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**with comb rotors
**

Vaagn L. Zakarian

a

, Mark J. Kaiser

b,

*

a

Department of Industrial Engineering, American University of Armenia, Yerevan, 375019, Armenia

b

Department of Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering, Wichita State University, Wichita, KS 67260-0035, USA

Received 12 February 1997; received in revised form 1 May 1998; accepted 2 June 1998

Abstract

A mathematical model of a synchronous generator with comb rotor is implemented in a computer-aided design

(CAD) package. The model integrates the dierential equations characteristic of an electric machine; tabled data and

empirical coecients; and geometric, electromagnetic, and economic parameters of machine design. The complexity of

the model requires that the solution procedure adopt a naive random search methodology, and an expert system is

integrated within the package. The expert system is used mainly for guidance, and the priority of initial parameter

values is delegated to the designer. An illustrative example is described to demonstrate the methodology of the com-

puter-aided design procedure. Ó 1999 Elsevier Science Inc. All rights reserved.

1. Introduction

The design of an electrical machine is a tedious and time-consuming process involving a

complex iterative solution of nonlinear dierential equations, coupled with the integration of

tabled data sets, empirical relationships, and cost information. Synchronous machine design in

particular does not yield to simple calculation due to the multitude of variables involved in the

design process and because the machine output (power, voltage, etc.) is not related to the input

parameters of the system (machine geometry, magnetic materials, airgap ¯ux density, etc.) solely

through analytic (closed-form) expressions. Thus, if the design did not achieve the desired or

speci®ed performance, the entire process would have to be repeated. Contemporary electrical

machine design methods are computer-aided design (CAD) based, and involve the system de®-

nition and representation, as well as the speci®cation of the machine parameters and selection of

the solution procedure. This general methodology serves as a useful guide for synchronous ma-

chine design, and the following outline is thus employed:

1. De®ne the mathematical model of a synchronous generator with comb rotor;

2. Represent the model in a CAD package;

3. Determine the speci®cations and input parameters of the design, and

4. Select the solution procedure of the model.

Applied Mathematical Modelling 23 (1999) 1±18

*

Corresponding author. Tel.: (316) 978-5904; fax: (316) 978-3742; e-mail: kaiser@ie.twsu.edu.

0307-904X/99/$ ± see front matter Ó 1999 Elsevier Science Inc. All rights reserved.

PII: S 0 3 0 7 - 9 0 4 X ( 9 8 ) 1 0 0 4 6 - X

Electrical machine design is largely a subjective process based on the experience of the design

engineer. For any given set of performance speci®cations, an in®nite number of designs are

capable of meeting the speci®cation set. If economic and reliability factors are considered, then

the set of feasible designs decrease, but the number of designs remains well beyond compre-

hension. There are many machine designs that satisfy given sets of speci®cations, and the fact

that multiple designs can meet performance, economic, and reliability speci®cations is the result

of factors such as: (1) the varied magnetic, conductive, and insulation materials available;

(2) the numerous manufacturing processes which can be adopted; (3) the various types and

layouts of armature windings; and most importantly, (4) the general multivariable nature of the

design process [1].

Electrical machine design is thus an iterative process with search methods and expert systems

employed extensively. The principal role of the machine designer is to select the initial choices of

the iterative process and to guide the design to conserve computational resources (mainly time)

and to ensure ``convergence'' toward the desired speci®cations. The ®nal stage of machine design

is to ensure that the resultant design is physically and economically realizable and manufactur-

able. The multivariable nature of the design and need for design guidance often forces a designer

to set appropriate parameters based on his/her intuition. An expert system can provide guidance

and allow the design process to be more successful and less time-consuming.

2. General considerations of synchronous machines

2.1. Machine de®nition

A machine is classi®ed as ``synchronous'' if under normal conditions it operates at a ®xed speed

determined by the frequency of the applied external signal. The normal operating speed of a

machine is known as the synchronous speed; in revolutions per minute, it is given by n

s

=120 f/P

(r/min), where f is the frequency of the applied signal (Hz) and P is the number of poles of the

machine. One of the principal merits of synchronous machines is the invariant relationship be-

tween machine speed and the frequency of the external source.

Synchronous machines are used in a wide range of output power applications ± a range

probably greater than any other class of rotating machine. On the low end are the clock and

timing motors and control alternators in the milliwatt range; at the high end are the alternators

used in electric power generation in the 50±750 MW range. Synchronous machines also have a

greater diversity of physical con®gurations than any other class of rotating machine. In general

applications synchronous machines are frequently called alternators. In terms of physical size and

power ratings, alternators represent the largest class of rotating electrical devices in existence.

