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# Foundation Example This example problem is contained in Chapter 9 of the CAC Concrete Design Handbook Example 9.7.

2 - Wall Footing Determine footing width, depth and reinforcement for the wall shown in Figure 9.7.2-1. Use factored rock reaction of qsf = 2000 kPa, f c = 35 MPa, and fy = 400 MPa. Factored wall load Pf = 4500 kN/m of wall. Calculations and Discussions: 1. 2. Required footing width: Assuming wf is negligible bf = 4500/2000 = 2.25 m Calculation of effective shear depth: ab = (2.25 - 0.5) / 2 = 0.875 m Assuming that ab < 3dv, (Clause 11.3.6.2 (b) of CSA A23.3) = 0.21 . The concrete shear resistance is v r = c fc , thus vr = 0.81 MPa. Factored shear at the critical section: Vf = qsf (ab - dv) Minimum shear depth from the maximum shear stress condition at the critical section is: thus the effective shear depth is vf = Vf /(1.0dv) = ( qsf ab - qsf dv)/(1.0dv); dv = (qsf ab)/(vf + qsf) = 0.623 m thus the assumption of ab < 3dv was correct. Therefore d = dv /0.9 = 0.692 m use d = 0.7 m. (Clause 11.3.6.3 of CSA A23.3 would give a = 0.14 value with the above dv.) 3. Flexural design: Check for deep beam action Clause 10.7 of CSA A23.3. ab /d = 0.875/0.7 = 1.25 < 2.0 thus deep beam action needs to be considered. The deep beam action will be assessed by two methods: Park and Paulays reduced lever arm method and the Strut-and-tie method.

3.1 Park and Paulays reduced lever arm method Lever arm: dVf / Mf = 2d/ab = 2(0.7)/0.875 = 1.6, thus z = 0.4(d + Mf /Vf) = 0.4 (d + ab /2) = 0.45 m Required reinforcement: As = M f /( s f y z ) = (0.5(0.8752)(2000103)/(0.85(400)(0.45)) = 5004 mm2/m Minimum reinforcement: Based on Clauses 10.5.1.2 (a) and 7.8 of CSA A23.3, and assuming the total depth of footing as tf = 700 + 75 (cover) + 15 (assumed half bar diameter) = 790 mm, thus use tf = 800, the required minimum reinforcement is: As,min = 1600 mm2/m, which is less than the calculated As. Maximum rebar size that can be developed into ab 0.075 = 0.8 m from Table 9.10 is max db = 25M. Reinforcement: Use: 25M @ 100 mm c/c BLL - HH (bottom lower layer, hooked-hooked) short direction 20M @ 175 mm c/c BUL (bottom upper layer) long direction Transfer of wall forces at wall base and development of wall reinforcement into the footing has not been checked in this example see Clause 15.9 of CSA A23.3. 3.2 Design Flexural steel based on strut-and-tie method Based on d = 0.7 m the total depth of tf = 700 + 75 + 15(half bar diameter) = ~800 mm, from steps 1 and 2, will be used for further design. Based on the force diagram on Figure 9.7.2-2, the compressive factored strut forces and

their corresponding tension (horizontal) components are summarized below. Strut A-J; I-L B-J; H-L C-J; G-L D-K; F-K E-K Angle () A = 40 B = 50.2 64.5 70.3 90 Compression - C - in strut kN Tension -T - kN TA = 500/tanA = 596 417 238 179 0

## CA = 500/sinA = 778 651

554 531 500

- Resultant tension forces in the tension reinforcement are therefore: Nodes A, I B, H C, G D, F E Factored tension force - T - kN 596 596 + 417 = 1013 1013 + 238 = 1251 1251+179 = 1430 1430

## Required tension reinforcement:

As = Tf /( s f y ) = 1.43106/(0.85(400)) = 4206 mm2/m

This is 84% of the reinforcement by Park and Paulays reduced lever arm method. Reinforcement: Based on the reinforcement development considerations in item 3.1, use: 25M @ 110 mm c/c BLL - HH (bottom lower layer, hooked-hooked) short direction 20M @ 175 mm c/c BUL (bottom upper layer) long direction Check capacity of struts: Strut A-J: hA = 250 sin40 = 161 mm; CA = 778 kN; TA = 596 kN Strain along the tension reinforcement in point A: See Figure 9.7.2-4 x = TA /( EAs ) = 0.596/(200000(50010-6)/0.11) = 0.65610-3 Principle tensile strain in the strut Clause 11.4.2.3 of CSA A23.3:
1 = x + ( x + 0.002 ) cot 2 s = 0.65610-3 + (0.65610-3 + 0.002)cot240 = 4.4310-3

Limiting compressive stress in the strut Clause 11.4.2.3 of CSA A23.3: fcu = fc /( 0.8 + 170 1 ) 0.85 fc

fcu = 35/(0.8 + 170(4.4310-3)) = 22.5 MPa < 29.7 MPa therefore stress level is acceptable. Strut resistance: Pr = c Ac f cu = 0.65(1)(0.161)(22.5) = 2.35 MN > 0.812 MN, thus strut capacity is adequate.
The other struts can be checked in a similar way; however strut A-J governs for fcu limit. Check nodal stresses:

Node K: Pf = 1500 kN; Ac = 1(0.167) = 0.167 m2 thus concrete stress is fc = 1.5/0.167 = 8.98 MPa. Limiting stress based on Clause 11.4.4.1 of CSA A23.3 is 0.85 c fc = 19.3 MPa > fc. OK. Concrete area (Ac) in node K was taken at the wall and footing interface. Nodes J and L: Acting compressive force (vector sum of strut forces CA, CB, CC) with angle B is CJ = 1500/sinB = 1952 kN. Strut depth hJ = (500/3)sin B = 128 mm. Concrete stress is fc = 1.952/0.128 = 15.24 MPa < 19.3 MPa. The above calculated nodal stress levels are the function of the assumed strut widths. For strain compatibility one could have assumed different strut widths at the column-footing interface, thus lowering or increasing the nodal stress levels. The strut widths could be adjusted to achieve equal stresses at nodes J, K and L. Ultimately Clause 10.8 of CSA A23.3 may be used for checking the stresses at the columnfooting interface. Transfer of wall forces at wall base and development of wall reinforcement into the footing is not checked in this example.

Table 9.10 Tension Development length, d (mm) for deformed reinforcing bars with fy = 400 MPa, for normal density concrete according to Clause 12.2.3 of CSA A23.3.
d = 0.45 k1 k 2 k 3 k 4 f c
MPa 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 64 10M 320 290 260 240 230 210 200 190 190 180 15M 480 430 390 370 340 320 310 290 280 270 20M 640 580 530 490 460 430 410 390 370 360 25M 1010 900 820 760 710 670 640 610 580 560

fy f c

db
Bar Size 30M 1210 1080 990 910 850 800 760 730 700 680 35M 1410 1260 1150 1060 1000 940 890 850 810 790 45M 1810 1620 1480 1370 1280 1210 1150 1090 1050 1010 55M 2210 1980 1810 1670 1570 1480 1400 1330 1280 1240

Notes: 1. 2. mm. The modification factor for bar size (k4) has been included in Table value. See Clause 12.2.4 of CSA A23.3 for other modification factors. After application of all modification factors, the development length must not be less than 300