around all 64 squares of the chessboa rd
in 63 moves, known to the old Indian mathema
ti cians, has an as yet unknown number of solu
tions.
Euler and various other mathemati cians indi
cated ways of solvi ng the puzzle . Here are two
solutions (the numbers ind icate the following
positions of the knight) of whi ch the second is
"closed", i. e . from the final positi on the knight
can, in one move, return to his ini tial posi tion:
22 25 50 39 52 35 60 51
27 40 23 36 49 58 53 34
24 21 26 51 38 61 56 59
41 28 37 48 3 54 33 62
20 47 42 13 32 63 4 55
29 16 19 46 43 2 1 10
18 45 14 31 12 9 64 5
15 30 17 44 1 6 11 8
70
43 40 15 26 13 30 5
8
38 25 42 29 16 7 12 31
41 44 39 14 27 4 9 6
24 37 28 17 54 11 32 3
45 18 23 64 33 2 55 10
36 49 46 19 22 53 58 61
47 20 51 34 63 60 1 56
50 35 48 21 52 57 62 59
BRUNO SERVI
The square is a number which has reached per
fection, because in it the number of times its
base is repeated is the same as the number of
times the unit is repeated in the base.
In squaring, in fact, simpl y enunciating the base
expresses in itself the times it is repeated; in
th is way the ele ments of arbitrariness and exte
riorit y are removed that, in the determination of
the number of times, were present in any other
nonpotenti al operati on.
ROCK SALT
The square in nature: a crysta l of rock salt.
ROAD SJGN
Road with right of way sign and encl of ri ght.
GOLDEN SECTION
A graphic showing the golden secti on starting
from the square.
"
72
LYBIAN WRJTING
Characters
in Libyan writing.
SQUARE WR!TlNG
£:] u
z
n ir
N



Almost every country has what is ca ll ed a square
form for the letters of its alphabet or ideograms.
In Home, the old monumental style l apidary
capital letters were defined as "square". Hebrew,
Chinese and Japanese writing is square. Clea rl y,
a square shape is best for composing a text verti
call y or hori zontall y on a fl at surface.
Characters in Balti writing, in the state of Kash
mir, corresponding to their phoneti c values, in
ttJlPP
db F6
order: cl, ts, b, h, k. Many characters of this writ
ing, which is presumed to have been invented
at the time of the conversion of the popul at ion
to Isl am in around 1400, appear to derive from a
square grid structure.
It is likel y that a square grid provided an order
for each l etter that made it easy to remember.
SQUARE DANCES
•
•
•••
••••••
Jnstructions for the fi gures of square dances,
suggested by Carson Robison.
Formati on: four coupl es to each gro up. Form a
square with a coupl e each side standing face
to face. A group should occupy the space of a
square nine feet either side . Ladi es stand to the
right o f their partner. The lady to the left of each
gentl eman stands in the lady corner. The main
coupl e, coupl e number one, moves backwards
towa rds the part of the hall where the orchestra
is. The coupl e on the ri ght of the ni ain coupl e is
coupl e number two, and then there is the third
and fourth , o r last coupl e.
Honor: the gentl emen bow, the ladi es curtsy.
Swing: the gentl eman takes the right hand of
the lady in hi s left hand and puts his arm round
her wa ist, as for a wa ltz. He places hi s ri ght foot
on the outside of the right foot of the lady and
73
together they dance around in a clockwise di
recti on, spinning on the right foot.
Promenade: the couples cross hands and dance
around the group in an anticlockwise direc
tion.
Dosido: the lady and gentleman wa lk towards
and past each other, right shoulder to right
shoulder. Then each takes a step to the right,
passing back to back, and then they return to
their ori ginal position.
Allemande left: the gentleman stands facing his
lady in the corner. They take each other by the
left hand and reel round each other cl ockwise,
then return to their original positions.
Grand right and left: the partners stand face to
face and take each other by the right hand. They
move towards and past each other. The gentle
men reel anti cl ockwise and the ladies clock
wise. Take your neighbour's left hand, pass,
take your neighbour's right hand, pass, and in
thi s way go forward in a circl e. Some names of
square dances: The square waltz, Square Dance
Polka , Promenade Indi an Style, Around the Out
side, Birdie in the Cage.