More than 90% of the electric energy used in the world is generated by alternators.

2.2. Physical description

A synchronous machine consists of two electrical windings: the armature and ®eld winding.

The armature winding develops electric energy. It is a power winding and is constructed of

conductors which are capable of carrying current densities from the power rating of the machine.

The excitation produced by this winding is normally called armature reaction. The second

winding of a synchronous machine is called the ®eld winding. The function of the ®eld winding is

to set up the magnetic excitation for the machine. In an important class of synchronous machines

of relatively small power ratings, this winding is replaced by permanent magnets; the resulting

con®guration is known as a permanent magnet synchronous machine.

2 V.L. Zakarian, M.J. Kaiser / Appl. Math. Modelling 23 (1999) 1±18

A synchronous machine consists of a stationary member, called the stator, and a rotating

member, called the rotor. In general, the armature and ®eld can be located in either the rotor or

the stator, but the most common con®guration on large synchronous machines is to have the

armature winding on the stator. The rotating member, or rotor, houses the ®eld winding. A sub-

classi®cation of machines is based on the physical construction of the rotating member and ®eld

winding (Fig. 1). A salient pole structure has individual electrical windings wound around an even

number of poles or projections of magnetic materials mounted around the shaft of the rotor; the

second type of rotor structure is called a non-salient smooth rotor, or cylindrical rotor. In the

most common type of synchronous machine the circuit is constructed with an even number of

poles, whether in the salient-pole or cylindrical rotor construction. In the mathematical model of

a salient-pole alternator with comb rotor, the pole-pair parameter is half the magnitude of P, i.e.,

2P represents the number of poles of the alternator.

2.3. Airgap, rotor and stator parameters of alternator

The airgap, l

g

, exists between the rotor and the stator and is the basic dimension aecting the

magnetic and electrical properties of an alternator. In many machine designs the surface separated

by l

g

is not homogeneous and is constructed of alternate sections of magnetic and non-magnetic

materials known as teeth and slots, respectively. A magnetically non-homogeneous surface on the

stator or the rotor results in an eective increase in airgap length known as the eective airgap l

ge

.

Pole pitch k is de®ned as 360/2P.

Stators are constructed of magnetic laminations stacked (or assembled) in the axial direction

and separated by thin ®lms of electric insulating materials, either oxides formed in the heat-

treating process or ®lms applied in liquid form, such as varnishes. The laminations are held to-

gether to form a rigid body by through bolts, welds applied on the outer circumference of the

laminations, or pressure bonding with the insulating materials as the boring agent. The stator

stack is further strengthened by the stator housing at its outer periphery. A stator lamination

consists of three basic magnetic sections: the slots, the teeth, and the stator yoke (or back iron).

Fig. 1. Types of alternators.

V.L. Zakarian, M.J. Kaiser / Appl. Math. Modelling 23 (1999) 1±18 3

Stator laminations are constructed of carbon steel or, more commonly, 3.5% silicon steel.

Typical lamination thickness for large synchronous machines operating at 60 Hz are 0.37, 0.457,

and 0.635 mm. For large synchronous machines the stacking factor is generally between 0.92 and

0.98, where the stacking factor is de®ned as the ratio of the volume occupied by magnetic material

to the total volume of the magnetic part. This factor is important, among other reasons, for

accurately calculating ¯ux densities. The type of stator steel is another parameter used in the data

set of the model.

There are two basic electrical windings on synchronous machine rotors: excitation winding and

the damper (or amortisseur) winding. The damper winding has identical structure and function to

the squirrel cage winding on brushless induction machines, and its function on a synchronous

machine is to dampen mechanical oscillations by supplying positive or negative induction motor

torque; in some cases, it is also used as a means for starting synchronous machines as induction

motors.

The damper winding is constructed from copper or aluminum bars which are manually inserted

within the slots rather than being installed by a casting process. The bars are then shorted to-

gether electrically at each end by one of two techniques: a shorting ring around the outer pe-

riphery constructed of the same material as the bars, or a lamination matching the steel

laminations in shape but constructed of the same material as the bars. The bars must be brazed to

the end ring or end lamination in order to achieve good electrical and structural connections at

each bar connection.

The ®eld winding construction and shape depends on whether the rotor is of salient-pole or

cylindrical type. The ®eld winding is located under the pole face and wound around a magnetic

section of constant cross-sectional area. In some cases, given that the magnetic pole-face sec-

tions are removable, the ®eld winding can be performed and slipped over the inner pole section

before the pole-face section is mounted. This results in a considerable construction-cost savings,

although it adds another airgap at the joint between the pole-face and inner-pole sections, thus

requiring additional magnetic potential in the ®eld winding. In cylindrical-rotor machines, the

®eld winding is laid in slots and wound in a distributed manner. The salient-pole magnetic

circuit may be divided into three sections: pole face, inner pole, and rotor yoke (inner iron).

