CIRCULAR

JULY 1948

ICAO

CIRCULAR 6

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AERODROME APPROACH LIGHTS

P r e p a r e d i n t h e Air N a v i g a t i o n Bureau and p u b l i s h e d by authority of t h e Seoretary General
INTERNATIONAL C I V I L AVIATION O R G A N I Z A T I O N CANADA MONTREAL

This publication is issued in English, French and Spanish.

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ICAO Circular 6

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Pa.ge

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TABLE OF CONTENTS SUWARY

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A R D O E APPROACH LIGHTS EORM

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...................................... 2.- The Need f o r Approach L i g h t s .................... 3.- O p e r a t i o n a l C o n s i d e r a t i o n s ...................... 4 . L a t e s t Views on C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s ................. 5.0 Recent P r o g r e s s i n U.5.A ........................ 6.0 F u r t h e r Action .................................. Appendix A * - B i b l i o g r a p h y of Documents ............., Appendix B.- E x t r a c t from F i n a l Report of AGA Second S e s s i o n ....................... Appendix C . A p p l i c a t i o n ............................ A . Proposed by t h e United Kingdom ..... B . Proposed by t h e United S t a t e s ...... C.- Proposed by IATA. .................. D o - Westinghouse High I n t e n s i t y Approach L i g h t s ................. E.- Proposed by t h e United ~ i n ~ d o r .... n. Appendix D m - Guidance ............................... A * - Westinghouse High I n t e n s i t y Approach Lightg.. ............... B.- Proposed by t h e UnJted Kingdom ..... C.- Fundamental P r i n c i p l e s of t h e new System ......................
1.0 H i s t o r i c a l

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Appendix E..

Appendix F .

............................. A * - Proposed by I r e l a n d ................. B.- Proposed by t h e United Kingdom ...... P r o ~ o s e dby t h e United S t a t e s ....... D o - Pro9osed France .................. E.- Proposed by IATA. ..............,.,.. F.- Funnel System a t Arcata, C a l i f o r n i a . Tzlestinghouse High I n t e n s i t y Approach L i g h t s . * ......................... H - Proposed by the United Kingdom ...... . I n t e n s i t y ...............................
Arrangelaent
C.by
G.-

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29 29 30 30

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A*- Proposed by t h e United Kingdom B.0 Proposed by IATA C.- Westinghouse High I n t e n s i t y Approach
Appendix G o - Colour
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light^.....................,.....

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Appendix H.-

.................................. Proposed by I r e l a n d ................. B e - Proposed by t h e United Kingdom. ..... Proposed by t h e United S t a t e s ....... D - Proposed by Denmark ................. . E.- Proposed b y t h e United Kingdom ...... Distance Marking L i g h t s .............,... h . . Proposed by Ireland. ................ B.- Proposed by t h e United S t a t e s ....... C .- Proposed by t h e United Kingdom ......
C.-

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With a view t o improving t h e r e g u l a r i t y of a i r t r a n s p o r t o p e r a t i o n s and a l s o w i t h t h e o b j e c t of providing added s a f e t y d u r i n g approach and l a n d i n g , n o t a b l y when v i s i b i l i t y c o n d i t i o n s a r e low, a number of S t a t e s a r e c o n t i n u i n g t o devote a t t e n t i o n t o t h e problem of developing s u i t a b l e systems of aerodrome approach l i g h t s . S t u d i e s have been made of t h e probable p p e r a t i o n a l r e q u i r e ments f o r such i n s t a l l a t i o n s and t h e s e i n t u r n have been s c i e n t i f i c a l l y analfged and, i n some c a s e s , developed i n t o e n g i n e e r i n g s p e c i f i c a t i o n s . ' S y n t h e t i c a s w e l l a s p r a c t i c a l experiments have been o r a r e being made and f u l l - s c a l e t e s t s a r e c u r r e n t l y i n p r o g r e s s i n v a r i o u s countr2es. The d e s i g n s t h a t a r e under t r i a l a r e based on s e v e r a l d i f f e r e n t conceptions of what guidance t h e p i l o t of an a i r c r a f t r e a l l y needs. T h i s C i r c u l a r c o n t a i n s , i n re-arranged form, e x t r a c t s from numesous papers on approach l i g h t i n g f o r l a n d aerodromes t h a t have been p r e s e n t e d a t ICAO Meetings h e l d i n Montreal d u r i n g t h e p a s t two y e a r s . A r e c o r d i s a l s o given of c e r t a i n i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t has beeh obtained from t h e U.S.A. by t h e S e c r e t a r i a t s i n c e t h e Septernber/October 1947 S e s s i o n of t h e Aerodromes, A i r Routes and Ground Aids D i v i s i o n of I C A O . Included a t t h e end of t h e C i r c u l a r i s a surnmary of f u t u r e a c t i o n suggested by t h e S e c r e t a r i a t , i n an a t t e m p t t o focus a t t e n t i o n on t h o s e m a t t e r s t h a t r e q u i r e u r g e n t a t t e n t i o n , s o t h a t agreement may be reached on I n t e r n a t i o n a l Standards and Recommended P r a c t i c e s f o r approach l i g h t i n g a t t h e 1949 S e s s i o n of t h e AGA D i v i s i o n .

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AERODROME APPROACH LIGHTS 1,

- HISTORICAL

The Aerodromes, Air Routes and Ground Aids Division of ICAO at its Third Session in September/October 1947, studied the problem of standardization specifications for approach lights to be installed at land aerodromes, It concluded that the:>$tageof development reached and the knowledge and experience available were as yet insufficient to permit the formulation of definite proposals for InteEilational Standards and Recommended Practices. However, the Division recommended, and the Air Navigation Committee of Council agreed, that the subject warranted further study by Contracting States and by the Secretariat on top griority, and further that States should be advised to concentrate on such research and development in this field as would lead to early agreement on suitable International Standards. Several States, IATA and the ICAO Secretariat have in the past presented papers on this subject, Some of them were tabled as supporting do~nmentsto the Second and some to the Third Session of the AGA Division. The Division, realizing the value of such contributions, recommended that the Secretariat be authorized to prepare a **brochurencontaining relevant extracts from these documents, together with the text of the Second Sessionss recommendations for Standards and Recommended Practices on the subject. A bibliography of the documents in question is attached as Appendix A; Appendix B gives the specifications developed at the Second Session; and in Appendices C, D, E, F and G, relevant extracts and diagrams developed from these documents are reproduced, The President, acting under authority delegated to him by the ICAO Council, agreed that the Secretariat should prepare an ICAO Circular containing this information, together with any new material that it had succeeded in obtaining since the Divisionss Third Session closed, Accordingly, information secured in the course of one short mission to Washington by a member of the AGA Section who conferred with members of the Approach Light Committee of the U,S, Aeronautical Board, (combined Navy, Air Force and Civil), has been included in this document.

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A s a wide v a r i e t y of systems of approach l i g h t s have been suggested, and a s e x t r a c t s from t h e documents l i s t e d i n Appendix A do n o t i n d i c a t e any c l e a r t r e n d s i n developments, i f taken i n c h r o n o l o g i c a l o r d e r , t h e m a t e r i a l i n t h i s C i r c u l a r h a s been arranged under s u b j e c t headings, I t i s hoped t h i s a r r a n gement w i l l a s s i s t t e c h n i c i a n s t o determine what a r e t h e most a p p r o p r i a t e o p e r a t i o n a l requirements t o adopt a s a b a s i s f o r f u t u r e I n t e r n a t i o n a l Standards and Recommended P r a c t i c e s ,
2,

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THE NEED FOR APPROACH LIGHTS

2.1, It i s g e n e r a l l y agreed t h a t t h e p r i n c i p a l r e a s o n f o r i n s t a l l i n g approach l i g h t s i s t o provide a r e l i a b l e v i s u a l a i d t o p i l o t s d u r i n g t h e l a t t e r p a r t of t h e approach t o l a n d i n g under c o n d i t i o n s of low v i s i b i l i t y by day o r by n i g h t , F u r t h e r more, i t i s accepted t h a t t h e system of l i g h t s should form an i n t e g r a l p a r t both of t h e non-visual ( r a d i o ) approach o r l a n d i n g system and t h e system of runway l i g h t s and/or f o g d i s p e r s a l , A f u r t h e r requirement i s t h a t t h e system of approach l i g h t s should provide a v i s u a l a i d t o approach a t n i g h t when v i s i b i l i t y i s good, (& Appendix C .) 2,2, P o t e n t i a l l y i t would seem t h a t t h e requirements f o r a l a n d i n g a i d under Hzero-zero* v i s i b i l i t y c o n d i t i o n s should be met by a r d i o a i d which i s n o t dependent upon v i s i b i l i t y c o n d i t i o n s f o r i t s e f f e c t i v e o p e r a t i o n . Much h a s been accomp l i s h e d towards t h e p r o v i s i o n of such an a i d ; however, an o p e r a t i o n a l s o l u t i o n t o t h e complete problem, has n o t y e t been achieved, The non-visual l a n d i n g a i d s recommended by t h e I C A O S p e c i a l Radio T e c h n i c a l D i v i s i o n f o r adoption u n t i l 1955 prov i d e a s o l u t i o n t o t h e e x t e n t t h a t f s p r a c t i c a b l e w i t h equipment now a v a i l a b l e , but i t i s recognized t h a t s u p p o r t from v i s u a l a i d s i s s t i l l n e c e s s a r y f o r s a f e t y i n t h e f i n a l phase of t h e approach, (Note.The United Kingdom a r e working on t h e assumption t h a t I L S w i l l b r i n g a i r c r a f t down t o w i t h i n 150 t o 200 f e e t (45 t o 60 metres) of t h e ground, and t o w i t h i n 600 t o 1,000 y a r d s ( 5 5 0 t o 900 metres) of t h e l a n d i n g p o i n t . )
2,3. It i s hoped t h a t by t h e p r o v i s i o n of h i g h i n t e n s i t y approach l i g h t s i t w i l l be p o s s i b l e f o r a i r c r a f t t o be operated r e g u l a r l y even when h o r i z o n t a l v i s i b i l i t y i s cons i d e r a b l y less than i s a c c e p t a b l e with t h e u s e of ILS a l o n e , By v a r y i n g t h e i n t e n s i t y of t h e approach l i g h t s , i t should a l s o be possible t o u s e t h e low v i s i b i l i t y system under f a i r o r good weather c o n d i t i o n s t h u s c o n t r i b u t i n g t o g r e a t e r s a f e t y i n f l y i n g o p e r a t i o n s , If and when a non-visual ( r a d i o ) a i d i s provided

