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2nd Year & Ing. 1 Classes

SUBJECT: Input supply system for

Flower cultivation

Farm Operation Management Assignment – 2nd Group. PVH

Farm Operation Management Assignment – 2nd Group. PVH

Horticulture (La
tin hortus,”garde
on”), science and
art of growing 1. HABINEZA Jean Claude
vegetables, 06/17531
flowers, shrubs, 2. HAKIZIMANA Emmanuel
and trees.
Horticulture 07/19918
originally meant 3.HARERIMANA Polyphile
the practice of
gardening and, 08/21242
by extension, 4.HAVUGIMANA Ernest
now means the
cultivation of 07/19609
plants once 5.HAVUGIMANA Théodore
grown in
gardens. In 07/20472
contrast, the 6.HIRWA Sandrine
term agriculture,
by derivation, 06/17813
referred to more 7.HIRWANDAME Celestin
open forms of
culture such as 06/17057
the production of 8. IRADUKUNDA Yvette
grains and
grasses, known 08/21759
as agronomic 9. ISHIMWE Rodrigue
crops, which are
cultivated on a 08/21142
large scale. The 10.ITURINDE Marie Aimée
distinctions have 08/21210
been so blurred
that many crops
considered either
agronomic or
horticultural are
now categorized
sometimes in one
field, sometimes

Lecturer: Mr. SINDAMBIWE

Farm Operation Management Assignment – 2nd Group. PVH
in the other, depending on the intended use of the crop. Thus a plant grown for
home consumption may be called horticultural; the same plant cultivated for forage
is regarded as an agronomic crop.
Horticulture includes the growing of fruit (especially tree fruits), known as
pomology; production of vegetable crops, called olericulture; production of
flowers, termed floriculture; and ornamental horticulture, known also as
landscape gardening, which includes the maintenance and design of home grounds,
public gardens and parks, private estates, botanical gardens, and recreational areas
such as golf courses, football fields, and baseball diamonds.()
In its Vision 2020 plan, Rwanda set ambitious goals for its development. Between
2000 and 2020, the country would like to grow its per capita GDP from $250 to
$900, which implies that the overall economy needs to expand by over 600%. Given
its potential to contribute to Rwanda’s export diversification, horticulture has been
identified as a priority export sector.
Horticulture is a job-intensive and investment-attracting industry and this will
generate jobs to a large proportion of Rwandans and provide foreign currencies to
the country. Besides economic receipts and jobs, other horticulture related benefits
include improving people’s nutrition situation, creating a better image for Rwanda,
encouraging Private-Public Sector partnerships in horticulture-related industries, and
generating public awareness for the industry.
In this assignment, we are going to limit ourselves on the production of flowers as it
is our subject. The input supply theory and its description are going to be viewed
with all categories of transaction, activities and items involved and based on
constraints and opportunities available, craft competitive strategies to make value
addition and increase the profitability of flowers on the markets by improving its
supply management.

Exploration of input supply theory and

description of flower cultivation
The input supply theory which involves the contribution to something,
especially comments or suggestions and efforts made to the well performance
of the flowers cultivation without forgetting the financial status involved
inside, all is going to be detailed in the following pages.

The main part of horticulture which is going to be dealt with here is the
floriculture on the side of exportation purpose of growing step because this
one is the most important one which has got more opportunities and has got
social economic impact in any given country.

