You are on page 1of 11

April 2014 3.

99

A Cond Nast Special Edition

The RESEARCH issue

The RESEARCH issue


A Cond Nast Special Edition

thisISSUE
Moving on to the 1960s, with Diana Vreeland as editorin-chief, personality becgan to shown through the magazine. It began to appeal to the youth of the sexual revolution by focusing more on contemporary fashion and editorial features that openly discussed sexuality. Vogue were one of the first fashion magazines to push the boundary between fashion and sex. Toward this end, Vogue extended coverage to include East Village boutiques such as Limbo on St. Marks Place, as well as including features of downtown personalities such as Andy Warhol, Superstar Jane Holzers favorite haunts opposed to strictly advertising high-end fashion designers. Vogue also continued making household names out of models, a practice that continued with Suzy Parker, Twiggy, Jean Shrimpton, Lauren Hutton, Veruschka, Marisa Berenson, and Penelope Tree. In 1973, Vogue became a monthly publication under the power of editor-in-chief Grace Mirabella. The magazine underwent extensive editorial and stylistic changes to respond to changes in the lifestyles of its target audience, giving the magazine a re-brand which is still globally recognisable and in use today. Anna Wintour became editor-in-chief of American Vogue in July 1988. Wintour is noted for her trademark bob cut and sunglasses. Wintour sought to revitalize the brand by making it younger and more approachable; she directed the focus towards new and accessible concepts of fashion for a wider audience. Wintours influence allowed the magazine to maintain its high circulation, while staff discovered new trends that a broader audience could conceivably afford. For example, the inaugural cover of the magazine under Wintours editorship featured a three-quarter-length photograph of Michaela Bercu, an Israeli super model, wearing a bejeweled Christian Lacroix jacket and a pair of jeans, a departure from her predecessors tendency to portray a womans face alone; according to the Times, this gave greater importance to both her clothing and her body. As fashion editor, Grace Coddington wrote in her memoirs, the cover endorsed a democratic new high/ low attitude to dressing, added some youthful but sophisticated raciness, and garnished it with a dash of confident energy and drive that implied getting somewhere fast. It was quintessential Anna. Wintour continues to be American Vogues editor-inchief to this day. Furthermore, she is described as one of the most powerful figures in fashion. Overtime the magazine has progressed and changed with societies ever changing norms and conventions. Changes also depend on the country of the magazine, as different cultures feature different types of fashion, designers and lifestyle advice, which has been key to success over the past several decades as the brand has grown and expanded as appropriate. Vogue was described by book critic Caroline Weber in a December 2006 edition of The New York Times as the worlds most influential fashion magazine and serves so globally. Rather than inspiring someone with fashion and lifestyle choices, Vogue gives the impression of a guide to living the high-end lifestyle most would assume not all of its readers can afford. Keeping Vogue fresh, clean cut, vibrant and appropriate, as well as rich in culture, the publication claims to reach 11 million readers in the US and 12.5 million internationally on an annual basis. Cond Nast: Cond Nast, a division of Advance Publications, is a mass media company headquartered in the Cond Nast Building in New York City. The company attracts more than 164 million consumers across its 20 print and digital media brands. Brands under their ownership and publication include: Allure, Architectural Digest, Ars Technica, Bon Apptit, Brides, Cond Nast Traveler, Details, Epicurious, Glamour, Golf Digest, Golf World, GQ, Home & Garden, Lucky, Tatler, The New Yorker, Self, Teen Vogue, Vanity Fair, Vogue International, W and Wired. The transformation of the magazine when Cond Nast took over was obvious. A high-end magazine was born, and without the move to Cond Nast, recent digital variations wouldnt of been released, yet again increasing appeal and a larger, global audience. Currently Vogue is available to buy and read in different media platforms - print, iPad, iPhone and online. The estimated digital audience is around 1.6million annually, and is increasing to rise with the introduction of digital variations internationally. Vogue apps and digital versions are a new trend which allows anyone, or perhaps busy business men/women to read Vogue on the move, when out and about or when at home. For some, its also a lighter alternative to a printed copy, which have been known to weigh upto 5lbs each in the past. Cond Nast have released spin-off editions, special editions, anniversary editions, and multi-media ways for culture, fashion and lifestyle to be absorbed at all times. This special edition will look into the history, backgroud and cultural ethos of Vogue, exploring its international domination, its controversial issues as well as looking into traditional fashions, tabboo topics and their current lack of presence in the fashion industry. Fashion doesnt only rely on trends, it relys on money, audience, ethical, social and political issues as well as influence from the media worldwide and that is what this issue will explore.

