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Final Report

Food Security and Poverty Alleviation in Arid Agriculture


Balochistan GCP/PAK/095/USA Pilot Project Phase

International Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas

2010 The International Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas (ICARDA) All rights reserved. ICARDA encourages fair use of this material. Proper citation is requested.

Citation: ICARDA (International Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas). 2010. Food security and poverty alleviation in arid agriculture: Balochistan GCP/PAK/095/USA, pilot project phase. Final Report. ICARDA, Aleppo, Syria. vi + 156 pp. IBN 92-9127-228-0

Headquarters International Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas (ICARDA) P.O. Box 5466, Aleppo, Syria Tel.: ++963-21-2213433, 2225112, 2225012 Fax: ++9632-21-2213490, 2225105, 5744622 E-mail: ICARDA@cgiar.org Website: http://www.icarda.org

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Acronyms
ARI AZRC BRSP CA CIMMYT DM EC FAO FFS FYM GDP GOP HI ICARDA ICIMOD IPM IRS IUCN MCWHS MSCM NARC NGO PA PARC PAT RRA SPFS SU TDM TTI UNDP USAID VBSE WRS Agricultural Research Institute Arid Zone Research Center Balochistan Rural Support Program Catchment Area International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center Dry Matter European Commission Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations Farmers' Field School Farm Yard Manure Gross Domestic Product Government of Pakistan Harvest Index International Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development Integrated Pest Management Integrated Research Site The World Conservation Union Micro-catchment Water Harvesting Structures Mobile Seed Cleaning Machine National Agricultural Research Center Non-governmental Organization Protected Agriculture Pakistan Agriculture Research Council Protected Agriculture Tunnels Rapid Rural Appraisal Special Program for Food Security Seed Unit Total Dry Matter Technology Transfer Institute United Nations Development Programme United States Agency for International Development Village-Based Seed Enterprises Water Regulation Structures

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Contents
Executive Summary ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Background ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Introduction ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Project Implementation -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------I: Preparatory Phase -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------1. Selection of the integrated research sites and farming communities 2. Socioeconomic and livelihood characterization study 3. Recommendation on technological interventions II: Main Phase ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Stakeholders meetings OUTPUT 1: Innovations in water resource management, and promising technologies -------------------to improve water use efficiency demonstrated and transferred to farmers 1. Sailaba system improvement 2. Arid horticulture plantation with water harvesting 3. Evaluation and improvement of stock water ponds 4. Evaluation of germplasm and management options of high-value crops 5. Water conservation 6. Protected agriculture OUTPUT 2: Rangeland/livestock integration at farm level enhanced through better --------------------utilization of agricultural by-products and improved management of rangelands 1. Improvement of livestock health and nutrition 2. Improvement of rangeland productivity OUTPUT 3: Economic returns from improved cropping systems through diversification -------------of high-value crops and dissemination of drought-adapted germplasm 1. Performance of cereals and legumes in Sailaba farming systems 2. Seed multiplication in farmers' fields OUTPUT 4: Household income in targeted communities increased through introduction --------------of value-added options from indigenous production 1. Rapid Rural Appraisal of women's role in agriculture 2. Identification of priority areas for value-added agriculture 3. Training of women's group facilitators OUTPUT 5: Women's capacity in cottage agro-processing enhanced -------------------------------------1. Training module for women's group facilitators 2. Improving skills of rural women 3. Economics of vegetable and fruit processing OUTPUT 6: Effectiveness of existing and/or alternative institutions and policies ------------------------for improving the performance of the agricultural sector in target areas and ensuring that this improved performance is better understood and communicated to policy makers 1. Institution building at the community level 2. Assessment of project technical interventions 3. Market chain analysis at IRSs 1 5 6 7 7

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OUTPUT 7: Human resource capacity of AZRC, ARI, technical officers, and rural ---------------------- 91 communities within both the IRS communities and the overall project areas of Qilla Saifullah, Loralai, and Mastung 1. Training activities 2. Field days 3. Traveling workshop 4. Visits of scientists and senior staff Lessons Learned ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 103 1. Linking research and development 2. Research institutions forum/consortium 3. Community mobilization 4. Economic benefits Policy Briefs -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 104 1. Livestock production 2. Rangeland management and rehabilitation 3. Policy review: Water resources Impact assessment ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 110 1. Introduction 2. Measuring farm-level impact BIBLIOGRAPHY ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 125 Appendix A: Letter of Agreement ----------------------------------------------------------------------------Appendix B: Research Component Activity Matrix -------------------------------------------------------Appendix C: Project Publications ----------------------------------------------------------------------------Appendix D: Questionnaire for impact assessment ------------------------------------------------------134 141 150 143

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EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
The Food Security / Poverty Alleviation in Arid Agriculture-Balochistan project is a pilot phase project. It was built on the successful FAO-supported Pakistan Special Program for Food Security (SPFS) pilot phase started in 1998, and subsequent Government of Pakistan support of a nationwide expansion of the SPFS program. The project purpose was to improve the livelihoods and food security of the rural people of Balochistan. It aimed to do this by strengthening the capacity of the Balochistan-applied research and technology transfer system to provide sustainable market-oriented arid agriculture and livestock marketing, and through enhancement of crop productivity and agro-processing on a sustainable basis. The main project components were: Applied Research, Water Resource Management, Range and Livestock Management, and Enhanced Agriculture Production.The International Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas (ICARDA) was responsible for providing technical support for the Applied Research Component. The Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) and national consultants were responsible for implementing the development components in collaboration with the Government of Pakistan. The Applied Research Component focused on the capacity building of national research staff and other stakeholdersin generating community-tested options that improve on-farm water resource management, enhance livestock production and rangeland management, improve economic returns from cropping through diversification, add value locally to commodities from indigenous production, and improve market accessibility. The two phases of the research component were: a preparatory phase of four months and a main phase of 32 months. The preparatory phase focused on selecting integrated research sites and carrying out a detailed baseline study on the socioeconomic conditions of the farming communities of the sites.A portfolio of options (technologies and innovations) was assembled, based on identified opportunities and key limiting factors to commodity productivityand resource management. Based on the results of the socioeconomic survey, the following technological interventions were suggested: Transfer of promising and efficient water use technologies to farmers. Introduction of protected agriculture techniques on marginal land with limited water supply to produce high-value crops for Balochistan markets. Effective monitoring of the management of groundwater to ensure its sustainability. Enhanced crop/livestock integration at the farm level through better utilization of agricultural by products and improved management of rangelands. Demonstration and dissemination of alternative feed sources such as feed blocks, enriched crop residues, and feed lots for early fattening of lambs. Evaluation of the germplasm and management options for high-value crops such as olive, pistachio, and almonds. Identification and introduction of drought-tolerant germplasm that have economic benefits and are best suited to local conditions to increase rainfed crop production. Improvement of the skills of rural women in the proper management of livestock and cottage processing. Assessing the market structure for major and potential farm products to determine how access to the market affects decisions on which technologies are adopted, and identifying options to improve market accessibility. Assessing the market structure for major and potential farm products to determine how access to the market.

`The findings of the socioeconomic study and the compiled relevant information from different sources were used to develop a framework for the Applied Research Component. The researchers, with full participation of all stakeholders, developed a matrix of activities annually to achieve the seven outputs of the main phase that were stated in the letter of agreement between FAO and ICARDA. The outputs of the main phase included: Output 1: Innovations in water resource management, and promising technologies to improve water use efficiency demonstrated and transferred to farmers. Output 2: Rangeland/livestock integration at farm level enhanced through better utilization of agricultural by-products and improved management of rangelands. Output 3: Economic returns from cropping system improvement through diversification of high-value crops and dissemination of drought-adapted germplasm. Output 4: Household income in targeted communities increased through the introduction of value-added options from indigenous production. Output 5: Womens capacity in cottage agro-processing enhanced. Output 6: Effectiveness of existing and/or alternative institutions and policies for improving the performance of the agricultural sector in target areas better understood and communicated to policy makers. Output 7: Human resource capacity of AZRC, ARI, technical officers and rural communities within both IRS communities and the overall project area of Qilla Saifullah, Loralai and Mastung enhanced. The following paragraphs summarize the main findings of the demonstrated research activities at farmers fields and flocks: The Sailaba (floodwater) farming system is very important for rural communities and the ecosystem; it provides the only source of income for a large number of rural farmers, and it is the most rational method of managing surface water as it recharges groundwater and reduces hazards from floodwater. The conjunctive use of water harvesting with other sources of irrigation water showed a high potential for stabilizing the traditional Sailaba irrigation agriculture. Water regulation structures and leveling of farmers fields increased the amounts of harvested water by 67% and saved about 16% of the time needed for irrigation. The water regulatory structures that were developed with full community participation were technically sound and of low cost. Lining irrigation water courses reduced losses in irrigation water significantly, ranging from 79 to 100%. The improvement of stock water ponds increased water availability by about 44% and by 50% of the original storage. The introduced drought tolerant varieties of almond, pistachio, and olive showed moderate to high survival rates. Survival of almond was 90% in Dasht, 60% in Siddiqabad, and 80% in Duki. The pistachio varieties performed moderately (60%) at Siddiqabad. The highest survival percentage for olive was recorded at the Siddiqabad site.It therefore seems that the Siddiqabad site is suitable for almond, pistachio and olive varieties. The introduced technology of protected agriculture is promising. It has demonstrated to farmers the economic benefits that could be derived from planting high-value crops (vegetables and spices) on marginal lands with limited water supply, to sell at Balochistan markets. Producing high-value marketable vegetables under protected agriculture conditions showed high potential to increase the income of community members. The performance of small ruminants in the integrated research sites was poor due to infectious diseases and malnutrition. Trials conducted on the efficacy of vaccines and dewormers resulted in a complete cure from all the diseases previously observed before treatment. The outputs from health treat-

ment improved weight gain (1520 %), lambing/kidding percentage (5074%), and led to an increase in the value of wool. The marginal rates of return are very high when farmers switch from their original practices to those developed in this project. The degraded rangelands cannot provide adequate nutrition for sheep and goats. Putting the ewes and does on a good supplementation plan of nutrition resulted in a significant improvement in the conception rate, lambing percentage, and lamb survival rate by 21.05%, 24.93%, and 35.83%, respectively. The mortality of lambs and the incidence of abortion in ewes were reduced by 122% and 150%, respectively. Similarly, proper nutrition of does improved all parameters of reproduction. The improvement was 20% for conception rate, 27.4% for kidding, and 18.4% for kid survival rate. Mortality of kids and percent of abortion in does were reduced by 256% and 26.3%, respectively. Fattening of lambs and kids improved profitability. The lambs showed high growth rates compared to kids; the profit generated was Rs 655 per lamb compared to Rs 432 per kid. Protecting degraded rangelands for two seasons, which luckily also had good rainfall, improved biomass production, grazing capacity and vegetation diversity. In the protected rangelands, grazable biomass production was 200% higher than in open areas, demonstrating the potential natural recovery of slightly degraded rangelands with good rainfall. In severely degraded rangelands (shamalats), plantation of fodder shrubs (saltbushes) in a water harvesting micro-catchment improved the winter forage resource for the village flock substantially. After two seasons from the planting date, one hectare of improved shamalat furnished a forage material equivalent to $48. Cold and drought tolerant germplasm of wheat, barley, lentils and vetch were introduced and tested at farmers fields in the Sailaba system, for multiple seasons. In normal years such as 2006/2007, the improved wheat varieties (Cham-6 and GA-2002) out-yielded the local ones in grain production. Although the local variety produced higher amounts of dry matter, this was of low quality due to yellow rust infestation. Similarly, the improved barley genotype AZ/WW produced the highest grain yield in the 2006/2007 cropping season. Among the tested lentil varieties, the Shiraz-96 produced the highest dry matter and grain production. The net gross margin for wheat averaged Rs 15000 for AZRI-96 and K-98 and Cham-6 compared to Rs 900 for the local variety. A village-based seed enterprise (VBSE) was successfully established and targeted farming communities were providedwith access to improved seeds. The mobile seed cleaning machines were important for quality seed production resulting in yield differences of 25% for dryland and 17% for irrigated farming. The income differential was accounted as 87% for irrigated and 105% for dryland farming. A total of 70 tons of improved seeds of wheat, barley and lentils were produced by farmers. In spite of social norms, the project managed to train a large number of women in making jams,drying vegetables,and pickling. The estimated net return varied from Rs 5 to 10 per kg of processed vegetables. Marketing issues were the main obstacle hindering the promotion of value-added options from indigenous production. The project was successful at the community level. For each site, one facilitator from the community was recruited and trained to act as a catalyst between the community and research staff. Market chain analysis for crops, fruits and livestock revealed that drastic changes are needed in the infrastructure, pricing and quality of products. A policy review and reforms in water and agriculture sectors for sustaianable spate irrigation farming in Balochistan was prepared.

The technical backstopping provided by ICARDA was very fruitful in building the capacities of staff in different research and line departments, and established a basis for effective collaboration between scientists at district and provincial levels. A total of 147 scientists from provincial institutions were trained. Likewise 82 farmers were trained on aspects of seed production, animal health and nutrition and crop improvement. The established informal consortium among the researchers and line departments is expected to a play a major role in up-scaling the findings of the present project to more districts in Balochistan. Public awareness is an important project component. The project activities were strongly supported by the policy makers and by H.E. the Governor of Balochistan. The Governor encouraged a scientific approach to agriculture development. The Governor attended stakeholder planning meetings and the demonstration on seed cleaning machines and he visited the plastic house, expressed strong support for project activities. Applied research component activities were implemented through a multidisciplinary and multi-institutional integration with ICARDA backstopping. Federal and provincial institutions participated in the project implementation were AZRC, ARI and TTI as research institutions. Extension, livestock department, forestry and rangeland department, seed certification line departments and development agencies participated actively in the project implementation. An impact study was conducted after the completion of the project. A formal survey was conducted in all integrated research sites and development sites. The results showed that yields of new improved varieties of wheat, barley and lentil exceeded the yields of old improved varieties and local varieties significantly. This shows that there is a high potential to increase crop yields and thus production if the policy is to achieve food security in staple foods, by adopting the new improved seeds. In the Sailaba system new improved wheat varieties yield exceeded the old improved yield by 56% and the local variety by 124%. Under irrigation, new improved wheat varieties yield exceeded the old improved yield by 26% and the local variety by 80%. In the Sailaba system the gross margin exceeded the gross margin from old varieties by 39% and by 18% in irrigated system. This is a good indication that adopting the new improved varieties will increase the income of the household. In other words adopting new improved varieties will provide food security and generate more income for household. Barley and lentil new improved varieties were better than old improved varieties and local varieties in terms of productivity and gross margin.

BACKGROUND
The Food Security / Poverty Alleviation in Arid Agriculture-Balochistan project is a pilot phase project (GCP/PAK/095/USA). It was built on the successful FAO-supported Pakistan Special Program for Food Security (SPFS) pilot phase started in 1998, and subsequent support from the Government of Pakistan for a nationwide expansion of the SPFS program. The purpose of the project was to improve the livelihood and food security of the rural people of Balochistan.It has aimed to strengthen the capacity of the Balochistan-applied research and technology transfer system to provide sustainable market-oriented arid agriculture and livestock marketing, and to enhance crop productivity and agro-processing on a sustainable basis. The main components of the project were (i) Applied Research, (ii) Water Resource Management, (iii) Range and Livestock Management, and (iv) Enhanced Agriculture Production. The International Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas (ICARDA) is responsible for providing technical support for the Applied Research Component. The Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) and national consultants are implementing the development components in collaboration with the Government of Pakistan. The signed agreement between FAO and ICARDA stated that the role of ICARDA is to supply technical assistance and back-stopping to the Applied Research Component and work with the Arid Zone Research Center (AZRC) and the Agricultural Research Institute (ARI) with national backstopping from the National Agriculture Research Center (NARC). The Applied Research Component is expected to build the capacity of the national research staff and other stakeholders in generating community-tested options that will improve on-farm water resource management, enhance livestock production and feed and rangeland management, improve economic returns from cropping throughdiversification, add value locally to commodities from indigenous production, and improve market accessibility. The Applied Research Component consisted of two phases: a preparatory phase of four months and the main phase of thirty-two months. The actual work of the preparatory stage of the Applied Research Component started in October 2004, before signing the Letter of Agreement with FAO on 22 February 2005. The main phase lasted for three seasons (2005 06, 2006 07 and 2007 08).The detailed terms of reference for the two phases of Applied Research Component are listed in Annex A.

INTRODUCTION
Balochistan is the largest province in Pakistan, with an area of 347,190 km2 about 44% of the countrys geographical area. The population of the province is around 10.2 million (GOP 2008), sparsely distributed, with a density of 19 persons per km2. Around 78% of the population lives in rural areas. The climate ranges from semi-arid to hyper-arid and temperature regimes vary widely from cool temperate to tropical. Cold winters and mild summers characterize the northern highlands. Most of the precipitation is received in winter and ranges from 250 to 350 mm.In the south-western desert, the annual rainfall ranges from 50 to 150 mm and summers are hottest for the province, with temperatures occasionally rising above 50C. Annual evaporation rates are very high,exceeding 3000 mm. Agriculture and livestock production are the two most dominant sectors in the Balochistan economy, accounting for over half of the provinces GDP and employing two-thirds of its labor force (GOP 2003). Limited precipitation and availability of surface water has drastically restricted the cultivated area to around 2.1 million ha during 200001; this is around 6% of the provinces geographical area. About 47% of the cultivated area is irrigated, while the remaining 53% is under Sailaba (floodwater) and Khushkhaba (rainfall and localized runoff) farming systems (GOP 2002). Although irrigated crop production plays a dominant role in the agricultural economy of Balochistan, Sailaba and Khushkhaba farming systems contribute to the livelihoods of a sizable majority of the population, regarded as the poorest of the poor. These two farming systems are dependent on precipitation and runoff; their performance therefore fluctuates drastically with variations in precipitations and runoff. Without runoff, economical harvests are not possible due to low precipitation. Livestock production is one of the major sources of income for around 70% of the rural population. About 92% of the geographical area of the province is rangelands, which provide grazing to around 20 million small ruminants (sheep and goats). Large proportions of livestock owners are transhumant (45%), who commute between winter and summer quarters to adjust to seasonal feed requirements, and nomadic (50%), who constantly move between highlands and plains and sometimes cross international borders. The stock owners are entirely dependent on livestock for their livelihoods, trading livestock and livestock products. The agro-ecological diversity of Balochistan permits cultivation of a wide range of field crops and horticulture. Although the province is a net importer of wheat, traditional cereal production (wheat, rice, barley, sorghum and millet) has remained important to its economy, covering 70% of the cropped area and contributing 50% to the gross value of crops (GOP 2002). Besides, cereals serve as an important source of fodder for livestock. The high altitude arid environments provide ideal conditions for the production of deciduous fruits. Balochistans share of deciduous fruits (apples, plums, pears, apricots,peaches and pomegranates) and non-deciduous fruits (dates) ranges from 35 to 85% of Pakistans production. In the case of grapes, almonds and cumin, the province has a near monopoly in the country. Irrigated agriculture is dependent on both surface water and groundwater resources. Around 30% of flood water is harnessed for agriculture through Sailaba diversions, storage dams and minorperennial irrigation schemes. The groundwater resource is available for irrigated agriculture through karezes, springs and wells.With increased availability of electricity from the national grid, there has been a tremendous increase in the number of tube wells. Indiscriminate installation of tube wells and pumping of water in excess of recharge have caused the water table to lower resulting in the drying out of dug-wells and a number of karezes and springs. Ground water mining and lowering of the water table are therefore causing serious concern regarding the sustainability of groundwater-irrigated agriculture.

PROJECT IMPLEMENTATION
I: PREPARATORY PHASE The main activities of the preparatory phase were (i) developing criteria for the selection of integrated research sites, (ii) carrying out a detailed baselinestudy on the socioeconomic conditions of farming communities on the selected sites, (iii) identifying with communities opportunities and key limiting factors to commodity productivity and resource management, (iv) assembling a portfolio of options (technologies and innovations) to compare with current practices, and (v) identifying research and technology transfer partners and developing workable linkages.

1. Selection of the integrated research sites and farming communities


1.1. District project locations The three districts of Loralai, Qilla Saifullah and Mastung (Figure 1) were chosen based on the following criteria: (i) the three districts are representative of rural Balochistan arid agriculture and agro-ecological zones with uncertain rainfall ranging between 200 and 250 mm, and are affected by periodic droughts; (ii) there is a history of previous research and development projects (FAO, UNDP, ICARDA/NART) and current projects such as the National Food Security Program technically supported by FAO, and the IPM project supported by the EC, that can be drawn upon for baseline and other information; (iii) the close proximity to Quetta, (where ARI and AZRC are based), facilitates coordination and reduces the amount of travel needed; (iv) both ARI and AZRC have facilities in the districts from which field work can be undertaken.

Figure 1. Districts of Pakistan. The Balochistan Poverty Alleviation Project targets Mastung, Qilla Saifullah and Loralai districts

1.2. Selection of integrated research sites Several criteria were used for selection, in line with the projects objectives of improving the income of poor farmers by improving productivity in rainfed crops,livestock performance, and water harvesting. The criteria were: (i) sites should be representative of the biophysical and socioeconomic spectrum in the target areas, (ii) the number of households should be between 25 and 50, (iii) there is an availability of rainfed crop activities, (iv) there is an availability of livestock activities, (v) there is a possibility of water harvesting activities, (vi) there is a community organization or a willingness to form one, (vii) there is no development project implemented in the village, and (viii) the community is willing to collaborate in the project. A team of multidisciplinary scientists from ICARDA, AZRC, TTI and ARI visited the three targeted districts to identify potential communities in the project area. The team visited 16 villages and finally selected six villages, two within each targeted district, which fulfilled the above criteria (Table 1). The main climatic and edaphic characteristics of the selected integrated research sites (IRSs) are summarized in Table 2. Table 1. Villages selected from the three targeted districts District Sub-district Mastung Dasht Mastung Qilla Saifullah Qilla Saifullah Qilla Saifullah Loralai Duki Lalbag

Selected village Kumbella Siddiqabad Alozai Akhtarzai Lalbagh Nalivalizai

Table 2. Climatic and edaphic characteristics of the integrated research sites in Balochistan Mastung Siddiqabad Duki 150-180 150-200 -10 38 1680 clay loam Qilla Saifullah Dasht Alozai 150-200 150-200 -7 38 1460 loam sandy Loralai Akhtarzai Nalivalizai 200-250 150-200 -1 45 1215 clay loam -2 43 1060 sandy loam

Rainfall (mm) Temperature (C) Winter (min) Summer (max) Altitude (m) Soil type
Source: ICARDA, 2006.

-10 -7 38 38 1485 1460 clay loam sandy clay

2. Socioeconomic and livelihood characterization study


2.1. Study objectives The main objectives of the socioeconomic study were to characterize the livelihoods of rural communities in terms of their assets and opportunities, determine the socioeconomic conditions of the farming communities, and establish baseline information from the integrated research sitesfor use in monitoring and evaluation. The specific objectives of the baseline study were (i) to characterize the livelihoods of rural communities with respect to their physi ural, financial, human, and social assets, (ii) to identify opportunities and key constraints to enhance productivity and resource management, (iii) to assemble a portfolio of options (technologies and innovations) for presentation to the IRS communities, which they could compare with current practices within the delineated themes, and (iv) to establish baseline information that could be used for the monitoring, evaluation, and impact assessment of projects.

2.2. Partners Scientists from ICARDA, AZRC, TTI and ARI participated in the design, implementation, and analysis of results, and in reporting the findings of the baseline study. 2.3. Study approach Secondary data and literature were collected from government organizations, non-governmental organizations, and from other relevant resources. Primary information was obtained from selected farmers through personal interviews using structured questionnaires. A multidisciplinary team of two social scientists and one extension agent was created and oriented on the methods of Rapid Rural Appraisal (RRA). The sampling frame for the study consisted of 203 farmers, out of which 136 (67%) were interviewed (Table 3). Out of the selected farmers, 33% were not interviewed because they were unavailable at the time of the survey, had moved outside the villages for off-farm work, or were grazing their flocks in remote areas. Table 3. Number of interviewed households in the baseline survey, 2005 District Community Total population No. interviewed Mastung Kumbella 20 15 Siddiqabad 39 29 Qilla Saifullah Akhtarzai 44 32 Alozai 47 30 Loralai Nalivalizai 40 32 Lalbag 13 12 Total 203 150 2.4. Findings of Rapid Rural Appraisal The detailed description of the methodology and the results of the baseline study characterizing the farming communities of the integrated research sites were reported by Muhammed et al. (2000) in a document entitled Socioeconomic and Livelihood Characterization,and Baseline Information of Integrated Research Sites in Balochistan.The following paragraphs summarize the major findings of the study. 2.4.1. Human capital The farmers of the integrated research sites have adequateexperience (21 to 29 years) in agriculture (Table 4). The family size ranged from 9 in Kumbella to 22 in Lalbaig withan overall average of 15 persons.The young (< 10 years old) and the adults (1059 years old) represented 80% and 20% of the family, respectively. The labor force was about 40% of the family members including males and females. The illiteracy rate was very high and varied from 70 to 100%. The mobility of communities searching for feed and water for their animals made any enrollment in schools very difficult. 2.4.2. Natural capital The average farm size varied significantly among the integrated research sites (Table 5).The rainfed agriculture was predominant, which reflected the poor status of the communities and/or the scarcity of irrigation water in the targeted sites. The proportion of irrigated areas relative to the average farm size was higher in the Akhtarzai and Alozai communities. The main sources of irrigation water were tube wells and karezes. All the selected communities had common rangelands around their villages. The rangelands were severely degraded because of open access and lack of management. Overgrazing and frequent droughts accentuated the degradation of the rangelands.

% interviewed 46 74 73 64 90 92 74

Table 4. Human capital in the integrated research sites, Balochistan Mastung Qilla Saifullah Kumbella Siddiqabad Akhtarzai Alozai Experience in agriculture (years) 21 24 29 25 Family size: 9 10 17 14 Males < 10 years 2 3 5 5 Females < 10 years 2 3 4 4 No. of males* 2 3 4 3 (10-59 years old) 2 3 4 3 No. of females* (10-59 years old) Farmer's Education: Illiterate 87 55 84 70 Elementary 0 21 13 23 Preparatory 0 17 3 4 Secondary 13 7 3 Household livelihoods percent ** Poor (rainfed agriculture) 87 85 61 69 Moderate (irrigated) 13 15 15 17 Well-off (irrigated/orchards) 24 14
*resident in the farm, **classification based on production system

Loralai Nalivalizai Lalbagh 5 13 3 3 2 3 24 22 10 6 5 5

91 3 6 70 30 -

75 25 92 8

Table 5. Natural capital in the integrated research sites, Balochistan Mastung Qilla Saifullah Kumbella Siddiqabad Akhtarzai Alozai Total holding area (ha) 8.6 3.7 3.7 5.0 Rainfed area (ha) 7.9 3.1 1.8 3.1 Irrigated area (ha) 0.7 0.6 1.9 1.9 Rainfed area (%) 91 84 49 62 Water source (%) 3 10 37 33 Village communal Yes Yes Yes Yes rangeland Causes of rangeland degradation Overgrazing 33* 27 35 60 Drought 67 73 65 35 Open access 100 96 93 76 No management 100 100 83 80 Rangeland degradation status High 63* 86 90 90 Medium 37 14 10 10
*percent of respondents

Loralai Nalivalizai Lalbagh 8.8 7.7 2.8 6.7 5.8 1.0 86 87 3 8 Yes Yes

37 63 100 97 100 0

45 55 91 91 91 9

2.4.3. Physical capital Physical capital includes moveable and immoveable assets (Table 6). None of the respondents owned a tree-planted land or a shop. Few households owned a pickup van (42% in Lalbagh, 9% in Akhtarzai, and 13% in Alozai). The majority of households owned sheep and goats, with flock sizes varying on averag from 19 to 133 heads. There were more cows in Qilla Saifullah and Lalbagh in Loralai.Based on the assets owned, the majority of farm households were below the poverty line. Possession of land, access to water, and livestock size were prominent determinants of households' quality of life.