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t o t h e s t a g e which would permit l a n d i n g w i t h s a f e t y and r e g u l a r i t y under tlzero-zerotl c o n d i t i o n s , i t i s b e l i e v e d t h a t i t w i l l s t i l l be n e c e s s a r y t o provide a v i s u a l a i d f o r approach and l a n d i n g a s a s a f e t y check, and t o reduce t o a minimum any u n c e r t a i n t y which t h e p i l o t may f e e l under c o n d i t i o n s of v e r y low v i s i b i l i t y . The q u e s t i o n of j u s t how f a r and a t what r a t e i t 2.4. w i l l be p o s s i b l e and p r a c t i c a b l e t o advance towards o p e r a t i n g a i r c r a f t i n c o n d i t i o n s of tfzero-zerotf v i s i b i l i t y remains, a s y e t , unanswered. I n g e n e r a l , i t would appear t h a t most S t a t e s a r e , a t p r e s e n t , endeavouring t o a r r a n g e f o r l a n d i n g o p e r a t i o n s t o c o n t i n u e u n t i l h o r i z o n t a l v i s i b i l i t y c o n d i t i o n s drop below 400 yards (350 m e t r e s ) . There i s , however, one condenser d i s c h a r g e t y p e of f l a s h i n g l i g h t system t h a t t h e manufacturers hope w i l l be s u i t a b l e f o r u s e i n a l l weather c o n d i t i o n s i n c l u d i n g day f o g w i t h v i s i b i l i t y l e s s than 50 f e e t ( 1 5 m e t r e s ) , b u t a s no t e s t have y e t been made with t h i s system, i t i s c l e a r l y impossible t o p r e d i c t whether or n o t such hopes w i l l be f u l f i l l e d .
*

Apart from t h e numerous t e c h n i c a l problems involved, 2,5. economik c o n s i d e r a t i o r l s should presumably play an important r o l e i n t h e f i n a l d e t e r m i n a t i o n of what a r e t h e most s u i t a b l e approach l i g h t systems, Although v e r y e l a b o r a t e and expensive u l t r a h i g h - i n t e n s i t y i n s t a l l a t i o n s may be n e c e s s a r y and j u s t i f i a b l e a t l a r g e and busy a i r p o r t s , where r e g u l a r i t y i n a i r t r a n s p o r t o p e r a t i o n s i s e s s e n t i a l , l e s s e l a b o r a t e i n s t a l l a t i o n s may s u f f i c e a t o t h e r a i r p o r t s where t h e n a t u r e and d e n s i t y of a i r t r a f f i c i s l e s s c r i t i c a l , For example, i t may be p o s s i b l e t o s t a n d a r d i z e a system which can be developed s t a g e by s t a g e , each s t e p i n t h e p r o c e s s providing f o r r e g u l a r o p e r a t i o n s under lower and lower weather minima, I f such a c o u r s e of a c t i o n were t o be followed, i t would be important t o e n s u r e t h a t a t each s t a g e of development p i l o t s would r e c e i v e t h e same o r a t l e a s t v e r y s i m i l a r guidance, thereby e n a b l i n g s t a n d a r d approach procedures t o be employed without d i f f i c u l t y o r p o s s i b i l i t y of confusion, It may a l s o be t h a t l e s s e l a b o r a t e systems than some now contemplated w i l l prove adequate, even i n c o n d i t i o n s of v e r y poor v i s i b i l i t y , when non-visual ( r a d i o ) a i d s t o l a n d i n g a r e f u r t h e r improved. (See a l s o Paragraph 3,2.1,)

3, - OPERATIONAL
3.1.

CONSIDERATIONS

-

Current Opinion

3.1.1. Opinions v a r y a s t o t h e p r e c i s e n a t u r e and e x t e n t of t h e guidance i t w i l l be n e c e s s a r y t o g i v e t o p i l o t s approachi n g aerodromes t o l a n d i n c o n d i t i o n s of v e r y poor v i s i b i l i t y ,

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A l l Agree t h a t adequate guidance w i l l be needed, b u t , while some t h i n k a simple l i n e of l i g h t s w i l l provide t h i s , o t h e r s b e l i e v e t h a t a more e x t e n s i v e system w i l l be r e q u i r e d .

3.1.2. Another a s p e c t of t h i s q u e s t i o n i s t h a t of A 1 1 a r e agreed t i ~ a tt h e r e must be no possi"identification", b i l i t y of a p i l o t confusing o t h e r l i g h t i n g on o r i n t h e v i c i n i t y of an aerodrome, w i t h t h e approach l i g h t s , nor of h i s mistaking one p a r t of t h e system f o r another.

3.103, Various methods of ensuring c o r r e c t i d e n t i f i c a t i o n
have been s u g g e s t e d , i n c l ~ ~ d i nt g e use of c h a r a c t e r i s t i c c o l o u r s , h l i g h t arrangement, and f l a s h i n g l i g h t s e i t h e r a s primary u n i t s , o r a s u n i t s secondary t o f i x e d l i g h t s , t o achieve c o n s p i c u i t y .

3*1,4. A s t h e s o l u t i o n of t h e whole problem depends u l t i m a t e l y on how much guidance i s t o be provided, it may prove u s e f u l a t t h i s s t a g e t o mention a number of t l o p e r a t i o n a l n s u b d i v i s i o n s of t h i s q u e s t i o n , s o t h a t they can be borne i n mind when examining t h e v a r i o u s answers t h a t have been given:
a ) A t what s t a g e during his approach t o l a n d should a p i l o t be a b l e t o change from instrument t o v i s u a l f l i g h t ?
(&

Paragraph 3 , 2 , 1 , )

b ) For a s u c c e s s f u l approach what i s t h e maximum d e p a r t u r e l i k e l y t o occur h o r i z o n t a l l y and v e r t i c a l l y from t h e p e r f e c t ILS approach a t t h i s p o i n t ?

Some S t a t e s d e s c r i b e the a r e a formed by t h e maximum probable upward/downward and sideways d e p a r t u r e s when l o c a t e d above the midele marker, a s t h e l q p o r t a l t l , ) (See Paragraph 3,2,2,)

Note.-

c ) To what e x t e n t i s v i s u a l guidance needed t o h e l p determine h e i g h t nbove t h e ground (See Paragraph

3.2.30)

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d ) T o what e x t e n t i s f l a t t i t u d e " and l a t e r a l guidance needed? (See Paragraph 3.2.4. ) e ) 'dhat a r e t h e forward and downward v i s i b i l i t y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of t h e c o c k p i t s of types of a i r c r a f t l i k e l y t o be o p e r a t i n g under c o n d i t i o n s n e c e s s i t a t i n g t h e u s e of approach l i g h t s ? (& Paragraph 3 , 2 . 5 , )
f ) To what e x t e n t i s i t d e s i r a b l e t h a t guidance should be given t o t h e c o - p i l o t a s , w e l l a s t h e p i l o t ? (See Paragraph 3.2.6,)

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Page 1 1 Requirements

3,2.

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S t a g e of approach a t which p i l o t should be a& 3.2.1. t o change t o v i s u a l f l i g h t . A t t h e p r e s e n t time t h e p r i n c i p a l aim appears t o be t o provide a system which w i l l e n s u r e t h a t a p i l o t - h a s a v a i l a b l e a- s a t i s f a c t o E y v i s u a l a i d a t l e a s t a t t h e p o i n t when he i s unable s a f e l y t o proceed f u r t h e r w i t h t h e approach u s i n g s o l e l y t h e non-visual a i d .
A s r a d i o a i d s a r e improved emphasis w i l l f a l l on t h e (question of p r o v i d i n g t h e p i l o t w i t h v i s u a l guidance i n s u f f i c i e n t time t o permit of t h e necessary mental adjustments t o enable him t o execute a s a f e l a n d i n g a f t e r changing from i n s trument t o v i s u a l f l i g h t , U n t i l f u r t h e r e x p e r i e n c e i s gained i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o e s t i m a t e whether t h e l e n g t h of approach systems may, o r may n o t be reduced a s r a d i o a i d s a r e improved. (See Paragraph 2.5. )

It w i l l be a p p r e c i a t e d , a l s o , t h a t t h e f o l l o w i n g f a c t o r s must be t a k e n i c t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n when determining what i s t h e most d e s i r a b l e s t a g e f o r a p i l o t t o change t o v i s u a l f l i g h t : t h e p r a c t i c a l l i m i t a t i o n s of i l l u m i n a t i o n , t h e p e n e t r a t i o n of l i g h t through smoke, haze, o r fog, and t h e forward and downward v i s i b i l i t y from t h e c o c k p i t s of t h e t y p e s of a i r c r a f t l i k e l y t o be operated on t h e system.
3.2.2. Maximum d e v i a t i o n h o r i z o n t a l l y and v e r t i c a l l y from i d e a l approach p a t h . A s w i l l be a p p r e c i a t e d , some i d e a Paragraph 3,1.hm (b) i s r e q u i r e d of t h e s i z e of " p o r t a l r t (& t o determine, on t h e b a s i s of a e r o p l a n e v i s i b i l i t y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , j u s t where i t w i l l be p o s s i b l e t o p l a c e l i g h t s s o t h a t a s u f f i c i e n t number can be seen under s p e c i f i e d v i s l b i l i t y cond i t i o n s t o provide t h e necessary guidance, The only p r o p o s a l received t o d a t e i s t h a t of t h e U,S,A,, which h a s s e t down a n o p e r a t i o n a l requirement f o x a p o r t a l 600 f e e t (180 m e t r e s ) wide by 400 f e e t (120 m e t r e s ] deep, 300 f e e t (90 m e t r e s ) above and 1 0 0 f e e t (30 m e t r e s ) below t h e g l i d e p a t h , These measurements a r e based on a s t u d y of t h e r e c o r d s obtained by means of GCA equipment of t h e accuracy of approaches made on ILS a t A r c a t a , C a l i f o r n i a . The f i n d i n g s of o t h e r S t a t e s on t h i s q u e s t i o n would be of v a l u e ,

