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THE UNIVERSITY OF LAHORE SARGODHA CAMPUS

Synopsis for the e!ree of M"S"#M"Phi$.

PART-1(to be completed by the student)

Name of Student epartment Re!"strat"on No.

Amna Manzoor

Mana!ement sc"ences P#A$%1&'$1' ate

of

Thes"s

Name of Research Super("sor T"tle of Research Proposal

Re!"strat"on Respected s"r Na(eed )assan

Per%eption

Of

Po$iti%s

&n

Or!&ni'&tion

Citi'enship (eh&)ior* A Mo er&tion Me i&tion St+ y

Summary of the Research Proposal The a"m of my study "s to de(elop the understand"n! of employee or!an"zat"on c"t"zensh"p beha("or "n react"on of Percept"on of pol"t"cs. ra*"n! on the soc"al e+chan!e theory, "mpress"on mana!ement theory and stress frame*or-, my stud"es see-"n! to e+pla"n ho* employees percept"on of pol"t"cs *"ll "nfluence the"r or!an"zat"on c"t"zensh"p

Amna Manzoor.

epartment of #us"ness Adm"n"strat"on

beha("or. / *"ll also e+am"ne the med"at"n! role of cyn"c"sm and moderat"n! role of abus"(e super("s"on on P0P-01# relat"onsh"p. / hypothes"zed that throu!h the med"at"on of cyn"c"sm P0P *"ll suppress the 01# of employees and abus"(e super("s"on moderates the ne!at"(e relat"on amon! P0P and 01#. amon! P0P and 01#. ata *"ll be obta"ned from the employees of Pa-"stan Ra"l*ay throu!h 2uest"onna"re to chec- the d"rect and "nd"rect relat"onsh"p "fferent data analys"s techn"2ues *"ll be used to f"nd the results. Mult"ple re!ress"on and 1orrelat"on analys"s techn"2ues *"ll be used to chec- the relat"onsh"p amon! (ar"ables.

/ntroduct"on. Pa-"stan Ra"l*ay "s the help"n! hand of the country and "t "s the nat"on*"de transport ser("ce. 3ederal !o(ernment "s adm"n"strat"n! "t under the department of Ra"l*ays and "ts head sect"on "s "n 4ahore. Throu!hout the Pa-"stan "t "s the central source of transportat"on. No* days Pa-"stan Ra"l*ay "s suffer"n! from ser"ous cr"ses and "t "s not able to pro("de 2ual"ty ser("ces. The or!an"zat"on c"t"zensh"p beha("or amon! the employees "s seems to be lo*. /t "s the *or- beha("or that prom"ses for the success of or!an"zat"on "n lon! run but "n (ar"ous manners "t does not fall under the con(ent"onal assessment of 5ob performance. 0r!an"zat"on c"t"zensh"p beha("or "s (ery "mportant for or!an"zat"on for "mpro(ement, no(elty, product"("ty and compet"n! *"th e+ternal en("ronment (6an yne, 7raham, 8 "enesch, 199:).;hen employees see that there "s no fa(orable treatment *"th them they *"ll unl"-ely to perform 01#s. S"nce pol"t"cs "s a conta!"on phenomenon *"th"n or!an"zat"ons, the "mpact of or!an"zat"onal pol"t"cs on 01# has !ot so much "mportance ()s"n-)ua )s"un! et al., &$1&). /t "s obser(ed that there "s no proper super("s"on "n the Pa-"stan Ra"l*ay. Research proposes that the employees rec"procate the support"(e leadersh"p beha("ors by en!a!"n! "n 01#s and deny 01#s *hen super("sor "s abus"(e or less support"(e. /t "s also seems that there "s percept"on of d"shonesty and lac-ness of "nte!r"ty amon! the employees of Pa-"stan Ra"l*ay. ue to these "ssues th"s department "s not *or-"n! *ell.