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2.4.4. Social capital Social capital is an important and powerful asset, which can be used to solve economic and social problems. There was no registered cooperative or any form of associations in any of the six integrated research sites. However, the close relationship among the community members induced collaboration for solving their own problems, especially in the case of minor disputes. 2.4.5. Financial capital The members of the study communities had low to moderate accessibility to credit sources (Table 7). Large variations existed in household incomes, which ranged from Rs 159000 to 405000. The farming activities (crop and livestock production) and off-farm work comprised 6078% and 1334% of total income, respectively. Table 6. Physical capital in the integrated research sites, Balochistan Mastung Qilla Saifullah Loralai Kumbella Siddiqabad Akhtarzai Alozai Nalivalizai Lalbagh Tractor 0 3 31 23 4 8 Pick-up van 0 7 9 13 0 42 Motorcycle 1 10 28 20 10 42 Cycles 2 52 9 37 5 58 Tube well 3 10 40 27 3 17 Livestock Sheep 60 38 44 63 11 25 Goats 11 28 44 70 8 67 Cattle 0 3 66 47 5 58 Public services Schools Primary Primary Primary Primary Primary No Middle Health clinics No No No No No No Telephone No No No Yes No No Electricity Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes Table 7. Financial capital in the integrated research sites, Balochistan Mastung Qilla Saifullah Kumbella Siddiqabad Akhtarzai Alozai Access to credit (%) 33 48 47 37 Average annual income: 192509 159009 256383 235219 Sales of crops 90595 110585 206182 157713 Sales of animal products 9464 5458 13536 12435 Sales of live animals 55100 4506 2344 6338 Off-farm labor wage 37350 38460 34321 58733 Average expenditure: 55262 73071 164239 116756 Costs of food, clothing, 53668 53915 111613 77859 health, education 8205 11241 33749 25968 Agriculture inputs (seeds, fertilizers etc.) 10215 5690 13309 9058 Feed costs Hired labor costs 1229 2225 5568 3871 Sources of income (%) Off-farm income 19 24 13 25 Crop production 47 70 80 67 Livestock production 34 6 7 8

Loralai Nalivalizai Lalbagh 19 0 404727 289214 315375 151903 6325 20234 12589 18744 70438 98333 178055 149064 83750 116375 22579 87737 4000 2568 17 78 5 8597 1513 34 53 13

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2.4.6. Livestock production Livestock production is very important as an economic activity in all communities. Results indicated that more than 80% of rural community members depend on income from their livestock directly or indirectly. The main purpose of livestock production in the communities was to meet some basic dietary needs and to generate income. Sheep, goats, cattle, camel, and animal draft (donkeys and mules) were the main types of livestock kept by the six integrated research sites.The drought of 2005 had affected animal holdings in the communities, resulting in high livestock mortality and distress selling. A comparison of the average animal holdings in 2005 with those in 1996 (before the drought) showed that the average number of sheep holdings decreased by 71% in Akhtarzai, 82% in Alozai, 4% in Siddiqabad, and had no change in Lalbagh. The average goat holding size decreased by 45% in Akhtarzai, 47% in Alozai, 35% in Lalbagh, and 20% in Siddiqabad. The average cattle holding did not change, because the average holding size is generally low and does not depend on rangelands. A majority of the livestock producers are subsistence farmers, who have no specialized management systems for their livestock. The main reasons furnished by respondents for the reduction in the number of livestock were lack of feed, drought and diseases, which are inter-relating factors. 2.4.6.1. Resources Most of the sheep/goat producers in the study communities were sedentary. Very few farmers were transhumant but they practiced cyclic migration to the lowlands during severe winters to obtain feed,fuel, and off-farm employment. Livestock feed was derived from crop farms, rangelands, and other grazing areas. The major source of feed for small ruminants was rangeland and weedy fallow areas. A feeding calendar for the different communities showed that cereal straws were the most important feedstuff (2665% during good years) in all the communities,followed by rangelands (1638%). Barley grains (110%) and wheat bran (311%) were important feeds during the winter, when other feeds were not available, and because good quality feeds were reserved for lambing and milking seasons.Grazing on weedy fallows was important during summer.

Figure 2. Sheep flock grazing on a degraded rangeland in Balochistan

2.4.6.2. Transfer in livestock production Livestock production in the study communities was traditional and lacked innovations for improving productivity. The government livestock services provided little advice to farms on how to improve their management methods and nutrition practices in order to increase animal productivity. The farmers lacked knowledge of supplemental feeding, flushing, and introduction of improved rams/bucks. A limited number of farmers used feed blocks and concentrate feeds, mainly for cattle.

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2.4.6.3. Livestock production constraints and opportunities The survey results indicated that feed availability, followed by animal disease, were the major problems affecting livestock production. The respondents claimed that a shortage of water resources, drought, degradation of rangelands, and poor marketing affected livestock production substantially. 2.4.7. Cropping patterns The dominant crop in the IRSs is wheat as a staple food crop. Farmers planted wheat,barley, cumin and legumes in the winter (rabi), and sorghum, sunflower, watermelons and mash in the summer (kharif) season (Table 8). Fruit trees included apples, almond, apricots, and mulberry. Groundwater, tube wells and karezes were the main sources of irrigation water. Fruits, onion, potato, melons, tobacco, vegetables, and fodder were exclusively cultivated on irrigated land. Crops like wheat, sorghum, barley, cumin, maize, pulses, melons, carrot, and some of the fodder crops were cultivated in both irrigated and non-irrigated lands. Table 8. Cropping patterns in integrated research sites in Balochistan Farming Main crops Fruit trees Water community Summer Winter harvesting practices Kumbella Wheat, barley, Sorghum Apricot, mulberry, Small walls and cumin almond, and olives Siddiqabad Akhtarzai Wheat, barley, Sorghum lentils and cumin Wheat and barley Watermelon, mash and sorghum Wheat Vegetables and fruits Wheat and barley Watermelon, muskmelon, sunflower and mung Wheat, barley Vegetables and cotton Mulberry and olives Community small dams Apples, almond, Tube wells apricot and karez Apples, almond, apricot Almond Tube wells and karez Tube wells and small dams

Production constraints Drought, diseases, and frost Water scarcity and diseases Drought and diseases Drought and diseases Drought and diseases

Alozai Lalbagh

Kumbella

Almond

Small walls

Drought, seeds and diseases

2.4.7.1. Water resources Water harvesting (Sailaba and Khuskaba) was used to store rainwater for both human and animals. The tube wells installed in the valleys served as a source of drinking water for the local population and their animals the year round. Irrigated agriculture depends on both surface and groundwater resources.Groundwater is pumped from both public and private tube wells. Due to an expansion in the supply of heavily subsidized electricity in rural areas and the installation of private tube wells, underground water was over-pumped in the rainfed areas of Balochistan. The survey results showed that the underground water table was reduced from 3.4 to 6 m annually. There is therefore a need for proper legislation on groundwater use,including enforcement on a recommended distance between tube wells,crop choice, and operational timing. Moreover, farmers did not follow the recommendations of agricultural experts about the required number of irrigations.

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2.4.7.2. Crop utilization In rainfed agriculture, wheat and barley are basically produced for family and livestock consumption, but households sell some of the production in good years, or when they are in need of money. In irrigated agriculture, the income from vegetables varied from 45% to 89% of the total income in the study communities, while the income generated from wheat was 2255%. In general, 70% of the irrigated wheat in the six communities was sold, 9% stored for seed, 18% consumed by households, and 3% used for animal feed. 2.4.7.3. Crop marketing Crop and fruit products are usually marketed through local shops in the community, and onion is marketed in the Punjab Province. The major constraints to marketing were high market fees (commission), low market price, long distance to markets, high transportation cost, and bad roads. 2.4.7.4. Crop production constraints and opportunities The main crop production constraints in the integrated research sites were drought, frost, diseases and lack of irrigation water. This resulted in low productivity in the crops traditionally cultivated in the area. The traditional cropping pattern in the integrated research sites did not follow crop rotation or improved agronomic practices. High-yielding, disease-resistant, and cold-tolerant varieties were not available to farmers. The major insect pests in wheat were aphids and seed borers, while the major diseases were yellow rust and grain smut.

3. Recommendations on technological interventions


Based on the results of the diagnostic survey, the following technological interventions were suggested to fulfill the objectives of Food Security/Poverty Alleviation in Arid Agriculture Balochistan project: Transfer of promising and efficient water use technologies to farmers. Introduction of protected agriculture techniques on marginal land with limited water supply to produce high-value crops for Balochistan markets. Effective monitoring of the management of groundwater to ensure its sustainability. Enhanced crop/livestock integration at the farm level through better utilization of agricultural by products and improved management of rangelands. Demonstration and dissemination of alternative feed sources such as feed blocks, enriched crop residues, and feed lots for early fattening of lambs. Evaluation of the germplasm and management options for high-value crops such as olive, pistachio, and almonds. Identification and introduction of drought-tolerant germplasm that have economic benefits and are best suited to local conditions to increase rainfed crop production. Improvement of the skills of rural women in the proper management of livestock and cottage processing. Assessing the market structure for major and potential farm products to determine how market access affects decisions on which technologiesare adopted, and identifying options to improve market accessibility.

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II: MAIN PHASE Stakeholders meetings Information collected from literature, study reviews and the findings of socioeco nomic surveys was discussed with all stakeholders to develop a framework for the Applied Research Component. Three stake holders planning meetings took place in Quetta (910 June 2005, 1213 July 2006, and 2425 July 2007). The meetings were attended by national representatives from ICARDA, FAO, AZRC, ARI, TTI, NARC, and CIMMYT, and different line department scientists. Farmers and facilitators from the six integrated research sites also attended to express their views on constraints facing arid agriculture in their communities. The main objectives of the first meeting were to (i) discuss project objectives and scope and (ii) develop a clear framework for the Applied Research Component. Objectives of the second meeting were to (i) present and discuss the results of the 2005/06 cropping season, with full participation of all stakeholders, (ii) develop a work plan for 2006/07 with output targets and a timetable, (iii) identify entry points to better integration and complementarily between the development components and line departments, and (iv) incorporat e farmer feedback and input into the work plan. Similarly, the third meeting discussed project achievements during 2006/07 and developed a work plan for the 2007/08 season. A matrix for the proposed activities was developed for each year (Appendix B). Besides developing work plans, stakeholders identified potential interventions and expected outputs, detailed activities and implementation sitesand responsible staff and institutions. The research team discussed with local communities potential interventions, and identified farmers willing to collaborate with the project. OUTPUT 1: Innovations in water resource management, and promising technologiesto improve wateruse efficiency demonstrated and transferred to farmers

1. Sailaba system improvement


Balochistan is a water scarce province of Pakistan and is known as the fruit basketof Pakistan because it produces high quality fruit, which is the major source of income especially in the uplands of the province. Rainfall in the province is highly variable, spatially as well as temporally. Orography governs the spatial distribution of rainfall, which varies from less than 50 mm in the south-west to about 400 mm in the northeast. Annual evaporation rates,on the other hand, are very high ranging from 2000 mm to more than 3500 mm.The water resources of the province consist of surface water and groundwater; the source being precipitation alone. While perennial streams and springs in the province are of small capacity with wide temporal variations in their discharge, most of the Sailaba streams remain dry for a major part of the year. Sailaba agriculture irrigation systems are widely practiced in Balochistan province.The Sailaba system consists of channels to divert and spread the intermittent flows of hill torrents, and to convey floodwater to the cropping fields or bandat. Sailaba agriculture provides a livelihood for families living in the mountains or the foothills. The system is designed to cope with uncertain amounts of water runoff using varying levels of irrigation in terms of time and space. Well-defined land tenure determines the sequence of irrigation and, depending on the number of plots and irrigations within a catchment area, specific irrigation rules prevail to ensure equitable access to water and to offset any monopoly in water distribution. Because of the torrential nature of the water flow, coordination among farmers to divert water and repair damaged bunds and weirs is essential.

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The Sailaba system is vulnerable to two major risks: damage from heavy floods and crop failure crops due to drought (lack of floodwater). The Sailaba irrigation system is not therefore a dependable source of water for practicing sustainable agriculture and for meeting crop water requirements. In the uplands, fields under Sailaba systems are small compared to those on the valley bottom, where large bunds are made by farmers to serve as field demarcation boundaries and to trap runoff water. In this system, depending on the topography of the land on the main seasonal riverbeds, 0.5- to 3-m high bunds (earth embankments) are constructed to divert floodwater and lead it to the bunded fields. The bunds are traditionally built by animals (camel and bullocks) but now more commonly using bulldozers and tractors. 1.1. Characterization and mapping of the spate irrigation system in Nalivalizai Floodwater originating from the upper Loralai district flows through parts of Loralai, Kohlu and Sibi before entering the Sindh province.The main water flow originates from a nearby mountain west of the village. The other water flow is the Zhob river, which comes from Zhob District. A part of the Zhob river is diverted to the command area of Nalivalizai. The system comprises different sized flood streams originating from the fields water source. Crops within the bunds depend on runoff from the two main catchment areas. About 45 farmers share floodwater from these sources. By conserving soil moisture from summer floods, the farmers grow wheat in Rabi, and mung, mash and maize in Kharif. The production efficiency of the Sailaba system depends on the amount and time of rainfall-runoff, water distribution and diversion to the fields, and soil-moisture conservation. The existing Sailaba system regulates floodwater by: i) distributing water into feeder channels in the catchment, ii) conveying water via feeder channels and iii) diverting floodwater to the fields. Field investigations revealed that this existing system faces serious flood distribution and diversion problems. Uneven spreading of water and surplus runoff across the fields are also serious deficiencies in the system. To address these problems, a research study was carried out in Nalivalizai. The aim was to improve and rehabilitate the community Sailaba structures to effectively divert floodwater to the bunded fields. By reducing crop damage, increasing soil moisture and stabilizing crop yield, the project aimed to improve water productivity at the system level. The study was carried out in Nalivalizai, 85 km north of Loralai. The annual rainfall during 200708 was 145 mm. In winter the temperature dropped to -1C , and the maximum summer temperature was 45C. Composite soil cores were taken from the experimental site at depths varying from zero to 100 cm to determine chemical soil properties, and soil moisture at the time of planting and harvesting.An analysis of soil samples collected from the fields under Sailaba irrigation systems is shown in Table 9. The EC values ranged from 2.2 to 10.2 dSm-1 showing no salinity problems. Percent calcium carbonate varied slightly (11.0 to 17.50) . A loamy soil texture was prevalent. Table 9. Chemical analysis of Sailaba soils of Nalivalizai Farmer's name Sampling pH EC CaCO3 Texture analysis depth (cm) (dsSm-1) (%) Sand % Silt % Clay % Class Malik Wash 0-15 8.3 3.2 16.0 23.2 48.0 28.8 Loam 15-30 8.1 3.6 11.0 23.2 45.0 30.8 Loam Musa Gul 0-15 8.2 2.7 15.5 25.2 50.0 24.8 Loam 15-30 8.2 2.5 17.5 37.2 50.0 24.8 Clay loam Hameed Wali 0-15 8.3 2.2 14.5 25.2 47.0 27.8 Loam 15-30 8.3 3.0 17.5 25.2 48.0 26.8 Loam Asghar 0-15 8.1 10.2 14.5 33.0 50.2 16.8 Silt clay loam 15-30 8.2 6.9 13.0 27.2 54.0 18.8 Silt clay loam

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Reconnaissance of the Sailaba system in Nalivalizai was performed to characterize flood directions and conveyance channels, and to highlight the modifications needed to efficiently use scarce runoff water and thereby increase rainfed productivity. Floodwater is very important for the Sailaba system and any intervention aiming to improve this system should be carefully planned and should respect water rights up- and down-stream. The reconnaissance of the target sites provided the following information: Summer floods came from two directions: from the weir of a spillway constructed by the Irrigation Department and from the nearby mountains. The estimated discharge of mountainous floodwater ranged between 0.85 and 1.13 m3 per second (30 to 40 cfs). Out of the four gates regulating the floodwater, only two were functioning due to lack of maintenance and improper design. Floodwater was diverted to the sites through five main channels (Table 10). The main and secondary earth embankments, especially the indigenous/private ones belonging to individual farmers, required repair and maintenance. Unleveled beds of cropping fields or bandants created breaching and an uneven distribution of water. The water distribution system of the site was monitored by one person (Meerao in the Pashtoon area or Meera Abb in the Balochi area). Table 10. Characterization of channels and fields in Nalivalizai, Balochistan Channel Length (m) Slope (%) Maximum discharge (m3 per sec) Langang 5500 0.87 14.97 Washi 280 1.51 5.88 Malik 340 1.36 5.2 Nasrullah 266 1.85 4.5 Zahir 166 1.26 6.9 Area of fields/bunds 19.88 ha 1.32 Floodwater is distributed by two systems to the Nalivalizai IRS: a foothill system (private and independent channels) and a valley bottom system (head tail system) (Figure 3). In the foothill system, every farmer has his own independent distribution system with an identified inlet and spillway. This system enables the farmer to fill any bund within his land without following a specific or spatial irrigation sequence.The valley bottom system operates from head to tail; during flood flow, the uppermost bund is filled first, and the lowest bund is the last to be filled. During the monsoon, the flow of floodwater is heavy and farmers have no problem in irrigating or soaking their fields. In dry seasons, the upper bunds receive floodwater while those located at the tail suffer from dryness. The farmers were convinced that building regulatory structures upstream would not create a negative impact on downstream farms; on the contrary, the resulting surplus of water upstream would be more effectively channelled downstream. The project staff discussed the reconnaissance findings,especially those related to regulation and distribution of floodwater outside and inside the cropping fields,with the community and both agreed on the following activities: Design and construction of water regulation structures on a cost-sharing basis. Leveling the beds of fields or bandats. Repairing some of the damaged earth embankments.

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Figure 3. Mapping of Sailaba agriculture irrigation systems in Nalivalizai

1.2. Designing water distribution, regulation and field outlets interventions The targeted watershed area is around 20 km2, encompassing six villages of 4000 households.The selected site represented about 40% of the catchment area. There were 2000 bunds,the average bund area being around 1 ha. The heavy floods in 2004 damaged 500 bunds (25% of the total), which disturbed the regulation and distribution of floodwater in the area and farmers were unable to repair the damage.The estimated cost for repairing the damaged bunds was around Rs 2000 to 3000 per bund. 1.2.1. Flood diversion structures Fifteen inlet structures were constructed on a 20% shared basis on farmers fields at Nalivalizai to help farmers improve the Sailaba system. A field topographic survey was carried out to calculate the highest point within fields and inlet structures were designed according to the differences in elevation.Along with inlet diversion structures,diverting weir walls and stone patching of the structures were also included. All the construction materials and labor was provided by the Project while the cost of stones and transportation was borne by the farmers. The cost estimate of the structures is shown in Table 11. Construction was carried out in two phases. Inlet structures were constructed during the first phase in 2006 07, while during the second phase in 2007 08, diverting weirs and stone patching of side walls were completed. Table 11. Specifications of water regulation structures Malik Wali
(inlet) (2-gate inlet)

Rahim
(inlet)

Wasih
(inlet)

Zahir
(inlet)

Weir (ft) Inlet (ft) Weir elevation (cm from field) Inlet elevation (cm from bed) Height of weir (ft) Height of inlet (ft)

20 3 15 10 2.5 2.5

20 3 17 11 2.5 2.5

20 3 15 10 2.5 2.5

20 3 15 12 2.5 2.5

20 3 17 19 2.5 2.5

The average cost of each structure was Rs 26844, to which the project contributed 73% and the local community 27% (Table 12). Average area of the field per structure was 0.84 ha, and the average discharge of the streams was 0.22 m3 sec-1.The time required to fill to an average depth of 5 inches before construction in normal floods was 1.45 hours, compared to 1.25 hours after construction of the structures, resulting in a 16% saving in time to fill the improved fields as shown in Table 13.

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1.2.2. Bund field leveling Generally, existing farmers' fields are uneven, resulting in the breaching of bunds, improper distribution of floodwater, and consequently uneven soil-moisture and low crop yields. Therefore, fields were leveled to overcome this problem. Ten farmers were selected and divided into two groups. Five farmers' fields without structures and five farmers' fields with structures were leveled with a tractor-mounted rear blade. The average slope of the fields was calculated with the help of a field-level set by marking the field at 8-10 points, and an average point for leveling was then given and marked with pegs in the fields. The average elevation difference in the fields was 1-3 feet. A Fiat 640 tractor could level a one ha field in 20 hours with a 4 inch elevation difference. The rent of the tractor was Rs 300 hr-1. Half of the total amount was paid by the project. Cost details are given in Table 14. During the floods, farmers saved 28% of their time after fields had been leveled. The main benefits seen in treated fields were that water was distributed uniformly and no bund breaching occurred. 1.3. Effect of water regulation structures and field leveling on water productivity In order to determine the importance of structures and leveling at Nalivalizai, an experiment was laid out during 2007-2008 with four treatments: S+L (Structured and Leveled), US+L (Unstructured and Leveled), S+UL (Structured and Unleveled), US+UL (Unstructured and Unleveled). In this experiment the production of Cham-6 was compared with the local race. During the monsoon season of 2007-2008, the experimental fields experienced two floods ranging from 160 to 175 mm. An additional 125 mm of rainfall was received during the cropping period. Table 12. Cost of structures at Nalivalizai Farmer Number of structures Size of structures Gate Weir Patching Zahir Khan 4 2 x3 18 80 Abdul Wasi 3 2 x3 20 80 Abdul Malik 4 2x3x2 20 95 Wali Jan 1 2 x3x2 20 95 Rahim 1 2 x3x2 18 95 Majeed 1 2 x3x2 20 95 Amin 1 2x3 95 Average cost per structure

Input cost (Rs) Project Farmer 35159 12000 29250 6000 32900 12500 11100 6000 10950 6000 10950 6000 6100 3000 19487 7357

Table 13. Effect of structures on the time required for irrigation Number of inlet structures Average field area Filling* time (hr) Before After constructed with diversion wall per structure (ha) Single gate Double gates construction construction 10 5 0.84 1.45 1.25
*up to 5 inches average depth

Time saving % 16

Table 14. Detailed costs of bund leveling Farmer Field Elevation Time utilized area difference by tractor (ha) within the field (hr) Zahir Khan 1.04 4 20 A. Malik 1.35 9 40 Rahim 2 6 30 Wali Jan 2 5 30 Hamid 2.04 6 30 Average 1.69 6 30

Filling time Before After leveling leveling 2 1.8 3 2.1 3 2 3 2 3 2 2.8 1.98

Time saved
(%)

Leveling cost
(Rs)

1 30 33 33 33 27.8

6000 1200 9000 9000 9000 9000

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Figures 4 and 5 show the soil water profiles sampled from zero to 100 cm within the cropped area. In both structured and unstructured fields that had been leveled, soil water content was significantly increased (p<0.05) as compared to unleveled plots. The figures suggest that in S+L fields the soil water content increased below 1 m depth and this significantly improved grain yield (Table 15) and cost-benefit ratio (Tables 16a and 16b).

Figure 4. Soil moisture content on 23rd October 2007

Figure 5. Soil moisture content on 8th May 2008

Structured + leveled plots produced the highest total dry matter (TDM) and grain yield of the Cham-6 variety of 4002 and 1534 kg ha-1, respectively. This was followed by unstructured + leveled fields which produced 3420 kg ha-1 TDM and 1323 kg ha-1 grain yield. The lowest TDM (2999 kg ha-1) and grain yield (1062 kg ha-1) was observed in unstructured + unleveled fields. Water productivity (WP) of structured and leveled fields remained at the top with 0.53 kg m-3, followed by unstructured but leveled fields with 0.46 kg m-3. The lowest water productivity of 0.35 kg m-3 was seen in unstructured and unleveled plots. The results for the local landrace showed that structured + leveled fields again produced the highest TDM and grain yield of 4173 and 1616 kg ha-1, respectively, followed by unstructured + leveled fields at 3733 kg ha-1 TDM and 1456 kg ha-1 grain yield. The lowest TDM (3171 kg ha-1) and grain yield (1113 kg ha-1) was seen in unstructured and unleveled plots. Water productivity (WP) of structured and leveled fields remained at the top with 0.56 kg m-3, followed by unstructured + leveled fields with 0.51 kg m-3. The lowest water productivity (0.37 kg m-3) was seen in unstructured and unleveled plots. Results of the first year indicated that structured + leveling and unstructured + leveling were the best among the treatments in terms of TDM and grain yield. No significant differences were observed among both varieties in respect of TDM and grain yield. This research trial was continued for a second year in October 2008 in Nalivalizai.

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Table 15. Performance of wheat varieties (Cham-6 and local) grown in the Sailaba system with different interventions S+L S+UL US+L US+UL Significance (p<0.05) Received moisture: Sailaba runoff (mm) 160 170 160 175 Rainfall (mm) 125 125 125 125 Total 285 295 285 300 Cham-6 4002 3316 3420 2999 * TDM (kg ha-1) -1 1534 1223 1323 1062 * Grain yield (kg ha ) Harvest Index 0.332 0.368 0.388 0.354 NS Water productivity (kg m-3) 0.53 0.41 0.46 0.35 Local 4173 3499 3733 3171 * TDM (kg ha-1) Grain yield (kg ha-1) 1616 1364 1456 1113 * Harvest Index 0.387 0.389 0.389 0.351 NS -3 Water productivity (kg m ) 0.56 0.46 0.51 0.37
S= Structured, L= Level , US=Unstructured , UL=Unleveled

Table 16 a. Effect of treatment on the cost-benefit ratio of Cham-6 wheat variety Costs and Income S+L S+UL US+L US+UL Cost (Rs):Construction 928 928 Leveling per ha 2662 2662 Field preparation 1500 1500 1500 1500 Seeds 3000 3000 3000 3000 Plantation 800 800 800 800 Labor 800 900 900 1300 Harvesting 6443 5136 5557 4460 Total input cost 16163 12264 14419 11060 Income (Rs) Yield 64428 51366 55557 44604 Straw 7712 6540 6553 6053 Total gross income 72140 57905 62110 50657 Total net income 56007 45642 47691 39597
S= Structured, L= Level , US=Unstructured , UL=Unleveled

Table 16 b. Effect of treatment on the cost-benefit ratio of local wheat variety Costs and income S+L S+UL US+L US+UL Cost (Rs):Construction 928 928 Leveling per ha 2662 2662 Field preparation 1500 1500 1500 1500 Seeds 3000 3000 3000 3000 Plantation 800 800 800 800 Labor 800 900 900 1300 Harvesting 6787 7296 6114 4674 Total input cost 16477 14424 14976 11274 Income (Rs): Yield 67872 57288 61152 46746 Straw 7990 6672 7116 6431 Total gross income 75862 63960 68268 53177 Total net income 59385 49536 53292 41903
S= Structured, L= Level , US=Unstructured , UL=Unleveled

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Cost-benefit ratio of wheat varieties was calculated as follows: - Construction cost of the inlet structures is based on a life of 10 years. - Leveling cost is based on a period of 2 years. - Threshing cost was taken as one-tenth of the yield which is the running practice in the area. - Grain and straw yields were Rs 4200 per 100 kg bag and Rs 125 per 40 kg bag, respectively. The structured + leveled treatment was the best among the four treatments in respect of cost-benefit ratio producing a total net income of Rs 59385 per ha while unstructured + leveled was the second best producing a net income of Rs 53292. 1.3.1. Survey for proper drainage of flood flow There are five main flood streams in the area. The longest is the Langang stream which originates close to a weir constructed by the local irrigation department. Flood flow of two streams (Abdul Malik channel and Wasih channel) was measured on inlet structures, at the actual time of flooding, with the formula:Q=0.0184LH 3/2, while the discharge estimation of the remaining channels was calculated by Manning's formula: Q = R2/3S1/2/n, where S = slope and R = A/P. Slope S of the channels was calculated with the help of a level set. Area (A) and wetted perimeter (P) were calculated on site. One part of the flood (Langang stream) coming from a diversion weir having four gates, was also measured with the above formula. Estimates of maximum discharge are given in Table 17. Results indicate that the maximum discharge of the Langang stream was 7.2 m3 sec-1, while the Abdul Malik channel had the lowest discharge of 5.2 m3 sec-1. The longest stream is Langang measuring 5500 m whereas the shortest is Wasih channel measuring 280 m. Table 17. Discharge estimates for the channels surveyed Channel description Length Slope
(m) (%)

Maximum discharge
(m3 sec-1)

1 2 3 4 5

Langang stream Wasih A. Malik Nasrullah Zahir Khan

5500 280 340 266 166

0.87 1.51 1.36 1.85 1.26

7.20 5.88 5.20 6.90 6.60

1.3.2. Silt deposition in farmers' fields Topographic and field surveys of the spate irrigation system of Nalivalizai were carried out twice a year with the help of an engineering level set. The areas of the fields were also measured. Five to six field-level readings were taken on already marked points for sedimentation within the respective fields. A permanent benchmark was developed near the head of the channel and field readings corresponding to that benchmark were recorded. The results are shown in Table 18. Table 18. Effect of floods on silt deposition in farmers' fields Farmer name Area Elevation difference Number within the field of floods
(ha) (inches)

Average depth of silt depositedafter floods


(mm)

A. Malik (Field 1) A. Malik (Field 2) Wasih Sultan (Field 1) Sultan (Field 2) Average

1.35 1.35 0.90 1.60 0.90 1.02

9 9 6 5 6 7

2 2 2 3 3 -

5 4 5 6 7 5.4

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1.3.3. Community assessment of improved floodwater distribution system The farmers who had benefited from the water regulatory structures were interviewed to learn of their perceptions and viewpoints regarding the implemented interventions. Farmers ranked the benefits of the structures (based on a scale from 1 to 5) as: (1) labor saving, (2) reduction of bunds erosion/damage, (3) controlling water flow, and (4) conservation of soil moisture. The majority of the farmers benefited was fully satisfied, and acknowledged that equity of water distribution was ensured among them. Farmers owning 80 ha (200 acres) of Sailaba land asked the project to improve 34 more structures. An owner cum tenant farmer of 40 acres of land was interested in improving 4 more structures in the 4.5 ha (10 acres) of land that he owned. Similarly, other community members were interested and ready to share, on a 50:50 basis, in the improvement of the 2000 structures already present in the project area. The farmers estimated an increase of 10-20% in wheat yield due to improved water harvesting. Furthermore, farmers anticipated that if all bunds were rehabilitated, the wheat area could be increased by 100%, from the present 25% of bunds to 50% of bunds in the area. Conclusions Water regulatory structures developed through adopting participatory approaches are low cost and technically sound. A few problems encountered in the design are being improved, involving communities. A cluster of improved bunds involving eight farmers would provide a sound base for initiating research on issues including: (i) monitoring rain events for estimating water harvesting differentials; (ii) estimating moisture availabilities during whole production cycle; (iii) estimating over time differentials in cropping patterns and intensities; (iv) estimating crop productivity differentials; and (v) exploring the effects of introducing arid horticulture, new annual crops and new crop varieties. It is proposed that a component should be deveoped, with technical backstopping from research, to rehabilitate a large cluster of water harvesting structures to demonstrate technologies at a larger scale.