RUNlC CHARACTERS
From a Runi c alphabet, phonetic value: Oe, ae,
e, o. The square has the phoneti c value: ng.
LOGARITHMI C SPIRAL
From a square we can obtain a golden rectangle
by lowering the diagonal to the extension of
the base. If, to this rectangle, we attach another
square having a side equal to the longer side
of the rectangle, we obtain another golden rect
angle . Continuing to construct squares on the
longer sides of the rectangles we will obtain a
fi gure composed of squares arranged in a spiral
around pole 0 , which is the point of intersecti on
of the main diagonal s of the subseque nt rect
angles. If we draw a curve through the points of
intersecti on of these diagonals with the subse
quent squares, this will be a loga rithmic spiral.
This curve represents the law of visible orga nic
growth, particularly in shells, in the arra ngement
of sunflower seeds, in some spiral nebul ae and
in many other cases.
74
A LOCK
(;:' .'II' ).ic> ... "; .
. ._.,,........... . : .
. ·("
Twe lfth century Scandinavian lock.
TATAMI
A tatami is a thi ck mat that the Japanese have
been covering the fl oors of the ir houses with
for over a thousa nd yea rs. The tatami measures
two squares in size and it serves as a basic unit
of measureme nt in the design of these houses.
All the rooms are conceived o n the bas is of the
number o f tatami to be used, and it is suffi cie nt
to just state the number of tatami to be used in a
room to get an idea of its shape and d imensions,
and, as every part of the house is formul ated on
the basis of the tatami , there is no need to take
measurements.
FOSSIL SPONGE
Structure of a fossil sponge.
HITTITE CHARACTERS
Hittite characters from a hieroglyph. Inscriptions
found at Hama, the second character has the
phonetic value: k, g.
SEAL
Sign made from a protoInclian seal.
EMPIRE STYLE
Detai ls of an Empire style balustrade.
ANTON STANKOWSKI
Graphic design.
76
CUTT! G AND RECOMPOSING
 A square cut in thi s way can be recomposed in
many other ways .
•• EE sa rn rn w tarn
rn rnru rn mm EB tE
EE til EB rn EE EE rn Eli EE tE
CE 00 89 m mm
ta EE EE tE
tfHE t'E EE EE 58
EE E\tJ rn EB tt?
TETRAHEDRON
A l etrahedon is cul into two equal parts by a
square.
TELL EL AMARNA
A model village at Tell el Amarna (1370 BC)
where the workers and arti sans l ived who were
employed on the constructi on of the tombs in
the rock in the hi gher part of the desert . Thi s vi l
lage, situated in a desolate vall ey, fa r from water
but cl ose to the cl iffs where the toml s were to
be cut out of the rock, was a square surrounded
by a hi gh wall in whi ch there was onl y one en
trance. In the vill age itself there were five narrow
streets whi ch ran parall el from north to south,
through rows of small , rentabl e houses, all iden
ti cal in shape. Only in the southeast corner, near
the gate, was there a bi gger and more elaborate
bui lding, which was probably the house of the
supervi sor. The monotony of all these houses
78
was compensated for by the vari ety of their
contents. The men who worked in the tombs as
painters and decorators woul d bring home some
of the colours, so that the wa ll s o f their houses
were all decorated w ith rough drawings. During
the excavati ons, tools of every kind were found:
clay crucibles, uncut precious stones, parts of
looms, and ri ngs with unfini shed cut stones. The
well protected town houses of the members of
the court seemed lifeless and inhuman i n com
parison with thi s humbl e workers' vill age.
TRIGON
A Swiss game composed of squares cutup so as
to make different figures.
"
== =u
"
"
"
"
...
"
II II
:: {}=:::: == .;;:: d
"
"
"
...
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
TELL EL AMARNA
PIAZZA SUD
THE TEMPLE OF SOLOMON
The Temple of Solomo n in Je rusa lem. The Sa nc
ta Sa nctorum was a perfect square, with mea
surements almost equal to those at Carchemi sh.
It was compl etely pl ain, except for the fa<;:a de
adorned with a curtain embroidered in va ri o us
colours.
ONE QUARTER GREATER
Give n a square, draw a no the r g reate r by a
quarte r.