Materials used in rotor laminations are normally either carbon or silicon steel as in stator

laminations.

The principal structural members of a synchronous machine, in addition to the electrical and

magnetic members discussed above, are the shaft, the bearings and bearing housing, the stator

housing, and the mounting structure. The latter forms the mechanical connection to the ¯oor or

pedestal on which the machine is mounted and must be capable of transmitting the rated reaction

torque of the machine. Engine-driven alternators are often ¯ange-mounted to the engine in a

cantilevered manner.

3. Mathematical model of alternator

3.1. Model parameters

A mathematical model of a synchronous generator with comb rotor is implemented in a CAD

system. The input data set includes geometric, economic, electrical and magnetic speci®cations.

The geometric input parameters include the spline width of stator sheet, thickness of stator

slot, spline height of stator slot, thickness of rotor sheet, total thickness of wedge and slot in-

sulation under wedge, ratio of total width of rotor broad packs to stator pack length, number of

4 V.L. Zakarian, M.J. Kaiser / Appl. Math. Modelling 23 (1999) 1±18

pole pairs, dierence of stator and rotor lengths, airgap, thickness of slot insulation of bottom and

slot sides, number of parallel paths, distance between pole shoe edge and excitation winding.

The electrical and magnetic parameters of the synchronous generator include the active power

(rated), eciency of excitation system, linear voltage (rated), power factor, frequency, coecient

between butt under pole shoe and excitation, stator stacking factor for steel, average coecient of

load, slot skewing in the parts of stacking division, and motor eciency.

The economic factors include the power factor which determines the price of materials, price of

1 kg of electrotechnical steel, price of 1 kg armature winding wire, coecient determining the

price of labor expenditures, normative pay-back term of generator, and expected number of hours

of generator operation per year.

3.2. Park±Gorev equations

The Park±Gorev equations describe the physical processes in a synchronous generator ac-

cording to a machine representation in quadrature and armature axes. The synchronous reactance

in the rotor axes used in these equations are obtained with a linear transformation. In an un-

saturated machine reactance is a constant parameter. The Park±Gorev equations are written in

terms of current, voltages, and ¯uxes, and describe the electromechanical processes in saturated

salient-pole synchronous machines. The dierential equations of electrical superposition of a two-

pole synchronous machine in the q±d coordinate system are as follows [2]:

U

d

= pw

d

÷ w(1 ÷ s)w

q

÷ rI

d

; U

q

= w(1 ÷ s)w

d

÷ pw

q

÷ rI

q

;

U

f

= pw

f

÷ r

f

I

f

; 0 = pw

kd

÷ r

kd

I

kd

; k = 1; 2; . . . ; n;

0 = pw

iq

÷ r

iq

I

iq

; i = 1; 2; . . . ; m; M

D

= Jwps ÷

3

2

(w

d

I

q

÷ w

q

I

d

);

where U

d

and U

q

are the armature and quadrature components of the winding voltage; U

f

is the

excitation winding voltage; w

d

and w

q

are the stator ¯ux density in the d and q axes; w

f

, w

kd

and

w

iq

are the excitation winding and q and d axes damper ¯ux density; I

d

and I

q

are the armature and

quadrature composition of stator current; I

f

, I

kd

and I

iq

are the excitation winding and q and d axis

damper currents; r, r

f

, r

kd

and r

iq

are the active resistance of the stator, excitation, and the kth d

and ith q axes damper contours; s is the slip; w is the synchronous frequency; M

D

is the motor

torque; J is the rotor inertia; and p is the dierential operator.

This system of equations is highly nonlinear and can be described in functional form by

w

d

= f (I

d

; I

q

; I

f

); w

q

= f (I

d

; I

q

; I

f

):

A simpli®ed set of non-linear equations described in terms of armature and quadrature compo-

nents of the current can be written as

w

sd

= f (I

pd

; I

pq

); w

sq

= f (I

pd

; I

pq

);

where w

sd

and w

sq

are the d and q armature winding ¯ux density; I

pd

and I

pq

are the armature and

quadrature components of the resultant current. The circuit load equations then transform to

U

d

= (x

H

=w)pI

d

÷ x

H

I

q

÷ R

H

I

d

; U

q

= x

H

I

d

÷ (x

H

=w)pI

q

÷ R

H

I

q

;

where x

H

is the reactance and R

H

is the resistance of the load circuit.