How to grow flowers

Here follows the different methods that someone can use in order to grow

Farm Operation Management Assignment – 2nd Group. PVH

1. Preparation of the soil. Whether you are direct-seeding an outdoor
flower bed, transplanting seedlings, or starting seeds indoors, you need to
prepare your soil thoroughly. To start seeds indoors, this may be as
simple as buying a good quality potting soil and scooping it into little
compartments in a seedling tray. For an outdoor bed, you'll need to
remove the sod, if necessary, then dig (and double-dig) the soil until it is
fine and loose. Next, add a generous amount of compost or organic
fertilizer and work it into the top few inches of soil. This step is
particularly important for perennial flowers, because they will be living in
the same soil for many years.
2. Knowing the requirements of flowers. Some flowers become quite
large, and so you must space them some distance apart in your flower
bed. Others don't mind being crowded, and can be planted very closely.
Flowers also differ in the amount of sunlight they prefer. Plant impatiens
in a flower bed that receives direct sunlight for eight hours a day, and
you'll have very unhappy plants. On the other hand, plant sunflowers in
the same spot, and you'll have eight-foot-tall giants in a matter of weeks.
Some flowers may also have preferences regarding the type of soil in
which they are planted -- clay vs. silt, silt vs. sand, etc.
3. Plant, or transplant, carefully. When you've chosen an appropriate
spot for your flowers and have prepared the soil, dig a hole that is slightly
bigger and deeper than the root ball of your plant. Gently tease out the
roots of the plant if they are root-bound. Place the plant in the prepared
hole, then fill in the reserved soil around it. Tamp it down firmly, but don't
pack it. Add more soil, if needed, until the root ball of the plant is planted
just a bit deeper than it was in the pot. If you're planting seeds, dig a hole
that is the recommended depth, then place the soil over the seed and
firm it slightly. If the seeds need light to germinate, do not cover them
with soil -- just press them into the soil lightly.
4. Water thoroughly. Once you've planted your seedlings or seeds, give
them a good drink of water. A watering can with a rose attachment is
ideal for this task. It delivers a good amount of water, but doesn't
dislodge the seeds.
5. Fertilize regularly. If your plants are heavy feeders, they may thrive
with a regular application of a liquid or powder fertilizer. Most fertilizers
that are formulated for flowers are heavy on nitrogen, which promotes top
growth. If this doesn't seem to help your plants, try a general purpose
6. Deadhead when necessary. In order to keep your flowers looking tidy
and blooming for as long as possible, you'll need to deadhead them. This
means to remove spent flowers. If the dead flowers are left on the plant,
it will signal the plant to begin producing seeds, which terminates the
flowering process.
7. Troubleshoot. If your plants are not growing well, the first step is to
look for pest or disease issues. You can usually see pests or at least, the
evidence that they leave behind. If your flowers have holes in the leaves,

Farm Operation Management Assignment – 2nd Group. PVH

or you see a sticky residue on the undersides of the leaves, it's a sure sign
that you have a bug problem. There are many organic pesticides on the
market, which are very effective at eliminating pests. Diseases also leave
obvious signs behind -- deformed stems and misshapen leaves usually
signal a disease problem. For severe disease problems, you may need to
remove the affected plants. If the leaves on your flowers are yellow, it
usually means that they have been overwatered or received too much
nitrogen. Try watering less frequently and reducing the strength of the
fertilizer you use. (http://www.a3741-how-to-grow-
Growing flowers in raised flower beds
Growing your flowers in a raised bed is ideal for gardeners with limited space.
It's also a great alternative for those who have poor soil since drainage or
pooling water can cause big problems for growing plants.
Needed materials: Constructed flower bed, Flower seeds or plants, Garden
hose with a sprayer end, Landscape fabric, Dirt, Top soil, Compost.
1. Step 1. Lay down landscape fabric on the bottom of the raised bed if it does not
have a bottom. This will keep the weeds from coming up through the bed.
2. Step 2. Fill the raised flower bed half full with regular dirt if it is a large bed. Fill
smaller beds or the top half of large beds with top soil or flower soil that you
purchase at a home and garden center.
3. Step 3. Mix some compost into the soil. Use a tea compost or one that is not too
harsh if you are planting delicate seed flowers. Choose flowers that are
compatible with the amount of sun and water they require.
4. Step 4. Plant seeds and water liberally. Keep the seeds damp until they start to
sprout and then water every other day unless it's very hot and dry.
5. Step 5. Plant bulbs once the seedlings start to sprout. This way the stronger bulb
flowers will not hide the seedlings and keep them from getting sun.
6. Step 6. Plant flowering plants last. Once the seedlings and bulb flowers are tall
enough to get sun around any plants, you can plant the flowering plants. Keep
the flower garden watered and as they grow they will fill in the entire bed.