2. Arid horticulture plantation with water harvesting


Prolonged drought and non-replacement of old almond plants have badly damaged horticulture in the area and now very few plants can be seen in Nalivalizai. The trial on the 'rehabilitation and improvement of Sailaba arid horticulture plantation with different water regimes, including conjunctive use of Sailaba and groundwater' aims to demonstrate to farmers how to use different water regimes for sustainable almond farming. Three farmers with experience in almond farming in Sailaba bunds were selected. The fields belonging to the selected farmers were prepared in January 2007. Planting rows spaced at 6 m were marked out in the targeted fields, and pits (60 cm x 60 cm) spaced at 6 m were dug along the rows according to local practice. One-year old seedlings of local almond were selected from a nursery in Nalivalizai and planted in the pits. The five hundred seedlings were subjected to three water regimes: Sailaba water, Sailaba and tubewell water, and tube-well water (Table 19). Water requirements were calculated based on the evapotranspiration rates from the weather data of PARC's Rod Kohi Development project, located about 5 km from Nalivalizai. Twenty five liters per 15 days of supplemental irrigation water was applied from tube wells to farmers' fields (Naseeb and Juma). Two farmers (Naseeb and Juma) planted chilies in their orchards and one farmer (Juma) applied more water, twice the predetermined irrigation amount every 15 days. The net income from the chilies was Rs 9000 for Juma and Rs 15000 for Naseeb. In the Sailaba treatment, no Sailaba water was received and floodwater was not distributed. The almond plants have survived in Wasih's field (Sailaba treatment) with 185 mm water (125 mm rainfall and 60 mm Sailaba water).

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Table 19. Water regimes, number of seedlings planted and orchard area in Nalivalizai IRS, Balochistan Farmer Water regime Area No. of Water received (ha) almond trees Irrigation (liters) Rainfall (mm) Total (mm) Naseeb Sailaba and tube wells 0.45 160 355 125 480 Wasih Sailaba 0.5 180 60 125 185 Juma Tube wells 0.5 160 530 125 655
*From March 2007 to July 2009

The data collected on the established plants are shown in Table 20. In July 2008, the recorded overall survival rate was 85%. The canopy diameter and height of the plants grown under the Sailaba treatment were lower as compared to the plants receiving irrigation water (Naseeb's and Juma's fields), but the survival of these plants clearly shows that local almond varieties can survive in this area with a rainfall of even 125 mm. The almonds are expected to begin yielding in 2009-2010. Table 20. Dimensions of almond trees Farmer name Water regime Naseeb Wasih Juma
CD: Canopy Diameter

Sailaba and tube wells Sailaba Tube wells

CD1 (m) 1.64 1.30 1.76

Plant dimensions CD2 (m) Height (m) 1.8 21.96 0.29 1.62 1.91 2.08

Stem girth (m) 0.121 0.92 0.134

3. Evaluation and improvement of stock water ponds


The mainstay of the farmers of Nalivalizai IRS is crop and livestock production (sheep, goats and local range cows). The availability of stock water in rangelands is very limited. During the monsoon season, watering of animals is not a problem, but in early winter (November and December) and during wheat harvesting season (May and June), water shortage is becoming a crucial problem. During water shortage periods, stockowners depend on hand pumps in the village to water their animals or they are forced to move with their animals to Tor Thana, 6-7 km away, for watering. 3.1. Data collection A traditionally built stock water pond at Nalivalizai IRS was selected for rehabilitation purpose. A clan/extended family was settled some 17 years ago near the pond location, which is 4 km away from the main settlement. In the past, the family owned a flock of 600 sheep/goats and some cattle. At present, and due to prolonged drought, there are around 400 small ruminants and 50 cattle at the IRS, which drink twice daily from this traditional pond. The pond was constructed at Naurooz Khan Village in Nalivalizai by farmers themselves using bullocks and a tractor. The storage capacity is around 550,000 liters, and the average number of days for retaining water is 8 days per fill, which is less than the farmers' needs. The pond was built 15 years ago at a cost of around Rs 18000. There are 12 households benefiting from the pond, with about 400 sheep/goats. Information on the ponds history and use was furnished by the Clan Head, 55 years old and illiterate. He owns 1.2 ha irrigated land, 16.2 ha Sailaba/Khushkaba land, and 12.2 ha tenanted land. According to farmers, the pond was filled on an average 4 times in winter and 6 times in summer; the collected water lasted for 15 days and 10 days during winter and summer, respectively. This means that the pond is providing water for more than 400 head of sheep and goats for a period of 120 days.Ten years ago, livestock water availability was further augmented with the installation of a hand pump near the pond. Water is available from the pump after the pond dries up. Three family members have to pump water for 4 hours a day to water 112 young animals (calves, kids and lambs).

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3.2. Rehabilitation work Project staff visited the stock water pond and highlighted these issues:heavy siltation of the pond, water seepage from the lower side, and malfunctioning of the inlet. Following discussions with community, three interventions were agreed upon: excavation of the pond to remove the accumulated silt, lining of the pond to reduce water seepage, and re-design of the inlet.The rehabilitation work consisted of (i) excavation of the pond to increase its capacity, (ii) lining of the pond with 300 micron PE plastic film to control seepage, (iii) collecting silt from streams and plastering it over the plastic sheet to make a silt layer 10 cm thick, and (iv) constructing a cemented inlet gate structure and spillway.The design of the inlet gate structure and spillway serves many purposes, including safe disposal of floodwater that exceeds the storage capacity of the pond, refreshing the stored water, and diverting the first flush of floodwater that is usually loaded with debris and sediment. 3.3. Economic analysis The availability of water for animals in the November to December and May to June periods is expected to reduce stress on the animals. The improvement in animal performance and the reduced cost of watering are expected to enhance the income of community households. Surveying the site indicated that the catchment area (runoff area) that funnels water to the pond is 26 ha, 70% covered with grasses and native vegetation. The average slope of the catchment area is 1.92%. The soil of the catchment area is light, loamy fine sand. The infiltration rate is 130-250 mm/hr. Fifteen mm of rainfall with an intensity of 20 mm hr-1 falling on the catchment area is capable of filling the pond.Rehabilitation of the pond increased its water storage capacity by 36%, from 550 to 750 m3. For each fill, water persistency in the pond increased by 275%, from 8 days to 30 days, which increased the number of watering days from 120 to 270 days (Table 21). The discharge at the entering point of the pond through the inlet channel was 0.032 m3 per second (1.14 cfs). The capacity area curve of the pond is presented in Table 22. Table 21. Storage capacity of stock water pond at Nalivalizai, Balochistan Storage capacity Persistency of Water consumption* 3 pond water (days) (liters/day) (m per second) Before lining After lining Before lining After lining 550 750 8 30 2000
*for more than 400 sheep and goats

Evaporation losses (liters/day) 500-600

Table 22. Capacity area curve of stock water pond at Nalivalizai, Balochistan Width Length Height Area Capacity Capacity Remarks (m) (m) (m) (m2) of point (m3) (liters) 1 0 25 0 0 0 0 RCC inlet base structure 2 5 25 0.6 125 75 75000 Bed of the pond 3 5 26 0.7 130 94.9 94900 " 4 5 28 0.85 140 119 119000 " 5 5 28 0.8 140 114 114000 " 6 5 26 0.82 130 106.6 106600 " 7 5 26 0.85 130 110.5 110500 " 8 5 25 0.71 125 88.75 88750 " 9 5 25 0.18 125 22.5 22500 " 10 2 24 0 48 0 0 End point Total 731.25 731250

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Improvement of the stock water pond improved water availability by about 400%, and by 50% of the original storage. The increased duration of water availability saved 24 man-hr of labor for watering mature animals from streams, and 8 man-hr of labor daily for water lifting by pump to water young animals. The estimated daily saving in labor was 4 man-days. The modest opportunity cost estimated for the labor savings was Rs 400 day-1. It was estimated that water would be available for 150 more days. This means that the total cost of labor saving would be Rs 60,000 per annum. Improvement costs totaled Rs 31500, and the benefit-cost ratio estimated for investing to improve the pond was 1.9:1. Conclusions The benefits derived from the improvement of the pond helped to gain the community's confidence and paved the way for the collaboration required to develop water diversion through community participation. The stock water pond intervention needs further monitoring to consolidate data on improved water resources, the quality of water available, damage to conservation materials and repair and maintenance costs. However, the model is ready to be extrapolated to other sites in collaboration with development components. The technical knowledge can be shared at provincial policy decision-making levels and with the Livestock Department for the benefit of the livestock herders of Balochistan.

4. Evaluation of germplasm and management options of high-value crops


The economy of Balochistan is dominated by agriculture, which accounts for 52% of the province's GDP and employs 65% of the labor force. Of the total agricultural GDP, agriculture takes 59% that includes: fruits 30%, field crops 17% and vegetable 12% (Agricultural Statistics Balochistan 2002-2003). In the recent drought situation in Balochistan, about 60% of the fruit trees have died and the remainder are unlikely to survive due to the receding water table. It is estimated that apple production, which is one of the main fruits, has reduced by at least 50%. Drought has drastically reduced the production of horticultural crops in Balochistan, directly affecting the farmers' livelihoods. Fruit production through irrigation cannot be sustained without proper management. In essence, we argue that if a high risk of climate or edaphic drought exists, technologies should be implemented to deal with these problems first, with technologies aimed at optimizing soil water use for profitable and sustainable production. Keeping in view the present position of drought and fruit production, the main objective of introducing local and exotic varieties of almond (Prunus amygdalus), pistachio (Pistachia vera), and olive (Olea europaea) was to demonstrate that low water demanding crops have more potential, with acceptable economic returns. ICARDA, Syria, supplied some drought tolerant varieties of almond (Viranice, Texas), pistachio (Batouri, Ashori) and olive (Qaysi, Sourani) for planting on farmers' land while grapes (Vitis vinifera) and pomegranate (Punica granatum) were planted at the Agriculture Research Center, Quetta, for germplasm maintenance and propagation. 4.1. Climate and soil conditions The general climatic conditions at the IRSs are shown in Table 23. The IRS sites in Qilla Saifullah and Mastung districts are located at higher altitudes than those in the Loralai district. The Nalivalizai site in Loralai district is located in the monsoon area with higher rainfall (200-250 mm) than all other sites. Average winter temperature is the lowest in Mastung district. Soil pH was quite high at the IRS in Qilla Saifullah district compared to other project sites.

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Table 23. Climatic and edaphic properties of fruit plantation sites Qilla Saifullah Loralai Alozai Akhtarzai Nalivalizai Duki Altitude 1460 1460 1215 1060 Rainfall (mm) 150-200 150-200 200-250 150-200 Temperature (C) Winter (min) -7 -7 -1 -2 Summer (max) 38 38 45 43 Soil types SC loam SC loam Sandy loam Clay loam Soil pH 9.5 9.7 8.1 8.0 Table 24. Specifications for planting almond trees at IRSs Alozai Akhtarzai Nalivalizai Plowing (no.) 2 Pit size (ft) 3x3 3x3 2.5x2.5 Planting date (February 2006) 25 27 22 FYM (kg) 0.5 0.5 0.5 Urea (g) Potash (g) FYM: farm yard manure

Mastung Dasht Siddiqabad 1680 1485 150-200 150-180 -10 38 Clay loam 7.9 -10 38 Clay loam 7.8

Duki Dasht Siddiqabad 3 2 2 2.5x2.5 2x2 3x3 22 20 21 0.5 0.5 0.5 31.25 31.25 93.75 93.75

Table 25. Specifications for planting pistachio and olive trees at IRSs Alozai Akhtarzai Nalivalizai Duki Pistachio: Plowing (no.) 2 3 Pit size (ft) 3x3 3x3 2.5x2.5 2.5x2.5 Planting date (Feb. 2006) 25 27 22 22 FYM (kg) 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 Urea (g) Potash (g) Olive: Plowing (no.) 2 3 Pit size (ft) 3x3 3x3 2.5x2.5 2.5x2.5 Planting date (Feb. 2006) 25 27 22 22 FYM (kg) 0.25 0.25 0.25 0.25 4.2. Tree plantation layout and management practices

Dasht 2 2.5x2.5 20 1.0 31.25 93.75 2 3x3 20 0.25

Siddiqabad 2 3x3 21 1.0 31.25 93.75 2 3x3 21 0.25

For almond tree planting at 4 sites, 2-3 plowings were performed (Table 24). A block plantation layout design was used with a square system for all fruit plants at all sites. Pit sizes vary at different sites. Apple tree planting was accomplished during the third week of February 2006. Half kg of farmyard manure (FYM) was used per almond plant at all sites. Urea and potash were used for apple plants only at Dasht and Siddiqabad sites in Mastung district. Land preparation, pit sizes and date of planting for pistachio and olive plants were almost identical (Table 25). Higher doses of FYM were used for pistachio than for olive. Urea and potash were only applied on pistachio plants at Dasht and Siddiqabad sites. 4.3. Plant survival and growth rates At all IRSs, pistachio (Batouri, Ashori), olive (Qaysi, Sorani, Coratina, Frantoio) and almond (Texas, Viranice, Spin Phali, Mongphali, Spin Kaghzi, Irani Mongphali) varieties (imported from Syria as well as local) were planted during February 2006. The layout and labeling of varieties was completed at each IRS.

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In Mastung two varieties of both almond and pistachio were planted at each site. Olive was only planted at the Siddigabad site. Survival percentage was higher for exotic almond plants than pistachio (Table 26). Survival percentage was above 90% for both almond varieties at the Dasht site and 60% at the Siddigabad site. The survival rate of pistachio was around 60% at the Siddigabad site and 15% at the Dasht site. Survival rate of olive plants was very high (96%) at the Siddigabad site. At the Duki site in Loralai district two varieties of each almond, pistachio and olive were planted (Table 27). Survival rate of Iranian based almond varieties was about 80%, pistachio around 30% and olive from 46 to 70%. Similarly at the Nalivalizai site in Loralai district the almond survival rate was higher (60%) than pistachio (40%) and olive (35%) plants (Table 28). At the Akhtarzai site in Qilla Saifullah district the survival percentage of almond varieties was higher than olive plants (Table 29). Soil pH, water availability and stress at the sapling stage mainly contributed towards variation in plant growth and survival percentages. Table 26. Survival of fruit trees planted at Siddiqabad and Dasht IRSs, Mastung district Siddiqabad Dasht Almond Pistachio Olive Almond Pistachio Texas Viranice Ashouri Batouri Coratina Texas Viranice Ashouri Batouri Plants (no.) 67 67 42 40 125 67 66 31 34 Plants survived (no.) 37 41 24 26 119 55 54 4 5 Survival (%) 55 61 57 65 96 82 89 13 15 Branches (no.) 7.6 7 1.8 1.4 4.8 13.4 8.6 1.2 5 Water applied (liters) 335 351 195 290 157 39 53 39 62 Table 27. Survival of fruit trees planted at IRS Duki, Loralai district Almond Pistachio Irani Irani Ashouri Batouri Mongphali Mongphali
(MK) (MB)

Olive Qaysi Sourani

Plants (no.) Plants survived (no.) Survival (%) Branches (no.)

201 176 88 1.8

135 109 81 5.2

50 16 32 1.1

50 19 38 4

67 47 70 3.2

67 31 46 3.0

Table 28. Survival of fruit trees planted at IRS Nalivalizai, Loralai district Almond Pistachio Spin Katthi Spin Katthi Ashouri Batouri
(JG) (AR)

Olive Qaysi Sourani 67 26 39 2.8 67 21 31 4.0

Plants (no.) Plants survived (no.) Survival (%) Branches (no.)

168 106 63 2.6

112 56 50 7.2

40 15 38 1.5

40 19 48 2.1

Table 29. Survival of fruit trees planted at IRSs at Qilla Saifullah district Akhtarzai Alozai Almond Pistachio Almond Tor Phali Texas Ashouri Batouri Tor Phali Zarghoon Phali Spin Phali Plants (no.) 381 36 50 50 67 35 77 Plants survived (no.) 356 19 16 18 0 0 0 Survival (%) 93 53 32 36 0 0 0 Branches (no.) 16 14 3 14 0 0 0

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5. Water conservation
Improving water productivity, especially in areas suffering from water shortages, requires an understanding of all factors affecting crop productivity starting from potential losses of irrigation water, soil problems, and cropping practices. Therefore, a diagnostic survey was carried out at Siddigabad to collect basic information on the conveyance of irrigation water, quality of irrigation water, soils, and farm resources. 5.1. Diagnostic survey of soil and water Analysis of soils and irrigation water quality were performed to identify if problems exist in terms of soil nutrients or presence of excessive salts in irrigation water. Analysis of the collected soil cores revealed that the nitrogen and phosphorus contents are low and amendments are needed for improving crop productivity (Table 30). Water quality (pH 7.3, EC 1.7 dSm-1, TDS 860 mg/l) of wells was within the permissible limits recommended by World Health Organization (WHO). 5.2. Reducing conveyance losses Irrigation water obtained from groundwater and/or surface water is traditionally conveyed in earthen watercourses. These existing systems of conveying irrigation water to farmers' fields waste significant amounts of scarce water resources through seepage, overflow and evaporation. One option to reduce conveyance losses is through the lining of water courses. Three watercourses serving three farmers were selected and water losses were measured before and after lining using cut-throat flumes. The collected data showed significant reductions in water loss ranging from 79 to 100 % after lining irrigation water courses (Table 31). Reducing the conveyance loss is expected to reduce the cost of irrigation water and/or irrigate more land from the saved water. Table 30. Physical and chemical properties of soils in Siddigabad, Balochistan Farm Sampling depth Texture pH TSS CaCO3 OM
(cm) % % %

N
%

P
(ppm)

Siraj Malik Malik Alam


TSS: total soluble salts

0-15 30-45 0-15 30-45

silty loam silty loam silty loam silty loam

8.72 8.73 8.70 8.83

1.03 1.00 4.51 2.60

31.5 32.5 32.0 32.0

0.5835 0.5491 0.5835 0.4805

0.02917 0.02740 0.02917 0.02402

3 2 4 3

Table 31. Losses and savings in conveyance of irrigation water before and after lining watercourses in Siddiqabad and Nalivalizai IRSs, Balochistan District/farmer Treatment Length Water losses Water saving name (m) (m3 hr-1 per 100 m) (m3 hr-1 per 100 m) % before after Siddiqabad: Malik Siraj RCC 148 9.57 2.02 7.55 79 PVC 60 2.40 0 2.40 100 Abdul Salam RCC 173 8.66 0.6 8.60 99 Alam Khan PVC 25 3.44 0 3.44 100 PVC 250 2.85 0.11 2.74 96 Nalivalizai: Nasseb Ullah PVC 131 2.88 0.05 2.83 98
RCC: Roller-Compacted Cement, PVC: Polyvinyl Chloride

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Figure 6. Significant conveyance losses occur in the existing system, which were combated through the lining of watercourses

Figure 7. Lined watercourses

5.3. Improving irrigation water productivity The main objective was to initiate research for improving water productivity of dryland agriculture. The specific objectives of this research activity were to determine the effects of irrigation scheduling and fertilizer application on crop productivity, mainly of wheat. Two trials were carried out on wheat production at Siddigabad IRS (Malik Siraj and Alam Khan farms), where three levels of irrigation (farmers' practice or 100%, 80% and 60% of farmers' practice) and two levels of fertilizer (F1 = N 40 kg ha-1 + P 20 kg ha-1; F2 = N 60 kg ha-1 + P 20 kg ha-1) were used to determine the effect on production. Three replications of each treatment were laid out. However, due to shortage of irrigation water the replicates were abandoned. Because of a delay in first rainfall, a pre-sowing irrigation (75 mm) was applied. Because of power cuts, one farmer was able to manage one-irrigation and the other managed two irrigations after the soaking dose. Plot 1 was laid out to demonstrate farmers' irrigation practice, plot 2 for 80% of farmers' irrigation practice, and plot 3 for 60% of farmers' irrigation practice. All plots were irrigated in two strokes, because the field shallow ridges were not able to accommodate one full-irrigation. Each plot was further subdivided into two fertilizer treatments. Rainfall during the growing season was recorded through installing a rain gauge at the site. Wheat seeds of a local variety (Sorbeej) were sown on 10 November 2005, with a seeding rate of 100 kg ha-1. The accumulated rainfall was 13.1 mm (Table 32). Irrigation depth was estimated from the equation Qt = Ad, where Q is discharge in m3 sec-1, t is time in seconds, A is area in m2 and d is irrigation depth. Q was measured in the water channel at field head. Time of irrigation to each plot was measured from the start of irrigation application to the end of irrigation. Computed irrigation depths are given in Table 33.

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Table 32. Rainfall during crop growing season 2005 January February March Day Rainfall Day Rainfall Day Rainfall (mm) (mm) (mm) 1 0.2 25 0.6 7 0.6 16 2.0 8 0.4 17 0.4 19 0.4 17 0.4 1 0.4 Total 3.0 0.6 1.8

April Day Rainfall (mm) 7 0.6 9 0.4 21 3.2 4.2

May Day Rainfall (mm) 11 3.5 3.5

Table 33. Depth of irrigation water applied at the experimental plots Irrigation Time of irrigation Area of plot Channel discharge (sec) (m2) (m3 sec-1) 100% (farmers' practice) 2520 400 0.0198 80% 2016 400 0.0198 60% 1512 400 0.0198

Depth of irrigation (mm) 125 100 75

The mature wheat plants were harvested on 16 May 2006. Five quadrats of 1 m2 each were laid out and the encircled plants within the quadrat were cut by hand shears at ground level. The harvested material was oven dried then weighed for determination of total biological yield, and then separated into two components: grain and straw. Regardless of the constraints that were encountered during the trials (delayed rainfall, breakage of tube-well machinery, cold waves, and power cuts, which resulted in a shortage of irrigation water and the need to abandon replicates), the results are still meaningful and informative (Table 34). The irrigation levels had a significant effect on wheat yield. The highest was obtained with full irrigation (100% or farmers' practice); 36% and 132% higher than 80% and 60% irrigation, respectively. Fertilizer application resulted in a significant increase in grain yield; 486 and 717 kg ha-1 for F1 and F2, respectively. Weather fluctuations, especially erratic precipitation, have a great impact on rainfed agriculture. Modeling of rainfall in rainfed agriculture in Balochistan could yield valuable information about the predictability of rainfall and the findings could be used as a tool for specifying the amount of irrigation water to be applied, thus saving scarce water resources. Saving irrigation water means expansion of the wheat production area and increased production, consequently improving livelihoods in the rural community. Table 34. Results of water productivity trials conducted at two farms in Siddiqabad IRS Irrigation level Biological yield Grain Straw Harvest Index
(kg DM ha-1) (kg ha-1) (kg ha-1)

F1 Malik Siraj Farm 100%* 80% 60% Alam Khan Farm 100%* 80% 60%
*Farmers' practice

F2 5017 3003 3053 7422 5141 6080

F1 690 433 335 1183 1319 1147

F2 976 790 384 1637 1097 1151

F1 2964 2802 2690 4914 5251 4475

F2 4041 2213 2669 5785 4044 4929

F1 0.19 0.13 0.11 0.20 0.20 0.20

F2 0.19 0.26 0.13 0.22 0.21 0.19

3654 3235 3025 6096 6570 5622

In the 2007 cropping season, three farmers with experience of wheat production were selected in Siddiqabad IRSs to compare different combinations of fertilizer rates and irrigation times. The treatments

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were T1: serving as a control (no irrigation, no fertilizer); T2: traditional practice (according to farmer's will, usually no application of fertilizer); and T3: three irrigations at three critical growth stages (crown root initiation, tillering, and heading). Seeds of a local wheat variety (Sorbeej) were sown (100 kg ha-1) in strips of 0.2 ha each. The sowing date was 6 November 2007 at Siddigabad. Before sowing, a soaking dose of 75 mm (pre-sowing irrigation) was applied because of rainfall delay. Fertilizers were applied at 140 kg ha-1 of N and 100 kg ha-1 of P according to recommendation for silt loam soils. It was not possible to monitor the volume of irrigation water and soil moisture at the different growth stages of the wheat plants as planned. Total biological yield, grain yield, and straw yield, were monitored (Table 35). Table 35. Results of varying irrigation volume on wheat production in Siddiqabad IRS Parameters Treatments T1 T2 T3 Water volume: Rainfall (mm) 131 131 131 Pre-sowing irrigation (mm): 75 75 75 Irrigation (1) 0 345 232 Irrigation (2) 0 622 506 Total 206 1173 944 -1 7800 13000 11400 Biological yield (kg ha ) Grain yield (kg ha-1) 1288 2573 2475 Straw yield (kg ha-1) 6512 10427 8925 Harvest index (grain/straw) 0.20 0.25 0.28 Water use efficiency (kg m-3): Biological yield 3.79 1.11 1.21 Grain 0.63 0.22 0.26 Straw 3.16 0.89 0.95 Values of wheat biological yield and its components were low, which were expressed in low values of water use efficiency. Moreover, the values of harvest index were very low compared to common values (0.4 to 0.6) reported in the literature. These differences are attributed to the genetics of the wheat local variety and the harsh climatic conditions prevailing during the growing season.

6. Protected agriculture
The main objective of introducing protected agriculture in Balochistan was to demonstrate to the farmers the economic benefits that could be derived from planting high-value crops with limited water supply on marginal lands for Balochistan markets. 6.1. Cultivated crops The protected agriculture (PA) systems were imported from Dubai (Annex 5 for specifications). The first PA was established at the ARI of Quetta, where tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum), pepper (Capsicum spp.) and cantaloupe (Cucumis melon) were successfully produced. The technology was then disseminated to farming communities. Three tunnels were established at Siddiqabad, Duki, and Alozai IRSs, The farmers were trained on the different aspects of protected agriculture (preparation of terraces, regulation of heating, fertigation). A hybrid cucumber (Cucumis sativus) was grown twice per year in the three tunnels at Siddigabad, Duki, and Alozai IRSs. It is worth noting that cucumber production under protected agriculture faced many prob-

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lems such as breakage of tunnels due to high winds and torrential floods. In Siddigabad, the lack of controlling insect infestations in the nearby orchards and fields resulted in severe damage to cucumber plants in grown in the tunnel. Table 36 shows the production and income of the three crops grown under PA of the ARI. Cucumber production and the associated costs and income are summarized in Table 37. The economics of crop production under protected agriculture is promising, but constraints such as unavailability of improved seeds and liquid fertilizer (NPK), and facilitation of credit needs to be overcome. Table 36. Production of tomato, pepper and cantaloupe under protected agriculture at ARI Crop Average daily Total yield Price Total income production (kg) (kg) (Rs/kg) (Rs) Tomato 11.5 1090 20 21800 Pepper 7.8 520 21 15600 Cantaloupe 11.1 800 20 16000 Table 37. Economics of cucumber production in protected agriculture systems in 2008 Integrated Research Sites Duki1 Mastung2 Alozai3 Planting dates 27 Feb 18 July 1 April 15 July 12 March 10 July Yield (kg) 1400 1100 1100 1000 1250 900 -1 23 25 25 24 22 25 Average price (Rs kg ) Gross income (Rs) 32200 27500 27500 24000 27500 22500 Marketing cost (Rs) 7000 8000 8000 9000 8000 7000 Benefit without fixed/input cost (Rs) 25200 19500 19500 15000 19500 15500
1: Mehmood Khan, 2: Malik Siraj, 3: Muhammad Amin

6.2. Feasibility of cucumber production under protected agriculture 6.2.1. Background on analysis tools Protected agriculture is expected to develop the capacity of researchers and farmers to produce vegetable under high-tech tunnels. The purpose is to enhance irrigation water resource productivity and crops profitability per water unit (kg/m3) and per unit area of small farms. The focus of research is to develop a practical knowledge base to grow vegetables year around under different climatic and market situations. The challenging areas of protected agriculture are to make the right crop combination choices, marketoriented production, plant protection, temperature control, soil-borne diseases and nutrient management. Analysis methods used included: (i) Sensitivity Analysis; (ii) Net Present Value (NPV); and (iii) Internal Rate of Return (IRR). (i) Sensitivity analysis of minimum yield to break even A sensitivity analysis is one of the better alternatives to understand uncertainty in any type of financial model. Sensitivity analysis shows the financial situation of a certain enterprise when produce prices or input prices change. A scenario analysis is a special case of sensitivity analysis where a pre-determined set of possible outcomes are identified. For greenhouse production to be successful, it is important that the produce price covers at least the unit production cost. Based on current production costs inside a 270 m2 greenhouse/PAT and because growers can not influence the market price, a sensitivity analysis was conducted to indicate the minimum yield required at a given market price to cover production costs. The results showed

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that cucumber producers should target yields above 4000 kg for summer sales when prices could be as low as $0.35 US/kg. In the winter, yield should be above 3500 kg when the price is expected to be more than $0.70 US (Figure 8). Water is a major factor in greenhouse production. In Balochistan, groundwater pumping using electric power is the main water source for PAT. Electric power for agricultural purposes is highly subsidized by the government. In sensitivity analysis, different scenarios of electricity price rates were used: the actual rate of US$ 0.4/m3 and three other scenario rates: $0.5, $0.6 and $1.0/m3. The analysis indicated that removing subsidies from electric power will increase the cost of production and reduce dramatically the income of the communities using electric power to pump irrigation water (Table 38). Table 39 shows different price scenarios analyses, $0.5, $0.6 and $0.7 US Dollars, which are reasonable and can be reached during the winter. The gross revenue was calculated based on recent production, which is very low and is expected to increase substantially when farmers gain experience in efficiently managing the system.