The non-linear equation set and load equations are then substituted in the Park±Gorev

equations to yield

w

dd

÷ (x

d

÷ x

H

)I

d

=

w

p

[w

dq

÷ (x

d

÷ x

H

)I

q

÷ (R

H

÷ r)I

d

[;

V.L. Zakarian, M.J. Kaiser / Appl. Math. Modelling 23 (1999) 1±18 5

Table 1

Design algorithm

Parameters Symbol Units

Initial data

1 Rated data

1.1 Active Power Pr kW

1.2 Frequency F Hz

1.3 Phases m=3 )

1.4 Linear voltage UI V

1.5 Power factor cos, logging )

1.6 Pole pairs P=2p )

2 Stator core geometry

2.1 Stator outer diameter Da mm

2.2 Stator inner diameter (bore) Di mm

2.3 Stator back (back-iron)height ha mm

2.4 Slots per pole per phase q )

2.5 Slot size (Fig. 2) bsp, hsp, dsl, bsl mm

2.6 Stack length l mm

2.7 Stacking factor Kfe1 )

2.8 Core loss factor Plo w/kg

3 Stator winding

3.1 Slot bottom and size insulation width DeltaU mm

3.2 Total width of stick and side insulation hku mm

3.3 Spline width of stator sheet Delta8 =DeltaU/2 mm

3.4 Eective conductors per slot Sp )

3.5 Parallel paths a )

3.6 Conductor diameter dpr mm

3.7 Elementary conductors per eective one Nel

3.8 Both-sided insulation width of wire Delta mm

3.9 Skew angle BettaSk

3.10 Coil span y

3.11 Temperature coecient of stator winding Fs

4 Inductor geometry

4.1 Airgap Sigma mm

4.2 Pole footing (face) width bp mm

4.3 Inner pole width bm mm

4.4 Pole face height hp mm

4.5 Inner-iron (rotor yoke) height hd mm

4.6 Ratio of broad rotor pack to stator pack length Gamma mm

4.7 Under-pole joint in¯uence on magnetic ®eld intensity coecient

4.8 Dierence of stator and rotor lengths DeltaL mm

4.9 Salient-pole stacking factor Kfe2

4.10 Surface-loss coecient Ko V/m srq

5 Excitation winding

5.1 Excitation winding insulation size SigR, SigR1, Sig mm

5.2 Distance between pole shoe edge and excitation winding SigmaP mm

5.3 Cross Section Sbt sqr mm

5.4 Coil-pole spacer thickness coecient Kzb )

5.5 Temperature coecient of rotor winding Fk )

5.6 Eciency EFFcx )

6 B±H characteristics

6.1 Main intrinsic magnetization curve aW=F(B) A/sm, Gs

6.2 Magnetization curve for back-iron awa =fa(Ba) A/sm, Gs

aWa =1/18[F(Ba) + 4F(0.9666Ba) + 2F(0.8666Ba) + 4F(0.707Ba)

+ 2F(0.5Ba) + 4F(0.259Ba)]

7 Economics

7.1 Price of 1 kg of electrotechnical steel C¯ $

7.2 Price of 1 kg of stator winding wire $

7.3 Price of 1 kg of excitation winding wire $

7.4 Constructional, technological, material cost coecients k1, k2, Alfa, Bett $

6 V.L. Zakarian, M.J. Kaiser / Appl. Math. Modelling 23 (1999) 1±18

Table 1 (Continued)

Parameters Symbol Units

7.5 Materials price C1, C2 $

7.6 Price of 1kWh electricity Ca $

7.7 Expected operation time per year h hour

7.8 Average load coecient Kzag )

7.9 Normative pay-back term tz year

7.10 Motor eciency EFF )

Computing

1 Rated data

1.1 Phase voltage Ur =UI/SQRT(3) Ur V

1.2 Phase current I =p1000/m u cos I A

1.3 Speed n =60f/p n r/min

1.4 Power output Sr =p/cos Sr kW

2 Stator core geometry

2.1 Equivalent slots per phase per pole qek, q

/

: integers (qek/q

/

=q) qek )