Vogue is the leading fashion and lifestyle magazine, which has been in circulation since 1892. Vogue places fashion in the context of culture and the world we live in how we dress, live and socialize; what we eat, listen to and watch; who leads and inspires us. Vogue immerses itself in fashion, always leading readers to what will happen next. Thought-provoking, relevant and always influential, Vogue defines the culture of fashion, whilst reflecting international icons and trends. Founded in 1982, Arthur Tunrure released Vogue as a weekly publication in the States. The first US issue went on sale on the 17th of December 1982. Turnures intention was to create a publication that celebrated the ceremonial side of life; one that attracts the sage as well as debutante, men of affairs as well as the belle. At the beginning, the magazine targeted the New York aristocracy, establishing social norms in a country that did not value class and ceremony as much as England or France at the time. The magazine was primarily concerned with fashion, with coverage of sports and social affairs included for its male readership. Cond Montrose Nast bought Vogue in 1905 one year before Turnures death and gradually grew the publication. He changed it to a bi-weekly magazine, and as the readers grew, the magazine expanded. The magazines number of publications and profit increased dramatically under Nasts management. By 1911, Vogue had earnered a reputation that it continues to maintain to date, targeting an elite audience and expanding into the coverage of weddings amongst beauty, health and accessories. The magazines number of subscriptions surged during the Great Depression, and again during World War II. During this time, noted critic and former Vanity Fair editor Frank Crowninshield served as its editor, having been moved over from Vanity Fair by publisher Cond Nast. In terms of aesthetics of the magazine when first released Laird Borrelli notes that Vogue led the decline of fashion illustration in the late 1930s, when they began to replace their celebrated illustrated covers, by artists such as Dagmar Freuchen, with photographic images.

Vintage Vogue, Early 1900s

Vintage Vogue Covers, Early 1900s

aSUCCESS

26

Left Page: Vogue China, Top left and bottom right, Vogue Korea, topright. Right Page: Vogue Girl, Japan/Korea, top left, Vogue Casa, Brazil, top right.

88% Female 38yrs 12% Male


Average Reader Gender Median Age

Below shows the circulation dates of all international editions published. United States United Kindgom France Spain Italy Germany Cuba* New Zealand* Australia Brazil Mexico & Latin America Korea Russia Argentina* Taiwan Japan Greece* Portugal China India Turkey Netherlands Ukraine Thailand Saudi Arabia

The currnent circulation figures for Vogue internationally are 13.5million per year. 1892 1916 1920 1921 - 36; 1988 1922 - 36; 1964 1924 - 41; 1979 1934 - 61 1957 - 68 1959 1975 1980 1996 1998 1993 - 2002 1996 1999 1999 - 2012 2002 2005 2007 2010 2012 2013 2013 2013 * No longer in circulation.

Editions

International
Have been released over the past century across 6 continents, allowing fashion to evolve overtime through global cultural variations. Vogue shares, inspires and sells luxurious, high-end lifestyle choices to their readers, showcasing international brands, icons, socialites, journalists and events, amongst much more. After the take over from Turnure in 1905, the Cond Nast Group was the first publishing company to establish international editions of the magazine which was quickly becoming the dominant fashion magazine available on the market. British Vogue was launched in 1916 at the height of World War I, and Les Publications Cond Nast formed four years later with the launch of Vogue Paris. Vogue was launched in Australia in 1959, followed by Italian Vogue in 1965, and LUomo Vogue in 1968. Cond Nast International began publishing in Brazil in 1975, in Germany in 1979, Spain in 1988, Russia in 1998, Japan in 1999, and entered the Chinese market in 2001. Cond Nast India was established in 2007, with the introduction of Saudi Arabia in October 2013. Overtime Vogue has become reocognizable all over the world, with Cond Nast taking advantage of its reputation. For instance, since 1996, with the launch of Vogue.co.uk, Cond Nast International

As previously noted, there are 14 additional variations of Vogue which are released in particular countries.