Figure 8. Minimum yield for given prices to break even in greenhouse cucumber production

Table 38. Different scenarios of electricity price rates in Balochistan Price scenario ($/m3) Total variable cost ($/PAT) Cost ($/m2) 0.4 164.80 0.61 0.5 168.73 0.62 0.6 172.63 0.64 1.0 188.23 0.70

Table 39. Different scenarios of cucumber sale prices Price scenario ($/m3) Total gross revenue ($/PAT) 0.5 792 0.6 950 0.7 1108

Gross revenue ($/m2) 2.9 3.5 4.1

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(ii) Net Present Value (NPV) The Net Present Value (NPV) of the cucumber enterprise was calculated as the sum of the present values of the annual cash flows minus the initial investment. The annual cash flows are the Net Benefits generated from the investment during the production season. NPV is one of the most robust financial evaluation tools to estimate the value of an investment. The calculation of NPV involves three simple steps. The first step is to identify the size and timing of the expected future cash flows generated by the enterprise or investment. The second step is to determine the discount rate or estimated rate of return for the enterprise. The third step is to calculate the NPV using the equation shown below: NPV = j
t=1 t=end of project

Cash Flows at Yeart ( 1 + r )2

Cash Flow: The net cash flow for each year of the project: Benefits minus costs. Rate of return (R): calculated by looking at comparable investment alternatives having similar risks.The rate of return is often referred to as the discount, interest or cost of capital. Time (t): This is the number of years representing the lifetime of the project The above equation was applied, using an initial annual investment cost of US$2792 and the cash flow for ten years (the expected duration of the project) by using one harvest, two and three harvest scenarios per calendar year for 10 years. The NPV is $3767 when there is only one harvest per calendar year and $7534 and $11301 with two and three harvests per year, respectively. The results showed that the investment in protected agriculture is profitable especially when three crops are harvested during the calendar year. The cost-benefit ratio was calculated to be 1.03 for one harvest, 2.09 for two harvests and 3.13 for three harvests. (iii) Internal Rate of Return (IRR) The internal rate of return (IRR) is a capital budgeting method used to decide whether producers make long-term investments. A project is good investment proposition if its IRR is greater than the rate of return that could be earned by alternative investments. Mathematically, the IRR is defined as any discount rate that results in a net present value of zero of series of cash flows. IRR was calculated for two years cash flow in Siddigabad PAT. The IRR was estimated taking into consideration three possible scenarios: 1) harvest only one crop during the calendar year; 2) harvest two crops during the same period; and finally 3) harvest three crops. When there is only one crop the IRR was estimated to be 12%, when there are two crops the IRR was 34%, while when there are three crops the IRR was estimated to be 53%. This shows clearly that since protected agriculture is an intensive system with a high initial cost it should be exploited to a maximum. Investing in protected agriculture with proper use of the system is more profitable than putting the money in a bank or purchasing bonds, where the interest rate in Pakistan is 7%. Conclusions and recommendations Production of vegetables under protected agriculture conditions shows high potential to increase the income of community members by producing marketable high-value crops. It is important to use the protected agriculture system intensively, at least three crops per a calendar year, to reap maximum benefits from the system. PAT production will create job opportunities for other community members. Economic analysis indicated clearly the profitability of the enterprise during the first production year. It is expected that productivity will increase when farmers gain more experience. It is recommended that producers be trained to handle the management of PAT in better ways to maximize benefits. It is critical that farmers diversify their production and introduce different crops, responding to market demand, and try to produce crops during the off-season to benefit from high prices.

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Figure 9. Protected agriculture

OUTPUT 2: Rangeland/livestock integration at farm level enhanced through better utilization of agricultural by-products and improved management of rangelands The project IRSs were visited by an expert in animal production to identify potential interventions to alleviate some of the constraints hindering animal production that were highlighted in the socioeconomic baseline survey. Potential options were identified and discussed with both project staff and local communities. An adaptive research framework was developed, with the full participation of farmers/stockowners, to demonstrate the benefits that could be derived from potential interventions. The suggested interventions included (i) supplemental feeding of ewes and does to improve their performance during critical stages such as breeding, pre-lambing, and early lactation, (ii) fattening of lambs and kids using commercial feeds, (iii) controlling infectious diseases and internal parasites, and (iv) improving the quality of available agricultural by-products (crop residues and straw) in the targeted areas. The treatments, number of flocks, measurements, and responsible parties were identified and a community action plan was developed and approved.

1. Improvement of livestock health and nutrition


Several activities were carried out to improve the health and nutrition of small ruminants at the integrated research sites. These activities included (i) a review of the literature pertaining to animal diseases in Balochistan, (ii) increasing farmers' awareness of animal health issues through workshops and distribution of a vaccination calendar, (iii) conducting trials on using anthelmintics to control internal parasites, (iv) conducting trials on improving reproductive performance of ewes and does, and (v) conducting trials on fattening of lambs/kids. 1.1. Improving the health of sheep and goats 1.1.1. Literature review of internal parasites of livestock in Balochistan Internal parasites pose one of the major health limitations for grazing animals. Sheep and goats are more susceptible to internal parasites than other livestock, due to their grazing behavior and poor immunity (Durrani et al. 1981, Martin 1983). Parasites exert adverse effects on the health and productivity of animals in Pakistan (Javed et al. 1992). In the uplands of Balochistan, almost all sheep were infected with internal parasites, and 35% of the infected ones were also infected with external parasites such as ticks (Ixodes

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ricinus) and scab (Psoroptes ovis). In Quetta, helminthes were found in 23.8% of sheep and 27.9% of goats and endo-parasitic infestation occurred in 93% of sheep and 80% of goats in the Asghara valley, Ziarat district. In Balochistan, over 80% of the rural population is involved in rearing sheep and goats, which act as their mobile banks. Therefore, controlling internal parasites in animals has a high economic significance for stockowners. The parasites affect animal health and productivity and are more pronounced in sheep and goats as compared to other species of animals (Durrani et al. 1998, Marwat et al. 1988, Javed et al. 1992). Lung worms cause respiratory problems like cough and pneumonia, while worms in the gastrointestinal tract cause diarrhea, dehydration, weight loss, bottle jaw and decreased production (Khan 1988). Liver flukes cause facial or submandibular edema, anemia, progressive loss of condition and even death (Urquhart et al. 1996). Khan et al. (1988) observed 18 types of internal parasites in sheep in upland districts of Balochistan. Among these, Nematodirus species were the most prevalent (54%) followed by Marshallagia marshalli (25%), Dictyocaulus filaria (21%), Strongyloides papillosus (13%), Oesophagostomum spp., (12%) and Haemonchus contortus (12%). Among trematodes, Fasciola hepatica (26%), Cotylophoron (3%) and Paramphistomum cervi (1%); and among cestodes, Avitellina centripuctata (13%) and Moniezia benedeni (13%) were reported. Khan et al. (1988) reported 12 species of parasites prevalent in sheep in the Kovak valley (Kalat district) of Balochistan. Nematodirus was found to be most prevalent (86%) followed by Haemonchus contortus (63%), Strongyloides papillosus (49%), Trichostrongylus (42%) and Marshallagia marshalli (41%). Among trematodes, Fasciola hepatica (33%) and among cestodes, Moniezia benedeni (14%) and Avitellina centripuctata (13%) were observed. Azad et al. (1997) studied the prevalence of gastrointestinal helminth parasites of sheep and goat in Quetta from April 1993 to March 1994. The helminth species found were Paramphistomum cervi (in 16% of sheep), Moniezia expansa (in 23% of sheep and 17% of goats), M. benedeni (in 12% of sheep and 10% of goats), M. denticulata (in 8% of sheep and 7% of goats), Trichuris globulosa (in 24% of sheep and goats), Strongyloides papillosus (in 37% of sheep) and Trichostrongylus (in 18% of sheep and 21% of goats). The overall incidence of helminth infection was 80% in sheep and 70% in goats. 1.1.2. Animal health awareness Fifteen farmers participated in the Animal Health Awareness Workshop, which focused on the epidemic infectious diseases (enterotoxemia (ETV), foot and mouth disease (FMD), contagious caprine pleuropneumonia (CCPP), anthrax and sheep pox) that cause economic losses in terms of mortality and reduction in animal performance. The workshop was conducted at two sites, Qilla Saifullah and Loralai, during 5-8 May 2008. Farmers were taught about the factors/agents transmitting the diseases and parasites, and then trained in the administration of vaccines and anthelmintics to animals. Knowledge of how to administer vaccines and dewormers to animals is expected to reduce the incidence of diseases, consequently reducing losses and enhancing household incomes. The names of the farmers participating in the animal health workshops are listed in Table 40. Table 40. List of farmers participating in animal health workshops at Qilla Saifullah and Loralai Nalivalizai Alozai Akhtarzai 1. Abdullah Jan 9. Kamal Khan 14. Masood 2. Abdul Raziq 10. Abdul Rashid 15. Khan Gull 3. Abdul Wasah 11. Meer Dad 4. Haji Mah Jan 12. Aminullah 5.Taj Din 13. Haji Kala Khan 6. Hashim Khan 7. Makak Mehrab Khan 8. Abdul Majeed

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Figure 10. Training farmers in the administration of vaccines against infectious diseases during the animal health workshop

1.1.3. Trials on controlling internal parasites and infectious diseases at Siddigabad IRS 1.1.3.1. Health problem diagnosis A diagnostic survey was carried out at Siddigabad IRS to gain a clearer picture of the prevalence of diseases in the area. Initially five farmers were interviewed and basic information collected about livestock husbandry, disease prevalence, nutrition, and production constraints. Almost all the farmers believed that the most prevalent diseases in the area are liver fluke, lung worm, ticks, mange, pneumonia, foot and mouth disease, sheep pox, enterotoxemia, and anthrax. Farmers do not use vaccination/medication or deworm their animals, resulting in 20-50% prevalence of parasitic and infectious diseases and mortality of up to 10% in adult animals and 50% in lambs/kids. Improper management of animals during the breeding season, keeping males and females year round, and poor nutrition of breeding stock resulted in low conception rates (55%). Basic information about animal rearing, disease occurrence, and animal productivity was collected. 1.1.3.2. Controlling infectious diseases and internal parasites in sheep flocks at Siddigabad The information furnished by the diagnostic survey was used to design the first trial aimed at controlling infectious diseases and internal parasites in sheep and goats. The trial was carried out at Siddigabad and extended from December 2005 to June 2006. Three treatments were allocated to three flocks. The flocks were physically examined for the presence of disease before the start of the experiment and monthly after each treatment. All animals were ear-tagged, and the administered medications were recorded throughout the trial.The three treatments were A (treatment of diseased animals), B (no intervention to serve as a control or farmers' practice), and C (vaccination and deworming as preventive measures). Animals in group A were treated according to the nature of disease: antibiotics such as gentamicin and oxytetracycline were used against bacterial diseases, while anthelmintics like Nilzan were used for deworming, and stomach powder for treating indigestion. Animals in group C were vaccinated against various diseases and given anthelmintics for the control of internal parasites. The details on the allocation of treatments to experimental animals are shown in Table 41.

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Table 41. Details of experimental design, Siddiqabad Month Group Vaccination Deworming Treatment of diseased animals Dec 05 A Enterotoxemia + + B C Enterotoxemia + Jan 06 A Sheep pox + B C Sheep pox Feb 06 A FMD + B C FMD C March 06 A + + B C + April 06 A + B C May 06 A CCPP + B C CCPP June 06 A Enterotoxemia + + B C Enterotoxemia + -: No, +: Yes

Table 42. Prevalence of various diseases in three experimental sheep flocks (A, B, C) observed during physical examination at Siddigabad IRS A B C Total infected Infected % Number 13 22 100 Pneumonia 2 16 9 27 20 Indigestion 0 0 3 3 2 Diarrhea 0 0 1 1 0.7 Bottle jaw 0 0 1 1 0.7 Joint ill 0 0 1 1 0.7 Total 2 16 15 33 24 Overall diseased % 15 73 15 The flocks (A, B and C) at the Siddigabad site were frequently visited to monitor diseases in the experimental animals. During December to February, six types of health problems were recorded: pneumonia, indigestion, 'joint ill' (arthritis), enterotoxemia (diarrhea), and bottle jaw (a parasitic problem) (Table 42). During March 2006, ticks and mange attacks were recorded. The laboratory results showed that 15% of animals in groups A and C were infected compared to 73% in group B. Shah (2000) recorded some of the common livestock diseases in Balochistan: anthrax, enterotoxemia, hemorrhagic septicemia, black quarter, mastitis, foot and mouth disease, rinderpest, rabies, bovine viral diarrhea, pleuropneumonia, ecto- and endoparasitic problems e.g. coccidiosis, fascioliasis,parasitic gastroenteritis, nasal fly, mange and ticks. These diseases are more or less similar in our present study. Higher disease prevalence in Balochistan and also in the study area might be due to improper diagnosis of disease, no vaccination against infectious disease, and improper treatment of these diseases.

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Medication of the animals in groups A and C resulted in the complete cure from all the prevalent diseases before the start of the study (pneumonia, indigestion, diarrhea, bottle jaw, joint ill, mange, ticks) (Table 43). The medicines used were quite effective. In group B, persistent urination was reported and the animals did not recover because of the inability to diagnose the disease/syndrome. The owner of flock C used some traditional medicines to control diseases in infected animals. Therefore, it was not unfair to compare the incidence of targeted diseases in the control and treated animals. The results show that disease prevalence was significantly reduced in the treated animals (groups A and C). The incidence of internal parasites was monitored through regular sampling of animal feces. Fecal samples were collected from 10-15 sheep/goats prior to the experiment. The fecal samples were directly taken from the animal's rectum. The collected samples were sent to the AZRC Veterinary Laboratory for microscopic examination for identification of internal parasites. The direct slide method (DSM) and McMaster Method (MM) were used to identify the ova and/or larvae of parasites in the fecal samples. The number of identified parasites was expressed as the number of ova and/or larvae per slide by DSM or the number of oocysts/ova/larvae per gram of feces by MM (Thienpont et al. 1979, Urquhart et al. 1996). The laboratory results indicated that 46-52% of sheep were infested with internal parasites including Fasciola hepatica (5%), Moniezia (9%), Dictyocaulus (11%), Strongyloides (10%), Eimeria (5%), Trichuris (6%), and Nematodirus (3%) (Table 44). Table 43. Impact of treatment on animal health in three sheep flocks (A, B, C) at Siddigabad Diseases Before treatment After treatment A B C A B C Number of animals 13 22 100 13 22 100 Pneumonia 2 16 9 0 0 0 Indigestion 0 0 3 0 0 0 Diarrhea 0 0 1 0 0 0 Bottle jaw 0 0 1 0 0 0 Joint ill 0 0 1 0 0 0 Persistent urination 0 1 0 0 1 0 Mange 1 0 0 0 0 0 Ticks 4 5 28 0 0 0 Total 7 22 43 0 1 0 Table 44. Incidence of internal parasites in the experimental flocks (A, B, C) prior to deworming Experimental flock Total Incidence A B C number (%) Number of animals 13 22 100 135 Fasciola hepatica 1 0 6 7 5 Moniezia 2 1 9 12 9 Dictyocaulus 1 2 12 15 11 Strongyloides 1 2 11 14 10 Eimeria 1 2 4 7 5 Trichuris 0 1 7 8 6 Nematodirus 0 1 3 4 3 Total 6 9 52 67 50 % 46 41 52 The difference in the incidence of different internal parasitic species in the present study may be due to differences in environment and susceptibility. Durrani et al. (1981) noted that the incidence of a few species of internal parasites was higher while some other species had a lower incidence under the arid conditions of upland Balochistan as compared to the semi-humid, subtropical Punjab province. Radostitis et al. (1994)

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mentioned that most the suitable conditions for the translation of eggs to larvae in the majority of helminth parasites are provided by warm, wet weather. In the areas with a severe winter and dry summer, the parasitic burden of the local livestock may be low in most years as seen in the present study. But during the years when the winter is mild and summer is wet, the normal burdens are rapidly multiplied and severe outbreaks of parasitic diseases occur. During the study period (December 2005 to June 2006) eight internal parasitic species, i.e., Fasciola hepatica, Moniezia, Dictyocaulus, Strongyloides, Eimeria, Trichuris, Nematodirus, and Cooperia, were recorded in three flocks. Animals in groups A and C were treated with anthelmintics at three month intervals (December 2005, March and June 2006) while animals in group B were kept as control. After these treatments microscopic examination of feces showed that 7.6% and 16.6% of sheep were infested with two types of internal parasites i.e., Dictyocaulus and Moniezia in groups A and C, respectively, as compared with three types of internal parasitic species i.e., Dictyocaulus, Moniezia and Cooperia (Table 45) in control group B (55.5%). Table 45. Impact of deworming on the control of internal parasites in experimental flocks Diseases Before treatment After treatment A B C A B C Number of animals 13 22 100 13 9 12 Fasciola hepatica 1 0 6 0 0 0 Moniezia 2 1 9 0 3 2 Dictyocaulus 1 2 12 1 1 0 Strongyloides 1 2 11 0 0 0 Eimeria 1 2 4 0 0 0 Trichuris 0 1 7 0 0 0 Nematodirus 0 1 3 0 0 0 Cooperia 0 0 0 0 1 0 Total 6 9 52 1 5 2 % 46 41 52 7.6 55.5 16.6

1.1.3.3. Economic analysis of controlling animal diseases Outputs from treatment were recorded in terms of improvements in weight gain (20% for A, 10% for B, 15% for C treatments), value of skins (30% in A, less than in 10% B, 20% in C), lambing percentage (6% in A, 50% in B, 74% in C) and value of wool (30% less for B). The economic results were calculated on the basis of health improvements. Internal parasitic infestation reduced the animals' productivity by up to 30%, reduced the price of infested animals by 5-10%, and also reduced the value of hides (e.g. hides infested with warble fly had a 50-70% lower sale price). The cost of animal treatment was estimated at Rs 113, Rs 61 and Rs 73 for A, B, C treatments respectively. Additional returns from expenditure on health inputs are significant as compared to the control group (around Rs 1000 per animal). This implies that the marginal rates of return are very high by switching from control treatment B to the project interventions (Table 46). The promotion of health treatment of animals is recommended through the veterinary department, extension system, and other development agencies. The Livestock and Dairy Development Department in Balochistan already has the infrastructure, manpower and budget for providing vaccination and veterinary treatment, but these services need to be strengthened to reach remote communities, especially nomads. There are possibilities for privatization or some involvement of the private sector, but this will only work in areas where the animal population is large and sedentary, and farmers are aware of the need for animal health inputs and their impact on productivity

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Table 46. Economic analysis of livestock health interventions at Siddiqabad site Outputs and inputs Experimental flocks A B C Outputs: Number of animals 13 22 100 Animals value (Rs) 65,000 110,000 500,000 Value of increase in live weight (Rs) 13,000 11,000 75,000 Value of increase in live weight (Rs) 13,000 11,000 75,000 Value of skin (Rs) 2028 2376 14,400 Value of increased lambing 16,120 22,000 148,000 Increase in the value of wool 585 693 4500 Gross value 96,733 146,069 741,900 Value per animal 7441 6640 7419 Inputs Vaccination 130 1000 Drench 195 1500 Drench Treatment 245 Labor 100 0 1000 Veterinary services 500 250 3000 Local remedies 500 Others (syringe, tools, etc.) 300 600 800 Total variable cost 1470 1350 7300 Cost per animal 113 61 73 Net returns 7328 6578 7346 Conclusions Vaccination against prevailing infectious diseases and drenching of animals reduced the incidence of infection significantly and animal performance was substantially improved. The participatory approach enhanced farmers' awareness of animal health and their skills in vaccination, deworming, and treating animals against common ailments. It is very important to establish a program at village level for improving animal health. The selection and employment of two to three energetic persons (stockowners, farmers) from each village to be trained as para-vets is the main element of the suggested animal health program. 1.1.3.4. Controlling infectious diseases and internal parasites at Alozai and Nalivalizai Three trials were conducted at Alozai and Nalivalizai IRSs to evaluate the efficacy of local anthelmintics in controlling the internal parasites prevalent in the target areas. Total number of animals involved in the trials was 334 head. (i) The first trial was conducted at Alozai IRS, where three treatments were allocated to three flocks of Shinwar and Balochi breed sheep. The treatments were T1 (control or untreated flock), T2 (Nilzan), and T3 (Ivermectin). Flock sizes were 50, 50 and 43 head for T1, T2 and T3, respectively. The parasitic population was monitored from September 2006 to March 2007. (ii) The second trial was conducted at Nalivalizai on seven flocks (3 sheep flocks and 4 goat flocks) com prising 44 sheep and 49 goats. The dewormer Zorox Plus was administered to all animals in September followed by a booster dose three months later to control internal parasites. (iii) In the third trial, 20 mixed-flocks totaling 98 head were divided into 5 equal groups and each group was given one of the five anthelmintics: Nilzan, Bendex, Oxadec, Albensil, and ivermectin. Monitoring of endo-parasites lasted for 4 months.

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Before the trials, all animals were ear-tagged and vaccinated against ETV, FMD, CCPP, anthrax, and sheep pox. Fecal samples were taken by direct collection from the rectum in 10 to 20% of experimental animals on a monthly basis. The collected fecal samples were sent to AZRC laboratories in Quetta for identification and counting of internal parasites. The results are presented in Tables 47-49. Trial (i): Before treatment in September, 87-93% of sheep were infected with internal parasites (Table 47). Parasites identified were Dictyocaulus, M. benideni, M. expansa, F. hepatica, Strongyloides, Nematodirus, Trichostrongylus, Cooperia, Trichuris ovis and Bunostomum. Dictyocaulus (38%) and F. hepatica (42%) were more prevalent than other parasites (2-17%). Although the direct slide technique shows few parasitic eggs/larvae, the number of Dictyocaulus was high (16 larvae per slide) in comparison to other parasites (26 eggs/larvae per slide). The McMaster technique gave mean eggs per gram count (EPG) of 1200 to 2000. After treatment, Dictyocaulus infection remained between 4.4 and 6.7% compared to 11.1% in untreated animals. Internal parasites, excluding Dictyocaulus, were eradicated in the treated animals. The control group had prevalence of 2 to 11% with a high parasitic load (EPG >1000) of M. benideni, M. expansa and Nematodirus. The dewormers used were effective in reducing the number of endoparasites (13-33%) in groups A and B. Untreated animals (group C) were heavily loaded with parasites (87-100%). Trial (ii): Before treatment 87% of sheep and 67% of goats were infested with nine types of internal parasites: Dictyocaulus, M. benideni, M. expansa, F. hepatica, Strongyloides, Nematodirus, Trichostrongylus, Trichuris ovis and Bunostomum (Table 48). Results from DSM varied from 1 to 8 ova/larvae per slide, whereas the MM recorded between 1000 to 2000 parasites per gram of feces. After three weeks of treatment, parasitic infestation declined and Dictyocaulus and Trichuris ovis were recorded in 13% of sheep and 6% of goats. In March 2007, only 2 larvae of Dictyocaulus per slide were observed. Trial (iii): Infestation of parasites prior to treatment was recorded as 56% of the experimental animals (98 sheep and goats). The identified internal parasites were Dictyocaulus, M. benideni, M. expansa, F. hepatica, Strongyloides, Nematodirus, Trichuris ovis and Bunostomum (Table 49). Dictyocaulsus (26%) and F. hepatica (18%) were more prevalent than others. The infestation level was moderate, 6-12 ova/larvae per slide and 1200-1600 EPG. Three of the administered anthelmintics (Nilzan, Oxadec, Albensil) cleaned animals of all internal parasites. Bendex and Ivermectin failed to get rid of Dictyocaulus. The anthelmintics used in this trial were quite effective against internal parasites in sheep and goats under grazing conditions. The economics of animal medication is presented in Table 50. Based on efficacy and economics Albensil was found to be the most suitable. Table 47. Effect of anthelmintics treatment on incidence of internal parasites in sheep and goats Before treatment in Sep After treatment during Dec-March No. Preva- Mean No. Prevalence Mean EPG infected lence EPG infected A B C A B C A B C Dictyocaulus 17 37.77 16* 2 3 5 4.44 6.66 1.11 3* 4* 4* M. benideni 6 13.33 1200* 1 2.22 1200* M. expansa 1 2.22 1400** 2 4.44 1400* F. hepatica 19 42.22 6* 2 4.44 4* Strongyloides 6 13.33 1400* Nematodirus 2 4.44 2000** 2 4.44 1000* Trichostrongylus 5 11.11 2* 2 4.44 3* Cooperia 3 6.66 3* 2 4.44 3* T. ovis 4 8.88 4* 1 2.22 2* Bunostomum 8 17.77 3* 4 4.44 3*
*number of ova/larvae per slide (Direct Slide Method), **number of oocysts/ova/larvae per gram of feces (McMaster Method)

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Table 48. Incidence of internal parasites in sheep and goats before and after treating with Ivermectin and Nilzan dewormers compared with control at Alozai integrated research site Before treatment After treatment Sheep (49) Goats (44) Sheep (49) Goats (44) No. Preva- EPG No. Preva- EPG No. Preva- EPG No. Preva- EPG infected lence infected lence infected lence infected lence Dictyocaulus 7 46.6 8* 6 40 6* 2 13.3 3* 1 6.6 2* M. benideni 1 6.6 1400** M. expansa 4 26.6 1200** F. hepatica 5 33.3 6* 0 S. 1 6.6 1000** Nematodirus 4 26.6 2000** 1 6.6 1000** Trichostrongylus 1 6.6 2* Trichuris ovis 4 26.6 2* 6 40 2* Bunostomum 2 13.3 1* 4 26.6 2* *number of ova/larvae per slide (Direct Slide Method), **number of oocysts/ova/larvae per gram of feces (McMaster Method)

Table 49. Efficacy of five anthelmintics in controlling internal parasites in sheep and goats under grazing conditions Before treatment Prevalence (%) after treatment Number Prevalence EPG Nilzan Bendex Oxadec Albensil Ivermectin infected Total animals 98 18 22 17 20 21 Sampled animals 50 10 10 10 10 10 Dictyocaulus 13 26 12* 2 2 Moniezia benideni 4 8 1600* Moniezia expansa 2 4 1400** Fasciola hepatica 9 18 6* Strongyloides 7 14 1200** Nematodirus 1 2 1600** Bunostomum 1 2 6* *number of ova/larvae per slide (Direct Slide Method), **number of oocysts/ova/larvae per gram of feces (McMaster Method)

Table 50. Dose price and ranking effectiveness of five anthelmintics for controlling internal parasites in sheep and goats under grazing conditions Nilzan Bendex Oxadec Albensil Ivermectin
1 ml/5kg 1 ml/5kg 1 ml/5kg 1-2 ml/20 kg 1 ml/5kg

Price per dose (Rs) Ranking of effectiveness

4.86 3

3.60 4

4.00 2

2.40 1

4.00 5

Conclusions and recommendations Sheep and goats in the targeted areas were heavily infested with internal parasites resulting in significant losses in terms of mortality and poor animal performance. Irrational grazing management of rangelands (such as overstocking and lack of rest), poor housing and malnutrition of animals, augmented the incidence of internal and external parasites. Fumigation of animal housings (barns, corrals) on a regular basis is recommended to reduce the incidence of infestation.