2.2 Slots z =2pmq z )

2.3 Pole pitch TAU=pi Di/z TAU mm

2.4 Slot and tooth size (Fig. 2) hz =0.5(Da ) Di) ) ha;

h =hz ) (hsp + 0.5dsl); bz

/

=pi(Di + 2hsp + dsl)/z ) d; bz

/

=pi(Di + 2hz)/z ) bsl;

bz =(bzmax + 2bzmin)/3; bzmax =MAX (bz

/

,bz

//

); bzmin=MIN(bz

/

,bz

//

)

hz, h, bz

/

, bz

//

, bz mm

3 Stator winding

3.1 Conductor cross section size bsl

/

=bs

/

=2DeltaU(1 + pi/z);

if hku>=0.5d then bzx =bz

/

+ (bz

//

) bz

/

)(hku ) 0.5ds1)/h; ds1

/

=pi[Di + 2(hsp + hku)]/z ) bzx ) 2DeltaU;

Sp

/

=0.5(bs1

/

+ ds1

/

)[hz ) (hsp + hku ) DeltaU) + sqr(0.5d ) DeltaU)

´ (pi-Gamma

/

+ sin Gamma

/

)] ) 1.4bs1 Delta

/

bzx, ds1, Sp

/

mm

if hku>=0.5d then Gamma

/

=2 arccos((0.5d ) hku)/(0.5d ) DeltaU));

Sp

/

=0.5(bs1

/

+ ds1 ) 2DeltaU

/

)(h ) DeltaU) + sqr(0.5d ) DeltaU)pi

) Gamma

/

+ sin Gamma

/

)] ) 1.4bs1 Delta

/

Gamma

/

, Sp

/

rad, mm

3.2. Winding factor Kkkz =(Nel ) sqr(Ss1(dpr + Delta)))/Ss1

/

Kz )

3.3 Skew factor fsk =2sin(AlfaSk/2)/AlfaSk; AlfaSk=pi BettaSk/mq fsk rad

4 Inductor geometry

4.1 Pole face shape radius Rp=0.5Di-Sigma Rp mm

4.2 Pole overlap of broad pack Alfa

/

=2p/pi arcsin(bp/2Rp) Alfa

/

)

4.3 Pole overlap of narrow pack Alfa

//

=2p/pi arcsin(bm/2Rp) Alfa

//

)

4.4 Height of pole face edge hp

/

=Vsqr(Rp) ) sqr(sqr(bp)/2) + hp ) Rp hp

/

mm

4.5 Inner-iron indent md=(hd tg(pi/2p) ) bm)/2 md mm

4.6 Inner pole height hm=Rp ) hp ) 0.5d Rp mm

5 Excitation winding

5.1 Cross section Liner Size ha =hm=(SigR + SigR1); br =0.5(bp ) bm)

) (SigU + SigP); br1 =br ) 2tg(pi/2p)(br hr ) Sb1);

hr1 =hr ) (br ) br1)/tg(pi/2p)

ha, br, br1, hr1 mm

5.2 Half-distance between neihbor poles of excitation winding Sig-

maO=(0.5hd + SigR1)sin(pi/2p) ) (0.5bm + SigU + br1)cos(pi/2p)

SigmaO mm

6 Magnetic ¯ux density

6.1 Pole division TAU=pi/2p TAU rad

6.2 Broad pack pole overlap coecient Alfai

/

=Alfa

/

+ 4/(TAU/Sigma

+ 6/(a ) Alfa

/

))

Alfai

/

)

6.3 Narrow pack pole overlap coecient Alfai

//

=Alfa

//

+ 4/(TAU/Sigma

+ 6/(a ) Alfa

//

))

Alfai

//

)

6.4 Pole overlap coecient Alfai =Alfai

/

Gamma Cs + Alfai

//

(1 ) Gamm Cs) Alfai )

6.5 Ratio of equivalent maax. airgap to average gap SigmaM/Sigma =

sqrt(sqr(B) ) 4AC)-B/2A

SigmaM/sigma )

where A=6(0.595Alfai ) 0.1971Alfa

/

)/(1 ) Alfa

/

); B=6(0.602Alfai ) Alfa

/

)/

(1 ) Alfa

/

) + 0.595Alfai ) 0.1971Alfa

/

)TAU ) 2.38B=6(0.602Alfai ) Alfa

/

)/

(1 ) Alfa

/

)/(1 ) Alfa

/

) + 0.595Alfai ) 0.1971Alfa

/

)TAU ) 2.38;

C=(0.602Alfai ) Alfa

/

)TAU/Sigma

V.L. Zakarian, M.J. Kaiser / Appl. Math. Modelling 23 (1999) 1±18 7

w

dq

÷ (x

d

÷ x

H

)I

q

=

w

p

[÷w

dd

÷ (x

d

÷ x

H

)I

d

÷ (R

H

÷ r)I

q

[;

w

df

÷ x

df

I

f

=

w

p

(U

f

÷ r

f

I

f

);

w

dkd

÷ x

dkd

I

kd

=

w

p

(÷r

kd

I

kd

); k = 1; 2; . . . ; n;

w

did

÷ x

did

I

id

=

w

p

(÷r

id

I

id

); i = 1; 2; . . . ; m;

where w

df

, w

dkd

, w

did

are the ¯ux density of excitation winding and damper winding in the d and q

axis; x

d

, x

df

, x

dkd

, x

did

are the reactance of armature, excitation, and damper winding dispersion.