Amna Manzoor.

epartment of #us"ness Adm"n"strat"on

S"!n"f"cance of Study Pol"t"cs "n the or!an"zat"on "s a fact. Percept"on of pol"t"cs "s found almost e(ery*here *"th"n the or!an"zat"on. My study *"ll helpful "n f"nd"n! out the effect of percept"on of pol"t"cs on or!an"zat"on c"t"zensh"p beha("or (the (oluntar"ly pos"t"(e beha("or by the employees).The results of my study *"ll ad(ance the theoret"cal (alue of the relat"onsh"p amon! percept"ons of or!an"zat"onal pol"t"cs and or!an"zat"onal c"t"zensh"p beha("ors by 5o"n"n! to!ether the soc"al e+chan!e theory, occupat"onal stress perspect"(e and "mpress"on mana!ement theory. #y cons"der"n! soc"al e+chan!e theory, "mpress"on mana!ement theory and occupat"onal stress perspect"(e th"s study "s !o"n! to e+pla"n ho* percept"on of or!an"zat"onal pol"t"cs (P0P) put effect on or!an"zat"onal c"t"zensh"p beha("or (01#) throu!h d"fferent psycholo!"cal processes. The f"nd"n!s of my study *"ll help full for mana!er "n "ncreas"n! or!an"zat"onal effect"(eness and performance. My study *"ll also accommodate "n assess"n! the role of abus"(e super("s"on on the P0P-01# relat"onsh"p, *h"ch *"ll be (ery helpful for the mana!er "n -no*"n! *h"ch leadersh"p style they should adopt. 0b5ect"(es of Study< Research =uest"ons There are follo*"n! ob5ect"(es < research 2uest"ons of my stud"es. To obser(e the relat"onsh"p amon! percept"on of pol"t"cs on or!an"zat"on c"t"zensh"p beha("or. To obser(e the "mpact of percept"on of pol"t"cs on or!an"zat"on c"t"zensh"p beha("or "n the presence of or!an"zat"onal cyn"c"sm as med"ator. To obser(e the "mpact of percept"on of pol"t"cs on or!an"zat"on c"t"zensh"p beha("or "n the presence of Abus"(e super("s"on as moderator "n the presence of or!an"zat"onal cyn"c"sm as med"ator.

Amna Manzoor.

epartment of #us"ness Adm"n"strat"on

4"terature Re("e*< Theoret"cal 3rame*orThe concept of 0r!an"zat"on c"t"zensh"p beha("or *as f"rst t"me thou!ht up by #ateman and 0r!an "n (19>'), dra*"n! on the concept"on of ?*"ll"n!ness to cooperate,@ descr"bed by #ranard "n 19'> and an"el AatzBs d"st"nct"on amon! "n role 5ob performance and spontaneous beha("or "n the or!an"zat"on "n 19C: (Podsa-off et al., &$$$). 1"t"zensh"p beha("or "s def"ned as ?the employee beha("or that "s abo(e and beyond the call of duty and "s therefore d"scret"onary and not re*arded "n the conte+t of an or!an"zat"onDs formal re*ard structure@ (Aono(s-y 8 Pu!h 199:, p.CEC). Stud"es ha(e found that there "s a lacof harmony about the d"mens"onal"ty 01# and there are almost '$ types of c"t"zensh"p beha("or ha(e been e+tended (Podsa-off et al., &$$$). There are f"(e *ell -no*n d"mens"ons of 01# *h"ch are cate!or"zed as altru"sm, courtesy, c"("c ("rtue, consc"ent"ousness and sportsmansh"p (4o 8 Ramayah, &$$9). Politics "s a fact *"th"n the or!an"zat"on. Personal -no*led!e, "ntu"t"on and sub5ect"(e data for the year ha(e susta"ned the un"(ersal bel"ef that the beha("ors *"th"n the or!an"zat"on are fre2uently pol"t"cal "n nature (3err"s 8 -acmar, 199&). The f"rst model of percept"on of pol"t"cs *as purposed "n 19>9 by 3err"s and h"s collea!ue. The d"mens"ons of P0Ps based on three factors ".e super("s"or beha("or, co*or-er and cl"2ue beha("or, or!an"zat"on pol"t"cs and pract"ces (3err"s 8 Aacmar, 199&). Percept"on of pol"t"cs subm"tted as the act"on by the or!an"zat"onal members that are perce"(ed as self concerned and are e+pressed as promot"n! membersB o*n ob5ect"(es *"thout cons"der"n! for the *elfare of others or the *hole or!an"zat"on ()arr"s et al., &$$%). 0r!an"zat"onal pol"t"cs def"ned as the comple+ assortment of author"ty, control and the "nterest see-"n! act"("t"es that may control the act"on of the "nd"("dualsB "n the *or- sett"n! ()s"un! et al. &$1&). /t has been obser(ed that employeesB *or- att"tude and beha("oral outcomes are "nfluenced by or!an"zat"on pol"t"cs (chan! et al., &$1&). The l"n- amon! percept"on of pol"t"cs and or!an"zat"on c"t"zensh"p beha("or has !et more attent"on "n recent years. The l"n- amon! P0P and 01# has been mo(ed on throu!h (ar"ous theoret"cal perspect"(es, but research has not st"ll clar"fy the nature of th"s relat"onsh"p. The result of some emp"r"cal stud"es has establ"shed that there e+"sts the ne!at"(e relat"on amon! P0P