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The anthelmintics used in the three trials were effective in reducing the levels of endo-parasites from 87% to 6%. To achieve maximum effectiveness, it is strongly recommended that farmers follow the manufacturers' instructions, and medicate animals in early spring and in autumn. A wide spectrum of internal parasites is common in sheep and goats, and those causing problems to animals should be targeted for eradication. The findings from these trials could serve for the development of a simple and practical program to control parasites in sheep and goat flocks to enhance economic benefits. 1.2. Improving sheep and goat nutrition 1.2.1. Trials on improving reproductive performance of does and ewes at Alozai and Nalivalizai The importance of concentrate supplement on the growth and productivity of goats and sheep has been highlighted by Rafique et al. (1990). In Balochistan, grazing on the degraded rangelands cannot derive sufficient nutrients to optimize live weight gain, reproductive and productive performance of small ruminants. The malnutrition of pastoral animals is accentuated by irrational flock management such as keeping too many young animals over the dry season. It is important to promote the idea that fewer high-producing animals are better than a large flock with low productivity. Therefore, trials were conducted to show farmers the benefits of concentrate supplement on the performance of sheep and goats. Eleven flocks from Alozai and Nalivalizai IRSs were selected. Two rations (Shukrana and AZRC) supplemented at two levels (250 and 500 g per head per day) were feed to both male and female animals during the breeding season, pre-lambing/kidding, and post-lambing/kidding. The feeding of concentrate supplement was planned for 3 weeks during the breeding season and 4 weeks during pre-lambing and post-lambing. The experimental animals were ear tagged, drenched against internal and external parasites, and vaccinated against infectious diseases (ETV, FMD, CCCP, sheep pox and anthrax) according to the vaccination calendar. Ewes fed the concentrate rations showed higher conception rates and lambing percentages than the control group. With ewes receiving proper nutrition, lamb survival rate also improved significantly (Table 51). Since the majority of household income is generated from the sale of young animals, any improvement in survival of lambs is of great importance. Proper nutrition at critical stages substantially improved reproductive performance. The conception rate, lambing percentage, and lamb survival rate increased by 21, 25 and 36% respectively. Lamb mortality and incidence of abortion in ewes were also reduced significantly. Similarly in does, proper nutrition improved all parameters of reproduction, with an increase of 20% in conception rate, 27% in kidding, and 18% in kid survival rate (Table 52). Mortality of kids and abortion in does were also reduced significantly. Table 51. Effect of feeding two levels (L1 and L2) of Shukrana and AZRC rations on the reproductive performance of ewes Reproductive parameters Number of ewes Conception rate (%) Lambing (%) Twinning (%) Lamb mortality (%) Abortion (%) Lamb survival (%) Dietary treatments Shukrana ration AZRC ration L1 L2 L1 L2 26 26 39 20 88 100 92 100 88 100 90 95 0 0 0 0 4 8 6 0 0 0 3 5 95 92 92 95 Control 20 75 70 0 10 5 60

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Table 52. Effect of feeding two levels (L1 and L2) of Shukrana and AZRC rations on the reproductive performance of does Reproductive Dietary treatments parameters Shukrana ration AZRC ration Control L1 L2 L1 L2 Number of does 15 11 20 20 20 Conception rate (%) 100 100 100 100 80 Kidding (%) 93 100 120 100 75 Twinning (%) 0 0 15 0 0 Kid mortality (%) 7 0 8.3 15 27 Abortion (%) 0 9 10 0 6 Kid survival (%) 92 90 91 85 73
L1: 250 g per head per day, L2: 500 g per head per day

Conclusions and recommendations Malnutrition of sheep and goats due to degradation of grazing resources and the harsh climatic conditions in the target areas had drastic effects on their reproductive performance. Supplemental feeding improved the nutrition of animals substantially, which was reflected in an improving fertility of ewes/does, increasing the percentage of females giving birth, and an increased survival rate of lambs/kids. Proper nutrition of females reduced the incidence of abortion, and the mortality of lambs/kids. The positive impact of supplemental feeding on reproduction is expected to increase the revenues of the flock significantly. Brochures showing/illustrating the importance and methodology (types, amounts and timing) of supplemental feeding could be an effective tool in disseminating information on the proper nutrition of animals. 1.2.2. Trials on fattening lambs and kids at Qilla Saifullah and Loralai The objective of this trial was to determine the effect of gradually increasing the feeding level on the growth of lambs and kids. Four flocks totaling 46 lambs of mixed breeds, 6-7 months old with an average initial body weight of 28.08 5.96 kg were selected from Nalivalizai, Alozai, and Akhtarzai.The lambs were fed two rations (AZRC and Shukrana) which gradually increased (250, 300 and 400 g per lamb/kid per day) for pre-determined durations (16, 30 and 28 days). The feeding trial lasted for 74 days, 14 Sep to 27 Nov 2007. The composition of experimental rations is given in Table 53. Table 53. Composition of experimental rations used for fattening lambs and kids Ingredients Shukrana AZRC Ingredients Shukrana AZRC ration(%) ration(%) ration(%) ration(%) Wheat 10 0 Sunflower meal 1 0 Wheat bran 27 30 Maize 15 20 Barley grain 0 24 Molasses 10 Rice polish 8 0 Dicalcium phosphate 1 3 Rape seed cake 3 0 Lime 0 1 Rape seed meal 1 0 Salt 1 1 Cotton seed cake 12 20 Multivitamins 0 1 Cotton seed meal 1 0 Berseem 10 0 Crude protein % 16 15

46

Routine vaccinations against enterotoxemia and pleuropneumonia, and deworming using broad spectrum anthelmintics were performed on the experimental lambs and kids before the beginning and during the trial. No mortality was recorded during the trial. Animals were weighed on the 1st day of the experiment and then monthly afterwards to determine body gains in response to the feeding regimes applied. A restricted amount (18 kg) of ration was allocated to each flock during the trial period. Similarly, the Shukrana and AZRC rations were fed to four groups of kids (8, 7, 7 and 8 kids) following the same feeding regimes as those used for the lambs. Fattening of the kids lasted for 74 days. Overall weight gain averaged 6.97 1.53 kg per lamb (Table 54). The lambs' daily gains ranged between 83 and 125 g and averaged 93 grams. The lambs fed AZRC ration showed better weight gain (7.74 kg) than those fed the Shukrana ration (6.23 kg). It is worth noting that in addition to the ration offered, the lambs had access to grazing. In terms of economics, the profit generated from fattening was Rs 655 per lamb. The kids' daily gains were low, ranging between 46 and 70 grams. The kids gained less weight (4.47 0.76 kg) compared to the lambs (6.97 1.53 kg). The low growth rates of the kids were reflected in lower profits, Rs 432 and 23 for kids fed Shukrana and AZRC rations, respectively (Table 55). Table 54. Effect of feeding Shukrana and AZRC rations on performance of lambs Shukrana ration AZRC ration Flock 1 Flock 2 Flock 1 Flock 2 Lamb average body weight (kg): Initial 31.88 33.93 20.86 25.66 Final 42.0 40.25 27.57 34.93 Weight gain 6.12 6.31 6.21 9.26 Feed consumed* per lamb (kg) 18.0 18.0 18.0 18.0 Expenditure per lamb (Rs): Feed 198 198 288 288 Medicine and vaccines 15 15 15 15 Labor 100 100 100 100 Initial cost of lamb (Rs 125/kg) 4241 3985 3207 2607 Economics: Sale value of fattened lamb (Rs) 5031 5250 4366 3446 Profit per lamb (Rs) 477 952 756 436
*in addition to grazing

Table 55. Effect of feeding Shukrana and AZRC rations on performance of kids Shukrana ration AZRC ration Flock 1 Flock 2 Flock 1 Flock 2 Kid average body weight (kg): Initial 27.93 28.12 16.28 18.75 Final 31.40 36.57 20.0 21.85 Weight gain 3.40 5.16 4.80 4.50 Feed consumed* per kid (kg) 18.0 18.0 18.0 18.0 Expenditure per kid (Rs): Feed 198 198 288 288 Medicine and vaccines 15 15 15 15 Labor 100 100 100 100 Initial cost of kid (Rs 125/kg) 3491 3515 2035 2344 Economics: Sale value of fattened kid (Rs) 3925 4571 2500 2731 Profit per kid (Rs) 121 743 62 -16
*in addition to grazing

47

Conclusions and recommendations In rural areas, the majority of household income is generated from the sale of lambs and kids. Fattening young animals is a practical option for increasing household incomes. Both rations improved body weights and the condition of animals, and the AZRC ration had more posi tive impact on body gains than the Shukrana ration. Overall daily gain was 77 grams and it could be much higher if the experimental animals were younger (3-4 months old). Younger animals grow faster than mature ones. Moreover, daily gains could be improved if the planned amount of feed offered to animals (24.2 kg per head according to the suggested feeding regimes) was not reduced to 18.0 kg per head. The farmers believe that fattening is rewarding, but finding commercial feeds at a reasonable price is a challenge. The establishment of cooperatives or stockowner groups could play an effective role in promoting animal fattening through the provision of supporting services (medications, vaccines, commercial feeds, and marketing).

2. Improvement of rangeland productivity


AZRCs Rangeland and Forestry Research Program, in collaboration with ICARDA, conducted several applied research activities to improve the productivity of community rangelands. These included (i) review of previous rangeland projects in Balochistan, (ii) effect of protection on recovery of vegetation in degraded rangelands, (iii) establishment of fodder shrubs in micro-catchment water-harvesting structures, (iv) establishment of a shrub nursery at AZRC, (v) planting of native and exotic forage species in run-on areas. 2.1. Review of previous rangeland projects in Balochistan In 2006, two consultants (S. Ahmad and S.M. Irshad) were contracted to review previous work on rangelands in Balochistan to highlight the technical and non-technical interventions that were implemented for rehabilitation of degraded rangelands in Balochistan, and to highlight the lessons learned. The study report entitled Review of Range Management and Improvement Work in Balochistan was concluded in 2006. 2.1.1. Review findings The rangelands of Balochistan are classified on two bases: pattern of rainfall and primary productivity. Based on the pattern of rainfall, the rangelands are classified into three categories: (i) north-eastern rangelands receiving 250-375 mm of annual rain falling in summer and winter, (ii) south-western rangelands receiving 100-225 mm of winter rain, and (iii) extremely arid rangelands with less than 100 mm of winter rain. The proportions of the three categories to the total rangeland area of Balochistan are 27%, 52% and 21% for north-eastern, south-western and arid rangelands respectively. The primary productivity approach (FAO, 1983) divides the rangelands of Balochistan into six classes: (i) excellent to very good, 250-280 kg DM ha-1, (ii) very good to good, 200-240 kg DM ha-1, (iii) good to fair, 170-190 kg DM ha-1, (iv) fair to poor, 60-160 kg DM ha-1, (v) poor, 30-50 kg DM ha-1, and (vi) non-grazable, 30 kg DM ha-1. Several development projects and large numbers of research activities have been conducted on Balochistan rangelands (Table 56). The development projects were interested in improving the productivity of rangelands through the usual improvement interventions (reseeding and transplanting of native and exotic range plant species, water harvesting and spreading structures such as check dams, micro-catchment water-harvesting structures, ponds and to some extent construction of earth dams). Research activities flourished after the establishment of range research stations (Zarchahi Range Livestock Research Station in Kalat District, and Tomagh Range Livestock Research Station in Loralai District). Research areas included evaluation of introduced range plant species under different environments, propagation of saltbushes, nutritive value assessment and grazing management of established saltbushes (mainly Atriplex canescens and Atriplex nummularia), dietary composition of sheep and goats, and intercropping of saltbushes and barley.

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Table 56. Main rangeland rehabilitation projects implemented in Balochistan Year Project Main objectives 1954Maslakh Range Project Capacity building, and 1964 rangeland rehabilitation 1985 MART/AZRI ProjectHigh Elevation Research Capacity building of AZRI staff and initiation of research programs in dryland agriculture including livestock and range management.

Interventions Reseeding in pits and contour furrows Training institutional staff on developing research programs

1985

Development of Range and Livestock Research Stations

Establishment of Zarchahi Range Research on stocking Livestock Research Station in Kalat rates and economics District and Tomagh Range Livestock of rational grazing Research Station in Loralai District. Kanak valley, 65 km south-west of Reseeding and transQuetta.Improving rainfed and irrigated planting of saltbushfarming systems of uplands, rangeland es in contour furrows rehabilitation, and women's development activities. Improving rangelands Reseeding and planting of saltbushes in MCWHS Water harvesting structures (check dams, ponds, MCWHS), range nursery

1992

Rangeland Rehabilitation in Balochistan The Experience of Kanak Valley

19992003 1999200520052008

Rehabilitation of Depleted Rangelands in Balochistan Area Development Program Balochistan

Improving livelihoods and enhancement of productivity for both rangelands and farming systems

Conclusions Most of the projects aimed at rehabilitating degraded rangelands in Balochistan overlooked the issue of community involvement/participation in the various projects activities. The misunderstanding of the real problems constraining pastoral communities was a major factor that undermined rangeland rehabilitation projects. The title and objectives of projects implemented focused on the integration of livestock and rangelands, but failed to develop a model or a mechanism for sustainable integration. The dynamics of livestock production and forage resources at local and regional scales necessitate developing flexible measures to cope with dynamicity. The land tenure issue is the root cause for almost all rangeland problems. Rangelands ecosystems are resilient and require rational management (such as rotational resting, or delayed grazing) to ensure sustainability of vegetation in harsh climatic conditions. Because of the land tenure plague, it is impossi ble to rest or manage large tracts of rangelands to recover from previous destructive grazing. Recently, rangeland development projects started to work at micro-scale (farm or village) to improve the livelihoods of rural communities, which is different from the macro-scale approach (ecosystem) that was employed in the past. This shift in strategy could be attributed to the failure of projects to achieve significant improvement on the ground, and to limited financial resources. 2.2. Effect of protection on vegetation recovery in degraded communal rangelands at Siddiqabad The study objective was to monitor the impact of protection on the ability of vegetation to recover from

49

previous destructive grazing over many years. Biomass production and diversity of vegetation were monitored during 2006 and 2007. Sixty quadrats, 1x5 m each, were delineated along pre-determined transects. The vegetation encircled within the quadrats was harvested with hand shears at ground level. The harvested vegetation was separated into forage (leaves and browse of palatable species) and non-forage components (wood), and then all the components were placed in an air-circulating oven at 105 C. for determination of DM production.Values of DM production of forage species were converted to grazcapacity assuming a daily forage intake of 1.0 kg DM for one ewe/doe weighing 33 kg, and a proper use level of 50% for regrowth. 2.2.1. Biomass production Biomass production of forage species at the protected site averaged 128 kg DM ha-1 and 333 kg DM ha-1 for summer and fall seasons, respectively, totaling 461 kg DM ha-1 in 2006 (Table 57). Low levels of biomass production during summer reflected the scant amount of rainfall (17.5 mm) received from January to June 2006. In open areas, forage production was negligible in summer, and very low (140 kg DM ha-1) in fall. In 2006, productivity of forage species at the protected site was twice that in open areas.In 2007, the rainfall quantity and distribution during winter and spring seasons were better than 2006, which induced many annual forbs to regenerate in spring and produced 102 kg DM ha-1, besides forage species production of 213 kg DM ha-1 in summer and 382 kg DM ha-1 in fall. Being rich in major nutrients (protein, energy, and carotene), forbs should be utilized as soon as possible because of their short lifecycle. In open areas, the values of forage production were low and did not exceed 31% of species production at the protected site. Continuous grazing in the open areas meant that the stressed forage species were unable to regenerate or making substantial regrowth.In both years, the contribution of summer forage production relative to total production of the protected site was low (27.8% and 30.6%) compared to the fall contribution (72.2% and 54.8%), which means that the fall season is the major grazing season in the target areas. In open areas, the proportions of summer and fall forage production relative to the total production were 36.5% and 45.2%, respectively. 2.2.2. Grazing capacity Grazing capacity is defined as the maximum animal stocking rate possible without inducing damage to vegetation, water or related resources. It is expressed either as the number of sheep units per ha for a specific period of time or as the number of hectares per sheep per year. The latter expression was used in our study. The seasonal grazing capacity was highly variable and ranged from 2.19 to 7.16 ha ewe-1 year-1 in 2006, and from 1.91 to 3.42 ha ewe-1 year-1 in 2007 (Table 57). This variability could be attributed to variability in the amount and distribution of rainfall resulting in spatial heterogeneity of production and diversity of vegetation. In 2006 which was a dry year, the grazing capacity on open areas was negligible and animals were hand-fed yearlong, but in a normal year (2007) the capacity was about one-third of the grazing capacity at the protected site. Table 57. Seasonal production of forage biomass in protected and open areas of communal rangeland Season Biomass production Grazing capacity (kg DM ha-1) (ha/ewe/year) Protected site Open areas Protected site Open areas Year 2006:Summer 128 0 5.70 0 Fall 333 140 2.19 0 Total 461 140 7.89 0 Year 2007:Spring 102 40 7.16 18.25 Summer 213 80 3.42 9.12 Fall 382 99 1.91 7.37 Total 697 219 12.49 34.74

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2.2.3. Diversity of forage species Fifty-seven species of annual forbs and grass species were identified in spring 2008 (Table 58). Annual grasses and forbs made a substantial contribution to forage biomass production as observed in spring 2007. These annuals represent a quality component and enrich the diet of animals grazing from early March to May, when other perennial species are still at the early vegetative stage. After May, the perennial grasses (Cymbopogon jwarancusa and Chrysopogon aucheri) and shrubs (Haloxylon grifithii and Artemisia species) become the major contributors to the animal diet. As a result of protection, several medicinal plants (Tulipa stellata, Zizyphora tenuior, Lallimantia royleana, Matricaria lasiocarpa, Nepta and Salvia species) flourished during spring 2007. Rational grazing management at the protected site is vital for sustainable conservation and use of forage species. Besides grazing, the community can derive additional benefits from edible plant species, from medicinal and herbal plants, and through collecting the wood of dead plants. Table 58. Recorded annual forbs and grass species at protected communal rangelands, spring 2008 # Botanical name Family # Botanical name Family 1 Leptalium spp. Brassicaceae 29 Achelia santolina Compositae 2 Malcolmia africana Brassicaceae 30 Ixiolorin tataricum Amaryllidaceae 3 Erodeum spp. Geraniaceae 31 Bromus sericeus Poaceae 4 Cymbolina spp. Compositae 32 Latuca spp. Compositae 5 Allysum dasycarpum Brassicaceae 33 Adonis arstivalis Ranunculaceae 6 Kolpenia linearis Compositae 34 Poa sineca Poaceae 7 Ermopyrum spp. Poaceae 35 Mellelotus spp. Papilionaceae 8 Shismus arabieus Poaceae 36 Nepta juncea Labiatae 9 Nonnea crispa Boraginaceae 37 Papaver spp. Papaveraceae 10 Sonchus spp. Compositae 38 Salvia spp. Labiatae 11 Carthamus spp. Compositae 39 Jurenea carduiformis Compositae 12 Tulipa stellata Liliaceae 40 Paracarium regulosum Boraginaceae 13 Hypecoum pendulum Papaveraceae 41 Echinops spp. Compositae 14 Veronica biloba Scrophulariaceae 42 Gailoria eriantha Rubiaceae 15 Hertia intermedia Compositae 43 Onobrychus spp. Papilionaceae 16 Zizyphora tenuior Labiatae 44 Hordeum spp. Poaceae 17 Ranunculus spp. Ranunculaceae 45 Lactuca viminea Compositae 18 Lallimantia royleana Labiatae 46 Allium spp. Liliaceae 19 Roemeria hybrida Papaveraceae 47 Centaurea spp. Compositae 20 Helotropium spp. Boraginaceae 48 Lepidium spp. Brassicaceae 49 Scabiosa olivera Dipsicaceae 21 Allysum species Brassicaceae 22 Matricaria spp. Compositae 50 Euphorbia spp. Euphorbiaceae 23 Anthemus spp. Compositae 51 Gagea spp. Liliaceae 24 Cauzina spp. Compositae 52 Sencio spp. Compositae 25 Bronius tectorum Poaceae 53 Polygonum spp. Polygonaceae 26 Euphorbia osyrhoides Euphorbiaceae 54 Chenopodium spp. Chenopodiaceae 27 Bupleurm exalitatum Umbelliferae 55 Artiplex turcomanica Chenopodiaceae 28 Ceratocarpus spp. Compositae 56 Sophora mollis Papilionaceae 57 Sonchus spp. Compositae

Conclusions and recommendations In arid and semiarid areas, the recovery rate of vegetation in degraded rangelands is generally sluggish because of low and erratic precipitation. In the Siddigabad IRS, protecting degraded rangelands for one

51

year that coincided with a normal level and distribution of rainfall such as the 2007 rainy season resulted in a significant improvement in the production and diversity of forage species, which reflects the inherent resilience of rangeland ecosystems. Maintaining the improved condition of the protected site requires rational grazing management, where lenient to moderate grazing is practiced at the proper time. Besides grazing, many benefits and services, such as medicinal and herbal plants, can be derived from protection of degraded rangelands. 2.3. Establishment of fodder shrubs in micro-catchment water-harvesting structures (MCWHS) The findings of the socioeconomic baseline study provided adequate information about the feeding calendar of livestock in the different IRSs. A major constraint to production of small ruminants is the shortage of feed during the winter season, especially from December to February. The feed gap in winter could be bridged through planting fodder shrubs to provide a sustainable forage resource of reasonable quality. The availability of forage during the winter for nourishing the village flock is expected to improve the performance of animals and reduce the cost of winter feeding. Before launching the fodder plantation trial at Siddigabad IRS, several activities were performed to set the stage for planting. The activities were (i) selection of planting sites with full participation of the community, (ii) analysis of rainfall and runoff for proper design of MCWHS, and (iii) surveying the existing vegetation in the area before intervention. 2.3.1. Pre-planting of fodder shrubs 2.3.1.1. Selection of planting sites The communal rangelands (shamalat) at Siddigabad village are limited (120 ha). The community designated an area of 15 ha for the planting of fodder shrubs. The designated area was visited to determine if there were any problems (shallow soils, erosive soils, soil crusting, deep slopes, rockiness, presence of rodents) that might hinder the establishment of plantations in the area. No problems were found that might hinder the planting of fodder shrubs on the communal rangelands. 2.3.1.2. Analysis of rainfall and runoff Analysis of rainfall events at the targeted site is necessary to help in the design and layout of micro-catchments for rainfall harvesting. Proper design and precise implementation of MCWHS are pre-requisites for the successful establishment and sustainable production of plantations. A rain gauge was installed at the IRS in the last week of December 2005, which recorded total seasonal rainfall (January to May) as 15.7 mm. During this period two runoff events occurred on 21 April and 11 May. The first runoff event occurred on 21 April as a result of 3.2 mm rainfall and the second runoff occurred on 11 May as a result of about 3.5 mm rainfall. The analysis suggested that the threshold value of rainfall for local runoff production at the study site lies between 2.8 and 3.2 mm; to be on the safe side 3.2 mm rainfall was considered as the threshold value for local runoff occurrence at the study site. The lower threshold value could be linked to highly degraded land, moderate to steep topography and surface crusting. 2.3.1.3. Surveying vegetation Documenting coverage, composition and biomass of vegetation before and after interventions is necessary for impact assessment of the implemented interventions. Several temporary transects were delineated to survey the remnant of vegetation at the selected locations. The vegetation was in poor condition because of a prolonged history of destructive grazing at the site. It was possible to identify some perennial plant species, but the assessment of coverage or biomass production of vegetation was very difficult. Small patches of perennial grasses such as Cymbopogon jwarancusa and Chrysopogon aucheri and dwarf shrubs

52

such as Haloxylon grifithii and Artemisia species were found in a poor condition in a few localized areas. Obviously, the contribution of the deteriorated remnants of the vegetation to the feeding calendar of sheep and goats in the village was negligible. 2.3.2. Planting of fodder shrubs 2.3.2.1. Contouring, opening of MCWHS and planting In February 2006, contour ridges were opened by a tractor-mounted plough with spacing of 5, 10, and 15m. The pits were dug at 2 m spacing within the ridge. The seedlings of three shrub species (Atriplex canescens, Atriplex lentiformis and Salsola vermiculata) were planted during the second week of March 2006. The number of shrubs in the ridges varied from 26 to 71 plants. Table 59 shows the treatment design of the fodder plantations at the Siddiqabad site. Table 59. Numbers of shrub species planted in contour ridges of different catchment areas in IRS Siddiqabad Block Slope Technique Spacing (m) MC Shrub Number of No. (%) between between area species shrubs ridges shrubs (m2) A 3-20 Contour ridges 5 2 10 A. canescens 732 B 3-20 Contour ridges 10 2 20 A. lentiformis 50 C 3-20 Contour ridges 15 2 30 S. vermiculata 523
MC: micro-catchment area

2.3.2.2. Measurements Shrub survival. The total amount of rain received during January to December of the 2006 rainy season was very low(57 mm). With this little amount of rainfall, the shrubs could not survive without irrigation. Therefore,five irrigations of 5 liters each were applied to each shrub during March to July in the first year of establishment. Survival rates of shrubs were recorded in June and December 2006, and June 2007. The dead plants encountered on the sampling dates were replaced after each sampling. Replanting was performed after the winter rains and no irrigation was applied to the replaced plants. Shrub growth and production. In each catchment area, ten shrubs from each species were randomly selected to measure plant height, canopy diameters and biomass production. The shrub height and its canopy diameter were measured according to dimension technique. Plant height was recorded to the nearest cm, from the ground surface to the top of shrub, including the inflorescence. Canopy cover was calculated using the formula CC = (D1D2), where D1 and D2 are the longest and shortest canopy diameters. The dimension measurements were used to express growth of shrubs in cm3. The same shrubs used for measurements were cut and separated into browse (leaves and small twigs < 5 mm in diameter) and wood. The separated components were oven-dried for dry matter determination. Soil erosion. Seasonal water erosion from the micro-catchment was monitored after each rainfall season. Catch-traps of polyethylene sheets were used for the collection of eroded soil in the micro-catchments. Three catch-traps were allocated to each catchment area (10, 15 and 30 m2), a total of nine traps per treatment. Soil moisture. The gravimetric method was used to measure soil moisture at two depths 0-10 cm and 10-20 cm. The measurements were performed after four runoff events in open and catchment areas.

53

2.3.2.3. Results and discussion Shrub survival. Regardless of shrub species and catchment area, the overall survival rates of the shrubs averaged 84.1 10.2%. Percent shrub survival ranged from 59 to 86%, 71 to 94%, and 82 to 100% for the small, medium and large catchment areas, respectively (Table 60). In June and December 2006, the shrub survival rate was maintained between 80 to 82%, and then increased to 89% in June 2007. It seems that irrigation during the first year of establishment, and repeated replanting to replace the dead shrubs maintained a high shrub survival rate. However, it is obvious that the larger catchment areas maintained higher levels of shrub survival, which means that the shrubs were receiving larger amounts of harvested rainfall. Shrub growth and production. Generally, the results of growth and biomass production indicated a particular trend in relation to MCWHS. Mean heights of the shrubs were 24.2 6.1, 41.0 12.2 and 63.3 17.8 cm for the plants grown in small, medium and large catchment areas (Table 61). Similarly, shrub canopy cover increased from 6.9 3.1 cm2 in the small CA to 57.5 29.7 cm2 in the large CA. The catchment area had a significant effect on forage and wood production of shrubs (Table 62). In the first year, forage biomass averaged 8.8, 10.3 and 18.6 g /shrub compared to 5.9, 7.5 and 15.6 g/shrub of wood, for small, medium and large catchment areas, respectively. In the second year, 30.4, 46.2 and 62.3 g of forage and 39.1, 54.7 and 107.4 g of wood was produced per shrub. The rainfall in 2006 contributed from 22.4 to 29.8% and 13.8 to 15.3% of forage and wood production relative to forage and wood production in 2007. Monitoring the incremental increase in biomass production in the subsequent years is important for evaluating the economics of fodder shrubs. Soil erosion. Wet and dry weights of collected soil are presented in Table 63. Soil loss averaged 1.3, 2.1 and 2.7 kg from 10, 15 1and 20 m2 catchment areas, respectively. These values were equivalent to 1.4, 1.1 and 0.96 ton ha-1 indicating that soil loss per hectare decreases with the increase in catchment area. The soil loss in relation to micro-catchment area and soil loss per ha is shown in Figure 11. Soil moisture. Percent soil moisture increased with the size of the catchment area (Table 64). Soil-moisture was higher (18.7%) at 10-20 cm depth as compared to the moisture (14.3%) in top layer (0-10 cm). This indicates that shrubs have better soil moisture availability in catchment areas than in open areas. As a result of better soil moisture availability fodder shrubs have a good chance of establishment and forage production.

Figure 11. Soil loss in relation to catchment area

54

Table 60. Survival rates of shrubs grown in contour ridges of different catchment areas Sampling Catchment area (m2) dates 10 20 30 No. of seedlings Survival No. of seedlings Survival No. of seedlings Survival planted survived % planted survived % planted survived % June 2006: A canescens 244 194 79 244 199 82 244 205 84 S. vermiculata 150 105 70 170 120 71 203 184 100 A. lentiformis 49 40 82 December 2006: A. canescens S. vermiculata A. lentiformis June 2007: A. canescens S. vermiculata A. lentiformis

244 150

144 120

59 80

244 170

179 155

73 91

244 203 49

194 194 47

80 96 96

244 150

200 129

82 86

244 170

207 161

85 94

244 203 49

219 191 46

90 94 93

Table 61. Growth of shrubs grown in contour ridges of different catchment areas Sampling dates Species Plant height (cm) Canopy cover (m2) 2 2 2 10 m 20 m 30 m 10 m2 20 m2 30 m2 CA CA CA CA CA CA June 2006 Atriplex canescens 19.8 25.4 30.3 2.48 1.99 3.23 Salsola vermiculata 13.2 18.7 21.9 1.30 2.92 3.02 Atriplex lentiformis 38.7 3.45 June 2007 Atriplex canescens 13.66 19.5 39.16 3.72 10.33 12.97 Salsola vermiculata 12.58 20.5 34.83 1.66 7.89 10.04 Atriplex lentiformis 42.33 12.79 October 2007 Atriplex canescens 28.45 50.55 74.15 9.96 28.07 68.14 Salsola vermiculata 20.0 31.5 43.4 3.93 11.10 23.54 Atriplex lentiformis 72.3 80.90 Table 62. Forage and wood biomass production of shrubs grown in contour ridges of different catchment areas Year Shrub Forage production Wood production -1 (g plant-1) species (g plant ) 2 2 2 2 10 m 20 m 30 m 10 m 20 m2 30 m2 CA CA CA CA CA CA 2006 Atriplex canescens 11.24 15.18 18.97 8.96 12.6 17.12 October Salsola vermiculata 6.28 5.46 18.16 2.98 2.46 14.0 Atriplex lentiformis 0 0 12.9 0 0 14.8 2007 Atriplex canescens 25.52 35.0 35.55 31.48 39.62 44.1 June Salsola vermiculata 7.62 12.65 19.91 11.68 16.83 26.10 Atriplex lentiformis 0 0 48.91 0 0 49.65 2007 Atriplex canescens 68.50 102.14 145.53 88.12 125.49 313.31 October Salsola vermiculata 19.95 34.88 48.38 25.06 36.88 45.89 Atriplex lentiformis 0 0 100.40 0 0 238.29

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Table 63. Wet and dry weights of soil loss in relation to different catchment areas at IRS Siddiqabad Date Rainfall 10 m2 CA 20 m2 CA 30 m2 CA (mm) Wet wt. Dry wt. Wet wt. Dry wt. Wet wt. Dry wt.
(g) (g) (g) (g) (g) (g)

21 April 2006 11 May 2006 1 August 06 16 Nov. 2006 5 Dec. 2006 11 March 2007 Overall average

3.2 3.5 4.4 7.2 5.2 29.7 1341.15

3529.7 2542 566.6 450 533.6 425 1259.2 1.399

3491.5 2501 464 343.3 428.33 327.3 2212.3 1.164

6056.4 4394.9 800 675.3 681 666.3 2104.7 1.107

5988.1 4327.9 677.6 545 562 527.6 2950.1 1.017

5671.2 5872.6 1750 1629.6 1329 1448.6 2774.0 0.956

5594.3 5793 1483.3 1406.6 1138 1229

Soil loss per ha (t/ha) 1.490

Table 64. Soil moisture in open areas and micro-catchment water-harvesting structures (MCWHS) Soil moisture (%) 2 Sampling 10 m catchment area 20 m2 catchment area 30 m2 catchment area dates Open area MCWHS Open area MCWHS Open area MCWHS
D1 D2 D1 D2 D1 D2 D1 D2 D1 D2 D1 D2

2006: 23 April 11 May 2007: 7 April 28 June Average

5.1 2.8

7.0 5.8

7.9 4.2

11.06 6.1

4.4 2.4

6.6 6.7

9.7 5.6

12.9 6.7

4.8 4.7

6.1 8.