The current circulation figures are shown below, showing comparison between spin-off editions and popularity based on country and dominance in the fashion industry. Vogue Living Vogue Novios Vogue Ninos Vogue Beleza Vogue Cosmeticos Vogue Joyas Vogue Collections 152k 184k 150k 609k 612k 543k 1.9m

Australia Spain

China France Japan & Korea Italy

Vogue Collections 1.9m Vogue Collections 1.9m Vogue Man 420k Vogue Girl Vogue Sopresa Vogue Accessory Vogue Bambini Vogue Gioiello Vogue Casa 753k 200k 350k 200k 220k 770k

has been positioning itself as a leader in digital publishing, with branded websites, iPad and mobile apps, and editions on multiple devices. The company has simultaneously diversified and expanded with contract publishing ventures, a restaurant division, fairs, conferences, festivals and the first Cond Nast College of Fashion and Design based in London, all under the Vogue Brand Umbrella.

Apart from an astonishing range of publications on offer through Vogue alone at this point in time, the magazine became noticed for its cultural differences globally through food, lifestyle, fashion, travel, advice and photography. Aside from the 26 International Editions of the magazine, there are also 14 more spin-off publications, such as Vogue Accessory giving focus to other lifestyle elements such as Home and Childrenswear

Brazil There are currently 41 variations of Vogue depending on country available for their fashion concious audience.

This alone shows the enormity of the brand, without the clothes, the designer names or expensive price tags.

aSUCCESS
With over 26 international variations of Vogue, a large collection of covers are shown below, showing differnces in layout, type, language, imagery and culture, reflected between different countires & cultures.

Australia

Brazil

Bulgaria

China

France

Germany

Hungary

India

Italy

Japan

Japan

Korea

Middle East

Poland

Portugal

Russia

South Africa

Spain

The Netherlands

Ukraine

UK

aCLOSE-UP

Demographic statistics show a varied yet somewhat predictable result of their readers globally. If one was to base their target audience on the data collected by Cond Nast (2013) it would be a single, middle-aged female, with a high income, and lots of disposible cash. GENDER INCOME BAND

The word association game has been designed to test the audiences traditional fashion knowledge. As much as Vogue represent a large portion of the fashion world, traditional fashions which are still used on a daily basis are often pushed aside due to controversial social, political and religious issues as well as the idea of a tabboo topic. However, we are blurred from seeing the beauty in these fashions, even through international editions. Research was carried out into each country Vogue publishes an issue in, focusing on their traditional fashions. We often forget where todays fashions have come from, and what people still consider their fashion today. How many do you think you can work out? Countries are on the left, whilst the traditional piece of clothing is listed somewhere on the right.

AUSTRALIA BRAZIL BULGARIA CHINA FRANCE GERMANY HUNGARY INDIA ITALY JAPAN KOREA MEXICO/LATIN AMERICA MIDDLE EAST POLAND PORTUGAL ROMANIA RUSSIA SOUTH AFRICA SPAIN TAIWAN THAILAND THE NETHERLANDS TURKEY UKRAINE UNITED KINGDOM USA

SARI TARTAN BURQA FUR K-POP TRIBAL FOLK THONGS (FLIP FLOPS) KIMONO HARAJUKU HEMP SOMBRERO FEZ SHOES FORMOSA FLAMENCO LEDERHOSEN MAID CARNVIAL BRIGHT FOLK PILGRIM BABUSHKAS ETHNIC SILK DRESSES PATRIOTIC RELIGIOUS PHA NUNG

76% AB 79% Female 24% C+ 21% Male AGE TECHNOLOGY FINANCIAL SERVICES 97% 94% 45% Use financial services. Have a credit card. Have a debit card.

