OHE M1 ENAMEL • Hard protective substance that covers the tooth surface • • • • • Hardest biologic tissue in the human

body Covers the anatomical crown Provides shape and contour for the crowns Poor conductor of heat and electricity Becomes thinner within the fissures

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Perpendicular to DEJ; originates at DEJ ENAMEL PRISM – hexagonal and prism like CYLINDRICAL ROD – paddle-shaped with head and tail

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Arranged in tent-like manner Pathway of progress of caries follow enamel rod TRANSVERSE STRIATIONS  Dark lines crossing the rods

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PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF ENAMEL: • extremely hard • • • • brittle white to grayish-white permeable to a limited extent specific gravity is 2.8 smooth and glossy •

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GNARLED ENAMEL ROD  Tortuous intertwining pathways of enamel rods Offers greatest resistance to the cuspal and incisal areas

ENAMEL ROD SHEATH o o o o Contains more enamel proteins More acid resistant than other regions Fish-scale appearance of enamel matrix Rod’s surface (core)

COMPOSITION OF ENAMEL: • INORGANIC MATERIAL o 96 – 68% HYDROXYAPATITE absorbs the ff substances:      • VANADIUM MANGANESE SELENIUM MOLYBDENUM STRONIUM •

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INTERROD ENAMEL o Cements rods

STRUCTURAL CHARACTERISTICS OF ENAMEL • INCREMENTAL LINES OF RETZIUS o o o o Oblique lines Marks primary calcification of enamel Concentric rings PERIKYMATA  o Shallow horizontal grooves

ORGANIC MATERIAL o o 2 – 4% Includes water

AMELOGENINS • Immature fetal enamel

Contains high proportions of GLUTAMIC ACID, PROLINE & HISTIDINE

NEONATAL LINE   More pronounced incremental line Seen in most primary teeth and permanent central incisor

ENAMELINS • Mature enamel proteins STRUCTURES OF ENAMEL: • ENAMEL RODS o Structural unit •

TRANSVERSE STRIATIONS

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Bands or cross striations Marks daily appositional growth of enamel

EROSION o Loss of tooth substance due to chemical means Acids, chemical fumes (people working in factories, wind instrument musicians) From vomiting

BANDS OF HUNTER-SCHREGER o o o Change of rod direction Prevents enamel cracking during mastication • o DIAZONES o  o Dark bands Loss of tooth substance (non-carious) at the surface of the teeh due to masticatory stress CUSPAL FLEXURE  Causes changes at enamel on the cervical area o

ABFRACTION

PARAZONES o  Light bands

ENAMEL TUFTS o o Abrupt change in direction of rods Lateral spread of caries •

LOSS OF PERIKYMATA

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Depression on the surface of enamel which are manifested as incremental lines of retzius

ENAMEL LAMELLAE o o Cracks Pathway for bacteria to penetrate the enamel •

DISCOLORATION

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Drinking colored beverages Smoking: nicotine stain Extrinsic discoloration Intrinsic discoloration

ENAMEL SPINDLE o Hypersensitivity of DEJ ectomesenchyme in origin comes form odontoblastic spindle

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REDUCED PERMEABILITY NECROTIC PULP TISSUE o Discoloration of tooth by non-functioning pulp tissue

DENTINO-ENAMEL JUNCTION o o Junction between enamel and dentin Scalloped profile in cross section •

MODIFICATION OF SURFACE LAYER o Due to wear and tear

AGE CHANGES: • ATTRITION o Physiologic wearing away of tooth substance due to occlusal contact (masticatory stress)

REDUCTION IN INCIDENCE OF CARIES o Less caries as a person ages

CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS: • FLUORIDATION o Fluoride incorporated in water Optimum ratio of fluoride in water: 1/1,000,000 • FLUOROSIS

ABRASION o Loss of tooth substance because of mechanical means like tooth brushing Cervical abrasion because of horizontal brushing

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Condition where the teeth are chalky white

FLUORIDIZATION o Topical application of fluoride

DENTAL CARIES o o #1 disease affecting the tooth Destruction of hard tissue structure and depletion of proteins Affects the enamel, dentin and cementum

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ACID ETCHING o BRACES (orthodontic cases)  Use of PHOSPHORIC ACID to expose the enamel rods for better anchorage of the brackets

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Good to know: follow the direction of enamel rod when making a cavity preparation so that there will be no carious parts left behind.

-Rosette Go 011509 

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