12.7 6.7

15.4 9.4

13.0 12.1 8.25

17.3 18.6 12.10

19.0 22.3 14.9 19.9 11.50 14.80

22.2 27.0 18.4 22.6

26.3 23.4

34.1 28.8

32.2 22.9

36.1 36.7

39.2 28.3

42.9 41.4 27.10

1.85 15.70 16.20 20.60

16.10 21.77 21.70

2.3.2.4. Grazing management of established fodder shrubs The Siddiqabad community agreed to utilize the vegetation on the protected site in a rational way to ensure sustainability. One hundred and fifty head owned by 10 households were grazed at the protected site during the winter (December, January, and February) of 2007 and 2008. The community decided on the timing and interval of grazing. Animals were allowed to graze for 2 hours daily before moving to the open areas for rest. Livestock owners were satisfied with the improvement in forage productivity that was achieved after one season. They also believed that the availability of green material in winter improved health and nutrition of animals especially the ewes and does. Mortality was lower in the flocks grazing at the protected site as compared to other flocks grazing in the open areas. The village flock removed around 3375 kg DM of forage during winter; or 22.5 kg DM per animal which is equivalent to 9-10 kg of barley grains. In the coming seasons, the current grazing management of the established fodder shrubs at Siddiqabad site will be modified. The suggested number of grazing days for the established shrubs is around 30, the site will be divided into 4 sections, and animals will be rotationally grazed for one week at each section. This scheme of grazing ensures sustainable production of both native vegetation and fodder shrubs. 2.4. Establishment of a shrub nursery The shrub nursery was established at AZRC, Quetta, with two main objectives (i) to multiply the planting material of exotic species provided by ICARDA, and (ii) to train both the field staff (site facilitator) and community members on the establishment and management of fodder nurseries. The seeds produced in the nursery will be used to establish these species in MCWHS and in run-on areas at Siddiqabad and at other potential sites.

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2.5. Planting of native and exotic forage species in run-on areas at IRS Siddiqabad The objective of this demonstration was to identify promising forage species (shrubs and grasses) to improve both forage productivity and diversity of vegetation for increasing the grazing capacity of the targeted site. Planting of native range shrub species was carried out after the winter rains during December 2006. The shrubs were planted on the natural run-on places within an eyebrow structure. A total of 1157 different seedlings of native and exotic range species were planted. The planted species included Caragana ambigua, Stocksia brahuica, Berberis lycium, Prunus ebusnea, and Lycium barbarum. Two tuft grass species (Panicum antidotale and Saccharum species) were also planted in the run-on areas at the same site. No irrigation was provided to the plantations. Table 65 shows the survival rates of the planted species, under natural conditions, recorded in June 2007. In the coming seasons, introducing grazing animals at the site will permit the evaluation of the planted species in response to prescribed grazing. Table 65. Exotic and native species planted in run-on areas at Siddiqabad Plant species Number of seedlings Survival % Planted Survived Atriplex lentiformis 356 330 93 Atriplex canescens 65 50 77 Tamarix pakistanica 120 100 83 Tamarix Irani 70 50 71 Berberis lyceum 55 40 73 Wild cherry 75 57 76 Lycium barbarum 100 75 75 Prunus ebusnea 100 80 80 Caragana ambigua 100 81 81 Stocksia brahuica 76 45 59 Artemsia quettense 40 38 95 Panicum antidotale 250 203 81 Saccharum 100 57 57 Conclusions The initial results of micro-catchment water harvesting for the establishment of fodder shrubs at the Siddiqabad IRS indicate that shrub survival and growth performance is encouraging. However, further tesing of this system is required for large-scale implementation of such micro-catchment water-harvesting structures in Balochistan. On communal rangelands, community-based grazing management is the most effective tool for the conservation and sustainable use of established plantations. The co-management of communal grazing resources ensures equity in terms of accessibility to grazing resources especially during critical periods of feed shortage. OUTPUT 3: Economic returns from improved cropping systems through diversification of highvalue crops and dissemination of drought-adapted germplasm The majority of farmers interviewed in the baseline survey complained about poor performance and disease susceptibility of local wheat and barley varieties. This issue was thoroughly discussed during the first planning meeting. ICARDA and AZRC were asked to provide the project with improved germplasm to be tested on farmers' fields. In October 2005, ICARDA provided AZRC with seeds of promising drought- and cold-tolerant varieties/lines suitable for local conditions . The seed consisted of 360 kg wheat, 200 kg barley, 150 kg lentil, and 200 kg vetch. The new germplasm was introduced onto farmers' fields to be tested in multiple seasons under a range of environmental conditions. The results of these trials are discussed below.

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Knowledge of the status of soil nutrients (N and P) can help decide the types and application rates of fertilizers. Composite soil samples were collected from the six IRSs and sent to AZRC for chemical analysis. Levels of soil organic material were very low (less than 0.6%), soil contents of N and P were also low. Based on the soil analysis (Table 66), some fields received N:P @ 40:40 kg ha-1. Table 66. Chemical analysis of IRS soils Locations Texture pH TSS Akhtarzai (1) Akhtarzai (2) Alozai Nalivalizai Siddigabad SCL SL SL SL SL 8.75 8.93 8.33 8.06 8.72 3.3 3.6 3.0 4.2 3.6

CaCO3% OM % 19.5 19.0 17.0 30.5 31.5 0.56 0.49 0.51 0.51 0.55

N% 0.03 0.02 0.03 0.03 0.02

P% 1 2 2 4 3

TSS = total suspended solids; SCL = sandy clay loam; SL = sandy loam

1. Performance of cereals and legumes in Sailaba farming systems


1.1 Cropping season (October 2005 to May 2006) The rainfall at all sites was low, from 30 to 60 mm. In January 2006, the temperature dropped to -15C. 1.1.1 Germplasm and planted areas The new varieties included GA-2002, Bhakar-2002, K-98, Cham-6 and AZRI-96 for wheat; FAT, AZ-96, Arta and Sanober-96 for barley; Shiraz-96, ILL-4400, ILL-8076 and ILL-8081 for lentil; and Narbon and Kuhak for vetches. The seeding rate was 100 kg ha-1 for wheat, 100 kg ha-1 for barley, 60 kg ha-1 for lentil, and 18 kg ha-1 for vetch. All these experiments were planted following the Sailaba system. Farmers in Mastung and Loralai used tractor-mounted seed drills for planting while in Qilla Saifullah farmers used a locally made planter, which has five openings (keefs) fixed with the cultivator. Table 67. Area planted under different crops at IRSs in 2005-06 cropping season Districtd Sites Planted area (acre) Wheat Barley Lentil Vetch Mastung Siddiqabad 1.5 1.5 1.5 Kumbella 1 1 1 Qilla Saifullah Akhtarzai 2.25 0.2 0.3 Alozai 0.3 0.2 0.3 Loralai Nalivalizai 2.9 0.3 0.1 0.1 Lalbagh 1 0.1 0.1 Total area 8.95 3.3 3.2 0.2 1.1.2. Performance of crops Wheat varieties. Total dry matter (TDM) and grain yields are presented in Table 68 . Yields were low and highly variable across locations. The severe drought, only 30-60 mm of rainfall was received during the season, and spatial variability in soil properties and amounts of irrigation water harvested were the main factors behind this variability. At both Akhtarzai sites, all varieties produced higher TDM but did not differ significantly. Total dry matter was significantly different at three sites - Alozai, Siddiqabad and Nalivalizai (p<0.05). At Akhtarzai, with a combination of rainfall and some runoff, the new varieties produced good grain yields. Yields of AZRI-96, K-98, GA-2002 and Cham-6 (1610, 1490 1246 and 1480 kg ha-1 respectively) were more or at par with the local variety (1421 kg ha-1). Local wheat varieties are widely grown in Balochistan but during good rainfall years drastic decreases in TDM and grain yields are common due to yellow rust susceptibility. Results at the multiple sites show that the improved varieties have a higher yield

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potential in normal years as compared to local varieties. Cham-6 and GA-2002 are resistant to cold conditions but due to early maturity, bird attack was recorded. Cham-6 yielded higher in drought conditions as compared to GA-2002. Table 68. Total dry matter yield (kg ha-1) under Sailaba system of different wheat varieties at different IRSs Variety Akhtarzai P1 Akhtarzai P2 Alozai Nalivalizai Siddiqabad K-98 4583 5951 1401 4710 GA-2002 3853 819 2753 Cham-6 4250 5479 1700 2283 1957 AZRI-96 4691 6784 1320 4676 4285 Local wheat 5866 6017 1798 5603 3313 Bakhar 2180 LSD p<0.05 ns ns * ** * Barley varieties. Barley trials were conducted at different sites in Akhtarzai, Alozai, and Nalivalizai districts. The experimental design was a randomized complete block and all the varieties were planted with a tractor-mounted seed drill. Four barley varieties (Sanober-96, AZ-2006, Arta and Fat 03/N-515) were tested at Alozai and Nalivalizai. Due to extreme moisture stress, only the Alozai site produced any measurable yield. Sanober-96 produced significantly (p<0.05) higher TDM than other barley varieties. There was no significant difference in grain yield between varieties (Table 69). The main reason for the low yields was low rainfall (53 mm). In upland Balochistan, barley grain and straw are used only for livestock feed. Wheat is the staple food of local communities and for this reason they use their good fields for wheat cultivation. Results showed that rainwater harvesting can increase soil moisture to enhance barley production in upland Balochistan. Table 69. Total dry matter and grain yield (kg ha-1) of barley varieties at Alozai Variety Total dry matter Grain yield Sanober 96 1801 351 AZ-2006 1034 250 Arta 1080 260 Fat 03/n515 1200 270 LSD p<0.05 * ns Lentil varieties. In Balochistan province, lentil area is less than 200 ha and seed yields are less than 350 kg ha-1 (Ali et al. 1991). Lentil is a winter pulse crop with high protein content, a far cheaper protein option than meat. Lentil usually produces more reliable harvests than other temperate food legumes in harsh Mediterranean climatic conditions (Buzdar et al. 1989). Over the last decade, due to severe drought, lentil has not been widely grown in the wheat-based farming systems of Mastung district. This is first time that lentil has been introduced in the two new districts (Qilla Saifullah and Loralai). Introduction of lentil would provide additional benefits by decreasing dependence on cereals and helping to sustain soil fertility. During the 2005-06 season, four exotic varieties of lentil (Shiraz-96, ILL-4400, ILL-8081 and ILL-8076) were planted at three sites (Akhtarzai, Alozai, and Nalivalizai). These experiments were conducted on residual soil moisture conserved after summer rainfall. Data on soil moisture are shown in Figures 17 and 18. The trials were conducted in a randomized complete block design with three replicates. Row length was 10 m with 0.25 m between rows. At harvest, grain and straw yields from each plot were recorded. During the cropping season, marked differences in cold tolerance were recorded at all sites; in January 2006 the temperature was -15 C. Rainfall at all sites was 30-60 mm. However, crops suffered from water stress at Alozai in the early stages, which affected production.

59

There was a significant difference (p<0.05) in TDM among all varieties (Table 70). The TDM of Shiraz-96 was higher than that of the other three varieties. There was a significant difference in grain yield (p<0.05) among varieties at all three sites (Table 71), with Shiraz-96 having the highest grain yield. Shiraz-96 is a bold-seeded lentil variety in the Microsperma Group, with red cotyledons. ILL-4400 is from the Macrosperma Group and has yellowish cotyledons. The success of lentil varieties under severe cold and dry conditions was acknowledged by the farmers. ILL-8081 and Shiraz-96 were preferred due to their strong red color and their medium-sized grains. Farmers' perceptions and market surveys have shown that people prefer Microsperma types with red cotyledons, e.g. ILL-8081. Table 70. Total TDM (kg ha-1) of lentil varieties grown at IRSs, 2005-06 cropping season Variety Akhtarzai Alozai Nalivalizai ILL-4400 1666 500 1640 ILL-8081 1263 403 555 ILL-8076 1906 497 882 Shir-Az-96 1993 900 1550 LSD p<0.05 * * * Table 71. Total grain yield (kg ha-1) of different lentil varieties grown at IRSs, 2005-06 cropping season Variety Akhtarzai Alozai Nalivalizai ILL-4400 717 128 494 ILL-8081 510 80 183 ILL-8076 360 80 333 Shiraz-96 733 198 460 LSD p<0.05 * * * Vetch varieties.The major constraint to livestock production is that animals are underfed because of low forage availability on the rangelands. At present, forage legumes are not grown for livestock under dryland conditions, although lucerne is grown under irrigation on a small scale (Moneim and Zhibiao, 1991). Forage legumes are valued for their high protein content and their ability to maintain or improve soil fertility. Common vetch is an important forage legume in dry areas of the world. Vetch is an essential component of sustainable dryland farming systems in Central and West Asia and North Africa. It is a good potential source of feed for the rapidly growing livestock populations. During the 2005-06 season, two varieties of vetch, Kuhak-96 (Vicia dasycarpa) and Velox (Vicia narbonensis) were planted at one site, Nalivalizai. Kuhak-96 is a winter annual forage legume with a tap-root system bearing nodules. The plant is less hairy with a prostrate growth habit. Leaves are parapinnate with tendrils, herbaceous stem, creeping type. Velox is high yielding, drought and cold resistant, and a good source of protein 28%, (Moneim AMA and Z Nan 2002). The experiment was conducted on residual soil moisture conserved after summer rainfall. The trial was conducted in a randomized complete block design with three replicates. Row length was 10 m and with 0.25 m between the rows. At harvest, grain and straw yields from each plot were recorded.Farmers were reluctant to grow vetch as it had never been tested in this area, and farmers were more interested in wheat for their personal consumption. Given the small size of holdings, farmers' main concern is to produce sufficient wheat to ensure household food security. Introducing forage legumes into the crop rotation will help maintain soil productivity and sustain the production system, in addition to producing high-quality forage. Such introduction will require long-term onfarm trials, extending beyond the project duration. In the trials, Velox produced higher fresh biomass, and grain yield as compared to Kuhak-96 but the differences were not significant (Table 72). More experiments are required on farmers' fields to show the potential of vetch as a fodder.

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Table 72. Total dry matter and grain yield (kg ha-1) of different varieties of vetch at Nalivalizai Variety Total dry matter Grain yield Kuhak-96 (V. dasycarpa) 1968 2250 Velox (V. narbonensis) 470 513 LSD p<0.05 ns ns 1.1.3. Economic analysis The yield, cost and gross margin estimates are presented in Table 73. The market price of wheat grain is Rs 450/mond (mond = 40 kg) while the straw price is Rs 100/mond. The market price of lentil grain is up to Rs 1200/mond while the straw price is Rs 150/mond. The gross margin from AZRI-96, K-98 and local wheat varieties was almost identical during this extremely dry year. Cham-6 showed some economic potential that needs further verification through future experiments. More trials are needed to compare the performance of different varieties in terms of grain yield and resistance to frost and rust, which are major constraints to wheat production in Balochistan. The Shiraz-96 lentil variety gave a higher gross margin than other varieties including ILL-8081 and ILL-4400. Table 73. Economic analysis of variety demonstrations in farmers' fields Crop Grain yield Straw yield Gross returns Net gross -1 (kg ha ) (kg ha-1) (Rs) margin (Rs) Wheat: Azri-96 1180 3171 21202 6000 K-98 1226 2935 21129 6000 Cham-6 880 2253 15532 6000 Local 1130 3350 21087 6000 Barley Arta 350 1200 6925 6000 Lentil: Shiraz-96 700 1293 29348 6200 ILL-8081 510 753 20673 6200 ILL-4400 (ICARDA) 690 976 27810 6200 1.2. Cropping season 2006-07 (October 2006 to May 2007) The 2006-07 season was normal; the three sites (Siddiqabad, Akhtarzai, and Nalivalizai) received 225-325 mm of annual rainfall. The mean annual temperature ranged from -3 C in winter to 38 C in summer. In January, the temperature dropped to -7 C and a spell of frost prevailed from 1st January to 10th February, but without causing any significant damage to the growing crops. 1.2.1. Germplasm and planted areas Following the recommendations from last year, the trials were carried on substantially larger areas than during the previous year, and more farmers were involved. Tables 74-76 show the area cultivated under the different varieties of wheat (K-98, Sariab-92, Cham-6 and AZRI-96), barley (Awaran, Sanober, AZ/WW, and Soorab), and lentil (ILL-8081 and Shiraz-96) during the 2006-07 cropping season. Table 74. Wheat varieties planted at IRSs in the 2006-07 cropping season IRS Farmer K-98 Sariab- Cham- AZRI- Local 92 6 96 wheat Akhtarzai Jalat Khan 0.23 0.23 0.26 0.23 0.60 Alozai Abdul Razaq 0 0 0.23 0.23 0.68 Duki Mehmood Khan 0.23 0 0.23 0.23 0 Nalivalizai A.Hameed 0 0 0.30 0.30 0 Nalivalizai Abdullah 0.10 0.10 0 0 0.10 Total 0.56 0.33 1.02 0.99 1.38
Total wheat area planted up to 20 November 2006 at 4 IRSs = 1.73 ha

Production (Rs) 15202 15129 9532 15087 925 23148 14473 21610

Total acre ha 1.55 0.63 1.14 0.46 0.69 0.28 0.60 0.24 0.30 0.12 4.28 1.73

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Table 75. Barley varieties planted at IRSs in the 2006-07 cropping season IRS Farmer name Awaran Sanober- Local AZ/WW SoorabTotal 96 barley 96 acre ha Akhtarzai Jalat Khan 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.20 0.40 0.16 Duki Mehmood Khan 0.13 0.13 0 0.13 0 0.39 0.16 Nalivalizai Abdul Hameed 0 0.13 0 0.13 0 0.26 0.11 Nalivalizai Abdullah 0.06 0 0 0 0.06 0.12 0.05 Total 0.24 0.31 0.05 0.31 0.26 1.17 0.48
Total barley area planted at 3 IRSs = 0.48 ha

Table 76. Lentil varieties planted at IRSs in the 2006-07 cropping season IRS Farmer name ILL-8081 ShirazLocal Total 96 lentil acre Akhtarzai Jalat Khan 0.08 0.02 0.02 0.12 Duki Mehood Khan 0.16 0.16 0 0.32 Total 0.24 0.18 0.02 0.44
Total lentil area planted at 2 IRSs = 0.18 ha

ha 0.05 0.13 0.18

1.2.2. Performance of crops Wheat varieties. As shown in Tables 77-80, the local wheat had significantly (p<0.05) the highest TDM yield (5266-9854 kg ha-1) at three sites, due to adaptation to the local environment, followed by Cham-6 and AZRC-96. Although the local variety produced more biomass than the improved varieties, its straw quality as a feed was badly affected due to severe infestation by yellow rust (Puccinia striiformis).All the improved wheat varieties produced higher grain yield than the local variety. Cham-6 produced significantly (p<0.05) the highest yield (1703-2980 kg ha-1), followed by K-98, AZRC-96, Sariab-92 and finally the local white. Nevertheless, it is too early to make valid conclusions on the performance of the different varieties. Last year, yields of the local white significantly surpassed the improved varieties at two sites, and although the improved varieties had higher yields at the other two sites, these were not significant. Considering that last year was drier than this year, it could be tentatively concluded that the improved varieties have higher water requirements than the local variety, and so yielded higher. The local variety was severely infested by yellow rust, but none of the improved varieties were infected. Recommendations on varieties should be site-specific, after further testing. Barley varieties. The TDM and grain production of barley are shown in Tables 81 and 82. Difference in TDM and grain yield were not significantat (p<0.05) at Akhtarzai, but significant at Nalivalizai. At Akhtarzai the local barley produced the highest TDM but also the lowest grain yield. Due to good soil moisture higher yields were produced at Akhtarzai IRS than at Nalivalizai. The improved genotype AZ/WW produced the highest grain yield (1903-2203 kg ha-1) at Akhtarzai followed by Soorab-96 (Tables 81), while at Siddigabad it came second after Soorab-96 (Table 82). Except for plant height and TDM, all improved varieties were superior to the local variety in all other characteristics (tillers per plant, spikelets per spike, 1000-grain weight, grain yield). High harvest index values were recorded for all the improved varieties, underlining their ability to extract maximum benefit from the good environmental conditions, which could be even further improved by better management (fertilizer, land leveling, water-harvesting). Lentil varieties. Lentil is generally grown as a rainfed crop in the south of Balochistan where rainfall, although highly variable, meets the crop's water requirements most of the time. The project tried to introduce lentil cultivation into northern Balochistan where a considerable proportion of the cultivable area is fallow every year. This trial could be the first time that lentil has been tried in northern Balochistan, where rainfall is lower and more variable than in the south. Two improved varieties (Shiraz-96 and ILL-8081) and

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a local variety were tested at three IRSs in two districts. At Siddiqabad, ILL-8081 (553-700 kg ha-1) and Shiraz-96 (618-690 kg ha-1) produced higher seed yields, but these were not significant (p<0.5) (Table 83). At Akhtarzai due to good field moisture, no significant differences in biomass production were recorded (Table 84). This was most likely due to the bold grain (local lentil with ultra small grain), higher plant density (taller and more branches per plant) facilitating a larger plant canopy and better soil cover so reducing soil moisture evaporation, and increased crop water-use efficiency (Siddique et al. 1998, 2001). Table 77. Performance of wheat varieties at Akhtarzai, Qilla Saifullah, 2006-07 cropping season Variety Plant Spikelets Tillers TDM Grain Harvest -1 -1 (kg ha ) Index height per spike per (kg ha ) (cm) plant AZRI -96 119.7 20.33 14.67 8600 2613 0.303 K-98 118.3 15.67 19.00 8650 2617 0.301 Cham-6 90.00 18.33 12.67 9820 2973 0.303 Seriab-92 98.00 18.33 10.67 7693 2320 0.301 Local 140.3 16.33 10.00 9853 1210 0.123 LSD p<0.05 11.52 2.573 3.597 937.5 577.6 0.372 Table 78. Performance of wheat varieties at Alozai, Qilla Saifullah, 2006-07 cropping season Variety Plant Spikelets Tillers TDM Grain Harvest height per spike per (kg ha-1) (kg ha-1) Index (cm) plant AZRI-96 89.00 17.00 9.667 7883 2208 0.281 K-98 98.33 15.68 9.667 7203 2162 0.299 Cham-6 63.67 16.67 7.33 7837 2673 0.340 Local 110.7 17.67 5.667 8747 1093 0.125 LSD p<0.05 5.083 1.153 2.580 809.1 486.7 0.373 Table 79. Performance of wheat varieties at Siddiqabad, Mastung, 2006-07 cropping season Variety Plant Spikelets Tillers TDM Grain Harvest Index height per spike per (kg ha-1) (kg ha-1) (cm) plant AZRI -96 79.o 18.33 12.67 6583 1787 27.08 Cham-6 68.33 17.67 9.33 6583 1970 29.83 PREW 76.67 21.67 6.667 6885 1888 27.29 Local 96.67 18.33 8.00 7128 1243 17.30 LSD p<0.05 10.36 3.330 4.45 ns 382.1 3.967 Table 80. Performance of wheat varieties at Nalivalizai, Loralai, 2006-07 cropping season Variety Plant Spikelets Tillers TDM Grain Harvest height per spike per (kg ha-1) (kg ha-1) Index (cm) plant AZRI -96 91.0 14.33 9.67 4900 1530 0.454 K-98 96.33 18.33 10.67 5075 1630 0.473 Cham-6 74.0 14.67 7.67 4310 1667 0.631 Seriab-92 85.0 19.00 8.67 4840 1430 0.419 Local 90.67 15.67 6.33 5277 1142 0.276 LSD p<0.05 17.00 2.479 3.750 884.6 395.6

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Table 81. Performance of barley varieties at Akhtarzai, Qilla Saifullah in the 2006-2007 cropping season Variety Plant Spikelets Tillers TDM Grain 1000 grain Harvest weight Index height per spike per (kg ha-1) (kg ha-1) (cm) plant (g) Sanober-96 72.3 12 25 5066 2025 35 0.40 AZ/WW 70.3 13 21 5033 2203 34 0.44 Awaran 2002 71.0 10 18 4633 1783 40 0.39 Soorab 96 70.6 10 21 4966 2043 39 0.41 Local 80.6 8 18 5416 1723 31 0.32 LSD p<0.05 4.26 ns 2.835 ns ns 3.315 0.297

Table 82. Performance of barley varieties at Siddiqabad, Mastung in the 2006-2007 cropping season Variety Plant Spikelets Tillers TDM Grain 1000 grain Harvest (kg ha-1) (kg ha-1) weight Index height per spike per (cm) plant (g) Sanober 96 69.33 13 23 4920 1900 35 0.386 AZ/WW 70.33 12 24 4803 1903 36 0.396 Awaran 2002 69.33 9 21 4393 1480 31 0.338 Soorab 96 74.00 10 24 5246 2010 31 0.383 LSD p<0.05 ns 0.258 ns 573.4 274.6 1.730 0.445

Table 83. Performance of lentil varieties at Siddiqabad, Mastung, 2006-07 cropping season Variety Plant No of Seed Plant density TDM Grain Harvest -2 -1 -1 height branches per pod (plants m ) (kg ha ) (kg ha ) Index (cm) Shiraz 96 25.33 22.33 2 36.33 1813 618.33 0.341 ILL 8081 29.00 26.67 2 38.33 1925 553.33 0.287 Local 25.67 17.67 2 33.67 1800 539.33 0.299 LSD p<0.05 1.851 1.511 ns 3.544 104.03 ns 0.030

Table 84. Performance of lentil varieties at Akhtarzai, Qilla Saifullah, 2006-07 cropping season Variety Plant No of Seed Plant density TDM Grain Harvest -2 -1 -1 height branches per pod (plants m ) (kg ha ) (kg ha ) Index (cm) Shiraz 96 27.667 20.667 2 35.000 1933.33 690.66 0.357 ILL 8081 26.333 24.667 2 37.667 1938.33 700.00 0.361 Local 25.333 19.333 2 31.667 1806.66 576.66 0.319 LSD p<0.05 1.195 3.544 ns 4.104 ns ns 0.036

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1.3. All cropping seasons Analysis of variance showed that location (IRS) and variety had highly significant differences on plant height, tillering, biological yield, grain yield, and harvest index of wheat. The growing season had a significant effect on all parameters except harvest index (Table 85). Regardless of cultivated sites and growing season, the plant height and number of tillers per plant were highest for AZRI-96, K-98 and Bhakar compared to the other grown varieties at the integrated research sites, which resulted in higher biological yields (4791.1, 4782.4 and 5321.0 kg ha-1) (Table 86). In terms of grain yield only AZRI-96, K-98 and Cham-6 outperformed the other grown varieties. Cham-6 is the shortest wheat plants (52.8 cm) compared to other improved and local varieties with plant height ranging from 61.2 to 78.8 cm. The shorter cultivars such as Cham-6 tend to produce less straw per unit of grain than conventional height cultivars. Moreover, in wet years, the Cham-6 variety showed more resistance to diseases especially the rust than the other grown varieties at the different integrated sites. The plants of Bhakar variety were the tallest but they produced more straw than grain. Temperature and precipitation varied among the three growing seasons, with the 2006-07 season being the most favorable. This was reflected in a significant increase in almost all the measured parameters (plant height, number of tiller, biological and grain yields), as shown in Table 87. The high biological efficiency of the varieties that was expressed in the favorable season indicates the importance of managing water resources in low rainfall areas such as Balochistan. Varieties that require high amounts of water compared to the local ones should be confined to areas/fields receiving more water (most likely harvested water). Compared to the improved varieties, the local ones are adapted to harsh conditions and this criterion should be utilized in growing wheat varieties in areas having wide variations in the availability of irrigation water (e.g. upstream and downstream situation) or where large differences exist in the land holding size. In barley, variety and growing season had significant effects on all parameters. Table 88 shows that the local varieties produced the tallest plants and consequently the highest biological yield (3588 kg ha-1) but showed the lowest harvest index (0.236) which means less grain production (890 kg ha-1). The improved varieties, except Awaran-96, produced more grain than the local variety. The deteriorating condition of rangeland grazing areas, and the cost of barley grain may govern the farmer's choice to select barley varieties for grain or straw production. In a dry year, it could be beneficial for livestock owners to cultivate barley varieties that give high straw yields, to compensate for the shortage of rangeland forage production. Table 85. Analysis of variance of main effects on the measured parameters of wheat varieties Source Plant Tillers Biological Grain Straw Harvest height per plant yield yield yield Index (cm) (kg DM ha-1) (kg ha-1) (kg ha-1) Site *** *** *** ** *** *** Variety *** *** ** * *** *** Growing Season *** *** *** *** ns ***
*, **, and *** represent P <0.01, 0.001 and 0.0001, respectively.

