DENTAL MATERIALS #3 WATER – POWDER RATIO FOR GYPSUM

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Premature separation would make the cast powdery Prolonged contact of the cast and impression will result to a powdery cast surface


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o PLASTER: 45-55cc of water per 100g DENTAL STONE: 28-30cc of water per 100g DENTAL STONE HIGH STRENGTH: 22-24cc of water per 100g DENTAL STONE HIGH STRENGTH HIGH EXPANSION: 18-22cc of water per 100g

*POWDERY CAST SURFACE IS NOT A GOOD CAST* 30mins – 1hr – good time to separate PENETROMETERS (PENETRATION TESTS) • VICAT NEEDLE or 1/4lb GILMORE NEEDLE o o Measures initial setting time When the surface of the mix resists the needle, it has reached initial setting time

*Has different size of particles *Bigger crystal size needs more water to create a creamy consistency • RUBBER BOWL SHOULD HAVE WATER FIRST BEFORE THE POWDER TO: • • Prevent entrapment of bubbles in the mix 1- 1 ½ mins at 120 rpm Let the mix settle for 30 seconds, first

1lb GILMORE NEEDLE o o Measures final setting time

THEORETICAL FACTORS TO ALTER SETTING TIME: • NUMBER OF NUCLEI OF CRYSTALIZATION o The more nuclei, the faster the setting time

SETTING REACTION OF GYPSUM PRODUCTS:

RATE OF CRYSTAL GROWTH o The higher the rate of crystal growth, the faster the setting reaction

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H2O + CaSO4 x ½ H2O ↔ CaSO4 x 2 H2O + HEAT H2O + (CaSO4)2 x H2O ↔ CaSO4 x 2 H2O + HEAT Reversible manufacturing and setting processes •

SOLUBILITY OF HEMIHYDRATE o The more soluble, the faster the setting reaction

SETTING TIME: • INITIAL SETTING TIME

PRACTICAL FACTORS: • IMPURITIES o • Faster setting reaction

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Subtract from initial setting time at the last temperature (same as the 2nd increase from the initial temperature)

FINENESS o More soluble

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7 – 13mins To know when to trim the excess materials that may cover the tray •

WATER-POWDER RATIO o o More water, longer setting More powder, faster setting

FINAL SETTING TIME o Tells us when to separate the impression from the cast 20mins

MIXING TIME AND TECHNIQUE o More rapid mixing technique, faster setting

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TEMPERATURE OF MIXING WATER o o o Colder, longer setting Hotter, faster setting Should not exceed 50°C because it will reverse the reaction   o o Crystals will be poisoned Solubility rate will retard

RIGHT TEMP OF WATER: 30-50°C No setting will take place when temperature used is the boiling point of water (100°C)

ADDITION OF CHEMICAL MODIFIERS o ACCELERATORS   Speeds up setting Makes the coating of hemihydrates thinner to make it more soluble to water for faster setting NaCl (salts in low concentration) Less than 5% KSO4


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RETARDERS  Prolongs setting • Creates more surface coating of hemihydrates to make it thicker making it less soluble to water for slower/longer setting Borax Citrate Nitrate NaCl (salts in high concentration)

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Rosette Go 111808 

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