3 0 2 , 3 , Height guidance, There appear t o be only two systems a t p r e s e n t t h a t a r e designed w i t h a view t o p r o v i d i n g a d e f i n i t e measure o f h e i g h t guidance, The United Kingdom system, developed by M r . E,S, C a l v e r t , and now being t e s t e d a t t h e Royal A i r c r a f t Establishment, Farnborough, and t h e " s l o p e Line Systemf1, developed by H o J o @ o Pearson and A.J. Sweet of t h e U.S,, and being t e s t e d a t Arcata a f t e r being t r a n s f e r r e d from I n d i a n a p o l i s ,

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The former i s based on p r i n c i p l e s of p e r s p e c t i v e from which i t i s hoped t h a t a p i l o t w i l l be a b l e t o judge h i s h e i g h t by means of t h e a p p a r e n t i n c r e a s e o r d e c r e a s e i n t h e lengkh of s u c c e s s i v e h o r i z o n t a l b a r s of l i g h t s arranged t r a n s v e r s e l y a c r o s s t h e extended c e n t r e l i n e of t h e runway, The l e n g t w o f t h e s e b a r s i s such t h a t t h e y w i l l appear t o t h e p i l o t t o be of c o n s t a n t l e n g t h providing t h e approach i s made down t h e c e n t r e If he descends t o o low, t h e s u c c e s s i v e of t h e ILS g l i d e path, b a r s w i l l appear t o become wider, o r i f he ascends above t h e i d e a l approach a n g l e , t h e s u c c e s s i v e b a r s w i l l a p p a r e n t l y decrease i n length, The l a t t e r system c o n s i s t s of a s e r i e s of i n c l i n e d b a r s of l i g h t , s o arranged t h a t they appear a s s t r a i g h t l i n e s when a c o r r e c t approach i s b e i n g made and, if t o o low, o r t o o h i g h , t h e y appear a s a s e r i e s of s t e p s e i t h e r down o r up, according t o whether t h e a i r c r a f t i s h i g h o r low,

he q u e s t i o n 3.2.4. . A t t i t u d e and l a t e r a l ' guidance. of a t t i t u d e guidance i s i n t e r - r e l % t e d w i t h t h a t of providing an i n d i c a t i o n of l a t e r a l d e p a r t u r e from t h e approach c e n t r e l i n e , Opinions range from t h a t ex r e s s e d i n Doc 4752 ~ ~ ~ / 5 4 o5 t,h a t mentioned i n Doc f653 ~GA/521 (E& t Appendix I n t h e f i r s t mentioned documents, t h e need f o r v e r y comD). p l e t e guidance i n t h i s p a r t i c u l a r r e s p e c t i s s t r e s s e d , whereas i n t h e l a s t mentioned paper, t h e t h e o r y i s advanced t h a t l i m i t e d guidance only i s needed, s i n c e a v a i l a b l e r a d i o a i d s w i l l have p l a c e d t h e p i l o t i n a p o s i t i o n from which l i t t l e change, i f any, e i t h e r i n d i r e c t i o n o r i n a t t i t u d e w i l l be n e c e s s a r y d u r i n g t h e comparatively s h o r t time he i s f l y i n g by v i s u a l r e f e r e n c e t o t h e approach l i g h t s . It i s b e l i e v e d t h a t t e s t s a l o n e w i l l i n d i c a t e t h e degree of importance i t w i l l be n e c e s s a r y t o a t t a c h t o providing a t t i t u d e and l a t e r a l guidance.

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3,2,5, V i s i b i l i t y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of a i r c r a f t . Various S t a t e s have p l o t t e d t h e s e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s f o r a number of d i f f e r e n t t y p e s of a i r c r a f t now o p e r a t i n g and proposed f o r o p e r a t i o n i n t h e n e a r f u t u r e , due c o n s i d e r a t i o n having been given t o t h e rob able p a t h s of approach and t h e probable range of a t t i t u d e s of a i r c r a f t on t h e approach. M r , F.C. Breckenridge of t h e U.S, Bureau of S t a n d a r d s h a s had a n m b e r of i n t e r e s t i n g l a n t e r n s l i d e s p r e p a r e d , t o i l l u s t r a t e , f o r two o r t h r e e d i f f e r e n t systems of approach l i g h t s , t h e number of l i g h t s which might be seen from s e v e r a l d i f f e r e n t t y p e s of a i r c r a f t a t v a r i o u s s t a g e s of an approach and d i f f e r e n t d e g r e e s of divergence from t h e i d e a l I L S approach p a t h , An exchange of such i n f o r m a t i o n through I C A O h e a d q u a r t e r s may be of cons i d e r a b l e v a l u e t o some S t a t e s , Should any c o u n t r y s o d e s i r e , t h e AGA S e c r e t a r i a t w i l l make every e f f o r t t o o b t a i n such information.

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326 . . . Guidance for pilot and/or co-pilot. The decision on this issue depends largely on the manner in which aircraft are to be operated or, alternatively, on the practical limitations of design, i.e. the latter may, to some extent, dictate the method of use. From discussions, it would seem that it is generally agreed that the pilot in the left-hand seat must be given first priority in this respect, There are various opinions on the question as to the extent to which guidance should be provided for the co-pilot to enable him to assist the pilot either in initially sighting the lights, or in directing him during the visual part of the approach, particularly when it is commenced from the extreme limits of the portal.

4 .

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LATEST VIEWS ON CHARACTERISTICS

41 ..

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Introduction

411 . . . As will be seen by reference to Appendix E, a wide variety of approach light arrangements have been proposed. Included are a single row of lights, two parallel rows, two or more diverging rows, rnultiple parallel rows and a "herringbonet1 system consisting of a centre line with cross bars. All systems are designed to be placed on a plane as nearly horizontal as possible and at the level of the approach ehd of the runway served. No lights should project above the 1:50 approach surface slope,

412 . . , It is apparent that there will be a considerable difference in the degree of guidance and identification provided by these various systems; the importance of obtaining the results of tests prior to attempting to formulate recommendations for Standards and Recommended Practices on this subject, is clearly indicated.

4,1.3. The United States and the United Kingdom have developed experimental synthetic devices for the purpose of providing a measure of assistance in assessing the relative merits of varf ous proposed arrangements of approach lights. These devices are known respectively as a kinorama (U.S,) and a cyclorame (... US) They should prove useful in providing a closer measure of appreciation and understanding between pilots and technical personnel engaged in the development of approach lighting systems and may thus save extensive tests of unsuitable arrangements of lights, 4 1 4 The following paragraphs indica$e briefly the .., range of suggestions that have been made in regard to the physical characteristics for aerodrome approach lights, Details of these suggestions will be found in Appendices E to H e

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- Length of Approach System

4,2.1, Mos& States have suggested that the approach system should exten'd outwards from the end of the runway for a distance of 3,000 feet (900 metres), in order to provide visual guidabce from the middle marker of the ILS which is generally located at approximately 3,500 feet (945 metresy from the end of the runway, The United Kingdom suggests, and should soon be testing, a system that extends out to a distance of 4,500 feet (1,350 metres), IATA advocates a system extending out to 4,000 feet (1,200 metres) or to the middle marker,
4.2,2. Some States with aerodromes that adjoin navigable waters will experience considerable difficulty in siting a system of even 1,500 feet (450 metres) in length,

4030- Spacin~(Longitudinal)
Suggestions for longitudinal spacings of lights ranging from 25 feet (8 metres) to 300 feet (90 metres) have been made. As mentioned above, this subject is inter-related with that of the intensity of the light and the visibility conditions for which the system is designed, Details of the various spacings proposed are included in Appendix E to this Circular,

4,4,

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Spacing (Lateral)

Where two parallel rows of lights hqve been planned ar installed, it has generally been the practice to arrange them in prolongation of the runway lights, In this regard it is interesting to note the results of tests at Arcata, which are described in Paragraph 5,5 of this Circular, Experience would seem to indicate that some offsetting of the lights would be advantageous, Some countries, notably the United Kingdom, now seem to favour a single central row of lights to two parallel rows

4,5, - Distance Marking
Opinions vary as to the value of providing indications of distance from the runway threshold in an approach lighting system, Clusters, bars and groups of lights of various arrangements and colours have been suggested (See Appendix B), the general idea being to indicate to the pilot which of the following ranges fromothe end of the runway he is in: 0 to 1,000 feet (300 metres); 1,000 feet (300 metres) to 2,000 feet (600 metres); or 2,000 feet (600 metres) to 3,000 feet (900 metres), The question of whether or not some type of distance marking is

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necessary, can probably be settled finally in the near future, after further tests have been made.