Table 86. Performance (least square means standard error) of wheat varieties Source Plant Tillers Biological Grain Straw Harvest height per plant yield yield yield Index -1 -1 -1 (cm) (kg DM ha ) (kg ha ) (kg ha ) AZRI-96 73.3 2.97ab 9.6 0.48a 4791.1 296.3a 1358.9 98.6a 3432.3 223.6b 0.285 0.011a K-98 76.1 3.57a 10.3 0.58a 4782.4 355.6a 1411.9 118.4a 3370.5 268.4b 0.293 0.014a Cham-65 2.8 2.98b 6.9 0.48b 3948.6 296.8b 1274.0 98.8ab 2674.6 224.0c 0.290 0.011a GA-2002 62.9 5.76b 7.1 0.94b 3429.1 574.6b 940.4 191.3b 2488.6 433.7c 0.277 0.023a Local6 1.5 5.88b 7.7 0.96b 3613.9 585.9b 1008.0 195.1b 2605.9 442.2b 0.274 0.023a Bhakar 78.8 2.80a 9.0 0.46a 5321.0 279.5a 1066.5 93.0b 4254.5 210.9a 0.225 0.011b

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In lentil, location and variety had a high significant effect (P < 0.0001) on the biological and grain yields of the varieties that were grown at the integrated research sites (Table 89). The growing season resulted in significant differences (P< 0.03) in the biological yield but not in grain yield (P < 0.07).The Lll-4400, Shiraz-96 and the local lentil varieties showed the highest biological yields (1528.0, 1565.0 and 1324.2 kg ha-1, respectively) whereas the LII-4400 and Shiraz varieties produced the highest grain yield (526.5 and 473.9 kg ha-1, respectively). Similarly, the performance of lentil varieties was highest in the 2006-07 growing season because of the suitable climatic conditions especially the rainfall (Table 90).

Table 87. Effect of growing season (least square means standard error) on performance of wheat varieties Growing Plant Tillers Biological Grain Straw Harvest season height per plant yield yield yield Index (cm) (kg DM ha-1) (kg ha-1) (kg ha-1) 2005-06 62.4 3.2b 8.3 0.5b 3118.8 323.8b 858.7 107.8b 2260.0 244.4b 0.277 0.013a 2006-07 88.2 3.2a 10.6 0.5a 6821.3 324.1a 1832.5 107.9a 4988.9 244.6a 0.289 0.013a 2007-08 52.1 2.6c 6.4 0.4c 3003.0 264.1b 838.7 87.9b 2164.3 199.3b 0.257 0.011ab Table 88. Performance (least square means standard error) of barley varieties at the IRSs in Balochistan. Genotype Plant Biological Grain Straw Harvest height yield yield yield Index (cm) (kg DM ha-1) (kg ha-1) (kg ha-1) Sanober-96 56.7 1.4b 3358.6 131.6a 1133.4 53.7a 2225.2 90.2b 0.294 0.0075a WW 58.0 1.4b 3179.4 131.6a 1157.0 53.7a 2022.4 90.2b 0.318 0.0075a Arta 60.5 2.6a 2942.2 241.0ab 1091.4 98.4a 1850.8 165.1b 0.314 0.0137a FAT 57.5 2.6b 3028.8 241.0a 1093.0 98.4a 1935.8 165.1b 0.298 0.0137a Local 67.5 2.6a 3588.2 241.0a 890.6 98.4b 2697.5 165.1a 0.236 0.0137b Awaran-2002 57.0 2.0b 2701.5 183.4b 799.0 74.9b 1902.5 125.6b 0.278 0.0104a Soorab-96 59.1 2.0b 3344.0 183.4a 1177.3 74.9a 2166.7 125.6b 0.306 0.0104a Table 89. Performance (least square means standard error) of lentil varieties at the IRSs in Balochistan. Genotype Plant Biological Grain Straw Harvest height yield yield yield Index (cm) (kg DM ha-1) (kg ha-1) (kg ha-1) ILL-4400 27.5 0.94ab 1528.0 120.4a 526.5 39.9a 1001.5 87.5a 0.346 0.0185a ILL-8081 27.7 0.60ab 1197.5 77.5b 384.5 25.7b 813.0 56.3ab 0.298 0.0119b ILL-8076 27.0 0.94ab 1032.6 120.4b 326.4 39.9b 706.2 87.5b 0.302 0.0185b Shiraz-96 28.3 0.60a 1565.0 77.5a 473.9 25.7a 1091.1 56.3a 0.288 0.0119b Local 26.1 0.83b 1324.2 106.8a 358.0 35.4b 966.1 77.7a 0.263 0.0164b Table 90. Effect of growing season (least square means standard error) on the performance of lentil varieties at the IRSs in Balochistan. Growing Plant Biological Grain Straw Harvest season height yield yield yield Index (cm) (kg DM ha-1) (kg ha-1) (kg ha-1) 2005-06 28.3 0.52a 1159.3 66.47b 379.1 22.0b 780.2 48.3b 0.317 0.012a 2006-07 29.0 0.78a 1546.5 100.7a 477.2 33.3a 1069.3 73.2a 0.291 0.015a 2007-08 24.7 0.95b 1282.6 121.6ab 385.3 40.3b 897.3 88.3ab 0.291 0.019a

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Conclusions Yields of cereals and pulses are well below potential.They can be increased by introducing improved varieties with better field management practices, improving water-harvesting techniques, improving seed quality, applying fertilizers, sowing at more appropriate times, introducing herbicides, and incorporating legume crops into crop rotations. The improved wheat varieties outperformed the local ones in favorable seasons. Farmers interested in increasing grain yield are expected to select the semi-dwarf wheat cultivars, such as Cham-6, due to their increased biological efficiency; these cultivars tend to produce less straw per unit of grain than the conventional height cultivars. The effective participation of farmers in evaluating the performance of the introduced varieties enhanced their awareness of screening between varieties with high grain or high biomass production. The varieties requiring high amounts of water, such as the improved ones, are preferable to be grown at fields under the perennial spate systems (receiving water from the rivers). The local varieties are prefer able to be grown in fields receiving water from the flash floods which follow the rainfall (non-perennial spate systems). In case of growing local and improved wheat varieties on separate fields under non-perennial spate system, the improved varieties should be allocated to the fields that having a high potential of receiving floodwater to obtain higher yields. Whereas, the local varieties are preferable to be grown in the fields receiving less floods to avoid the breakout of diseases especially the rust. This means that a cropping technical package should be developed taking into consideration the water requirements of the targeted varieties and the traditional water harvesting techniques commonly prac ticed in the targeted areas. The results of the three growing seasons could be used as benchmark for the development of upstream and downstream cropping pattern.

2. Seed multiplication in farmers' fields


Wheat is a main staple food crop grown on irrigated and dry lands in Balochistan. Only 3 out of the 26 districts of Balochistan have a wheat surplus. Wheat availability in Balochistan can be improved by: (i) strengthening breeding efforts, (ii) up-scaling seed multiplication and distribution mechanisms, and (iii) providing support to farmers to use certified clean and treated seed. There are very few registered wheat seed growers in Balochistan; the bulk of improved seed comes from Punjab or Sindh provinces. However, the suitability of seed coming from other provinces to the Balochistan environment is questionable, as there are at least six distinct types of climatic zones, ranging from cool temperate to hyper-arid deserts. Hence, the project is testing the bio-technical and socioeconomic feasibility of localized improved seed multiplication at and by the farming community. 2.1. ICARDA technical backstopping ICARDA and ARI, Sariab, Quetta, have initiated informal seed production through a village-based seed enterprises (VBSE) approach, in order to test the feasibility of producing certified, high-quality seed by farmers, and making this available to the community in an easy and timely manner. The approach was developed by the ICARDA Seed Unit and tested by developing countries, including Pakistan (Barani Village Development Project). The introduction of mobile seed cleaning and treatment machines was another integral component of VBSE.The process for initiating VBSE included: (i) holding awarenessbuilding workshops with stakeholders on VBSE; (ii) exploring the possibility of informal seed production; (iii) understanding the types and forms of relevant institutional linkages for VBSE; (iv) consensus building on appropriate bio-physical circumstances; (v) identifying suitable farm situations for VBSE; (vi) signing ToRs with contact seed growers; (vii) making arrangements for source seeds; (viii) agreement on roles and responsibilities among partners (seed certification, breeders, and farmers); (ix) post-harvest handling, including seed cleaning and storage arrangements; and (x) assessment of VBSE establishment processes.

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2.2. Seed multiplication trials The seed multiplication trials during the 2006-07 season were carried out on IRS sites at Mastung, Qilla Saifullah, and Loralai districts. The sites were selected based on their productivity and how far they represented the major soil types in the region to determine the performance of improved varieties of wheat (Cham-6, AZRC 96, Sariab-92, K-98), barley (Sanober-96, AZ/WW, Awaran-2002 and Soorab-96) and lentil (Shiraz-96 and ILL-8081). Tables 91 and 92 show the varieties of wheat and barley planted for seed multiplication in the different IRSs. ARI Sariab-Quetta, AZRC and ICARDA provided the seed for multiplication and dissemination. Details of the seed production plots are given in Table 93. The Federal Seed Certification and Registration Department collected samples of wheat and barley from all sites and approved all the varieties. Table 91. Wheat varieties planted in IRSs for seed multiplication IRS Zarghoon- Sariab- Cham-6 AZ-98 K-98 79 92 Dasht 4 1 1 1 1 Nalivalizai 6 1 1 0 0 Duki 8 0 3 0 0 Akhtarzai, Alozai 10 0 0 0 0 Total area 28 2 5 1 1 Table 92. Barley varieties planted in IRSs for seed multiplication IRS Soorab-96 Awaran-02 Arta AZ/WW Nalivalizai Duki Total area 1.25 1 2.25 1 1 2 0 4 4 0.75 0 0.75

Total acre 8 8 11 10 37 ha 3.24 3.24 4.45 4.05 14.80

Total acre 3 6 9

ha 1.21 2.42 3.63

Table 93. Wheat seed multiplication trials at IRSs, 2006-2007 cropping season District/site Farmer's name Variety Planted area (ha) Mastung/Dasht Shear Muhammad Cham-6 1.0 Shear Muhammad Zarghoon-79 1.0 Shear Muhammad Saraib-92 0.5 Shear Muhammad K-98 0.25 Loralai/Lalbagh Mehmood Khan and Cham-6 1.0 Haji Noor Muhammad Zarghoon-79 1.0 Mehmood Khan Saraib-92 0.5 Mehmood Khan Arta (dry land barley) 0.5 Mehmood Khan Lentil 8081 0.5 Loralai/Nalivalizai Abdul Wasay Cham-6 0.5 Shadi Khan Zarghoon-79 1.0 Abdul Wasay WW-AZRC 0.5 Abdul Wasay Soorab-96 (barley) 0.5 Qilla Saifullah/ Akhtarzai Jalat Khan Cham-6 0.50 Jalat Khan AZRC-96 0.25 Jalat Khan Saraib-92 0.50 Jalat Khan K-98 0.25 Jalat Khan Awaran-2002 (barley) 0.20 Jalat Khan Sanober-96 0.25 Total 10.7 15720

Total production (kg) 1200 1560 720 360 1800 1900 1080 600 200 800 2250 550 800 400 300 400 300 200 300

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2.3. Assessment of village-based seed enterprises (VBSE) This study was conducted to assess the feasibility of seed production by farming communities. The specific objectives of this study were: (i) to explore the farm and family characteristics of VBSE contact farmers; (ii) to examine wheat production and disposal for farm and family needs; (iii) to assess the profitability of seed production at contact farms; and (iv) to examine the demand for seed and distribution arrangements. 2.3.1. Methodology The study was conducted at the Dasht, Nalivalizai, and Lalbaig IRSs of the VBSE. Data were collected using a well-structured pre-tested questionnaire. All contact seed growers (five farmers) of the three IRSs were interviewed. Information was gathered on some characteristics of the seed growers and their farms; land holdings, area allocation to wheat, total wheat production, home consumption and use as seed, input-outputs, harvesting, cleaning, storage and seed selling and distribution arrangements. Input-output data were used to develop wheat seed enterprise budgets for all contact farms. 2.3.2. Results and discussions 2.3.2.1. Characteristics of contact growers Farmers who participated in seed production at the village level were old, educated and experienced (Table 94). Contribution of farm income to total household income was more than 50% at Nalivalizai and Lalbagh, but 25% on the Dasht site. Of all the participants, there were only two part-time farmers (having other occupations in addition to farming), the remainder being full-time farmers. At all the three locations, farmers use tractors, three have their own machines and two rent from the village. Access to irrigated lands and Sailaba/Khushkaba land varies greatly between the five. Of the five, only one visits agricultural extension offices frequently. Farmers buy improved seed from quite distant markets (30 to 225 km). Table 94. Characteristics of seed growers at IRSs, 2006/07 Farmers' characteristics Mastung Lalbagh Dasht Lalbagh Nalivalizai Age 571 472 403 Family size 20 28 40 Irrigated area (ha) 6.1 38.5 40.5 Sailaba/Khushkaba 35 29 0 Education Metric Middle Metric Farming experience 42 38 30 Farm income share (%) 25 80 50 Involvement in farming Part-time Full-time Full-time Tractor ownership Rented Owned Owned Distance to AO office 35 km 4 km 3 km Cooperative membership Yes Yes No Visit to extension office Yes No No Distance to seed dealer (km) 30 225 225
1: Sher Mohammad, 2: Mahmood, 3: Gohar, 4: Wasey, 5: Hassan

2.3.2.2. Wheat area, production and home usage Irrigated lands are mainly used for vegetable crops and fruit orchards. Only 10-30% of the irrigated area is allocated to wheat. However, on Sailaba/Khushkaba lands wheat is the major crop planted by the majority of farmers. The rainfed wheat area and cultivation vary greatly from year to year, determined mainly by rainfall and rainwater harvesting. All the farmers have produced wheat surplus to their needs for home consumption and seed. Table 95 shows the usage of the produced wheat in the three communities.

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2.3.2.3. Profitability of village-based seed enterprises Wheat seed enterprise budgets were developed for all the wheat varieties at the three IRSs (Table 96). Yields at different sites varied greatly. Cham-6 gave the highest yield at Nalivalizai, while yields of Zarghoon-79 were higher at Lalbagh and Nalivalizai. Most of the difference in gross returns was due to yield differential, as total variable cost only varied slightly. Maximum net returns without land rent were estimated at Rs 21044 for Cham-6 variety at Nalivalizai and Rs 20576 for Zarghoon-79 variety at Lalbagh. Net returns at other locations were also reasonably appropriate for seed production activities. 2.3.2.4. Seed production and distribution The seed multiplication plan was implemented successfully to improve the access of the farming community to improved seed. Quantities of improved seed produced varied by site from a few hundred kg to a few thousand (Table 97). The contact growers kept part (30-40% of Cham-6 and 10-40% of Zarghoon-79) of the seed for multiplication the following year. They received offers from fellow communities to purchase Cham-6 seed at Rs 19, Rs 20 and Rs 25 per kilogram at Nalivalizai, Lalbagh, and Dasht sites, respectively. Expected prices for Zarghoon-79 variety would be in the range of Rs 19-22/kg. Contact growers and fellow farmers were asked to rank varieties in terms of demand for seed (Table 98). Demand for Cham-6 was ranked 1st, followed by Zarghoon-79, Sariab-92, K-98, and AZRC-96. Crop stand was good to excellent for Cham-6 and Zarghoon-79, but not good for K-98 and AZRC. Purity of stand was reported well for Cham-6, Zarghoon-79, and Sariab-92. Farmers will sell surplus seed, after meeting the demands of ICARDA/FAO, to relatives, friends, and fellow farmers, in order of preference. Table 95. Wheat area, production and usage for home consumption and seed stock Mastung Lovalai Dasht Lalbagh Nalivalizai Irrigated wheat area (ha) 9.3 10.5 2.0 Sailaba/Khushkaba wheat area (ha) 11.7 4.8 Wheat production (ton) 34.5 44.0 10.2 Consumption (ton) 6.0 26.5 5.0 Kept as seed for next crop season (ton) 2.0 1.5 3.0 Consumed at home (%) 23 64 78 Table 96. Profitability of VBSE-produced seed of wheat varieties at IRSs, 2006/07 cropping season Mastung Loralai Dasht Lalbagh Nalivalzai Cham-6: 2965 2665 4200 -1 63725 57353 85030 Gross returns (Rs ha ) Variable costs (Rs ha-1) 28728 25056 33050 Net returns without land rent (kg ha-1) 34997 32297 51980 25117 22417 42098 Net returns with land rent (kg ha-1) Zarghoon-79: Yield (kg ha-1) 1930 3700 3950 -1 46240 77800 75390 Gross returns (Rs ha ) Variable costs (Rs ha-1) 26200 26980 32700 Net returns without land rent (Rs ha-1) 20040 50820 42690 10155 40940 32500 Net returns with land rent (Rs ha-1) K-98: 12390 Net returns without rent (kg ha-1) Sariab-92: Net returns without rent (kg ha-1) 17900 27480

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Table 97. Seed production and distribution plan by the VBSE producers Mastung Loralai Dasht Lalbagh Nalivalizai Cham-6: Total wheat seed produced (kg) 1200 1080 800 Kept for use at own farm (kg) 400 (33%) 300 (28%) 300 (38%) 25 20 19 Expected prices (Rs kg-1) Zarghoon-79: Total wheat seed produced (kg) 1560 3000 800 Kept for use at own farm (kg) 400 (26%) 400 (13%) 320 (40%) Expected prices (Rs kg-1) 22 22 19 Table 98. Seed demand and other attributes of seed multiplication at VBSE farms Wheat varieties Cham-6 Zarghoon-79 K-98 Sariab-92 Dasht (rank) 1 2 4 3 Lalbaig (rank) 1 2 3 Nalivalizai (rank) 1 2 Crop stand Good/Exce. Good/Exce. Poor Good Stand purity Pure Pure Pure Conclusions The process to multiply the seed of validated improved varieties of wheat by VBSE proved successful. The provincial research, extension, and seed certification departments worked in close collaboration to plan and execute quality seed production mechanisms . Seed production was found to be economically feasible provided that the premium prices paid for the quality seed produced were maintained. Demand for new seed was very high among fellow communities. Seeds of all varieties are now available in sufficient quantities to plan large-scale multiplication by involving other interested growers. A strategy could be devised for involving all stakeholders to formalize the VBSE concepts tested at different IRSs. 2.4. Socioeconomic assessment of seed cleaning The Seed Unit (SU) of ICARDA has developed a mobile seed cleaning machine (MSCM) after around 10 years of research and development efforts in Syria. The mobile seed cleaning machine is constructed by the Syrian Chams Al-Deen Darbas Company, and consists of a bucket elevator, de-awner, screens, long- and round-grain application cylinders, aspiration device, and a seed treatment system. These machines are also designed to use a liquid fungicide treatment. Three such units were shipped to Pakistan for introduction at three IRSs - Duki, Akhtarzai, and Mastung. The process followed for introducing the machine includes: (i) awareness building workshop on the usage and benefits of the machine; (ii) training of IRS facilitators, technicians, researchers in machine operations; (iii) demonstrating the operation and performance of the machine at ARI Quetta to all stakeholders; (iv) training the technicians involved on assembling the machine; (v) further demonstration and training on machine operations at district headquarters/IRS; (vi) Signing ToR with the community to operate and maintain the machine, on site; (vii) handing over the machine to community representatives; (viii) machine service provisions to fellow communities of three IRSs; and (ix) assessment of cleaned vs. un-cleaned wheat seed used by the farmers.

AZRC-96 5 Poor -

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The objective of the activity is to assess the performance of cleaned vs. un-cleaned wheat seed used by the farmers. The specific objectives of this study were to: (i) explore farm and family characteristics of MSCM service users; (ii) examine wheat production and usage; (iii) assess the productivity and profitability differential of using cleaned seed; and (iv) examine the demand for MSCM services. 2.4.1. Methodology and implementation Thirty-five farmers from three IRSs cleaned 24 tons of wheat seed during the introduction of the MSCM, as follows: Duki: Approximately 12 tons of wheat seed of different varieties from 20 farmers was cleaned. Farmers were charged Rs 30 per bag of wheat as advised by project staff. More farmers were interested in seed cleaning but because of these charges, they did not clean their seed. Akhtarzai: The farmers have only local wheat varieties. This year, the site facilitator has cleaned 9 tons of seed for 15 farmers at the IRS. Dasht: The AZRC and ARI staff cleaned approximately 3 tons of seed from their research plots. They also cleaned 5 tons of wheat seed for 5 farmers. Data were collected using a well-structured, pre-tested questionnaire. Twenty farmers from two districts (Loralai and Qilla Saifullah) out of the total of 35 farmers were interviewed. Information was gathered on the characteristics of seed growers, land holdings, area allocated to cleaned wheat, total wheat production, home consumption and use as seed, inputs-outputs, harvesting, crop stand differential and future perspective of MSCM use. Input-output data were used to develop wheat seed enterprise budgets for all contact farms. 2.4.2. Results and discussion 2.4.2.1. Characteristics of MSCM users Farmers who used MSCM services at the village level were old, less educated but experienced (Table 99). Contribution of farm income to total household income was more than 75% on all farms. About 50 percent of farmers own tractors. Access to irrigated lands in the sample varies greatly. Farmers buy improved seed from local markets (20 to 76 km). Table 99. Characteristics of farmers who used seed cleaning services Characteristics Loralai Qilla Saifullah Age (year) 48 42 Family size 19 17 Irrigated area (ha) 14.6 20.6 Sailaba/Khushkaba area (ha) 30.8 4.5 Illiterate (%) 80% 70% Farming experience (year) 32 28 Farm income share (%) 75% 80% Involvement in farming Full-time Full-time Tractor ownership 46% 53% Distance to seed dealer (km) 76 20 2.4.2.2. Wheat area, production and home usage About 50% of the irrigated area is allocated to wheat. However on Sailaba/Khushkaba lands, wheat is planted on around 40% of the area. Total wheat production is mainly dependent on the area allocation to wheat and on climatic conditions. Wheat surplus is estimated at 70% on the sample farms (Table 100). Table 101 shows the total area of wheat on irrigated and Sailaba/Khushkaba lands. About 7 and 11 tons of seed were cleaned by the sample farmers in Loralai and Qilla Saifullah districts, respectively. It was estimated that around 90% of the seed cleaned was not sown by the farmers who used MSCM.

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Table 100. Wheat area, production and usage for home consumption and seed stock Loralai Qilla Saifullah Irrigated wheat area (ha) 7.7 (52%) 10.5 (51%) Sailaba/Khushkaba wheat area (acre) 13.4 (43%) 2.0 (45%) Wheat production (ton) 93.0 57.0 Consumption + seed (ton) 29.6 17.4 Consumed at home (%) 32% 31% Table 101. Wheat area planted with cleaned seed Loralai Irrigated wheat area (ha) 33.2 Sailaba/Khushkaba wheat area (ha) 33.2 Seed cleaned (ton) 7.5 Seed diverted to other usage (%) 10%

Qilla Saifullah 72.9 6.9 11.0 14%

Table 102. Differentials in yields and incomes, cleaned versus un-cleaned seeds Irrigated Sailaba/Khushkaba Cleaned Un-cleaned Cleaned Un-cleaned Yield (kg/ha) 2190 1870 1455 1155 Yield difference (%) 17% 25% 27355 23340 18190 14450 Gross returns (Rs ha-1) 16480 17550 10625 10770 Total variable costs (Rs ha-1) -1 Net income (Rs ha ) 10875 5790 7565 3680 Net income difference (%) 87% 105%

2.4.2.3. Yields and income Yield differences between cleaned and un-cleaned seed were estimated separately on irrigated and dry lands (Table 102). Increases in yield from cleaned seed over un-cleaned seed were quite significant on both types of land. Farmers explained the reasons behind yield differences as less weed incidence, more viable seed, and better crop stand. However, yield differences on dry lands were higher than on irrigated lands, 25% and 17%, respectively. Similarly, income differential was 87% on irrigated lands and 105% on dry lands. 2.4.2.4. Future demand for MSCM Farmers were asked whether they intended to use MSCM services in the future. All farmers asked for seed cleaning and treatment services next year. Farmers want to use seed cleaning services for an average of 3.5 tons of wheat seed. They are ready to pay the seed cleaning cost of around Rs 20-30 per 100 kg bag of seed. Conclusions The training and demonstration aspects of MSCM were implemented successfully. The site facilitators were able to learn and provide seed cleaning services to their communities. Farmers who had their seed cleaned were satisfied with the cleaning services. Higher yields were obtained under both irrigated and dry farming conditions. Even so, more scientific evidence is needed from trials and from the collection of systematic data under different farm situations. The farming communities are ready to pay the cost of using seed cleaning machines which is a healthy sign towards the adoption of MSCM. However, consensus still needs to be developed among communities for the full capacity use of MSCM.

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OUTPUT 4: Household income in targeted communities increased through introduction of valueadded options from indigenous production

1. Rapid Rural Appraisal of women's role in agriculture


A Rapid Rural Appraisal was performed for exploring women's role in value-added agriculture. Social norms were respected while interacting with rural women at the target sites. A semi-structured questionnaire was designed to collect information from representative farm households. Women staff of the Agricultural Research Institute (ARI) in Sariab was trained to collect information on women's role in agriculture in general and value-added agriculture in particular. Results showed that crop production operations are mainly performed by male family members. Perennial crops are also managed by the male labor force. Women and children play important roles in livestock feeding (grazing, cutting, feeding) activities. Women's role in fruit and vegetable picking and postharvest handling was reported to be around 20%. Women's involvement in animal grazing is higher (40%) in the Mekhtar area of Loralai district. Water is provided to animals mainly by women (50-90%) and children (5-40%). Shed cleaning, milking, and milk processing were exclusively performed by women. This information is important in guiding the project in better gender targeting of interventions. Results show that field crop production experiments should be routinely conducted with men and livestock feeding and health care experiments with women. However, care should be taken in planning activities with women by considering the social norms of the participating communities. Men dominate in making decisions on types of crops, orchards, and input use levels. Women were overwhelmingly consulted in making decisions on types of animals to be reared. The role of women in making decisions on livestock herd size and the purchase of feed supplements was also reported to be high at almost all sites. Income from crops was partly spent by women. However, income generated from livestock enterprises was mainly spent by women. Women's stake in decisions on household consumption and sale of farm surpluses was also estimated as high. Three communities of the Sehan Nadi site in Loralai district and Dasht and Siddigabad sites in Mastung district agreed to participate in training on value-added agriculture. The women gave equal importance to value addition of vegetable, fruits, and livestock outputs. They had not previously received training on improved methods of processing crop and livestock products. The bulk of the outputs are sold in the raw form, but at the same time conventional food processing practices are followed to preserve food for the deficit months. Skill development among rural women has great potential to not only augment household consumption but also to increase income through market sales. Only a few households practiced drying of okra, tomato, and brinjal, typically 10-30 kg of these vegetables for occasional use over a 2-3 month period.

2. Identification of priority areas for value-added agriculture


2.1. Women's role in value-added agriculture Women's role in value-added agriculture was explored through identifying types of crop-livestock activities, share of production used for consumption and marketing, and forms of product processed for home consumption and sale. Grain crops. The majority of the grain crops including wheat, barley, and pulses are produced for family subsistence. However, surpluses are sold to local consumers or in nearby markets in the raw form. Less than one-fourth of large farm households reported selling surpluses of wheat (30-70%) and barley (around 30%). Wheat flour is used by women in making chapatti that is consumed 2-3 times daily at each household.The wheat is also harvested just before maturity, dried and ground for use in making curries for domestic use. These products are mainly developed for home consumption with a very limited level of market orientation.

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Vegetable products. Chilies, carrots and tomatoes are largely produced for commercial purposes in Qilla Saifullah and Loralai districts. The product is cleaned, dried (chilies and tomato), packed, and transported for sale in distant markets. Fresh tomatoes are used year round in cooking and also dried for later use during the off-season. The economic value of dried tomato and brinjal ranges from Rs 500 to Rs 2000, as the value of the fresh product ranges from Rs 40 to Rs 60 per kg. Picking, drying, and preparing chillies for sale takes several months to complete, and involves considerable family labor including women and children. Dried chillies are mostly used at home, after manual grinding using conventional utensils. Some welloff households have chilies ground from nearby towns for use at home. Vegetables like carrots, chillies, cauliflowers and wild olives are used to make pickle for home consumption. Lemon juice is used as a preservative along with salt, onion seeds and chilies. Carrot is also used to prepare conventional desserts with concentrated milk and milk products. Fruit products. The most perishable types of fruit grown in the area include apple, apricot, plums, grapes, and peaches. Only apricot is dried for use during winter by some households. The other fruits are mainly sold fresh in the market. Part of this fruit was used fresh for family consumption. A few families reported use of seasonal fruit in milk shakes. The processing of seasonal fruits in jams or squashes was not reported at any location. However, the use of jams bought from nearby towns by households was reported at a few sites. Almonds are planted in Loralai and Mastung districts and sold in raw form as well as after initial processing (removing vegetative coat after drying), which is commonly practiced at farms. Pistachio planting is rare in the target districts although the produce is of high value. However, homemade jams are displayed as part of breakfast buffets in big hotels like Serena at Quetta. Livestock products. Milk, meat, and wool are the main livestock products used at home or marketed in various processed forms. The main milk products are ghee, yogurt, curd, and khurd, which is a form of dry cheese. During good years, when milk production from sheep/goats is high, shepherds use traditonal methods to produce khurd during grazing periods away from homes, for daily consumption. Surplus is sold in the market forf Rs 80-100/kg. Other high-value livestock products are carpets and rugs produced locally from sheep wool and goat hair. 2.2. Prioritization of value-addition skill development Three communities initially agreed to participate in training on value-added agriculture: the Sehan Nadi site in Loralai district and the Dasht and Siddigabad sites in Mastung district. The women were asked to specify their training needs in value-added agriculture. They gave equal importance to value addition of vegetable, fruits, and livestock outputs. Their first priority was to learn better skills for drying vegetable crops. Their major interest was to learn improved drying or paste making methods for tomato, as the price of tomato increases to an unaffordable level during the post-harvest period (from November to April). Other vegetables produced in the area like brinjal, carrots, peas, and cauliflowers were also mentioned by the women for learning dehydration and pickle making skills. Fruits are abundantly available from June to November for value addition. The women have shown great interest in the processing of second-rate fruits available from their own orchards. Animal products including milk, meat, wool, and hair are already processed to make different products for consumption as well as sale.