A FIFTH
Given a square, draw another one fifth , two
thirds, etc., smaller.
80
TETRA FLEX
Threedimensional constructi on made wit h fo ur
squares fi xed together at their parall e l sides and
creased at every d iagonal. This object can be
folded in many different ways if you always fol
low the lines o f the creases.
TWTDDLE
Cubi c object cut into sixteen equal prismatic
parts. These parts are hinged together so that
the cubi c object ca n be transformed into othe r
parall elepipedal o r pri smati c objects, always
keeping all the pi eces attached to each other.
PHYSIONOMIC TYPES OF LEIDOS
The square type indi cates an energet ic brusque
nature, a firmness o f character bo rde ring on in
fl exibility and that ca n easil y degenerate into
stubbo rnness. An able thinke r, rapidl y and pow
erful ly logical, with a welldeveloped pract ica l
sense and parti cul arl y we ll suited to the exact
sciences, to phi losophy and mathe mati cs, but
lacking in imaginati on, whi ch makes him ill
suited to the arts. A lover of constructi on, he has
a bent for architecture. Hi s nat ure, scepti cal and
doubting, leads him to materi alism; but if fa ith
illuminates hi s soul , it will be built on unshake
able fo undatio ns; hi s head will always cont rol
his hea rt. This type is gene rall y lo ngli ved.
EQUILATERAL TRIANGLES
Equilateral tri angles and models based on equi 
lateral tri angles in cubic spaces.
81
uo
Mayan character, phoneti c value: uo.
URA !UM AND GRAPHITE
A large cube of uranium and graphite for the
first nucl ear reactor.
82
l x52x2
rs:rsJ I
Transformation of a rectangl e l x5 int o a
square 2x2.
VASA RELY
Detail of a large composition in black and white.
········
•••••••••••••••••••
··················
··················
•••••••••••••••••••
•••••••••••••••••••
·············
·············
··········
··············
··············
················
················
···············
················
•••••••••••••••••••
•••••••••••••••••••
·················
•••••••••••••••••••
MIES VAN DE ROHE
Plan and front el evati on of the "50x50" house.
84
MARY VIEIRA
From square to cube. Model in stainl ess steel
35x35x35 cm. Basie, 1959. Coll ecti on of Dr.
Markus Kutter, Basi e.
WANG HSl CHJH
The true father of Chinese ca lli graphy is consid
ered to be Wang HsiChih (AD 316420, Eastern
Chin dynasty). He perfected the " Ii ssu" charac
ters by giving them their beautiful square form,
as well as the script we nowadays call cursi ve, in
his time rapidl y undergoing development, and
he invented an intermedi ary form between the
two. Presentclay Chinese characters therefore
belong to one or other of the three forms he
establi shed: square, medium and cursive. He is
responsibl e for having perfected them in such a
highl y arti stic and admirabl e manner.
 iii  iii tv.J ·H: • /pJ .=f ii 611, HJJ B
/pJ .:t tv.J • ,11 T o /f' m * t1! JJJ ie , m
/pJ f IJ! I! • JJ! JR tr I! tt r&
liJ fl Jft JJJ' flJ
re 9t lil t8R nx: rfl lil .R ;ft" * J! m
ft tv.Jo  m §I. Jt re. J: t(.J tt
ft/pJ W\,. :I! f,F
fto mi * r:J m' ii m m §.
Jt, JI i! * JfJ T 1£ ::f 1fi:
4ij * PJq iii!Jl M«
flj ru fill J: t(.J t! /pJ • .d:o /pJ 1
t(.j .s11wa9E ae; 5e m
INDEX
As all the subjects in this book have been ar
ranged in alphabeti cal order (as far as make up
all ows) no index is necessa ry.
Books and publications consulted:
Henri Poinca re LA SCIENCE ET L'HIPOTESE, Pari s 1901.
Lui gi Dami I GIARDINI ITALI AN! Bes tetti Tuminelli , Milano 1925.
Hornung's Handbook of DESIGN AND DEVI CES Dover Publi cation, New York 1946.
Cesa re Bairat i LA SIMMETRIA DINAMI CA Tambur ini , Milano 1952.
Alexa ndre Speltz LES STYLES DE L' ORNEM ENT Hoepli , Milano 1930.