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Illumination

4 6 1 It is generally agreed that means of varying ,.. the intensity of approach lights will be required to meet changing conditions of visibility. The maximum intensity required will depend upon the limkting conditions of visibility under which it is required to use the system, the disposition of the lights, and in particular, their longitudinal spacing and colour (see also Paragraph 4 7 ) . . . A further question affecting the intensity required is whether the lights are to be fixed or flashing in character. Most authorities believe that fixed lights should be used, but two Companies at least, are proposing flashing lights.
4,6,2. Suggestions for fixed light intensity vary from a minimum of 10,000 up to 100,000 candles. One type of flashing light is claimed to give a peak intensity of 3,000,000,000candles, Wherever possible, the intensities proposed for the various systems have been shown on the layout sketches included at Appendix E,

4 7 1 Various colours have been proposed, as will ... be seen by reference to Appendices C and E, Most suggestions are based on unmistakable identity or the elimination of possible confusion with other extraneous lighting such as street lighting in the vicinity of an airport, as a primary requirement. It should be noted, however, that at least one State bas suggested that the configuratioh or arrangement should play a major part in meeting this requirement,
The majority of States and IATA agree that 4,7.2. the colour of the lights should be red, except when two or more rows are used, in which case the right-hand row as seen from an aircraft approaching to land, should be yellow. There are many arguments both for and against such colours, some of which are that the red lights might be confused with the aerodrome obstruction lighting and the yellow with street lighting, and further that red filters absorb nearly 75% of the available light,

4,7.3e It has been suggested that white lights supplemented by coloured satellite lights might provide a satisfactory compromise, or alternatively, white lights arranged in a manner best chosen to avoid confusion with street lighting

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might prove more s u i t a b l e . A combination of r e d and yellow l i g h t s i n one row proved, on t e s t a t Arcata, t o be u n s u i t a b l e , a s t h e two l i g h t s tended t o blend t o g e t h e r and c a n c e l each o t h e r out when viewed a t a shallow angle from an a i r c r a f t making an approach,

5, -

RECENT PROGRESS I N U*S.A,

5.1e Of c o n s i d e r a b l e i n t e r e s t i s t h e f a c t t h a t t h e United S t a t e s h a s r e c e n t l y adopted a s s t a n d a r d , a system cons i s t i n g of two p a r a l l e l rows of high b u t v a r i a b l e i n t e n s i t y approach l i g h t s , Although Executive Orders and d i r e c t i v e s have n o t y e t been i s s u e d r e g a r d i n g d e t a i l s of t h i s system, i t has been p o s s i b l e t o o b t a i n some advance i n f o r m a t i o n by c o u r t e s y of t h e C i v i l Aeronautics Administration. The d a t a which i s included a t Appendix E may be modified b e f o r e a s t a r t i s made on t h e a c t u a l i n s t a l l a t i o n of t h e United S t a t e s Standard system.
2 An e x t e n s i v e p r o g r a m e of t e s t s i s planned f o r t h e Landing Aids Experiment S t a t i o n a t Arcata, C a l i f o r n i a , during t h e c u r r e n t y e a r , Some d e t a i l s of t h e l a y o u t of t h e systems i t i s proposed t o t e s t w i l l be found a t Appendix E ,

5.3, A r e p o r t on t h e t e s t s c a r r i e d out d u r i n g 1947 a t Arcata i s expected t o be a v a i l a b l e s h o r t l y , It was d i s covered, i n t e r a l i a , t h a t , f o r t h e purpose of e v a l u a t i n g approach l i g h t i n g systems, i t was v e r y important t o p l a n f o r a comprehensive programme of t e s t s which could be a c c u r a t e l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h t h e c o n d i t i o n s of v i s i b i l i t y o b t a i n i n g i n t h e approach and runway a r e a a t t h e time of each t e s t , For t h i s purpose a number of automatic r e c o r d e r s were i n s t a l l e d a t Arcata i n 1947 and, a t t h i s equipment could n o t be made a v a i l a b l e a t Newark aerodrome, New York, i t h a s been d e c i d e d t o c o n c e n t r a t e t h e whole t e s t programme f o r 1948 a t Arcata,
4 , I n t h e f u t u r e , when high i n t e n s i t y approach l i g h t i n g systems a r e used f o r normal c i v i l a i r t r a n s p o r t o p e r a t i o n s , t h e r e i s a p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t a need w i l l a r i s e f o r t h e i n s t a l l a t i o n of s p e c i a l equipment f o r measuging v i s i b i l i t y i n t h e approach, C o n s i d e r a t i o n of t h i s q u e s t i o n might, i t i s suggested, be postponed u n t i l t h e r e s ~ l t s t h e BPS of D i v i s i o n ' s c a n s a d e r a t i o n of "weather miniman a r e made known.

5.5, It h a s been found i n t e s t s a t Arcata t h a t i n c o n d i t i o n s of low v i s i b i l i t y i t i s v e r y d i f f i c u l t t o i d e n t i f y t h e runway t h r e s h o l d , For t h i s reason, t h e United S t a t e s a r e proposing t o o f f s e t t h e l i n e s of approach l i g h t s a t l e a s t 1 0 f e e t ( 3 metres) outwards from t h e l i n e s of runway l i g h t s . It i s n o t , however, thought t h a t t h i s expedient w i l l s o l v e t h e

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problem completely, and i t i s probable t h a t t e s t s of s p e c i a l h i g h i n t e n s i t y runway t h r e s h o l d l i g h t s w i l l be made t h i s y e a r ,

5,6, A f u r t h e r p o i n t of i n t e r e s t i s t h a t t h e "wide f u n n e l n system, i n v o l v i n g a s i t does a change of 6' 180 i n b e a r i n g n e a r t h e approach end of t h e runway, has been found t o c r e a t e d i f f i c u l t y when a t t e m p t i n g t o manoeuvre a i r c r a f t l a r g e r than a DC-3 a t a p o i n t s o c l o s e t o t h e runway. I n g e n e r a l , t h e l a r g e r t y p e s of a i r c r a f t when approaching along one s i d e of such a f u n n e l , tend t o swing wide of t h e runway when a t t e m p t i n g t o l i n e up t h e i r f l i g h t p a t h w i t h i t s c e n t r e l i n e .

5*7. A s a means of providing guidance t o a i r c r a f t making a p a r t i a l c i r c u i t of an aerodrome under c o n d i t i o n s down t o 3/4 m i l e v i s i b i l i t y , i t has been suggested t h a t two high i n t e n s i t y l i g h t beacons be i n s t a l l e d , a s shown on t h e s k e t c h a t Appendix E,
6.

- FURTHER ACTION

I n view of t h e element of danger t h a t may be 6,1, i n t r o d u c e d and t h e c o n s i d e r a b l e waste of e f f o r t and money l i k e l y t o r e s u l t from t h e i n s t a l l a t i o n of s y s t e m t h a t prove l a t e r t o be unacceptable f o r i n t e r n a t i o n a l u s e , i t i s important t h a t recommendations f o r I n t e r n a t i o n a l S t a n d a r d s o r Recommended P r a c t i c e s f o r Approach L i g h t i n g be developed a t t h e 1949 S e s s i o n of t h e Aerodromes, A i r Routes and Ground Aids D i v i s i o n ,

6,2, Governmental agencies and o t h e r bodies t h a t can c o n t r i b u t e u s e f u l m a t e r i a l a r e t h e r e f o r e r e q u e s t e d t o a c t on t h e AGA D i v i s f o n D srecommendation contained i n t h e F i n a l Report 8, of i t s Third S e s s i o n , Doc 4 8 0 9 - ~ ~ ~ / 5 5 P a r t IV, Page 97, by forwarding a l l i n f o r m a t i o n r e l a t i v e t o t h e i n i t i a t i o n and prog r e s s of r e s e a r c h or development work on t h e s u b j e c t t o t h e ICAO S e c r e t a r i a t , a s i t becomes a v a i l a b l e and without being s p e c i f i c a l l y r e q u e s t e d s o t o do,
6,3,, It is suggested t h a t p a r t i c u l a r a t t e n t i o n be given t o t h e submission of information under t h e following headings : a ) D e t a i l s of a l l i n s t a l l a t i o n s l i k e l y t o be t e s t e d d u r i n g t h e remainder of 1948 and 1949;
b ) F u l l information on t h e r e s u l t s of a l l t e s t s , s y n t h e t i c and f u l l s c a l e , a s soon a s p o s s i b l e a f t e r t h e t e s t s have been made, t o g e t h e r w i t h o r followed by any c o n c l u s i o n s reached therefrom;

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c ) Copies of any new papers relating to studies of operational requirements and functional specifications for approach lights ;

d) Latest views and results of tests indicating possible solutions to the outstanding questions raised in Paragraphs 2 and 3 of this Circular,

6,4, The AGA Section of the 1CAO Air Navigation Bureau plans, for its part, the undertaking of further missions to the U.S.A., the United Kingdom, France, and several other States in Europe before the end of 1948. New information obtained both in correspondence from States and on missions will be issued in subsequent circulars on this subject,

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P a g e 19

APPENDIX A - BIBLIOGRAPHY OF DOCUMENTS

Title of Document Final Report, Second Session Final Report, Second Session Final Report, Second Session Final Report, Second Session Final Report, Second Session Final Report, Second Session Supporting Document to Third Session Supporting Document to Third Session Supporting Document to Third Session Supporting Document to Third Session Supporting Document to Third Session Supporting Document to Third Session

Document No. 1989-AGA/14 1989-AGA/14 1989-AGA/14 1989-AGA/14 1989-AGA/14 1989-AGA/14 4204-AGA/504 4204- AGA/504 4205-AGA/505 4209-AGA/509 4653-AGA/521 4752-AGA/545

Paragraph 3.3.1.1. 6.1.

Page 70 110 135 136-138 143 - 145 153 - 154 27 27 26 13 - 14 1- 5 1-4

Proposed By Recommendations of the AGA Division Recommendations of the AGA Division Ireland UnitedKingdom United States France United Kingdom Denmark IATA ICAO Secretariat ICAO Secretariat United Kingdom Remarks

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I _
3.3.1.1. 3.3.1.1.

Appendix B

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Other Reference Documents Royal Aircraft Establishment, Farnborough, Reports Nos. EL 1413 and EL 1414. Landing A i d s Experiment Station, Arcata, Calif. Tests High Intensity Approach Lights, Final Report No. 5, January 10th 1947.

Obtainable from the Ministry of Civil Aviation, London, England. Obtainable from Landing Aids Experiment Station, Arcata, Calif,, U.S.A. Note.1947 Tests -be Reports on shortly. will available Will be issued by the Royal Aeronautical Society, London, England

Journal of the Royal Aeronautical Society (U.K.) Paper presented by E. S. Calvert, April 15th 1948.