Amna Manzoor.

epartment of #us"ness Adm"n"strat"on

and 01# (1han!, Rosen, 8 4e(y, &$$9F Randall et al., 1999). *h"le the results of some other stud"es ha(e re(ealed the P0P "s pos"t"(ely related *"th 01# or ha(e no assoc"at"on *"th 01# (chan!, Rosen et al. &$1&). /n a pol"t"cal or!an"zat"on re*ards are related to the personal relat"onsh"ps, "nfluence and other less "mportant th"n!s. ue to *h"ch the en("ronment become uncerta"n because there are undef"ned rules for !ett"n! promot"on and success chan!e as "nfluence and control of those play"n! polt"cal !ames fluctuates (1han!, Rosen, 8 4e(y, &$$9). The soc"al e+chan!e theory (#lau, 19C:) supports the ne!at"(e relat"onsh"p amon! P0P and 01#. Accord"n! to soc"al e+chan!e theory, h"!hly pol"t"cal en("ronment of *or-place demoral"ze the employeesB conf"dence on the re*ard system of the or!an"zat"on due to uncerta"nty and percept"ble unfa"rness (chan!, Rosen et al. &$1&). So, "n e+chan!e of th"s employee *"ll tend reduce the"r 01#. The pos"t"(e relat"on amon! P0P and 01# "s supported by "mpress"on mana!ement theory (#ol"no, 1999). Th"s theory cons"ders 01# as a e+press"on of self ser("n! a"ms and helpful bel"efs. ;hen employees ha(e percept"on that there "s pol"t"cs "n the or!an"zat"on, th"s sho*s that soc"al relat"onsh"ps and pol"t"cal control play (ery "mportant role "n the"r promot"on then the"r actual tas- performance. As a result employees adopt "ma!e bu"ld"n! tr"c-s and prefer to ma-e "nterpersonal relat"onsh"p for !ett"n! promot"on ()s"un! et al., &$1&). Accord"n! to stress l"terature the nature of P0PG 01# relat"onsh"p may be ne!at"(e or pos"t"(e, thus stress l"terature pro("des a broader e+pla"nat"on than soc"al e+chan!e ("e*po"nt. The transact"onal stress frame *or- says that the employees respond to the"r percept"on rather then real"ty. The stress l"terature says that pol"t"cs may al*ays be not a ne!at"(e or fr"!hten"n! part of *or- (chan!, et al., &$1&). The a"m of my study to f"nd the clear relat"onsh"p amon! P0P and 01#. Hypothesis ,* P0P "s ne!at"(ely related to the 01#. Organizational cynicism "s a ne!at"(e att"tude to*ard oneDs employ"n! or!an"zat"on, compr"s"n! three d"mens"ons. (1) a bel"ef that the or!an"zat"on lac-s "nte!r"tyF (&) ne!at"(e affect to*ard the or!an"zat"onF and (') tendenc"es to d"spara!"n! and cr"t"cal beha("ors to*ard the or!an"zat"on that are cons"stent *"th these bel"efs and affect ( ean et al., 199>, p.':E). There are f"(e ma5or conceptual"zat"ons of cyn"c"sm 1.personal"ty approach of cyn"c"sm &. Soc"etal<"nst"tut"onal approach '.0ccupat"onal cyn"c"sm focus