100% Own a laptop or desktop 22% 18-24 computer. 23% 24-34 93% Own a digital/video camera. 23% 35-44 86% Own a plasma/LCA 24% 45-64 screen. 8% 64+ 91% Own an audio sound system. MARTIAL STATUS EDUCATION 46% Married 78% Have been through Higher Education. 54% Single CARS 100% 61% 87% Own a car. Decide which car to purchase at home. Bought a new car. LIFESTYLE - Purchases 97% Luxury Products 66% Luxury Accessories 43% Fine Jewelry & Watches 39% Bags, Briefcases 76% Sunglasses PERSONALITY 95% Consider that he/she has their own style. 51% Like to follow current fashion trends. 52% Are willing to pay more for designer clothes.

ALCHOHOLIC BEVERAGES 94% 59% 81% Drink alcholic drinks. Have high alcholic value. Have low alcholic value..

PERSONALITY 41% Follow the latest beauty & cosmetics trends. 65% Like to feel different. 61% Decide what to buy before they go shopping. 44% Tries new products. 57% Like to buy designer clothing. 100% Use products for personal care. 66% Use cosmetics. 98% Travels for leisure/business. 69% Travel via Airplane. 94% Stays in luxury hotels during their leisure travels. 97% Go on holiday to shop. 100% Visit Restaurants on holiday. 84% Goes to the beach on holiday.

LIFESTYLE 78% 88% ies. 100% 99% 92% 62% 99% Go to the theatre. Go to museums and art gallerGo to shopping centres/malls. Go to the beauty salon. Read books. Go to a spa. Shops on a regular basis.

aRESPONSIBILTY

aRESPONSIBILTY
Peter Pilotto together with design partner Christopher De Vos are the winners of the BFC/Vogue Designer Fashion Fund 2014

Through Vogues Fashion Fund and related projects, Cond Nast is investing in the fashion industry, awarding authoritative profile to emerging designers and in many cases monetary and business support. British Vogues Fashion Fund with the British Fashion Council awards 200,000 to a chosen designer each year as well as all-round business guidance; French Vogue works with ANDAM to administer a prize of 100,000 in recognition of young designers; Vogue Italy hosts Whos On Next, a tradeshow showcasing emerging talent; Vogue Spains Whos On Next awards the winner 100,000 and an editorial in the magazine. French Vogue holds a similar event called Whos Next; German Vogue creates the Vogue Salon during Berlin Fashion Week, highlighting the work of young German designers; and Vogue China has partnered with American Vogue to run a talent exchange programme where a designer from each country is selected to experience the US and Chinese creative, marketing and business insight respectively. American Vogue works annually with the Council of Fashion Designers in America to award a combination of a cash prize and mentoring. In April 2012 Vogue India announced the launch of its Fashion Fund to discover the next emerging Indian Fashion Designer, and this ties in with the fifth anniversary of the magazine.International projects such as

Finalist of the BFC/Vogue Designer Fashion Fund 2012 Roksanda Illinic, with model Cara Delevigne wearing a design from her S/S 2012 Collection.

Fashions Night Out, also conceived and c arried out by editions of Vogue, provide strong promotional and fund-raising platforms, engaging fashion lovers with local charities around the globe. Recent highlights from some of the individual Cond Nast International markets: UK An auction of David Bailey images commissioned by GQ at Camp Bastion, the British militarys base in Afghanistan, raised over 350,000 for Help for Heroes. 50 of the greatest photographs to appear in GQ over the last 25 years were auctioned at the magazines 25th anniversary dinner, held in November 2013 at Phillips Gallery in London, raising 150,000 for The Princes Trust. Vogues Fashions Night In raised 93,000 for the charity Kids Company. France French Vogue has worked on a number of cause-related campaigns publishing adverts with key clients including Bulgari & Save The Children, Este Lauder & LAssociation Le Cancer Du Sein Parlons-en, Ralph Lauren, Pink Pony, Anne Fontaine & Fondation Anne Fontaine, Uniqlo & Save Japan.