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APPENDIX B

EXTRACT FROM FINAL REPORT O F AGA SECOND SESSION 8

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9.3.
3.3.1,

- Approach

Aids

Approach L i g h t s . Land Aerodrome Approach Lightso

30301010

~ 0 3 . ~ 0 ~ 0 0 0 General, Approach l i g h t i n s t a l l a t i o n s comprise systems of h i g h i n t e n s i t y or low i n t e n s i t y l i g h t s o r bbth, Approach l i g h t s should be afranged a s a l i n e o r l i n e s of l i ~ h t s extending outwards from t h e end of a runway o r l a n d i n g s t r i p , I f one l i n e only i s provided i t should be i n l i n e w i t h o r on t h e l e f t s i d e of an e x t e n s i o n of t h e l e f t l i n e of runway or landing s t r i p l i g h t s ,

3.,3.101010 A p p l i c a t i o n , Approach l i g h t s s h a l l be provided a t r e g u l a r and a l t e r n a t e a i r p o r t s on C l a s s 111 and C l a s s I V A i r Routes s o a s t o s e r v e a t l e a s t one end of t h e s t r i p s o r runways normally used under low v i s i b i l i t y c o n d i t i o n s , Approach l i g h t s should be provided on a s i m i l a r b a s i s a t a i r p o r t s on C l a s s I1 A i r Routes., Where provided, approach l i g h t s s h a l l be i n accordance w f t h t h e following requirements: 3 0 3 a l o 1 0 1 0 1 e Low I n t e n s i t y Approach L i g h t s ,
. o l o l o l l l C o n f i g u r a t i o n , The t o t a l l e n g t h of a o l i n e of l i g h t s should n o t be l e s s than 1,500 f e e t (500 m e t r e s ) , The spacing between l i g h t s should n o t be more than 300 f e e t (100 m e t r e s ) ,

o o l o l o l l . 2 a Characteristics, The l i g h t s s h a l l be f i x e d l i g h t s , The coPour should be a v i a t i o n r e d , a v i a t i o n yellow o r a combination of r e d and yellow, wfth t h e e x c e p t i o n t h a t one o r more l i g h t s w i t h i n 200 f e e t (60 metres) of t h e t h r e s h o l d l i g h t s should show a v i a t i o n green, The l i g h t s should b e r g i s f b l e from a l l p o i n t s above t h e horizon and t h e i r i n t e n s f t y i n t h e d i r e c t i o n from which t h e approach i s made, should n o t be l e s s than 300 c a n d l e s ,

I t

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High Intensity Approach Lights.

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3.3.1.1.1.2,l. Configuration. The total length of a line of lights should not be less than 3,000 feet (1,000 metres). The spacing between lights should not be mcre than 300 feet (100 metres)

.

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3.3.1.1.1,2,2. Characterdstics. (Reserved) (Chara k t e r , cclolir, light distributioh and intensity. )

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APPENDIX C

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APPLICATION

A * - Proposed by ';he United Kingdom

*

The high i n t e n s i t y approach l i g h t system i s envisaged a s being complementary t o a r a d i o o r r a d a r bad v i s i b i l i t y approach system, It should n p t , t h e r e f o r e , be regarded a s a n o b l i g a t o r y i n s t a l l a t i o n on approaches t o runways which a r e n o t equipped f o r t h e use of such a system, Occasions may a r i s e , however, when runways o t h e r t h a n t h o s e s p e c i a l l y equipped have t o be used f o r l a n d i n g s i n c e r t a i n c o n d i t i o n s of bad v i s i b i l i t y assoc i a t e d w i t h f a i r l y s t r o n g wind, such a s heavy d r i z z l e and snow. Under t h e s e c o n d i t i o n s , sodium l i g h t s placed a t t h e end of t h e runway have proved t o be of v a l u e f o r runway l o c a t i o n and l i n i n g up purposes, Where low i n t e n s i t y approach systems o n l y a r e i n - ' s t a l l e d , t h e r e f o r e , it w i l l be necesqsry t o f i t sodium o r o t h e r h i g h i n t e n s i t y l i g h t p r o j e c t o r s t o a c e r t a i n number of t h e Low means of which p i l o t s may p o l e s s o a s t o form a "funneLt"y a l i g n themselves c o r r e c t l y t o t h e runway.

It h a s a l r e a d y been s t a t e d above t h a t , i n t h e c a s e of a l a r g e and f a s t a i r c r a f t , t h e s t r a i g h t f i n a l ' approach may be commenced a t a p o i n t some m i l e s from t h e runway. For t h e purpose system morc i.s~di3.y i n moderate v i s i of l o c a t i n g t h e a ; > p r o ~ c h b i l i t y c o n d i t i o n s i t would seem a d v i s a b l e t o i n s t a l l h i g h i n t e n a2proach l i g h t p o l e s f u r t h e s t from t h e s i t y f i t t i n g s on t h e runway, on each s i d e of t h e " l a n e n ,

B,- Proposed by t h e United Sta2ies While r e c o g n i z i n g t h e d e s i r e of a l l S t a t e s t o f u r n i s h a i r c r a f t with v i s u a l guidance i n accordance w i t h a d e f i n i t e i n t e r n a t i o n a l s t a n d a r d d y r i n g approaches f o r l a n d i n g i n low v i s i b i l i t y c o n d i t i o n s , t h e United S t a t e s b e l i e v e t h a t r e s e a r c h now underway i n t h e s e v e r a l S t a t e s h a s no% p r o g r e s s e d s u f f i c i e n t l y a t t h i s time t o a l l o w anything more t h a n t h e e s t a b l i s h ment of c e r t a i n broad recommendations,

WW

AI E x t r a c t from Doc I q 8 9 - ~ ~ ~ 1 1 P f - , 1370 Page E x t r a c t from Doc 1 9 8 9 - ~ ~ ~ /Page , 143, ~h

ICAO C i r c u l a r 6

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C.

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Proposed by IATA

*

High i n t e n s i t y approach l i g h t s a r e e s s e n t i a l i n o r d e r t o lower weather minima f o r both day and n i g h t poor v i s i b i l i t y o p e r a t i o n , as w e l l a s good v i s i b i l i t y n i g h t o p e r a t i o n ,

It i s recommended t o d e l e t e any r e f e r e n c e t o low i n t e n s i t y approach l i g h t s , a s i t was f e l t t h a t approach l i g h t s a r e designed p r i m a r i l y a s a n e s s e n t i a l a i d i n h e l p i n g t o lower weather minima. T h i s can be achieved only by h i g h i n t e n s i t y l i g h t i n g w i t h a p r o v i s i o n t o d e c r e a s e t h e l i g h t i n t e n s i t y under c l e a r weather c o n d i t i o n s , The low i n t e n s i t y approach l i g h t s would f a i l t o f u l f f l l t h e i r purpose under low v i s i b i l i t y cond i t i o n s and i t was agreed, t h e r e f o r e , t h a t f i n a l i n s t a l l a t i o n o f such l i g h t s would n o t be j x s t i f i e d ; however, low i n t e n s i t y l i g h t s a r r a n g e d i n t h e same p a t t e r n may be i n s t a l l e d a s a temporary s u b s t i t u t e f o r h i g h i n t e n s i t y l i g h t s u n t i l t h e l a t t e r are available,

D,

- Westf n ~ h o u s eHigh

I n t e n s f t y Approach L i g h t s

The q u e s t i o n of whether l i g h t s a r e r e q u i r e d t o be powerf u l enough t o c a t e r f o r a%P weather c o n d i t i o n s appears t o depend on t h e m e t e o r o l o g i c a l c o n d i t i o n s p r e v a i l i n g and t h e i r e f f e c t on t h e r e g u z a r i t y of o p e r a t i o n s a t t h e a i r p o r t a t which t h e y are installed.
A s t h e r e seems to be a d e f i n i t e lower l i m i t t o t h e v i s i b i l i t y c o n d i t i o n s under which s t e a d y l i g h t s may be used, it remains t o be demonstrated t h a t such l i m i t s can be overcome by t h e use o f f l a s h i n g l i g h t s , and f u r t h e r t h a t f l a s h i n g l i g h t s w i l l provide %heu dance necessary, guf

E,- Proposed by t h e United Kingdom

*
-

The ICAO Conference on Radio Aids h a s now adopted t h e Instrument Landing System a s a s t a n d a r d approach a i d u n t i l a t l e a s t 1955. T h i s a i d w i l l b r i n g t h e a i r c r a f t down t o w i t h i n 150 - 200 f e e t of t h e ground, and t o w i t h i n 600 1,000 y a r d s of t h e l a n d i n g p o i n t , but a f t e r t h i s t h e l a n d i n g must be comp l e t e d v i s u a l l y , To achieve t h i s a system of h i g h i n t e n s i t y approach l i g h t s i s necessary,
&
Bgft

, E x t r a c t from Doc h 2 0 5 - ~ ~ ~ / ' 5 0 5Pages 26, 27, 2~, ( ~ e s c r i b e dby E x t r a c t from Doc % t 6 5 3 - ~ ~ ~ / 5Page 4 ICAQ S e c r e t a r i a t ] , E x t r a c t from Doc k752-8~61!5&5, Page 1,

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ICAO Circular

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APPENDIX D

- GUIDANCE
$

A,- Westinghouse High Intensity Approach Lights

The next aim was to provide the pilot with sufficient appreciation of direction, (The question 6f complete visual guidance will be discussed later,) Wstinghouse believe khat one row of lights, flashing on sequence along the line, will provide the pilot with sufficient "memory directionw to enable him to follow the lights, Unfortunately, it was a clear night when the writer made his observations from the air, and, due to the fact that he was unable to block out the horizon, he is reluctan% to express an opinion on the amount of assistance given in this regard. Westinghsuse also recommend the use of an angle of approach indicator, principally for training pflots to adopt a standard angle of approachOpThis forms an important part as of their theory on the use of only one row of lights, they consider that such a practice will prove that complete visual guidance over the lighted section of the approach path (except for 8ctuaP landing) will not be of paramount importance,

-

They contend that pilots will become so used to a standard approach, that they wfll have no trouble Pn following a single fine, and point out that it is the practice of some airlines for the captain to ~emainon instruments while the co-pilot attempts to fly visually, This practice might be adopted universally, or alternatively, as wbrightness adaptationqlis not spoilt, either pilot may occasionally cheek his artificial horizon in the same manner as he cheeks his afrspeed when flying visually, However, other than cost and the difficulty of identification, there is nothing to prevent two lines of these lights being used, While it can be proved that something more than a single row of lights is required to give complete visual guidance, tests alone wfll show whether this is sf vital importance,
B

Extract from Doc 4653-~~~/521, 3 and 4, Pages (Described by ICAO Secretariat),

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B o - Proposed by the United Kingdom,

*

This note describes the system which has been developed by Royal Aircraft Establishment for this purpose, and which they are proposing to lay out on a Proving Ground at Farnborough, It is based on the principles put forward in R,A,E, Report No. EL 1414, but has been modified in detail to meet certain additional operational requirements,
C,- Fundamental Principles of the new System