Ga rdner Murphy SOMMARIO DI PSICOLOGIA Ei naudi, Torino 1957.
Egmont Colerus IL ROMANZO DELLA GEOMETRIA Garzant i, Mil ano 1937.
Bruno Zevi POET ICA DELL'ARCHITETTURA NEOPLASTICA Tamburini , Milano 1953.
Mauri ce Kraitchik LA MATHEMATIQUE DES JEUX, Pari s 1930.
BAUHAUS 19191928, The Museum of Modern Arc, New York 1938.
Marcel Poete LA CITTA ANTI CA Ei naudi , Torino 1928.
David Diringer L'ALFABETO NELLA STORIA DELLA CIVILTA Barbera, Fi renze 1937.
Arthur Drexler THE ARCHITECTURE OF JAPAN The Museum of Modern Arc, New York 1955.
Ernst Mossel VOM GEHEIMNI S DER FORM UNO DER URFORM DES SEINS, Stuccgarc 1938.
Gyorgy Kepes LANGUAGE OF VI SION Theobald, Chi cago 1944.
Gyorgy Kepes THE NEW LANDSCAPE Theobald , Chicago 1956.
Karl Gerscner KALTE KUNST? Ni ggli , Teufen AR, Svizzera 1957.
Wolfgang von Wersin DAS BUCH VOM RECHTECK Mai er, Ravensburg 1956.
Hugo Steinhaus MATHEMATI CAL SNAPSHOTS Oxford University Press, New York 1937.
David Katz LA PSICOLOG IA DELLA FORMA Einaudi , Torino 1948.
Giuseppe Ronchetti DI ZIONARIO ILLUSTRATO DEi SIMBOLI Hoepli, Milano 1922.
Edward Kasner I James Newma nn MATEMATICA E IMMAGINAZIONE Bompi ani, Mi lano 1948.
ENCICLOPEDIA DELLE MATEMATI CHE ELEMENTARJ Hoepli , Milano 1930 1950.
Pio Emanuelli IL CIELO E LE SUE MERAVI GLIE Hoepli , Milano 1934.
Umberto Forri GEOMETRIA PIANA Paravia, Mil ano 1947.
Leonard Woll ey IL MESTIERE DELL'ARCHEOLOGO Einaudi , Torino 1957.
DE STIJ L Stedel ijk Moseum, Amsterdam 195 1.
KONKRETE KUNST Kunsthalle, Basel 1944.
ARTE ASTRATTA E CONCRETA Alfie ri e Lacroix, Mil ano 1947.
AUJOURD' HUI, Pari s, n. 349.
Cl VILTA DELLE MACCHINE, Roma 1954 1958.
SCIENT IFI C AMERI CAN, New York, 5/ 1958, I 111 958.
ILLUSTRA ZIONE SCIENTIFICA, Mil ano 1955.
ART, Pari s.
ENCICLOPEDIA DELLA CIVILTA ATOMI CA, II Saggiatore, Mil ano 195960.
Bor is de Rachewil tz INCONTRO CON L'ARTE EG IZl ANA, Marcell o, Mil ano, 1958.
THE SQUARE
DISCOVERY OF THE SQUARE
Bruno Munari
© 1960 Bruno Munari
All ri ghts reser ved by Mauri zio Corraini s. r.I.
No part of t his book may be reproduced or 1ransmi1tcd in any
form or by any means (deciron ic or mechanical, incl uding
photocopying, recording or any information rc1ricval sys1cm)
without permi ss io n in writing from the publisher.
Ori ginal firs t editi on publi shed in 1960 Schciwill cr, Mil a no
Mauri zio Corraini firsr editi on 2006
Mauri zio Corraini second rcprinr 2011
l"hc publis her will be at complete disposal 10 whom migh1 be rclaicd
co chc unidentified sources printed in t his book.
Tra nslati on corra ini Studi o
Printed in lraly by
Sril graf, Viada na, Ma nrova
November 201 1
Mauri zio Corraini s. r.I.
via Ippoli to Nievo, 7/A
46 100 Mantova
tel. 0039 0376 322753
fax 0039 0376 365566
e mail: sito@corrain i.com
www. corrain i.com
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue reading from where you left off, or restart the preview.