Italy LUomo Vogue was involved in a concert in honour of Sophia Loren, directed by her son, Carlo Ponti Jr, who featured in the December issue of the magazine, and proceeds from ticket sales were shared between the Children for Peace and Children Priority charities. LUomo Vogue partnered with car manufacturer Citron to raise money and awareness to improve health conditions of women and children around the world. A s pecially designed Citron DS3 Cabrio LUomo Vogue prototype was sold at a silent auction, raising 100,000 for the Women Create Life organisation. Vogue.it has a long-standing relationship with Fondazione Tommasino Bacciotti to raise awareness for children living with brain cancer. Spain In 2010 Spanish Vogue produced a Fashions Night Out pack for 20 with 15% of sales being donated to Aldeas Infantiles, a non-profit organisation dedicated to offering children at risk a stable home and upbringing. Over 1,000 packs were sold, making a total donation of over 3,110, and in 2011, the partnership with Aldeas Infantiles was repeated.

10

aRESPONSIBILITY

aBRAND
Vogue Caf

Brazil Cond Nast Brazil, in association with Editoria Globo, supported Projeto Generosidade, an annual writing competition where the winner receives R$200,000. Vogue Brazil organised an auction in partnership with Gisele Bndchen in which eight dresses created for her by Brazilian stylists were sold. The money was donated to eco-friendly associations supported by Gisele. Casa Vogue developed a project with the designer Gaetano Pesce in which he created an artistic floor which was then sold in pieces in a silent auction, and proceeds were donated to rojeto Aquarela. Germany German Vogues Fashions Night Out donates profits to local charities in the cities where events take place. Korea For the last 10 years Vogue Korea has held the Art to Wear Competition, in partnership with Shinsegae Department Store, to support students majoring in fashion and design. The winner receives a fashion and design trip to London with Vogue staff during London Fashion Week. Taiwan Vogue Taiwan made a donation of NT $500,000 to Earth Water, a UN recognised fund supporting sustainable water projects. Earth Water launches many global bottle initiatives which see more people worldwide gain access to clean drinking water. Mxico & Latin America In 2011, Cond Nast Mexico and Latin America helped senior housewives of Tsimani workshops by making handcrafted artisanal presents for Christmas to be sold. The eco-friendly products were made using Cond Nast magazines that were out of circulation and the products made helped support several low income families.Vogue Mxico hosted The Kick-off Charity Gala in September 2011. Exhibited items and art pieces were auctioned alongside 13 artisanal dolls dressed by international designers. The event raised $324,000 MXP, and all proceeds were donated to the Friends of the Museum of Folk Art Association, Childrens Mexico Funds and International Society of Values of Mexican Art. Russia Vogue Russia organised a charity art auction in 2008, tying in with the magazines 10th anniversary. 31 international and national

fashion houses participated in the auction raising 700,000 for The Northern Crown Charity Foundation which supports orphaned children. In 2011VogueRussia hosted a charity event as part of Fashions Night Out in Moscow selling a collection of tote bags which featured an image of Russian model Natasha Poly. The proceeds were donated to the foundation Who Else, If Not Me, helping children in difficult life situations. Japan Vogue editors from around the world congregated in Tokyo in November 2011 for a memorable Fashions Night Out event in a bid to boost spirits and retail sales following the earthquake and tsunami which devastated the country earlier that year. The Newhouse family made a US$1million donation to the victims of the earthquake and tsunami in Japan. Vogue Japan held a charity auction in partnership with Isetan Department Store and Yahoo, with bags donated from celebrities such as Hilary Swank and Isabelle Adjani, and monies raised went to UNICEF. Vogue Japan also donated advertising space to benefit the Pink Pony Fund of the Polo Ralph Lauren Foundation providing proceeds to a worldwide initiative in the fight against breast cancer. Vogue and GQ Japan both supported the SAVE JAPAN! PROJECT - activity included a portal site that was opened immediately after the Great East Japan earthquake disaster. Ten artists from around the world including Lady Gaga, Karl Lagerfeld, Nicole Kidman and Gwyneth Paltrow designed T-shirts with messages on sale in June 2011 through Uniqlo stores in 11 countries. US$1.6 million from the sales were donated to the Japanese Red Cross Society for the earthquake relief efforts. China Vogue China continues to dedicate column inches to charitable endeavours, environmental issues and concerns about female health, including an initiative with Estee Lauders Breast Cancer Awareness campaign focusing on anti-carcinogenic foods, while the April 2010 issue was themed going green. Vogue China is also committed to fashion education as it continues to invite top designers and influential fashion industry insiders to give seminars in Beijing, and supports the local fashion industry - for example, in the September 2011 issue it interviewed the founders of the most powerful domestic fashion brand. Self China puts the logo of the Pink Ribbon on the cover of every October issue to support Este Lauder Breast Cancer Awareness.