Amna Manzoor.

epartment of #us"ness Adm"n"strat"on

:.Hmployee cyn"c"sm focus E.0r!an"zat"onal chan!e focus ( ean, #randes, 8 har*ad-ar, 199>). Hmployees *ho ha(e percept"on that the"r or!an"zat"on "s only perform"n! the act"("t"es for "ts o*n benef"ts relat"(ely then the employees, *"ll ta-e the or!an"zat"on less honest, thus *"ll not trust on the or!an"zat"on and *"ll lead these employees to de(elop a cyn"cal att"tude to*ards the"r or!an"zat"on thus ne!at"(e relat"on e+"st amon! P0P and cyn"c"sm (#ash"r et al., &$11). Hypothesis -. P0P "s pos"t"(ely related *"th cyn"c"sm. 1yn"cal employees seems to be ne!at"(ely related *"th the beha("ors that are benef"c"al for the or!an"zat"on and less l"-ely to contr"bute to o(erall or!an"zat"onal effect"(eness. The results of the f"nd"n!s of (H(ans, 7oodman, 8 a("s, &$11) sho*s that there e+"sts a ne!at"(e assoc"at"on amon! or!an"zat"onal cyn"c"sm and 01#, *h"le the f"nd"n!s from (;"l-erson et al., &$$>) not re(ealed any s"!n"f"cant ne!at"(e relat"onsh"p amon! or!an"zat"on cyn"c"sm and 01#. H+pectancy theory supports the ne!at"(e relat"onsh"p amon! or!an"zat"on cyn"c"sm and 01#. Accord"n! to (;"l-erson et al., &$$>) employees *ho ha(e cyn"cal att"tude *"ll ha(e more d"ssat"sfact"on and frustrat"on, thus the 01# of these employees must be ne!at"(ely effected. Soc"al e+chan!e theory also supports the ne!at"(e relat"on amon! or!an"zat"on cyn"c"sm and 01#. Accord"n! to H(ans, 7oodman 8 a("s (&$1$), "t "s unl"-ely to ha(e e+pectat"on from the employees to en!a!e "n the beha("ors that are benef"c"al for the or!an"zat"on and other help"n! beha("ors, *ho ha(e the percept"on that the"r or!an"zat"on "s not honest. Hypothesis .* 1yn"c"sm has ne!at"(e relat"onsh"p *"th 01#. Med"at"n! relat"on Prel"m"nary research proposes that P0P *ould be pos"t"(ely related *"th or!an"zat"onal cyn"c"sm (#ash"r et al., &$11) and the Prel"m"nary research also proposes that the or!an"zat"onal cyn"c"sm ha(e a ne!at"(e assoc"at"on *"th 01# (H(ans, 7oodman, 8 a("s, &$1$). Therefore "f *e put these t*o statements to!ether, "t "s reasonable to say that cyn"c"sm may med"ate the ne!at"(e relat"onsh"p amon! P0P and 01# ".e. *hen employees ha(e the percept"on of pol"t"cs "n the or!an"zat"on they *"ll start bel"e("n! that

Amna Manzoor.