7. Step 7. Add a small amount of new compost to the soil once a month to keep the
soil full of nutrients for the flowers. (http://www.how_4894219_grow-
Growing flowers in a green house
Growing flowers in a green house is the easiest way to start seedlings. Not only
can you plant hundreds of flowers for the outdoor gardens, the expense is so
much lower than buying plants and flowers that were grown in a commercial
green house. It is very easy to start flowers from a seed. There is no need to
spend hundreds of dollars on flowers when starting a flower in a green house is
easy to do.
Needed items: Green house, soil, vermiculite, starter cups or some other
containers, flat tray, seeds.

Farm Operation Management Assignment – 2nd Group. PVH

1. Step 1. Growing flowers in a green house will require some necessary supplies.
The starter cups, seeds, soil, vermiculite and a tray to hold the cups is required
to start the flowers. The starter cups can be little plastic yogurt containers or cup
trays from a gardening shop. The containers need to have drainage. If using the
yogurt containers, punch holes in the bottom for drainage.
2. Step 2. Place the soil and vermiculite into the containers and add at two to three
seeds per container. The soil should be rich in nutrients such as potting soil or a
starter kit for seeds that can be found at a garden shop. Make sure the soil
reaches the tops of the containers. The depth that the seeds are planted will be
found on the seed package. Lightly water with a spray bottle. Keep the seeds
wet until they germinate.
3. Step 3. Place the containers in a brightly lit area where they will have sunlight or
artificial light. Grow lights will work in a green house on the darker sides of the
house. The best place for the new seedlings is on the sunniest sides of the
4. Step 4. Keep the temperature of the green house between 68 and 70 degrees.
Turn the containers daily as the seed start to grow. This will ensure that the
flower grows straight up and not off to the side where the sun is hitting it.
5. Step 5. When the seedlings reach two inches, transplant into different containers
to grow larger or thin out the exiting container so the healthiest flower can grow.
Continue to keep the temperature of the green house warm and turn flowers
daily until ready to plant outside. (http://www.how_2312445_grow-flowers-

A picture showing a greenhouse were flowers can be grown for export

Current situation overview of Rwanda
Before discussing specific objectives and strategy, it is important to provide a

Farm Operation Management Assignment – 2nd Group. PVH

detailed overview of Rwanda’s horticulture potential, current situation,
constraints and opportunities.

Overview of Rwanda Horticulture Assets With a blessed climate, fertile soils

and an abundant, hardworking labor force, the industry in Rwanda certainly exists.
Rwanda is able to produce many exotic fruits and vegetables that are currently
sought out by the international community – passion fruit, apple bananas (desert
bananas), Japanese plums; Bird’s Eyes Chilies are just a few examples that are
interesting as high-value export crops. Many others also have the potential to be
grown in Rwanda’s fertile and diverse terrain. The details are indicated in table 2.
Because of the wide range of potential fruits & vegetables that can be grown in the
country, the future development of the industry will not just rely on fresh exports.
Interesting opportunities also exist with processed fruits & vegetables, such as
dried tropical fruit as a snack food for export to western markets as well as juices
for exporting regionally.

The fact that potential exists is undeniable; but equally undeniable is the fact that
little or nothing has been done as yet to develop the full potential of Rwanda’s
horticulture. Market fruits & vegetables should be contributing much more to the
economy and export receipts, as well as to the livelihood of rural farmers, than
they currently do.

The particularity of Rwanda regarding

The growing of flowers in Rwanda is one of the new activities in the economy.
Some famers grow flowers on small scale like sun flowers and rose flowers that
are grown in East Province. However the highland flowers project at Nyacyonga
is presently the largest project in Rwanda that grows flowers and export them
to foreign markets. ()

Activities involved in floriculture in Rwanda

At the site the numbers of activities are performed including:

– Cutting flowers and taking them into refrigerated rooms
– Grading and packing flowers
– The flowers are transferred at the airport on a particular days for
transporting them to the final destination.
Highland flowers is a three hectare projected located about five kilometers on
Kigali-Byumba road at Nyacyonga and employs about 80 workers who are both
skilled and some skilled for the unskilled are first trained before they can work
on the project site.