3.3. Mathematical model design

Salient-pole generator system design depends on its application as well as its generated current

frequency and excitation windings [3]. Traditional pole system design is a one-coil or two-coil

type, and the same design can be applied in generators with wholestamped lists or rotors with a

symmetric or asymmetric pole system. These constructions allow a generated energy frequency

(400 Hz) with relatively low torque (1000±1500 r/min). A one-coil design of excitation winding

causes a non-uniform distribution of ¯ux in the pole system. The footing of the pole with exci-

tation coil and pole body free of excitation coil is exposed to overload, and this distribution of ¯ux

requires a speci®c choice of pole cross-sections.

The comb rotor construction is often implemented because of technological considerations.

The design with uniform airgap allows the same sine coecient as that of a traditional design with

non-uniform airgap. A mathematical model of the synchronous generator with comb rotor is

designed on the basis of known methods of synchronous generator computation [4,5]. Input

variable parameters of optimisation include the outer diameter of stator D

a

, length of stator back

l, relative inner diameter of stator b

d

= D

i

=D

a

; ratio b

a

= 2h

o

=(D

a

÷ D

i

), and current density of

excitation winding.

The speci®cations which shape the feasible region include the maximal value of the magnetic

inductors in the stator tooth (B

z

), stator back (B

a

), and pole shoe (B

m

); maximal value of the

thermal factor (AsJ); total copper weight (G

cu

); armature transient reactance (x

/

d

); armature sub-

transient reactance (x

//

d

); losses in excitation windings (dP

f

), minimal eciency (EFF) and short±

circuit ratio (ScR); and the requirement S

j max

÷ S

jtp

P0 which indicates the maximal and required

cross-sectional areas for excitation coil location.

The objective function is characterized by the parameters D

a

, l, ScR, x

/

d

, x

//

d

, F

nom

(magneto-

motive force of excitation winding with nominal load), dP

f

, EFF, AsJ, G

cu

, and costs of material,

work, and active energy loss. The objective function is also characterized by various geometrical

speci®cations such as slot geometry, damper winding attachment, joint pole and wedge.

The sequence of computations in the non-iterative process of the design is shown in Table 1.

Table 1 consists of two parts: input of initial parameters and a partial

1

representation of the

geometric and magnetic parameters.

The input parameters of the design include rated data, stator core geometry, stator and ex-

citation winding parameters, inductor geometry, magnetic information, and economic data. In

1

The complete table consists of eight pages.

8 V.L. Zakarian, M.J. Kaiser / Appl. Math. Modelling 23 (1999) 1±18

Table 1 the computation of the power output, speed, phase voltage and current is represented in

the section of the rated data. The slot geometry (Fig. 2) is calculated in the sector core geometry

section, and the airgap and initial pole geometry parameters represent the initial data for the

computation of the pole radius, overlap, height of inner pole, and the inner-pole indent in the

inductor geometry section (Fig. 3). Similarly, the cross-sectional geometry of the excitation

winding (Fig. 4) is computed. The parameters in the machine geometry and the B±H character-

istics are the base for the computation of the magnetic ¯ux density in the machine. The next stage

of the procedure is loss and cost computation.

The iterative computation diers from the non-iterative procedure by varying several pa-

rameters and adding intrinsic constraints to the model such as d ÷ bsl P0 and bsl ÷ d P0 (in the

geometry) or brl P0 and hrl P0 (in the cross-section geometry of the excitation winding). These

additional constraints increase both the complexity of the model and the execution time of the

program.

Fig. 3. Salient-pole geometry.

Fig. 2. Slot geometry.

V.L. Zakarian, M.J. Kaiser / Appl. Math. Modelling 23 (1999) 1±18 9

3.4. Software menu description

The synchronous generator with comb rotor software is programmed in Borland Pascal for

Windows. The main menu of the software consists of the options Model, Data, Method, Cal-

culation, Expertise, and Help. A user initiates the design using the menu option Data (Fig. 5) and

Method.