epartment of #us"ness Adm"n"strat"on

the or!an"zat"on lac-s honesty (".e., or!an"zat"onal cyn"c"sm), and thus they *"ll de(elop more ne!at"(e att"tudes to*ards the or!an"zat"on and the beha("ors they perform *"th"n the or!an"zat"on. Hypothesis /. 0r!an"zat"onal cyn"c"sm med"ates the ne!at"(e relat"on amon! P0P and 01#. Abusive supervision refers to the subord"nateD percept"ons of the e+tent to *h"ch super("sors en!a!e "n the susta"ned d"splay of host"le (erbal and non(erbal beha("ors, e+clud"n! phys"cal contact. (Tepper, &$$$, p. 1%>). emoral"z"n!, e+plos"(e erupt"on and open cr"t"c"sm are some e+amples of the beha("ors that comes under the abus"(e super("s"on substance area (Tepper, Moss, 8 uffy, &$11). Research proposes that the employees rec"procate the support"(e leadersh"p beha("ors by en!a!"n! "n 01#s and deny 01#s *hen super("sor "s abus"(e or less support"(e. The *or- of (Iellars, Tepper, 8 abus"(e super("s"on and 01#. Soc"al e+chan!e theory supports the ne!at"(e relat"on amon! abus"(e super("s"on and 01#. Soc"al e+chan!e theory says that the "nsulted employees *"ll not a!ree to perform the"r 01#s (4"u 8 ;an!, &$1&). The ne!at"(e relat"on amon! abus"(e super("s"on and 01# also supported by reactance theory. Accord"n! to reactance theory the frustrated employees *"ll en!a!e "n beha("ors that *"ll repa"r the"r sense of control and one poss"ble *ay to repa"r the percept"ons of mana!"n! the control "s to e+erc"se "ndependence or d"plomacy by oneBs beha("or (Iellars, Tepper, 8 uffy, &$$&). Hypothesis"0. Abus"(e super("s"on "s ne!at"(ely related to 01#. Moderat"n! relat"on No d"rect relat"onsh"p amon! P0P and abus"(e super("s"on has been establ"shed. There e+"st ne!at"(e relat"on amon! abus"(e super("s"on and 01# (Iellars, Tepper, 8 uffy, &$$&)./t "s proposed ne!at"(e relat"onsh"p amon! 01# and P0P *"ll be moderated by abus"(e super("s"on "n the med"at"on of or!an"zat"on cyn"c"sm. The ne!at"(e relat"on amon! P0P and 01# *"ll be stron!er *hen there "s abus"(e super("s"on. No up to date stud"es ha(e made to see the role of abus"(e super("s"on as a med"ator. The a"m of my study "s to f"ll th"s !ap. uffy, &$$&) sho* that there e+"st ne!at"(e relat"on amon!

Amna Manzoor.

epartment of #us"ness Adm"n"strat"on

Hypothesis 1. 3or h"!h cyn"c"sm, the relat"onsh"p amon! P0P and 01# *"ll be moderated by Absu"(e super("s"on. Spec"f"cally the ne!at"(e relat"on amon! P0P and 01# *"ll be stron!er *hen employees report for h"!h Abus"(e super("s"on.

)ypothes"s 3ollo*"n! hypothes"s are de(eloped. Hypothesis ,* P0P "s ne!at"(ely related to the 01#. Hypothesis -. P0P "s pos"t"(ely related *"th cyn"c"sm. Hypothesis .* Cyn"c"sm has ne!at"(e relat"onsh"p *"th 01#. Hypothesis /. 0r!an"zat"onal cyn"c"sm med"ate the ne!at"(e relat"on amon! P0P and 01#. Hypothesis"0. Abus"(e super("s"on "s ne!at"(ely related to 01#. Hypothesis 1. 3or h"!h cyn"c"sm, the ne!at"(e relat"onsh"p bet*een P0P and 01# *"ll be moderated by Abus"(e super("s"on. Spec"Jcally, the ne!at"(e relat"onsh"p bet*een P0P and 01# *"ll

Amna Manzoor.

epartment of #us"ness Adm"n"strat"on

be stron!er *hen employees report h"!h Abus"(e super("s"on.