Portugal Revenue from sales of the official Portuguese Vogue Fashions Night Out 2011 t-shirts go to ACREDITAR, an institution that gives support to parents whose children live with cancer. The Netherlands Vogue and Glamour Netherlands support high school students work experience placements. India Vogue India hosted Fashions Night Out in 2011 donating all proceeds to the Habitat for Humanity, Women India BUILDS initiative. The event raised close to 25,000 through sales of FNO merchandise, the Vogue LOVES pop up store, Vogue STEALS - the sale of gently used luxury bags - and the Vogue DESIRE, SHAWL PROJECT in association with AMEX. In Autumn 2012, to mark their 5th anniversary, Vogue India gifted hand woven and embroidered fabrics made by Indian craftspeople to some of the worlds leading fashion labels inviting them to design something unique. Turkey Profits from sales of Turkish Vogue Fashions Night Out 2011 products were donated to the Tohum Autism Foundation which supports early autism diagnosis, education and social integration services for children living with autism throughout the country. The Cond Nast Eco-Policy Cond Nast International operates a rigorous paper recycling policy. Its magazines are produced using recyclable renewable fibrous materials using wood from sustainably managed forests and elemental or total chlorine-free bleached pulp. Giving Back Cond Nast International has a strict gifting policy applicable to all editorial staff. Gifts sent are collected and sold to staff with funds going to magazines designated charities.

Cond Nast International is extending its famous magazine brands to restaurants globally, under licensing arrangements with experienced, successful operators in each market. Media brands expanding into cafs and bars include Vogue, Gentlemans Quarterly and Tatler. The concept for Cond Nast International Restaurants began several years ago in Russia, where Cond Nast licenses Vogue Caf and Tatler Club to an independent operator, Arkady Novikov. The programme is not limited to the countries where Cond Nast publishes, but encompasses new and emerging markets where the brands do not have a local presence.

the brand umbrella!


Cond Nast Worldwide Newstand, London, UK
Cond Nast Worldwide News is a magazine boutique in central London which sells Cond Nast titles and products from around the world. Our magazines are visually exciting products - featuring stunning works by the finest photographers - but most kiosks do not display them to full advantage, said Cond Nast International chairman Jonathan Newhouse. I thought a beautiful, modern newsagent could do so and at the same time reinforce the power of the magazine brands and the wide geographic range of our offering. And it was important to display them together with video screens, iPads and books. It was a little dream I had for a long time. Location: Vogue House Hanover Square London W1S 2QN Contact: Telephone: +44 207 499 2798

11

12

anISSUE

anOPINION

ISSUES & CRITICISMS:


Left; Fashion issues in Saudi Arabia cause a stir, Right; US Vogue April 2008

Its not all luxury & diamonds.


Not only do Vogue support charitable issues and own up to their social responsibilities as a global brand, however they also recieve critisism, or cause controversy w ith their publications. There have been many issues with photography and pushes the boundaries between fashion and sex, however problems are much wider spread across a multitude of areas.