*

The basic requirement is that the pattern in which the lights are arranged shall be such that a pilot seeing a limited amount of it will receive continuous indications from which he is able to decide instantly and instinctively whether to go up or down, right or left, Existing patterns do not meet this requirement, firstly because they do not indicate whether thg aircraft is undershooting or overshos%%ng the landing point, and secondly, because in the absence of the real horizon, the lateral error indication is bound up with the bank indication, and cannot be separated from it. In addition, most existing patterns, since they consist of long straight lines, are easily confused by extraneous lighting. The pattern proposed by Royal Aircraft Establishment will give all the required indications in a simple and unambigous manner, provided only that the pattern is not obscured by the fog, but if this happens, there is probably no solution to the problem at all, The proposed pattern is something like a herring-bone in that it consists of a single line of lights along the extended centre line of the runway, with bars of light across it at intervals, The overall length of these bars increases in proportion to the distance from the selected landing point, with the result that each bar, as it passes underneath the coaming, appears to the pilot to be always the same angular size, provided his approach path passes through the point selected, The p i l o t can tell whether he is overshooting or undershooting by noticing whether the bars appear to be shrinking or expanding respectively, This is of course analogous to the natural method of judging heights and distances by noticing the angular size of objects such as houses, trees, etc., whose real size is known, Alignment with the runway is indicated mainly by the centre line -of lights, This will appear vertical when the aircraft is correctly aligned,

* Extract from Doc & 7 5 2 - ~ ~ ~ / 5 &Pages 1 and 2. 5,

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Bank i s i n d i c a t e d by means of t h e b a r s , which, s i n c e t h e y r e p l a c e t h e r e a l h o r i z o n , may be c a l l e d w h o r i z o n b a r s t t , These appear t r u l y h o r i z o n t a l however much t h e a i r c r a f t i s d i s p l a c e d from t h e c e n t r e l i n e . If t h e heading i s i n c o r r e c t , t h e b a r s do n o t appear e x a c t l y h o r i z o n t a l , but t h e heading e r r o r needs t o be v e r y l a r g e indeed b e f o r e t h e b a r s give an a p p r e c i a b l y wrong i n d i c a t i o n .

ICAO Circular

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APPENDIX E

- ARRANGEMENT
Ireland

A,- Proposed by

General: The approaches t o t h e l a n d i n g a r e a may be i n d i c a t e d by a system of approach l i g h t s c o n s i s t i n g of a l i n e of l i g h t s l o c a t e d along an e x t e n s i o n of t h e l e f t l f n e of t h e runway l i g h t s when approaching t h e l a n d i n g a r e a , The l f g h t s s h a l l extend 3,000 f e e t from t h e end of t h e runway spaced a t approximately 200 f e e t a p a r t ,
B o w Proposed by t h e United Kingdom PP

The q u e s t i o n of p a t t e r n of t h e approach l i g h t i n g system must be r e l a t e d t o t h e average c u t - o f f a n g l e s of v i s i o n from t h e c o c k p i t of t h e average t r a n s p o r t a i r c r a f t and t o normal e r r o r s i n instrument f l y i n g which r e s u l t i n l a t e r a l displacement from t h e ubearntto C o n s i d e r a t i o n of t h e s e f a c t o r s has l e d t o t h e conclusion t h a t t h e l a y o u t of an approach l i g h t i n g system should be a s f o l l o w s : a ) The approach l a n e should c o n s i s t of two l i n e s of l i g h t s extending outwards from t h e e n t r a n c e of t h e runway and e q u a l l y disposed about t h e p r o j e c t e d c e n t r e l f n e of t h e runway t o a maximum d i s t a n c e of 9,000 f e e t ;
b) The maximum l o n g i t u d i n a l spacing between i n d i v i d u a l l i g h t s should be 300 f e e t ;

c ) The l i n e s of l i g h t s should d i v e r g e o u t w a ~ d s from t h e a x i s of t h e runway a t 2 on each s i d e ; O d ) The l a y o u t of t h e system a s a whole should, if p o s s i b l e , be such t h a t a p i l o t , s e e i n g only a f e w l i g h t s , should immediately be aware of h i s p o s i t i o n r e l a t i v e t o t h e c o r r e c t approach path, e ) Where d i s t a n c e markers a r e provided, they should c o n s i s t of an arrangement of b a r s of l i g h t a t r i g h t a n g l e s t o and a d j o i n i n g t h e l i n e s of approach l i g h t s ,

' E x t r a c t from Doc 1 9 8 9 - ~ ~ ~ / 1Page 135. b,

E x t r a c t from Doc 1 9 8 9 - ~ ~ ~ / 3 . Page 1370 4,

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C,- Prol~osedby the United states

*

Either a double row of lights located in the approachway on lines diverging not more than two degrees from lines parallel to prolongations of the contact light lines, or a single row of lights consisting of the left-hand row described above, when viewed toward the runway, The length of the row or rows to be a minimum of 1,500 feet (450 metres) if the lights are intended for use only in conditions when visibility is greater than half a mile (0,8 km,), and a minimum of 3,000 feet (900 metres) if the lights are intended for use in visibilities of half a mile (0,8 km,) or less, The spacing of the lights in each row is related to the intensity of the lights used varying from a maximum of 100 feet (30 metres) when the intensity of each light is approximately 1,000 candles to a maximum of 300 feet (90 metres) when the intensity is 100,000 candles or over, Underlying the principles recommended above are: Both single and double row systems of approach lights have been used in the past, A consensus of opinion seems to favor a single row for low intensity lights (10,000candlepower or less per light) but is undecided when intensity lights are used, Conclusion of present configuration tests may greatly assist in this point, Both parallel and diverging rows of lights have been used in the past with success, Here too conclusion of cockpit visibility studies and configuration tests must be completed before reaching a conclusion, Insofar as low intensity lights are concerned, 1,500 feet (450 metres) is apparently acceptable from both operational and economic standpoints, However, where high intensity lights are concerned, the balance between operational desires and economic feasibility has not been reached, Research must be completed before this balance can be determined, In the interim, the minimum figure of 3,000 feet (900 metres) found acceptable in the past, is recommended, Do- Proposed by France bt The new system provides for a line of approach lights about two kilometres in length protracting the left row of'
p p

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Extract from Doc 1989-~~~/1b, 143, 145. Pages Extract from Doc 1989-A~A/lbt.,Page 153.

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c o n t a c t l i g h t s ahd composed of 3 green l i g h t s (%5O,OOO candlepover i n white l i g h t ) l o c a t e d a t 60, 75, and 90 metres from t h e r e a r end of t h e runway, and a s e t of sodium l i g h t s (lamp SO 1000) a l t e r n a t i n g w i t h neon l i g h t s ; t h e s e l i g h t s a r e 50 metres a p a r t , t h e f i r s t one being l o c a t e d 50 metres from t h e t h i r d green l i g h t , Moreover, two c r o s s l i n e s 90 metres i n l e n g t h a r e s e t perp e n d i c u l a r l y t o t h e approach l i n e , The former, composed of 7 sodium l i g h t s , i s l o c a t e d 390 metres ( 2 5% from t h e end of t h e runway, The s t r o n g green l i g h t s and t h e two c r o s s l i n e s s e r v e a s d i s t a n c e markers, This system i s arranged t o o p e r a t e day and n i g h t i n low v i s i b i l i t y ; however, i n c a s e of day o p e r a t i o n , i t i s supplemented by two white f l o o d - l i g h t s (about 400,000 candlepower) l o c a t e d a d j a c e n t t o t h e f i r s t two s t r o n g green l i g h t s ,

E.- Proposed by I A T A a
The t o t a l l e n g t h of a l i n e o r l i n e s of approach l i g h t s should extend 4,000 f e e t from t h e end of t h e runway o r t o t h e l o c a t i o n of t h e middle marker, i f t h i s f s i n s t a l l e d , Spacing between l i g h t s should n o t be more than 300 f e e t (100 m e t r e s ) , Reason,- The l e n g t h of 3,000 f e e t (1,000 m e t r e s ) c o n s i d e r e d f u l l y s a t i s f a c t o r y , a s it was f e l t t h a t t h e s i z e of a i r c r a f t l i k e l y t o come i n t o o p e r a t i o n s h o r t l y t a t e s t h e e x t e n s i o n of approach l i g h t s a t l e a s t t o t h e marker. was n o t increasing necessimiddle

F,- Funnel System a t Arcata, C a l i f o r n i a BIl
The new approach l i g h t s i n s t a l l e d by t h e Amerlcan Gas Accumulator Company a t Arcata, C a l i f o r n i a , a r e w e l l spoken o f , D e t a i l s of i n s t a l l a t i o n s a r e a s follows: a ) L i g h t s extend from 3,000 f e e t from t h e end of runways, i n two rows;
b)

L i g h t i n t e r v a l s v a r y between 100 f e e t and 200 f e e t ;

c ) The approach zone i s 700 f e e t wide a t t h e o u t e r end, narrowfng t o runway width5 d) The c o l o u r of l i g h t s i s arrnnged i n a system of a l t e r n a t e r e d and yellow,

Il&

E x t r a c t from Doc 4 2 0 5 - ~ ~ ~ / 5 0 Page 2 7 , 5, E x t r a c t from Doc 4 2 0 9 - ~ ~ ~ / 5 0 Pages 3.3, 9,

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The p r i n c i p a l p o i n t of contentior1 i s whether t h e arrbngement of l i g h t s i n t h e form of a t r u e funnel-shape6 entrclnce t o t h e runway i s i d e a l . Note,The l i g h t s a r e a c t u a l l y i n p a r a l l e l rows f o r t h e

f u n n e l cormences. T e s t s during 1447 i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e 60 change i n d i r e c t i o n i s a l i t t l e too :;luch f o r l a r g e a i r c r a f t t o f o l l o w i f approach i s made from one s i d e of t h e f u n n e l , Also i n v i s i b i l i t y c o n d i t i o n s i n khich the whole z;rstern can j u s t be seen, t h e p e r s p e c t i v e i s misleadine,

f i r s t m e e t from t h e end of t h e runway, a t ~;kiichp o i n t t h e

G.- Westinghouse High I n t e n s i t y Approach L i g h t s
A s i n g l e l i n e of 36 K r i p t o n u n i t s i n t e r s p e r s e d w i t h 36 neon u n i t s , s l i g h t l y t o t h e l e f t , but p a r a l l e l with t h e extended c e n t r e l i n e of t h e runwayo The l i n e i s 3,250 f e e t long and t h e 16 u n i t s n e a r e s t the runway a r e spaced 75 f ~ c t p a r t , t h e n e x t n 20 units a r e 50 f e e t a p a r t , and t h e r e r - ~ t i n i 26 u n i t s a r e 25 f e e t a p a r t , thus i f e i t h e r type of' u n i t i s used. s e p a r a t e l y , t h e spacing i s double t h e above,