Research Methodolo!y S&2p$in! str&te!y The tar!et sample of th"s study are the employees of Pa-"stan Ra"l*ay "n d"fferent c"t"es of Pa-"stan. As 01# amon! the employees of Pa-"stan Ra"l*ay seems to be lo*. Nonprobab"l"ty con(en"ence sampl"n! method *as selected. ata *"ll be collected throu!h 2uest"onna"res. Mult"ple Re!ress"on and 1orrelat"on analys"s techn"2ues *"ll be used to chec- the relat"onsh"p amon! (ar"ables. 1ronbachBs alpha *"ll be used to chec- the "nternal cons"stency of data. Me&s+rin! V&ri&3$es Percept"on of pol"t"cs. The P0P *"ll measured by the percept"ons of pol"t"cs scale (P0PS) *h"ch *as des"!ned Aacmar and her collea!ues (Aacmar 8 3err"s, 199&). The complete P0PS d"mens"ons

Amna Manzoor.

epartment of #us"ness Adm"n"strat"on

conta"n three factors. super("sor beha("or, co *or-er and col"2ue beha("or, and or!an"zat"on pol"t"cs and percept"on. /t "s a '1 "tems scale. There are also some re(erse coded "tems "n th"s scale. 0r!an"zat"on c"t"zensh"p beha("or The 01# *"ll measure by us"n! the f"(e d"mens"ons of 01# proposed by 0r!an "n 19>> (4o, 8 Ramayah, &$$9). All 2uest"ons are rated on f"(e po"nt 4"-ert scale ran!"n! from 1 (Stron!ly d"sa!ree) to % (Stron!ly A!ree). /t "s a &$ "tems scale. Abus"(e super("s"on Abus"(e super("s"on *"ll measure by TepperBs (&$$$) 1E-"tem measure of abus"(e super("s"on. A f"(e po"nt l"-ert scale *as use ran!"n! from 1, ? / cannot remember h"m<her e(er us"n! th"s beha("or *"th me,@ to E ?)e<she uses th"s beha("or (ery often *"th me,@ to report ho* often the"r boss used beha("ors. Th"s scale "ncludes 1E "tems. 0r!an"zat"on cyn"c"sm 0r!an"zat"onal cyn"c"sm *"ll measured by us"n! a se(en-"tem scale de(eloped by ;"l-erson et al. (&$$>). The "tems *ere scored on a E-po"nt 4"-ert type scale ran!"n! 1 (stron!ly d"sa!ree) to E (stron!ly a!ree).

#"bl"o!raphy #ash"r, S., Nas"r, M. I., Saeed, S., 8 Ahmed, M. (&$11). #reach of psycholo!"cal contract, percept"on of pol"t"cs and or!an"zat"onal cyn"c"sm. H("dence from Pa-"stan. Afr. J. Bus. Manage, 5('), >>:->>>. #ateman, T. S., 8 0r!an, Journal, &C, E>%GE9E. #lau, P. (19C:). H+chan!e and po*er "n soc"al l"fe. Ne* Lor-. ;"ley. . ;. 19>'. Kob sat"sfact"on and the !ood sold"er. The

relat"onsh"p bet*een affect and employee ?c"t"zensh"p.@ Academy of Management

Amna Manzoor.

epartment of #us"ness Adm"n"strat"on

#ol"no, M. 1. (1999). 1"t"zensh"p and "mpress"on mana!ement. 7ood sold"ers or !ood actorsM Academy of Mana!ement Re("e*, &:, >&G9>. 1han!, 1. )., Rosen, 1. 1., S"em"en"ec, 7. M., 8 Kohnson, R. H. (&$1&). Percept"ons of or!an"zat"onal pol"t"cs and employee c"t"zensh"p beha("ors. 1onsc"ent"ousness and selfmon"tor"n! as moderators. Journal of Business and Psychology, 2 (:), '9E-:$C. 1han!, 1. )., Rosen, 1. 1., 8 4e(y, P. H. (&$$9). The relat"onsh"p bet*een percept"ons of or!an"zat"onal pol"t"cs and employee att"tudes, stra"n, and beha("or. A meta-analyt"c e+am"nat"on. Academy of Management Journal,52(:), %%9->$1. ean, K. ;., #randes, P., 8 har*ad-ar, R. (199>). 0r!an"zat"onal cyn"c"sm. Academy of Management revie!, 2"(&), ':1-'E&. H(ans, ;. R., 7oodman, K. M., 8 Performance, 2$(1), %9-9%. 3err"s, 7. R., 8 Aacmar, A. M. (199&). Percept"ons of or!an"zat"onal pol"t"cs. Journal of management, %&(1), 9'-11C. )s"un!, ). )., 4"n, 1. ;., 8 4"n, 1. S. (&$1&). Nour"sh"n! or suppress"n!M The contrad"ctory "nfluences of percept"on of or!an"zat"onal pol"t"cs on or!an"zat"onal c"t"zensh"p beha("our. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology,&5(&), &E>-&%C. )arr"s, R. #., )arr"s, A. K., 8 )ar(ey, P. (&$$%). A test of compet"n! models of the relat"onsh"ps amon! percept"ons of or!an"zat"onal pol"t"cs, perce"(ed or!an"zat"onal support, and "nd"("dual outcomes. 'he Journal of social psychology, %$ (C), C'1-CEC. Aono(s-y, M. A., 8 Pu!h, S. . (199:). 1"t"zensh"p beha("or and soc"al e+chan!e. Academy of management (ournal, " ('), CEC-CC9. a("s, ;. . (&$1$). The "mpact of perce"(ed