The initial parameters of the design are listed in the Box of the dialogue window Initial Data

(Fig. 6). The value of the parameters and measurement units appear with the selection of a pa-

rameter from the list. The steel type is chosen from the ``Mark of Steel'' botton.

The next step of the design is to de®ne the variable parameters (Fig. 7). Two options are

available. A parameter can be ®xed or variable, and the ranges of the variables are set and

modi®ed with the ``Modify'' button.

Fig. 5. Menu data.

Fig. 4. Excitation winding geometry.

10 V.L. Zakarian, M.J. Kaiser / Appl. Math. Modelling 23 (1999) 1±18

The ®nal step is to determine the optimality criterion with the option Optimality criteria

(Fig. 8). After determining the design control parameters of the search method the initial point of

the search is set by the user. This process is considered in the next section.

4. Solution methodology

4.1. Random search method

Random search, gradient descent, quasi-Newton methods, and other iterative techniques can

be successfully applied in electrical machine design. A random search method is adopted in part

Fig. 7. Variable parameters menu.

Fig. 6. Initial data menu.

V.L. Zakarian, M.J. Kaiser / Appl. Math. Modelling 23 (1999) 1±18 11

because of the complex (highly nonlinear) structure of the objective function, and the non-convex

nature of the feasible region. To motivate the procedure, consider the mechanism of random

search on a two parameter nonlinear objective function F = f (x

1

; x

2

) which we wish to minimize

subject to the four constraints as shown in Fig. 9. In the mathematical model the objective

function is represented by a number of analytic functions.

The following algorithm is implemented in the iterative random search process:

Step 1. Choose input parameters x

1

and x

2

.

The values of the initial parameters is usually based on the experience of prior successful de-

signs.

Step 2. The algorithm evaluates whether the initial parameter selection (x

1

; x

2

) is an element of

the feasible region. If the initial point is not feasible, then an additional function Q is generated

and the value of Q(x

1

; x

2

) is computed.

The functional Q is commonly referred to as a barrier function, and is a function of the

constraints (speci®cations) of the design such that the value of Q decreases rapidly as (x

1

; x

2

)

approaches the boundary of the feasible region. In this way, the barrier function forces the point

(x

1

; x

2

) within the constraint region.

Step 3. A random step is performed from the current point.

The transition is from (x

1

; x

2

) to (x

1

÷ h; x

2

÷

1 ÷ h

2

_

), where the lower and upper ranges of

step h are correspondingly 0 and the current step length H. The new input parameters thus be-

come (x

1

÷ h; x

2

÷

1 ÷ h

2

_

).

Fig. 8. Optimality criteria menu.

Fig. 9. Feasible region of the objective function F = f (x

1

; x

2

).

12 V.L. Zakarian, M.J. Kaiser / Appl. Math. Modelling 23 (1999) 1±18

Step 4. If Q(x

1

÷ h; x

2

÷

1 ÷ h

2

_

) < Q(x

1

; x

2

), then a good direction for the search was obtained

and new values are assigned to the current point coordinates; else a new random step is per-

formed.

This sequence of steps leads a point within the feasible region, and once within the feasible

region, the algorithm returns to employing the original objective function.

Step 5. In the feasible region a random step is performed, and the algorithm checks the op-

timality and feasibility of the parameter selection. The step size of the algorithm is updated to

obtain convergence.

If the point leaves the feasible region, then an additional function is again generated and a

search is performed until the point returns to the feasible region. Otherwise, if

f (x

1

÷ h; x

2

÷

1 ÷ h

2

_

) < f (x

1

; x

2

), then new values are assigned to the current point coordinates.

If after m trials a ``better'' point is not found, then the length of the step size is divided by two. If a

``better'' point is found after n trials then the length of the step size is doubled. The control

parameters m and n are user-de®ned, and in this design environment the values m=7 and n =3

work well in practice. The optimal point is determined when the length of the step size reaches a

value equal to the minimal step length H

0

, which is equivalent to ®nding a solution with a given

precision (Fig. 10). In Fig. 10 the numbers illustrate the value of the objective function at the

points shown.

4.2. Random search without training

The feasible region in generator design has a complicated form and the numerical values of the

speci®cation set determine the topology of the region. One notable peculiarity of synchronous

generator design is the procedure of rounding the conductor diameters in the ®nal design to

tabulated (standard) values. The rounding process perturbs the convexity of the region when the

variables are continuous, and subsequently complicates the design process introducing local non-

convexities in the topology of the feasible region. With regard to the complex nature of both the

objective function and feasible region, a random search method is an appropriate solution

methodology for the model.