H.- Proposed

by t h e United Kindom

Along t h e extended runway c e n t r e l i n e i n t h e approach f o r a d i s t a n c e of 4,500 f e e t i s a l i n e of 1ik;hts. For t h e f i r s t 1,000 f e e t out t h e l i g h t s a r e arranged i n g r o u p s of t h r e e every
100 f e e t , f o r t h e n e x t 1,000 f e e t , they a r e r r ~ a ~ ~ g n d i c groups of two w i t h 100 f e e t between groups, a n d f'rorn the 2 9 0 3 0 - f ~ ~ t mark t o t h e end of t h e system, t h e l i g h t s arc-: arrcjnged s i r l e l y a t a d i s t a n c e of 100 f e e t from each o t h e r , The 6 i s t a n c e between a d j a c e n t l i g h t s i n t h e double and t r i p l e groups i s about 5 f e e t , t h e l i n e j o i n i n g t h e s e l i g h t s being pergend.iculsr t o t h e c e n t r e line.

Seven b a r s a r e arranged t o c r o s s t h i s c e n t r e l i n e , one every 500 f e e t from t h e runwa.y t h r e s h o l e w i t h tlie outermost a t t h e 3,500-foot mark, The width of t h e s e bars i s determined by t h e following method, A s p o t 1,000 f e e t alone t h e runway c e n t r e l i n e from t h e t h r e s h o l d i n t h e d i r e c t i o n of t a k e - o f f i s t a k e n a s t h e l z n d i n g p o i n t , and from h e r e two l i n e s a r e drawn a t a n g l e s of 2.5 t o t h e c e n t r e l i n e , one on e i t h e r s i d e and extended i n t o t h e approach, The b a r s a r e of such a l e n g t h t h a t they w i l l r e a c h t h e s e two l i n e s , t h e o u t e r bar being 400 f e e t wide,

B
gjk

E x t r a c t from Doc 4 6 5 3 - ~ ~ ~ / 5 2 Page 3, 1, E x t r a c t from Doc 4 7 5 2 - ~ ~ ~ / 5 4 5 , Paces 2 , 4, (Described by I C A O S e c r e t a r i a t . )

ICAO Circular

6 - AN/^

Page 31

The bars are not solid but consist of two nblocksw of light on either side of the centre line. Each block will be 22 feet long and spaced 76' 6" apart on either side of the i centre line at the outer bar, but as the bars get nearer the runway the blocks will remain the same size although the gaps between them will close progressively until at the bar nearest the runway (500 feet out) the gaps will be only 11 feet wide, The normal green threshold lights will be installed at the runway threshold. Note.- See accompanying diagrams of various arrangements proposed.

Page 32

ICAO C i r c u l ~ ~ r 6

-

AN/?

UNITED

XINCDOtb

- --PROPCSAL ---m-b?_tslted

?Oil --

,~!4 AI'P1OACH - LInHTIN*r --.... . .-.---. . .

-SYSTEM

a t the Royal E . t a b . l ~ s _ ~ & ,
W m h o ~ o u e : ? , 3NgLAND.

Light Bars 22' (6.75 m) DaTk S ~ a c e s
%'6,' (16.60 m)
22' ( 6 . 7 5 mi 48'0" (14.80 m)

22, ( 6 . 7 5 m) 11' ( 3 . 3 5 ml

For a further 2000' 1600 m)

I

I
O r i g i n LOW' ( 3 0 0 m)

Lengtr. ar ~ n n e ra p roaci.
t -

j,CO1 (1050

i n c l u d e d a n g l e 5 O total

i n f r o m threshold

T o t a l Iang'.!, Type 'FF' Sodium Flare

him< (1350m5

of s atem

w+'
22'

( 1 . 2 5 mi Spacing

(6.75 ml

SOME EXISTING

U D SUGGESTED

*RRANOU,~~S FOR APPROACH LIGHTING

SYSTEM

Arrangement

Lsngth

S~acinl

Doc Reference Doc 1989 AGU14 Pages 70 135 Doc 4205 AGA/505 Page 27

P r o ~ o r s dbv

0

Not greater then 300 rt. 4000 t . 0 + - + - + - e . 4 - + - - 4 - + - a - + - * - + - + - - 4 - + . + . + - +f- + -(90 metres) + (1200 metres) Red o r Yellov Centre l i n e

+-

-

Not l e s s than 3000 It. (900 metres)

A A Division G Ireland U.S.

136
IATA

0

0

Doc 4653 AOA/521 Page 3 Yestinghouse System

+

-

Yellow (U.S.)

or Red (Dennark) Not leasthan 3000 It. (900 metres) Not greater than 300 it. (90 metres)

Dec 1989 A G U ~ ~

Centre l i n e
+

-8

+

+

*

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

Red (U.S.)

or Yellov (Denmark)

+.+

Pages 70 143 Doc 4205 AGA/505 Page 27

,

AA D i v i d o n C Ireland U.S. IATA

Yellow

Not l e s s than (900 metres) 3000 f t Divergence Not PO g r e a t e r than
+
+

0 + - 8 8

Q + - 8 - 4 - 8 + + - 8 - + * * * B B 4 8 - *

.

k c 1989
Not greater than 300 It. (90 metres) AGA/14 Page 136 Page 143

U.K.
U.S.

Centre l i n e

B -8

+ +-

B

+ +

+

+

z0

Yellow 3000 i t . (190 metres) Divergence 6018,
e-3-34*4gg

200 It. (60 metres)

- -.
0

-

-

-.

-.

-.

-.

Centre -- - .l i n e -. -.

- . -.

-.

-.

-.

-.

-. -

100 I t . (30 metres) lor last 600 It. (180 metres)

Doc 4209 AGA/509

*

+

* *--+- --L B

Pass 13

Instelled a t Arcsta California

ICAO (Circular 6

-

.%/5

Advance D r a f t U.S. Air For Force

-

Navy

-

C i v i l Uniform System of Approach L i g h t i n g

Note.-

A t a i r p o r t s where c i v i l a i r o p e r a t i o n s predominate l e f t h a l f
( r e d row) only of t h e two row s y s t e p may be i n s t a l l e d provided t h a t p r o v i s i o n i s made f o r t h e i n s t a l l a t i o n of t h e o t h e r row a t a l a t e r date i f required.

Off-Set by a t l e a s t 10 f t e i t h e r inside or

System designed f o r use i n n o t l e s s t h a n

1/4 i n t h e v i s i b i l i t y .

4 -+-i+ - + - + - + - + - + - + - - I - + - + - + - + - + - + -4L o n g i t u d i n a l Spacing p r e f e r a b l y 100 f t b u t n o t g r e a t e r t h a n 200 f t

Right hand row

-

A v i a t i o n Yellow

-b

3000 f e e t

1 -

Proposed maximum i n t e n s i t y - 12,000 c a n d l e s Fixed L i g h t s - a r c 400 h o r i z o n t a l l y 10' v e r t i c a l l y B r i g h t n e s s c o n t r o l t o give f i v e s t a g e s - loo$, 30%, lo%, ?I$, 1% Lines of l i g h t s a s n e a r l y h o r i z o n t a l a s p o s s i b l e

Proposed Systems of Approach L i g h t i n g t o be t e s t e d a t Experimental S t a t i o n A r c a t a C a l i f o r n i a U A 1948 S lo0 f t 125 f t Spacing

-

R i q h t hand rows
/ / /

,

+-+- - 4- -+- +- + i f 4 +-

-

A v i a t i o n Yellow

%-+-+-+

Middle Marker

I
L e f t hand rows

-

~biation e i ~

'
-!-500 f e e t

3000 f e e t

fi
Detail
showing t o be t e s t e d

AA G Sylvania

Note.- L i g h t s a r e s o wired t h a t any combination

Westinghouse W

may be used i n c l u d i n g a s t u b approach 1000 f t l o n g f o r conditions system 600 f t of good v i s i b i l i t y .

-

Page 34

ICAO Circular

6

-

AN/^

APPERDIX F
A,-

-

INTETU'SITY

Proposed by t h e United Kingdom

An e f f e c t i v e approach l i g h t i n g system must perform two functions: a ) I n c o n d i t i o n s of good v i s i b i l i t y by n i g h t i t should a f f o r d a d i s t i n c t i v e guide towards t h e a p p r o p r i a t e runway t o p i l o t s of f a s t a i r c r a f t making a s t r a i g h t approach from a p o i n t some two o r more m i l e s d i s t a n t ; b) I n c o n d i t i o n s of bad v i s i b i l i t y by day o r by n i g h t i t should a f f o r d a p o s i t i o n check t o p i l o t s making a n instrument ap7roach. The p o s i t i o n check i s r e q u i r e d a s e a r l y on t h e a p ~ r o a c ha s p o s s i b l e and t h e p a t t e r n , l i g h t d i s t r i b u t i o n and i n t e n s i t y of t h e system should be such t h a t , even i n c o n d i t i o n s of bad v i s i b i l i t y i t c a n perform a p a r t of the f u n c t i o n p o s t u l a t e d a t a ) above, I n o r d e r t o perform t h e above f u n c t i o n s adequately, t h e main elements of t h e system have much i n common, f o r example, colour, spacing and p a t t e r n ; t h e main d i f f e r e n c e i n requirements f o r t h e two f u n c t i o n s i s t h a t of i n t e n s i t y . I n t h e f i r s t c a s e , the l i g h t s should be v i s i b l e a t a l l azimuth t o t h e z e n i t g ; t h e peak i n t e n s i t y should, however, be through a n a n g l e of 5 above t h e h o r i z o n t a l t o g l v e added a s s i s t a n c e d u r i n t h e f i n a l approach and should be of t h e o r d e r of 900 c e p e ( w h i t e I n t h e second case, where f o g p e n e t r a t i o n i s r e q u i r e d , t h e l i g h t s must be r e l a t e d t o t h e bad v i s i b i l i t y approach system i n u s e and must be c o n c e n t r a t e d along t h e normal l i m i t s of t h e approach p a t h w i t h a n allowance f o r i n s t r u m e n t f l y i n g e r r o r . The peak i n t e n s i t y should be of t h e o r d e r of 100,000 c o p , ( w h i t e ) .