corporate c"t"zensh"p on or!an"zat"onal cyn"c"sm, 01#, and employee de("ance. #uman

Amna Manzoor.

epartment of #us"ness Adm"n"strat"on

4o, M. 1., 8 Ramayah, T. (&$$9). *esearch, 2(1), P:>.

"mens"onal"ty of or!an"zat"onal c"t"zensh"p beha("or

(01#) "n a mult"cultural soc"ety. the case of Malays"a. )nternational Business

4"u, N. L., 8 ;an!, K. (&$1'). Abus"(e super("s"on and or!an"zat"onal c"t"zensh"p beha("our. "s super("sorGsubord"nate !uan+" a med"atorM. 'he )nternational Journal of #uman *esource Management, 2$(%), 1:%1-1:>9. Podsa-off, P. M., MacAenz"e, S. #., Pa"ne, K. #., 8 #achrach, . 7. (&$$$).

0r!an"zat"onal c"t"zensh"p beha("ors. A cr"t"cal re("e* of the theoret"cal and emp"r"cal l"terature and su!!est"ons for future research. Journal of management,2+('), E1'-EC'. Randall, M. 4., 1ropanzano, R., #ormann, 1. A., 8 #"r5ul"n, A. (1999). 0r!an"zat"onal pol"t"cs and or!an"zat"onal support as pred"ctors of *or- att"tudes, 5ob performance, and or!an"zat"onal c"t"zensh"p beha("or. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 2,(&), 1E9-1%:. Tepper, #. K. (&$$$). 1onse2uences of abus"(e super("s"on. Academy of management (ournal, $"(&), 1%>-19$. Tepper, #. K., Moss, S. H., 8 uffy, M. A. (&$11). Pred"ctors of abus"(e super("s"on.

Super("sor percept"ons of deep-le(el d"ss"m"lar"ty, relat"onsh"p confl"ct, and subord"nate performance. Academy of Management Journal, 5$(&), &%9-&9:. 6an yne, 4., 7raham, K. ;., 8 "enesch, R. M. (199:). 0r!an"zat"onal c"t"zensh"p

beha("or. 1onstruct redef"n"t"on, measurement, and (al"dat"on.Academy of management Journal, " (:), %CE->$&. ;"l-erson, K. M., H(ans, ;. R., 8 a("s, ;. . (&$$>). A test of co*or-ersD "nfluence on or!an"zat"onal cyn"c"sm, badmouth"n!, and or!an"zat"onal c"t"zensh"p beha("or. Journal of applied social psychology, "&(9), &&%'-&&9&.

Amna Manzoor.

epartment of #us"ness Adm"n"strat"on

Iellars, A. 4., Tepper, #. K., 8 1$C>.

uffy, M. A. (&$$&). Abus"(e super("s"on and

subord"natesD or!an"zat"onal c"t"zensh"p beha("or. Journal of Applied Psychology, & (C),

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