The solution obtained from the random search method is often a local optimal point which

depends upon the behavior of the objective function in the region of feasibility. To improve the

results of the optimization process a search procedure from several dierent initial points is

recommended [6]. An extended version of the random search method is implemented in the

software (Fig. 11). The control parameters are of three types: control parameters of the region,

control parameters of the feasible region, and general control parameters of movement.

The initial point coordinates are set by the designer. In Fig. 12 the initial parameters of the

pole-salient synchronous generator design are shown. The coordinates of the initial point

Fig. 10. The direction of search (tactics of moving).

V.L. Zakarian, M.J. Kaiser / Appl. Math. Modelling 23 (1999) 1±18 13

represent the variable parameters of designing a synchronous generator with comb rotor to

minimize active part volume.

Random numbers are generated through an intrinsic computer function. The search time

depends on the objective function, control parameters, random seed, and on the initial point

coordinates. The procedure will converge rapidly if the values of the parameters are close to real

synchronous generators. The number of iterations with the functional Q generally do not exceed

50, while in the feasible region an average of 200 additional iterations is typically required to

compute the optimal point.

Fig. 12. Initial coordinates of the search.

Fig. 11. Dialog window of the random search method of optimization.

14 V.L. Zakarian, M.J. Kaiser / Appl. Math. Modelling 23 (1999) 1±18

4.3. Expert system

The design stages of synchronous generators are complex and the need for guidance often

forces a designer to set some design parameters intuitively. An expert system integrated within the

CAD package advises the user on how to initiate and iterate the design. The system created

employs production rule logic and stores previously processed design information in its base of

knowledge. The user can add new rules to the base of knowledge or modify them when necessary.

The control knowledge system contains a built-in set of rules to which the user is denied access

(Fig. 13). Since the expert system is used mainly for guidance, the priority of initial parameter

values is delegated to the designer.

5. Illustrative example

For a given rated data set as shown in Table 2 (power P =20 kW, frequency F =50 Hz, etc.)

the task is to ®nd the minimal active part volume of the synchronous generator. After selecting the

initial parameters (Figs. 6±8) and search control parameter set (Figs. 11 and 12), the CAD of the

synchronous generator with comb rotor yields the design shown in the optimization report in

Table 2.

A machine with the power output Sr =25 kW, phase voltage Ur =400 V, phase current 36.09

A and speed n =3000 r/min is designed. The eciency of the machine is equal to 85.341, and it is a

12 pole machine with phases star connection. All speci®cations and constraints are met, and the

active part volume is equal to 21.151. The total cost of the machine is 1064.64 units. Active loss is

P

a

=535.676 W.

6. Conclusion

A mathematical model of a synchronous generator is developed and implemented in a CAD

package. The model includes geometric, magnetic, and economic parameters. A random search

Fig. 13. Decision making scheme of the expert system.

V.L. Zakarian, M.J. Kaiser / Appl. Math. Modelling 23 (1999) 1±18 15

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16 V.L. Zakarian, M.J. Kaiser / Appl. Math. Modelling 23 (1999) 1±18

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V.L. Zakarian, M.J. Kaiser / Appl. Math. Modelling 23 (1999) 1±18 17

method without training is applied and an extended random search method is implemented in the

software. The random search method works well in this environment due to the complicated and

highly nonlinear nature of the objective function as well as the convex speci®cation set geometry.

The design setup is performed by the user and includes the determination of the initial pa-

rameters of the synchronous generator, speci®cations, optimality criterion within the model,

control parameters of the search, and the initial coordinates in the design. An expert system is

integrated in the software to reduce the subjective nature of the parameter settings. An illustrative

example was used to demonstrate the methodology of the CAD of a synchronous generator with

comb rotor.

References

[1] S.A. Nasar, Handbook of Electrical Machines, McGraw-Hill, New York, 1987.

[2] A.V. Ivanov-Smolenski, V.V. Kuznetsov, Equations of saturated synchronous machine, Scienti®c conference

reports for 1968±1969, Moscow Institute of Energy, 1970, pp. 102±109.

[3] D. Ginsberg, Design calculations for AC generators, AIEE Transactions 69 (1950) 241±255.

[4] S.V. Ahamed, E.A. Erderlyi, Nonlinear theory of salient pole machines, IEEE Transactions 1 (1966) 507±510.

[5] A.A. Tersian, Automated design of electrical machines, Energoatomizdat, Moscow, 1983.

[6] B.M. Kagan, S.E. Danilenko, Random search method application in a synchronous machine design, Automatics

and Computers, 13 (1966) 169±172.

18 V.L. Zakarian, M.J. Kaiser / Appl. Math. Modelling 23 (1999) 1±18

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