7.

See - Appendix See Appendix

8

G f o r proposal E f o r proposal

t h e United S t a t e s . France.

E x t r a c t from Doc 1 9 8 9 - ~ ~ ~ / 1Page 1360 4,

IChO C i r c u l a r 6

-

AN%^
B e - Proposed by IATA

Page 3 5

'

The high i n t e n s i t y approach l i g h t s should be e i t h e r beam c o n t r o l l e d o r i n t e n s i t y c o n t r o l l e d , o r both, t o provide adequate p e n e t r a t i o n under various v i s i b i l i t y c o n d i t i o n s , and t o e l i m i n a t e t h e blinding e f f e c t during periods of good v i s i b i l i t y night operation,

C - Westinghouse High I n t e n s i t y Approach Lights 8P .
The Kripton u n i z s have two i n t e n s i t y s e t t i n g s , 1,000,000 and 3,300,000 peak candle power, and t h e "Neonq9u n i t s have t h r e e steady s e t t i n g s from 100 t o 1,000 candle power, and two f l a s h i n g s e t t i n g s of 100,000 t o 10,000,000 candle power. The former a r e focussed t o give maximum i n t e n s i t y w i t h i n a r e c t a n g l e 700 f e e t wide and 400 f e e t high a t 3,500 f e e t t o coincide wi$h t h e f u l l s c a l e d e f l e c t i o n p o s i t i o n s of t h e c r o s s p o i n t e r s of t h e ILS. The l a t t e r have a broad included azimuth angle of 150° t o give a d d i t i o n a l guidance t o a i r c r a f t i n t h e c i r c u i t when ILS i s not being used. The d u r a t i o n of f l a s h of each u n i t i s only a few microseconds, and t h e time i n t e r v a l between f l a s h e s of successive Lights i s 250 microseconds, The r a t e sf f l a s h i n g i s 40 p e r minute, A l l o r any of t h e s e may be a l t e r e d q u i t e simply i f experience i n d i c a t e s t h a t adjustments a r e d e s i r a b l e . Naturally i t i s intended t h a t t h e s e l i g h t s w i l l be used i n conjunction w i t h high i n t e n s i t y runway l i g h t s , The q u e s t i o n of what e f f e c t such i n t e n s i t i e s would have on t h e eyes, p a r t i c u l a r l y if viewed "in t h e c l e a r n through a break i n t h e fog, has been considered by Westinghouse engineers. Their s t u d i e s and experiments supported Goday" theory t h a t f l a s h e s of l i g h t of s u f f i c i e n t l y s h o r t d u r a t i o n allow t h e f u l l use of t h e i n t e n s i t y of t h e s i g n a l without u p s e t t i n g t h e " b r i g h t n e s s l e v e l a d a p t a t i o n u (or a t n i g h t "Darkness adaptation''). The S e c r e t a r i a t can confirm t h a t t h i s appears t o be tirue, even w i t h f u l l brightness on a c l e a r n i g h t . Experiments i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e rods of t h e eye, used f o r parafoveal v i s i o n , apparently w i l l accept an unlimited amount of l i g h t i n t e n s i t y without harmful a f t e r - e f f e c t s , a s long a s t h e time of exposure i s of s u f f i c i e n t l y s h o r t d u r a t i o n t o proh i b i t r e c o g n i t i o n by t h e cones, o r f o v e a l v i s i o n .

P E x t r a c t from Doc 4205-~~Ad505, Page 2 y 0
BP

E x t r a c t from Doc 4653-8~U521, Pages 2, 4. (Described by IGAQ S e c r e t a r f a t , )

Page 36

ICAO C i r c u l a r 6

-

AN/^

U n t i l t h e system has been thoroughly t e s t e d under low v i s i b i l i t y c o n d i t i o n s , no d e f i n i t e conclusions can be expressed, except t h a t t h e claims i n r e g a r d t o * b r i g h t n e s s , l e v e l adaptat i o n " , were, i n t h e opinion of t h e w r i t e r , f u l l y s u b s t a n t i a t e d , See E x t r a c t from Doc 4 7 5 2 - ~ ~ ~ / % Proposal of t h e United Kingdom a t Appendix G.

-

-

?z. -p-

ICAO Circular 6 AN/^ - - .*& - - ---,.-*---.--

-

--

Page 37
-*

APPENDIX G
A,-

-

CQLOUR

Proposed by Ireland

*

It is proposed to change the colour standard for approach lighting from aviation red to aviation yellow, to avoid the risk of confusion with obstruction lighting,

B o - Proposed by the Unfted Kingdom
The main characteristics of an approach lighting system which contribute towards distinctiveness are colour and pattern but since any form of lighting against a dark background is, in itself, distinctive, it follows that, if extraneous lighting in the vicinity of an approach lighting system should effectively be screened, the necessity for colour differentiation is of less importance provided that a clearly defined pattern of approach lights is maintained, The colour aviation red has provisionally been selected for use with approach lighting systems on the grounds of the most effective distinctiveness; this is unfortunate sinc 75% of effective light output is lost owing to the introduction of a red filter, The loss of light output is relatively unimportant in the case of the low intensity system but might be serious in conditions under which the high intensity system is required where there is a need for the maximum light output for a gicen wattage, When standardization is being aimed at, it is admittedly undesirable to have a different colour sequence for different visibility conditions, although such a procedure should not introduce an element of danger. It might be argued, however, that if extraneous lighting in the vicinity of the approach system should be screened, the necessity for colour dffferentfation by the use of aviation red no longer exists and that the employment of aviation yellow for both low and high intensity systems would be satisfactory; the loss of light output by the use of such filters need amount only to 30%~ It is not considered that, with such a system, danger of confusion as between approach lights and runway lights
---

-

Extract from Doc 1989-~~A/l4, Page 135.

Page 38

ICAO Circular 6-- AN/5

would arise, in view of the difference in pattern of the two systems and of other aids which are provided to indicate to pilots their position on the approach,

C

.- Proposed by the United States

While yellow possesses an advantage over red from the standpoint of intensity for a given,power input, this advantage is negligible in low visibility conditions because of the exponential effect of atmospheric absorption. The colour recommended for high intensity approach lights is based on past operational tests, the relatively mihor difference in range under low visibility conditions, the decreased effect on dark adaptation of the eye, and the markedly greater likelihood of differentiating between red ap~roachand white contact lights than between yellow approach and white contact lights in poor visibility conditions occasioned by smoke or haze wherein the white lights assume a yellow hue, all contributing to the decision. Final standardization may be made on the basis of conspicuity, psychological, physiological effects determined during the research programmes now being carried on as well as physical facts now known. See - Appendix E for proposal by France,

Do- Proposed by Denmark

*

In eases where two lines of approach lights are arranged, it is suggested that the colour be aviation yellow in the left POW, aviation red in the right, If the pilot can see just one row he will know if it is the right or the left,
E,- Proposed by the United Kingdom
The herrfng-bone pattern is easily distinguished from street lighting, and is made even more distinctive by using yellow bars and white centre line,

&%!

t Extract from Doc 1989-~~~/14, 145. Page Extract from Doc 4204-~~~/5&, 27. Page Page 2, Extract from Doc 4 7 5 2 - ~ ~ ~ / 5 4 5 ,

ICAO Circular 6

- AN85

Page 39

APPENDIX H

- DISTANCE MARKING

LIGHTS

A.- Proposed by I r e l a n d B

A t each 1,000-foot i n t e r v a l measured from t h e end of t h e runway t h e r e s h a l l be a c l u s t e r of l i g h t s extending t o t h e r i g h t of t h i s l i n e of approach l i g h t s when approaching t h e runway.

The c l u s t e r l i g h t s s h a l l be arranged i n rows of t h r e e , p a r a l l e l t o t h e main l i n e , and spaced 10 f e e t a p a r t . The number of rows spaced 20 f e e t a p a r t i n each c l u s t e r s h a l l be a s follows:
A t 1,000 f e e t from end of runway

At2,000 A t 3,000

* *

n
tt

I
18

pt

"
*

n

2 rows -3rows 4 rows.

-

B.-

P r o ~ o s e dby t h e United S t a t e s b8 t

The d i s t a n c e marker l i g h t s t o be e i t h e r b a r s of l i g h t o r l i n e a r groups of l i g h t s arranged p a r a l l e l t o o r a t r i g h t angles t o t h e approach l i g h t Pine and displaying one l i n e o r l i n e a r group f o r each 1,000 f e e t (300 metres) t h e marker i s d i s t a n t from t h e end of t h e runway.
A need appears t o e x i s t f o r d i s t a n c e marker l i g h t s although study of t h e s e i s considerably l e s s advanced t h a n t h e study of approach l i g h t s . A d e f i n i t i v e standard presumably must await completion of a d e f i n i t i v e standard f o r approach l i g h t configuration.

See - Appendix

E f o r proposal by France.

P E x t r a c t from Doc 1 9 8 9 - ~ ~ A / l k ,Page 13

E x t r a c t from Doc 1 9 8 9 - ~ ~ A / 1 4 , Pages 1 6, 145.

Z

Page 40

ICAO circular

6 - AN/^

C.

Proposed by the United Kingdom

The mothod of indicating range originally proposed was to break the bar up into sections and alter the length of these sections, It was considered, however, that this required the pilot to Hdo a sumN in his head, and the arrangement of light units in the centre line was modified in order to differentiate the three sections of the approach pattern, Note,- See sketch at Appendix E.

-

END

-

Extract from Doc 4 7 5 2 - ~ ~ ~ / 5 4 5 , Page 2,

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