How Id Sink American Vogue is a series of 12 digital prints in which Scott King has redesigned the Vogue cover. Scott King is an artist, turned Graphic Designer from Goole, South Yorkshire. Kings work has been exhibited widely in London, New York and European galleries including the ICA, KW Berlin, Portikus, White Columns, Kunstverein Munich and the Museum of Modern Art, New York. Currently, he is represented by Galleria Sonia Rosso, Turin, Herald St, London, and Bortolami, New York. Kings art draws on political imagery and language. Most of the stuff Ive done that is deemed political ideology ... its about the failure of the left. Kings work also has roots in the seamier side of British Culture and gives instant impact due to its bluntness and imediacy. After working in the industry for over 20 years, he is dismissive of magazine work now, and states, theyre just Littlewoods catalogues, reciprocals of advertising. As a response he participated in a group show, in 2006 at New Yorks PS1 Gallery, and presented a collection entitled How Id Sink American Vogue. The piece had King imagining how he could ruin the fashion magazine in one year, with a series of increasingly absurd covers. It was about me trying to do something Im good at. Ive done so much crap art. Ive been criticised for making juvenile art, and I tried to make mature art, but, I couldnt do it. I realised what I should do is make even more juvenile art, and its very enjoyable. Read more about Scott King online at: http://www.scottking.co.uk/

Economic Wintours Fashion Night initiative was launched in 2009 with the intention of kickstarting the economy following the Financial collapse of 20072008, by drawing people back into the retail environment and donating proceeds to various charitable causes. The event was co-hosted by Vogue in 27 cities around the US and 15 countries worldwide, and included online retailers at the beginning of 2011. Political In 2006 Vogue acknowledged salient political and cultural issues by featuring the burqa, as well as articles on prominent Muslim women, their approach to fashion, and the effect of different cultures on fashion and womens lives. However, this is a topic which hasnt been brought to light since, other than in the Scott King exhibition, (shown on the following page) due to the political affairs and religious predjudices which are currently circulating. More recently, Vogue sponsored the Beauty Without Borders initiative with a US$25,000 donation that was used to establish a cosmetology school for Afghan women. Wintour stated: Through the school, we could not only help women in Afghanistan to look and feel better but also give them employment. A documentary by Liz Mermin, entitled The Beauty Academy of Kabul, which highlighted the proliferation of Western

standards of beauty, criticized the school, suggesting that the beauty school could not be judged a success if it did not create a demand for American cosmetics. Leading up to the 2012 US Presidential election, Wintour used her industry clout to host several significant fundraising events in support of the Obama campaign. The first, in 2010, was a dinner with an estimated US$30,000 entry fee. The Runway To Win initiative recruited prominent designers to create pieces to support the campaign. Social The Met Ball is an annual event that is hosted by Vogue magazine to celebrate the opening of the Metropolitan Museums fashion exhibit. The Met Ball is the most coveted event of the year in fashion that is attended by A-list celebrities, politicians, designers and fashion editors. Vogue has hosted the themed event since 1971 under Editor in Chief, Diana Vreeland. In 2013, Vogue released a special edition of Vogue entitled Vogue Special Edition: The Definitive Inside Look at the 2013 Met Gala. In 2007, Vogue drew criticism from the antismoking group, Campaign for Tobacco-Free Kids, for carrying tobacco advertisements in the magazine. The group claims that volunteers sent the magazine more than 8,000 protest emails or faxes regarding the ads. In

response, a spokesperson for Cond Nast released an official statement: Vogue does carry tobacco advertising. Beyond that we have no further comment. In April 2008, American Vogue featured a cover photo by photographer Annie Leibovitz of supermodel Gisele Bndchen and the basketball superstar LeBron James. This was the third time that Vogue featured a male on the cover of the American issue, and the first in which the man was black. Some observers criticized the cover as a prejudicial depiction of James because his pose with Bndchen was reminiscent of a poster for the film King Kong. Further criticism arose when the website Watching the Watchers analyzed the photo alongside the World War I recruitment poster titled Destroy This Mad Brute. In February 2011, just before the 2011 Syrian protests unfolded, Vogue published a controversial piece by Joan Juliet Buck on Asma al-Assad, wife of the Syrian president Bashar al-Assad.Journalists criticized the article as glossing over the poor human rights record of Bashar al-Assad. According to reports, the Syrian government paid the U.S. lobbying firm Brown Lloyd James US$5,000 per month to arrange for and manage the article.