The workers at the project site can be put into three categories and these may
– The first is the professional agriculturist and officers which include the
production manager and his assistant and commercial manager
– The second is that of regular workers who till the land using some small

Farm Operation Management Assignment – 2nd Group. PVH

– The third category is of those who do the cutting, grading and packing of
flowers who are trained before being employed and are always supervised
while working.
Three quarter of the employees at the site is women for they are regarded to be
more careful than men in preparing flowers. It is normally recommended that
not less than 2 hectares of such a project is established and also need enough
capital in million of US dollars. However, within two to three years initiators may
recover from all the expenses.

Types of flowers grown and exported

The only type of flowers grown at highland flowers project are rose flowers with
different varieties that include:
- first red, - Orange unique, -Yellow unique, - Frisco, - Renee.
All these varieties are grown uniformly and roofed under the same sheetings
that break wind from entering. The sheetings are placed after every three
years. Apart from wind, flowers are also prone to deseases and pests.
The revenue from exporting flowers is quite substantial. It was found out that
the price per stem is US $ 0.16 and that when it is in summer in Europe the
business falls because they grow their own flowers cheaply and so the price per
stem fall to 0.09 US $. It was said that at times prices may go up to 0.50 US $.
However, the most stable price is that of US $ 0.16.
Showing monthly export earnings from flowers of highland
flowers in us $

Quantit Valu Quantit Valu Quantit Value Quantit Valu

y e y e y y e

MO 60,000 9,60 10,000 16,0 60,000 9,600 60,000 9,60

N 0 stems 00 us stems US $ stems 0
US$ $ US

SAT 60,000 9600 20,000 3200 60,000 9,600 60,000 9,60

US $ stems us$ stems US $ stems 0

The table above depicts the amount of flowers that are exported in terms of
stems by highland flowers project and the value of export earnings that are got

1 The source of this table is the RWIGEMA MINEGA Jean Bosco’s own data.

Farm Operation Management Assignment – 2nd Group. PVH

in US $ dollars monthly. There are cases when the numbers of flowers that may
be exported are less than 30,000 stems and in case of such a situation they
compensate the number on the next day of exporting. The total export earnings
monthly in terms of US $ is 76,800 which is around 27,648,000 Rfw. The above
revenues can be big percentage on the GDP of the economy if there were a
good number of similar projects.


Considering the performance of the highland flowers project therefore, it is

evident that if there were proper government policies and strategies in
exportation on top of non-traditional cash crops and mainly flowers in Rwanda
by diversifying the export base, the economic growth of Rwanda’s economy
could increase.

As a matter of fact, water is one of the requirements of putting up such a flower

project, and since there are a lot of marshlands that are uncultivated then may
similar projects can be set up and enough products expected in the economy
for higher foreign exchange earnings.

Constraints, concerns and interventions

Constraints With its natural advantages, the potential benefits and the recent
success of neighboring countries in this industry, it makes sense to ask why
horticulture in Rwanda has not grown here as it has in other countries. What is
holding the industry back? The answer is explained by the concept of the LILI loop
(“Limited Investment, Limited Interest”). As horticulture is an industry that
requires significant investments up front (from both the private sector and the
public sector) the LILI loop serves as a mechanism to explain the continued under-
development of the industry:

Rwanda needs to break the cycle of the LILI Loop in order to ensure the take off

Farm Operation Management Assignment – 2nd Group. PVH

of the horticulture industry. Simultaneous commitment and investment from
both the government and the private sector is needed to achieve this goal.
The investments needed to break the cycle cover the entire production and
export chain. An overview of the current constraints at each stage of the
industry value chain can be summarized as follows
- Limited specialized extension services
- Lack of access to financing
- Limitation in seed quality control
- Low use of fertilizers
- Limited efforts allocated to Research & Development

Institutional and coordination constraints

This following figure shows in summary,

Figure 1 Source: Rwanda Horticulture Workgroup

Constraints and Logistics

– High freight rates &fuel surcharges increase cost of production and
reduced competitiveness
– Off loads during peak periods(especially for smaller farmers)
– Low levels of professional skills in logistics
– Limited training facilities
Cold Chain Management:
– Complex
– Highly technical
– Differential handling by personnel
– Capital intensive and high maintenance cost.

Farm Operation Management Assignment – 2nd Group. PVH

Transport inland
Poor state of roads leading to:
– Delays
– Damaged products and loss of quality
– High cost of maintenance of vehicles
Distance between farms and exit points
Costly and unreliable transport(small to medium growers)
Access and Handling Facilities
Limited capacity in the region
Inefficient due to lack of requirements (perishable and awareness of
handlers on the unique sector specific quality sensitive product)
Facilities are expensive especially for the small to medium growers in
terms of fiscal cost and psychological distance e.g. Rwanda growers
who need to transit through other airports and carriers.
Delays due to inspection requirements and work environment.
As next steps, key industry stakeholders-Entrepreneurs,
Government and Donors-have to work on the following
Sensitive government and donor leaders on the value of horticulture for
wealth creation in rural areas and major foreign exchange earnings (e.g.,
Provide adequate capital to create a level playing field: freight costs,
certification, supply chain equipment, etc.
Articulate financial products matching entrepreneurs’ needs especially
with reasonable conditions (i.e. terms, guarantees, low interest rates,
Create and provide a one-stop financing and assistance network for the
horticulture industry (i.e., 60% of time is lost on administration and
seeking assistance)
Donors to ensure that EU monitors the extent and constraints of
involuntary requirements (i.e., PD in Holland, Audits required from some
buyers, etc.)
Launch a private-public monitoring mechanism to ensure effective
Marketing Related Desired Interventions
Support joint regional promotional initiatives e.g. inward and outward floriculture
fairs and exhibitions.
Support for missions and visits to destination markets
Develop institutionalized mechanism for market information sharing through
Support for development of sector directories and or catalogues.

Available Opportunities – Investment

Even if Rwanda has got some limitations of funds, there are some opportunities
that we cannot ignore which are:
Political stability

Farm Operation Management Assignment – 2nd Group. PVH

Investment incentives and government support
Geographical position – market access
Good climatic conditions
Abundance of labor ,and - Reasonable Infrastructure
Desired intervention
Here follows what can be the interventions that can be carried in the
horticulture on the side of flowers in Rwanda:
Matchmaking for joint ventures
Accessibility to affordable credit-lines (grants or soft loans)
Strengthening the regional promotion agencies to undertake policy
advocacy with governments
Enhance regional infrastructure developments e.g. cross border road
networks, communications, etc.
Unlock existing development funds by reviewing current procedures and
requirements e.g. thresholds, counterpart contributions and collaterals in
terms of guarantees.
Funding support should be used to eliminate supply side constraints to
increase competitiveness in global market
Three factors – strategy, investment, skills – are required to
incubate successful horticulture entrepreneurs in East

Source: RWANDA FLORA PILOT Pioneering Initiatives Linking Outgrowers to Trade

So far, East African countries have mostly focused on strategy and skills.


If Rwanda succeeds in developing a differentiated positioning in growing flowers, it

can replicate recent successes currently experienced by neighboring countries. In
East Africa, horticulture is Kenya’s largest export industry, generating more than
$400 million in receipts, surpassing even coffee and tea. In Uganda, horticulture
exports in 2004 totaled $45 million. Ethiopia has managed to grow a horticulture

Farm Operation Management Assignment – 2nd Group. PVH

industry that generates more than $30 million in exports in just 4 years.
In order to achieve this vision, some of the above suggestions can be adopted.

(n.d.). Retrieved from

RWIGEMA MINEGA, J. B. (1999). Exportation of non-traditional cash crops in Rwanda as

an alternative strategy towards economic development. A case study of floriculture.
Huye: Submitted as memoire for the obtention of the grade of Bachelor's degree in

Encarta, M. (2008). Microsoft ® Encarta ® 2009. © 1993-2008 Microsoft Corporation.

Redmond, Washington, USA.

Farm Operation Management Assignment – 2nd Group. PVH

Farm Operation Management Assignment – 2nd Group. PVH