How Id Sink American Vogue!


SCOTT KING
A new vision. 14

Images shown are taken from his How Id Sink American Vogue Exhibition, 2006.

13

aREVIEW
Spain

the country at hand, however the models chosen do not always represent the relevant ethics. In terms of designers, international and national designers are showcased through different global editions, focusing on trend, innovation and talent. The magazines themselves are designed internationally also, and have been inspired by Alexy Brodovitch in terms of layout. Layouts are also representative of culture and lifestyle, using colour, type, language, tone and content. The season, trend at focus, or cover photo may also set the tone of the content, layout, imagery and type choices. Language wise, editions vary depending on where editions are sold, allowing the magazine to be accessible to everyone. Languages used globally consist of English, American English, Italian, Spanish, French, Romanian, Hungarian, Polish, Russian, Arabic, Cyrillic, Chinese and Japanese, amongst many others. As well as using the national language at hand, some editions also feature English as an addition, for example, China and Japan. Along with the above advertising changes internationally, allowing for relevant target audiences and sales to be employed nationally. Rates for advertising vary depending on size, placement through the magazine, content, characters and cost per imagery. The rates for a single page advertisement would set back a company around $30,000 on average, according to American rate cards, issued by Vogue. Pricing also changes depending on country of publishing. Advertisements are said to be both ubiquitous and inevitable part of our lives, reflecting and even shaping our culture. It would be right to say that 1/3 of all Vogue magazines are advertisments, aimed to shape our views of what is good, and what isnt. With editions available to buy online from all 26 countries, influences can be taken and crossed overtime allowing trends, content and articles to change, as well as the products or brands being advertised. Whilst the aesthetics are ever changing, the undertone remains consistent globally, formal, elegant, sophisticated, smart, luxurious, expensive and cultural. However, editions in Eastern Asia for example, are extra vigilant with content and body copy, due to their cultural differences and religion. Several variations such as Vogue Cuba and Vogue Argentina are no longer in circulation, after failing to thrive in harsh economies. With the lifestyles being promoted, and the prices of products being seen as very expensive in some cases, these editions didnt survive the economic crisis. Ironically, most the the EU is in a recession, whilst in 2013 sales of designer watches in the UK alone was over 790m. Vogue is also Russias biggest selling fashion magazine, and take a massive amount of money from advertising designer goods. With 65% of fashion magazine choosing to read Vogue, over others on the market, their influence on the purchase of consumer goods isnt affected by economic or social issues and status. Through the facts and information shown it is possible to see how Vogue effects many peoples opinions on fashion and lifestyle choices, which overall encompass Vogue as a brand, and collate its rationale. Vogue aim to be the worlds most inspiring fashion magazine, as well being recognised for undeniably massive sales figures, and online imprints. With the addition of a new website, and apps for participating countries, Cond Nast aim to push their market further, expanding to new audiences and levels of international appreciation. Together the international editions form a global fashion bible, recording fashions, trends, food & travel choices, advertising and photography, allowing inspiration to be taken by readers, the fashion industry, students, professionals, designers and staff to make correct choices for the future. Not only that, it forms an archive of the history of fashion and visual culture.

South Africa

15

Culture plays a big part of Vogue in every way, from the design process to the content itself. And more importantly culture has to be considered from international edition to edition. It is inevitable that each issue needs be a concept, a focus point, fashion, photography, events, reviews, beauty, accessories, lifestyle, food and travel. With 19 editors-in-chief, and 41 variations of Vogue, through research it appears it can be difficult to remain true to traditions and cultures. Whilst researching fashion related issues in various countries it is

apparent that photography remains the key to showcasing the positives and the negatives of the fashion industry. Some are beautiful shots, whilst others have said to of been selling sex and racist, with the LeBron James shoot. The images shown backing up this research, have been selected to showcase true fashion relative to the country stated. Much of the photography shown in international editions remain to cast American or British models, if not the in model of time. The fashions may reflect the culture and traditions of

Korea

Italy

16