3. Training of women's group facilitators


The Agricultural Research Institute of Balochistan was contacted to undertake research at IRSs on improving managerial skills among women. The Director General of the Institute assigned 6 women staff members to participate in this activity. ICARDA arranged an orientation course during March 2006 for these women before initiating training activities at research sites. They were briefed on the scope of work for managerial skill development among rural women, their training as trainers, applying Rapid Rural Appraisal techniques

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to identify potential areas of skill development, and understanding their role as trainers. These trained women collected information through group interviews and interviewing resource persons. Data were gathered from households representing tenant- and owner-operated farms. OUTPUT 5: Women's capacity in cottage agro-processing enhanced

1. Training module for women's group facilitators


The Ternab Agricultural Research Institute in Peshawar, North West Frontier Province (NWFP) was identified as the best institution for training women facilitators in agro-processing. The institute has a reputation for producing high quality products from fruits similar to those grown in Balochistan. The training module, developed following extensive discussions, includes the preparation of (a) different types of yoghurt,cheese, khoya, and dried milk; (b) jams, jellies and marmalades; (c) pickles from fruits and vegetables; (d) squashes and syrups; (e) tomato juice, paste and ketchup; (f) sun drying, dehydration/osmotic dehydration of fruits and vegetables;. The training module started during the last week of June 2006 and ran for 10 days. Four women from ARI Quetta participated in this training.

2. Improving skills of rural women


About 20 women from 9 households participated in the vegetable drying training at Siddigabad site during the third week of August 2006. In the Nalivalizai area, 19 women from 13 households participated, processing 20 kg of vegetables (10 kg each of tomato and brinjal). Information gathered from the trainees included their age, education and tenancy. The trainees were specifically asked to provide estimates regarding the quantity of vegetables they would like to process for their own family consumption. The potential for large scale vegetable drying along commercial lines was limited as only a small area was allocated to vegetables in these villages during this season. About 7 kg each of okra, brinjal, and tomato were dried: 5 kg using improved methods and 2 kg using the methods currently employed in the community. It was agreed that, during the next round of training, the trainers would help dry vegetables for home consumption using improved methods. Two expert level trainers from each site were intensively trained to the strengthen food processing skills at the community level. Approximately 25 women from 12 households in the Dasht area participated in the training on making apple jam on 26 August 2006. Similarly, 18 women from 10 households participated in vegetable processing training (35 kg each of okra, tomato, and brinjal). In this area both vegetables and fruits are produced in abundance and there is the added potential to process products for sale in the market. The community decided to start with apple fruit processing, as second-grade fruit suitable for jam making is abundantly available. About 5 kg of cleaned apple fruit was obtained from 7 kg of raw material for a demonstration on apple jam making in the village. During the next season the training will focus on producing competitive apple fruit products for sale to different market outlets.Product development and market research were an important focus in the food processing training module.

3. Economics of vegetable and fruit processing


The value of the fruits and vegetables used in the processing is the opportunity cost of using sub-standard raw material from surplus production. The cost of raw materials, preservatives, labor, and packing material was estimated at Rs.75 for brinjal, Rs.75 for tomatoes and Rs.85 for okra drying (Table 103). The quantities of dried vegetables obtained at a 5% moisture level were 1000 g each of brinjal and okra and 500 g of tomatoes. The value of the dried vegetables was estimated taking into account the opportunity cost of buying fresh vegetables from the market . Consideration was also given to the potential for selling dried vegetables in proper packaging (200-250 g packets) in Quetta market.

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Table 103. Net returns from processing vegetables at three sites Inputs/outputs Brinjal Tomato Okra Inputs (Rs.) Vegetables (5 kg) 25 25 35 Salt (50 g) 0 10 0 Potassium meta-bisulphate (50 g) 7 0 7 Citric acid (50 g) 3 0 3 Labor (4 hrs) 25 25 25 Packing 15 15 15 Total cost (Rs.) 75 75 85 Outputs Quantity of dried vegetables (g) 1000 500 1000 Potential value of dried vegetables (Rs.) 100 100 125 Net benefit (Rs.) 25 25 40 Table 104. Net returns from making apple jam at the Dasht site Inputs/outputs Value in Rupees Inputs Apples (7 kg) 50 Sugar (5 kg) 200 Citric acid (50 g) 3 Potassium bisulphate (50 g) 7 Natural gas used as fuel 20 Labor (8 hrs) 100 15 bottles for packing 120 Total cost 500 Outputs Total quantity of jam (g) 5100 Total number of jars of jam 15 Potential value of jam (Rs.) 750 Net benefit (Rs.) 250 The value of the 200 g dried packs was estimated at around Rs.20 for okra and brinjal and around Rs.40 for tomato during the low-supply, winter months. The net returns estimated for vegetable processing are between Rs.25 and Rs.40 for drying 5 kg vegetables. The participants' perceptions of vegetable drying, and their consumption behaviors, were gathered. The community is reluctancte to consume dried vegetables because of the use of chemical preservatives. The trainers managed these concerns by asking the communities to cook the vegetables during one of their visits and consume the same with them. This aspect needs further clearance with the community in future promotional campaigns. Examination of the processed vegetables for quality, nutritional aspects and market acceptability, and consumer preference studies are in progress for developing appropriate strategies for scaling-up. Table 104 shows the processing cost and estimated net returns for processing apple fruits in the Dasht area of Mastung district. The most costly ingredient in making apple jam is sugar (Rs.40/kg). Making apple jam for purely domestic consumption might not be adopted in the short-run. However, making apple jam for marketing is feasible, as it would be possible to obtain a reasonable profit margin (Rs.250) by investing Rs.500 for 5 kg of apple fruit for processing. Further work is in progress to analyze the nutritional value and to assess the marketability and consumers' choices regarding homemade apple jam. In Siddiqabad, 12 women were trained in drying vegetables (okra, egg-plant, and tomato). The products were well packed in plastic nylon. The women used to dry these vegetables by traditional methods after

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cooking them. They now report that they prefer the improved methods for drying. In addition, women in Siddiqabad learned to make jam. It is important to monitor and record the newly generated income. In Dasht, 15 women were trained in drying vegetables and jam production. In Nalivalizai women were trained to dry vegetables. Some constraints were faced in the training program. In Akhtarzai, Alozai, and Duki, following tribal traditions, the community members refused to consider any activities that focused on women. In the last week of September 2007, thirty women from 12 households participated in vegetable drying training at Siddigabad, and 25 women from 10 households in Dasht area participated in a training on making apple jam. Prior to the training, the activity to make apple jam was discussed with, and approved by, the relevant communities with the intention/commitment that part of the product would be marketed in Mastung district or Quetta markets. The marketing issue was discussed with the Director General of ARI and he allowed the use of the bottles and printed label of the ARI food processing unit for marketing in the interior of Balochistan. Subsequently, 20 kg of apple jam were produced and filled 80 bottles with 250 g in each bottle. After investigating the market and purchasing power of the local community, it was decided to sell these bottles at Rs.30 each, producing a net profit of Rs.5 on each bottle.It took approximately 2 months for the shopkeeper to sell the bottles of jam. It was observed that the local communities in the interior of Balochistan have low purchasing power, and they have not developed a taste for jams. However, it is realized that although rural women can produce good quality jam after comprehensive training, further time and efforts are needed to develop the local market and taste. OUTPUT 6: Effectiveness of existing and/or alternative institutions and policies for improving the performance of the agricultural sector in target areas and ensuring that this improved performance is better understood and communicated to policy makers.

1. Institution building at the community level


1.1. Appointment of site facilitators Six site facilitators were appointed to initiate institution building processes at each IRS. The facilitators were selected with the help of the local communities involved in the Applied Research Component of the project. The education levels of the facilitators ranged from completion of middle school to matriculate. The facilitators' roles were to gain the trust of the communities and be a bridge for communication and collaboration among researchers, line departments, and communities. The facilitators were responsible for research activities at three levels: (i) farming communities; (ii) six research components (crops, horticulture, livestock, soil and water, rangeland, farm households); and (iii) other relevant agencies, including extension, NGOs, other farming communities, agri-business/markets, development component of the project, and other line agencies involved in irrigation management. Another important role was related to establishing market linkages for value-added agriculture and VBSE development. 1.2. Training of site facilitators A workshop was organized to build the capacity of the IRS site facilitators to act as catalysts between the research components and rural communities. Resource persons from the project's research components provided practical training in data collection from field demonstrations. The facilitators were trained to handle scientific data collection instruments for sharing field observations with researchers and farming communities. In particular, the principles of agro-ecosystem analyses were communicated to the site facilitators to ensure that they collected information from the field demonstrations at regular intervals. Data collection formats

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were designed for experiments related to soil and moisture conservation, rangeland improvement, germplasm testing of annual crops, livestock health and nutrition experiments, and the introduction of low delta horticulture crops. The rapid appraisal method of data collection was used for the women's component and village production systems. The importance of the women's component was highlighted in terms of their roles in agriculture production in general, and food processing in particular. The special topics covered during this workshop also included community organization, leadership roles of facilitators, and conflict resolution during community meetings to strengthen local institutional building. Resource persons from AZRC, ARI, and IPM facilitators worked together to improve the understanding of the site facilitators and strengthen research for development processes at the IRSs. The important outcome of the workshop was the development of data collection formats for all research components. 1.3. Site facilitators' contributions The facilitators were provided with an Urdu version of the data collection formats related to all research components. These formats were implemented for range and fruit crop interventions. The formats were revised and adjusted after feedback from the facilitators, who held regular monthly meetings with communities. They successfully organized farmers' field days at three research sites by bringing communities together to evaluate demonstration plots in collaboration with research and extension staff. Facilitators communicated with the community heads to allow women to provide information to female enumerators about their role in agriculture in general, and food processing in particular. They identified IRS women to participate in value-added agriculture.

2. Assessment of project technical interventions


ICARDA has launched a project to ensure food and feed security and the quality of life of smallholder farming families in the IRSs by conducting participatory research in parallel with the dissemination of agricultural technologies appropriate to local conditions. The project tackled a range of agricultural development problems identified from diagnostic surveys. The problems identified included low and erratic rainfall, food security at the household and community levels, the lack of improved crop varieties, low livestock productivity, and limited knowledge of crop propagation. The overall purpose of the project was to improve the livelihoods and food security of the rural people of Balochistan by strengthening the capacity of the Balochistan applied research and technology transfer system to provide sustainable, market oriented, arid agriculture production. The plan for the first year was to bring the innovative technologies to farmers' fields, evaluate technology adoption, and monitor all six sites. The participatory research trials were conducted on wheat, barley, lentil, range plantation, low delta horticulture crops, and water-use efficiency in the fields of a focal group of farmers. The farmers tested old and new varieties of cereal crops. Farmers' visits to research sites were arranged to select varieties for adaptive testing on their own farms. In addition to these visits, a survey was launched to elicit farmers' perceptions of newly introduced interventions. The study is described below. 2.1. Objectives The main objectives of the study were to elicit farmers' perceptions of the pro and cons of the technology provided on crop, range-livestock, introduction of low delta horticulture crops, and water-use efficiency in six integrated research sites (IRSs). The specific objectives were to (i) understand farmers' perceptions of the technical interventions made so far in all four sectors, (ii) provide feedback to researchers about farmers' perceptions of technology adoption, and (iii) put forward farmers' future needs.

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2.2. Methodology This study was carried out jointly by ICARDA and the Technology Transfer Institute (TTI) to address the major problems related to farmers' perceptions regarding technologies extended to various IRSs. Formal and informal data collection procedures were implemented to collect information on technology adoption and impact after the first year of the project. Separate questionnaires were designed for single interventions. The activities were focused on potential interventions based on the findings of a baseline survey. During the survey, some of the interventions, like dike construction and the lining of pipes for water channels, were still underway. Primary information was based on interviews with farmers using a structured questionnaire administered to the host and fellow farmers, i.e. 24 hosts and 45 fellow farmers from all the IRSs. The survey was carried out in six communities of the three selected districts of Balochistan in May 2006 by the TTI of the Social Sciences Division of Pakistan Agricultural Research Council (PARC). Initial analysis generated descriptive statistics in the form of means, modes, and frequency distributions, and final tables were prepared. 2.3. Results and discussion The characteristics of the sample growers are reported in Table 105. The majority of farmers were illiterate and their operational holdings ranged from 16 to 41 acres of irrigated and 20 to 37 acres in non-irrigated holdings, at all the locations. Loralai had the largest landholdings in both systems. In Mastung, Qilla Saifullah, and Loralai, 50%, 25%, and 46% of the farms were tenant operated. Owner-cultivation was higher in Qilla Saifullah than other locations. Rainfed farming is combined with livestock farming to minimize the risk in case of crop failure. Livestock holding was found at all locations, but the average animal holding was highest in Loralai district at. 6 cattle and 73 sheep/goats. The major part of the district receives monsoon rainfall, and the rangelands have the potential to provide feed for livestock year round. 2.3.1. Crop improvement At the IRSs, wheat, barley, lentil, and vetch experiments were conducted in farmers' fields. Researchers selected the farmers for these adaptation trials. The situation can be changed in the coming years using the 'seeing is believing' method. Lentil was a new crop in Qilla Saifullah and Loralai districts and farmers have recommended it as a potential crop for this area. Four wheat varieties plus the local variety were tested in all the IRSs. AZRI-96 and Cham-6 performed better in low rainfall conditions and were highly recommended by the farmers for further cultivation. Cham-6 was early maturing and the host farmers reported high bird damage. They were of the view that planting time could be adjusted to avoid bird damage. The farmers suggested repeating the trial with sowing delayed by 15 days or so. The researchers' efforts are underway to produce/select high yielding varieties suited to local conditions. The local wheat variety also performed well, but it is susceptible to yellow rust in the event of heavy rains. The farmers' feedback on the crop varieties demonstrated in their fields is summarized in Table 106. 2.3.2. Range rehabilitation Two range species were planted in one IRS with community participation, and farmers were keen to have more plantations. They feel this would increase green cover and provide additional area for grazing. The plants are in the initial stages and are protected against grazing. The project uses a participatory community approach, this having been decided in a community meeting. It is still too early to use the area for grazing. After two to three years, the grazing impact assessment can be made.

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Table 105. Household profiles of farmers hosting technological interventions in the selected IRSs Household profile Districts Mastung Loralai Qilla Saifullah Cooperative membership (%): Yes 100 70.83 57.14 No 0 29.16 29.36 Education (%): Illiterate 65 66.66 60.71 Primary 0 16.66 25 Secondary 35 16.66 14.29 Operational land holding average (acres): Irrigated 15.8 41 26.8 Sailaba 0 5 0 Khushkaba 27.6 32.5 20.45 Tenancy status (%): Owner 50 25 46.43 Tenant 0 0 0 Owner-cum-tenant 50 75 53.57 Tractor (%): Own 25 45.83 39.29 Hire 75 54.16 60.71 Livestock inventory (#): Cattle 2 6 3 Sheep/goats 57 72.5 20.5 Off-farm income (Rs) 11,500 17,625 21,429 Table 106. Crop variety trials assessment during 2005-06 in Siddiqabad and Kumbella, Mastung district Specifications Wheat Barely Lentil Alfalfa (Lucerne) No. of varieties during this season 4 1 1 1 Average area under trial (acres) 0.99 0.39 0.21 0.11 Appropriateness of trial area (%): Less appropriate 25 0 0 50 Appropriate 75 100 100 50 Level of farmer participation in trials: Varietal know how (%): Full 0 0 0 0 Partial 25 25 25 0 None 75 75 75 50 Interest of fellow farmers (%): High 0 0 0 0 Medium 50 50 50 50 Low 25 50 0 0 Trial crops harvested by: Farmer only 100 0 0 0 Researcher only 0 0 0 0 Farmer and researcher 0 0 0 0

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2.3.3. Introduction of low delta crops Under the project, low delta horticulture crops, such as pistachio, almond, and olive trees, were introduced in the IRSs. The reason for doing so was that the underground irrigation water is declining very sharply. These species were imported from Syria and it will take some time (until the bearing stage) to assess their viability. However, the survival rate at the various IRS sites was highly variable. A shortage of water for timely irrigation was reported as the core constraint. 2.4. Establishment of water control measures Balochistan has wide variation in ecosystems and receives rainfall in both seasons. Floodwater severely damages fields. Water control structures were therefore introduced in the IRSs. Two farm water control structures were constructed in the Akhtarzai, Qilla Saifullah district, IRS. The nature of the structure depends on the farm situation and the type of flood. This intervention was late in being implemented; in any case, its effectiveness will not be demonstrated until floodwater flows occur. However, farmers were of the view that it helps to conserve moisture in the fields, reduces water losses, and improves equitable water distribution. The goals of science and technology are often defined in broad socioeconomic terms: increasing agricultural productivity in order to eradicate hunger and rural poverty; raising rural health standards via improved nutrition and sanitation, etc. However, improving agricultural productivity can only be achieved through the development and adoption of improved technologies. Research institutes have made considerable progress in technology development, but agriculture performance at the farm level remains significantly below its potential. The institutional framework for technology generation and transfer is the main limiting factor in this regard. Agriculture extension and transfer of technology (or agriculture support system) can play significant roles in increasing productivity, farm income, food security, and sustainability. Despite a favorable climate and good soil conditions crop yields in Balochistan are far below the potential yield. This may be attributed to farmers not adopting the full package of crop production technology and still following traditional methods. Concerted efforts are required to fill the gap between potential yields and the actual yields obtained by farmers. It is imperative to communicate the appropriate technology to the farmers and motivate them to adopt it. It is therefore essential for national planners and extension educators to know what technology the growers are using and what sources of information are used. This baseline information is essential to strategic planning for improvement of crop production (Shah 1990). The project interventions made so far have achieved satisfactory results. Some interventions were made recently, so we are waiting for the results and will let the farmers decide whether they can be adopted as such or need modification. 'Seeing is believing' is the approach being applied for the adoption of new technologies. In remote areas of developing countries, such as Balochistan province in Pakistan, farmers do not have the opportunity to try new technologies because of the high risk and cost. An efficient extension system which transfers appropriate practices/technology to small-scale and subsistence farmers can play a crucial role in alleviating this problem. There are a number of factors which may influence the adoption of innovations. These factors include lack of money (poverty) with which to purchase seasonal agricultural inputs, such as seed and fertilizer, the lack of basic farming implements, social participation, and contact with extension, empathy, and leadership roles. Therefore, the opinions of fellow farmers were also obtained to understand their interest in the technologies demonstrated at the IRSs. The results showed that they are closely watching the performance of the new technologies. Fifty percent of the farmers reported dike construction as a useful technology. They are also interested in adding more crops to the trials (Table 107).

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Table 107. Technology awareness and adoption by fellow farmers in Akhtarzai and Alozai communities in Qilla Saifullah district
Varieties Structures (%)

Awareness of experiments

Wheat Lentil Fruit Wheat

(27) (32) (25) (25)

Barley (16) Dikes (50) Useful trial Lentil (42)

Positive attributes demonstrated

Plan to adopt additional trials in future (%)

Dikes (50) Fruit (33) High yield (40) Disease resistance (10) Good seed (40) Low water requirement (10) Lentil (64) Barley (15) Pistachio (15) Cherry (6)

Save water (30) Increase operational land (20)

Make bunds (50)

2.5. Recommendations Bearing in mind the survey findings, the following recommendations are made: The crop demonstration has covered most of the sites and farmer feedback has been obtained through field days and formal surveys. The varieties recommended by the farmers need to be multiplied to enable other farmers in the IRSs to access improved seed. . The floodwater dykes need to be tested for a season or so to validate their performance. The final recommendation should be based on farmers' suggestions, if any. The planting of exotic range species was tested on one site, and needs to be expanded to other IRSs. It is suggested that local, palatable, fast growing species should also be included at all the IRSs. More farmer-interaction tours (traveling workshops) should be arranged within the IRSs. This will provide better opportunities to all farmers to select better technologies for their sites. At the same time, the researchers will get direct feedback from farmers. Above all, the technologies should be cost effective, cheap and easy to access, to encourage farmers to adopt them. To effectively introduce new technologies into remote communities, such as in Balochistan province, projects should be implemented over a longer period.

3. Market chain analysis at IRSs


A recent study used a market chain analysis linked to an analysis of livelihood strategies of small farmers in the six IRSs where the project was being implemented. A livelihood characterization and a baseline study were conducted in 2005 to characterize the livelihoods of the population in the six IRSs concerned. The study used the information available from the baseline study to determine the crops produced at the project sites and the different production strategies. Market constraints and opportunities were explored through participatory stakeholder meetings, where producers and actors involved in the market chain discussed options to improve the chain, in particular to benefit the most vulnerable actors, the producers. This process is based on some elements of the Participatory Market Chain Approach.

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3.1. Objectives The overall objective of this market chain analysis was to identify pathways to link the populations of the six IRSs to markets for the sustainable benefit of their livelihoods. The specific objectives were (i) identify and describe production and marketing processes for field crops, (ii) define the structure of the commodity chain, its main flow channels and scale, and the characteristics of stakeholders, (iii) analyze the characteristics of the quality, price, and value structure of the commodity chain, and (iv) analyze the constraints to the production and marketing of the crops, and propose supports. 3.2. Methodology A Rapid Rural Appraisal was done to get a general idea of the production systems in the IRSs. This gave a general picture of the IRSs and helped design a questionnaire for a formal household survey. The survey questionnaire contained questions about livelihood activities, main products marketed, and the different assets (human, social, natural, physical, and financial). In the baseline survey, all the crops produced were later identified. The most important products of these communities were identified using the results from household survey. In order to enable producers to improve the marketing strategies for their produce, it is necessary to understand market chains of these products and the different actors involved. An assessment of the market chain was carried out to identify the different market chain actors and to understand their role, and how the market chains differ from one IRS to another. This is also necessary for organizing stakeholder meetings for specific products. Therefore, focus group discussions and key-informant interviews were organized. Normally, traders or the bigger farmers hold much wider knowledge about marketing issues than the average producers. Value chain analyses were studied for field crops, such as wheat, barley and pulses, vegetables and fruits, and for livestock products. Market margins were identified for each of the crops grown at the IRSs. 3.2.1. Value chain analysis The value chain describes the full range of activities which are required to bring a product or service from conception, through the different phases of production (involving a combination of physical transformation and the input of various producer services), delivery to final consumers, and final disposal after use. The value chain can be a very useful conceptual tool when trying to understand the factors that impact the long-term profitability of a business, and when developing a successful strategic plan for it. The value chain can be thought of as a set of activities, services, and products that lead to products or services that reach the final consumers. 3.2.2.1. Cereals and pulses The cereals and pulses value chain in the three districts where the project was implemented is very simple. Producers use these products for their own family consumption and sell the surplus locally to those community members who are not cultivating these crops or who are facing crop failure. The chain starts always with the input supply, which is satisfied by market agents who facilitate the product sale at the same time. In general, market agents provide inputs, such as fertilizers and seeds, to the producers under the condition that producers should take their products to the agents after the harvest. Commission agents deduct their commission and the cost of the inputs provided to the producers at the beginning of the cropping season. In Mastung district, wheat and barley are sold mainly locally in the communities. The producers' strategies were always to keep wheat for family consumption, selling any surplus if somebody in the community was in a need. In Qilla Saifullah, wheat is being sold to community members and to millers who come from Quetta to purchase wheat from this area. In Loralai, producers sell their wheat locally in the communities. Pulses and cumin are sold in the district markets to wholesalers. Table 108 shows the market structure of field crops. Figures 12-14 show the value chain for different crops/products: wheat and barley crops, vegetable and fruit products, and livestock.

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Figure 12. Value chain for wheat and barley

Input supply : Fertilizer & Seeds Agricultural Production First Level Handling Processors Collectors-(Adiwala) Commission Agents Wholesalers Retailers Consumers
Figure 13. Value chain for vegetable and fruit products Figure 14. Value chain of livestock products

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3.2.2.2. Vegetables and fruits Vegetable and fruit products are marketed either to the local market in the district city, the provincial market in Quetta, or to distant markets in other provinces. Table 109 shows marketing places for vegetable crops for all the IRSs. The vegetable crops, like chillies (50%) and tomato (75%), were sold at the village level or in local town markets. Carrots (100%), chillies (50%), and tomato (25%) were marketed in distant market (Quetta or other provincial markets). Figure 13 shows the value chain structure for the vegetable and fruit market in the study area. Fruit marketing channels are presented in Table 110. Almond (100%) and apple (60%) were sold in other provincial markets. Similarly pistachio, apricot, and peach were sold in distant markets. Table 108. Marketing structure of the cereal, legumes, and cumin crops Wheat Barley Pulses Local market - community (%) 50 50 100 Distant markets - district and provincial (%) 50 50 0 Table 109. Marketing structure of horticulture crops Chillies Local market, district and provincial (%) 50 Distant markets, Faysal Abad, Ghazi Khan (%) 50 Table 110. Marketing structure of fruit crops Almond Apple Distant market (%) 0 40 Other provincial market (%) 100 60

Cumin 0 100

Tomato 75 25

Carrots 0 100

Pistachio 100 0

Apricot 100 0

Peach 100 0

3.2.2.2.1. Marketing margin A common means of measuring market efficiency is the value of marketing margins. This is an attempt to evaluate economic or price efficiency. The overall marketing margin is simply the difference between the farm-gate price and the price received upon retail sale. The difference can then be considered to be the cost of marketing and all that is entailed in getting the product from the producer to the consumer in the desired form. Marketing margins can be calculated for all the different levels of the market, so that Marketing margin = P1 - P2, where P1 = the price at one level in the market and P2 = the price at another level. There are several types of marketing margin, based on the market level being considered. The wholesale margin is the difference between the price paid by the wholesale trader and the price paid to producers. The retail margin is the difference between the price the retail traders pay and the retail price they charge to consumers. When the margin is expressed in monetary terms, it is called the price spread. Expressed as a percentage, it is known as the percentage margin. The mark-up is the price spread between two levels in the market divided by the selling price, expressed as a percentage. Wholesale margin = trader price producer price Retail margin = retail price - trader price Total price spread = wholesale margin + retail margin Percentage margin = wholesale margin/wholesale buying price 100 Retail mark-up = retail margin/retail selling price 100 Table 111 shows different crop prices for producers, wholesalers, and retailers. Also it shows the different margins; the wholesale margin, the retail sale margin, the total price spread, the percentage margin, and the retail mark-up. It is clear that tomato and okra have the highest total price spreads, the highest percentage margins, and the highest retail margins. Wheat has the lowest sales margin and the lowest retail mark-up.

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Table 111. Crop prices and margins in Quetta market (Rs./40 kg crate or bag) Wheat Pulses Chilies Tomato Carrots Cauliflower Onion Peas Okra Pumpkin Producer 450 1100 1500 250 450 150 600 600 300 150 Wholesale 484 2022 2029 680 480 560 700 1328 1008 520 Retail sale 560 2800 2400 2000 600 800 1200 1600 2000 700 Margins: Wholesale 34 922 529 430 30 410 100 728 708 370 Retail sale 76 778 371 1320 120 240 500 272 992 180 Price spread 110 1700 900 1750 150 650 600 1000 1700 550 % margin 7.02 45.60 26.07 63.24 6.25 73.21 14.29 54.82 70.24 71.15 Retail mark-up 13.57 27.79 15.46 66.00 20.00 30.00 41.67 17.00 49.60 25.71 3.2.2.3. Livestock marketing 3.2.2.3.1. Background Livestock plays a vital role in the economy of the rainfed zones of Balochistan. Sheep, goats, cattle,camels, and draft animals are the main animal kept. Small ruminants has several advantages: low investment cost, adaptability to harsh conditions, small feed requirements, and high reproductive rates. PSheep and goats provide milk, wool or hair, meat, skin, and manure; and act as a savings buffer, which can be liquidated in times of need. The recent drought has acaused high mortality among their flocks. A majority of the livestock producers are subsistence farmers with no management system for their livestock. Livestock marketing facilities are very poor in Balochistan. The nearest markets are local district or city ones and the main markets are in Quetta. When a farmer has to sell one or two animals he generally sells to the middlemen of the area. Sick animals are sold at very low prices. Culled and surplus stock is usually sold either during Eid-al-Adha (when Muslims have to slaughter lambs) or during the fall season when they are healthy enough to give good returns. Farmers start selling lambs and kids at the age of six months. Oneyear old sheep and goats fetch about Rs.3000 and Rs.4000. In Siddiqabad, producers take their animals to Quetta and Mastung district markets. Animals are sold mainly during the period November to January, because prices are better during that time and the producers need money to purchase feed. When producers need cash they go to the market at any time of the year. Sheep fetch a better price in Quetta market, while goats get a better price in Mastung market. A one year old goat, weighing 15 kg can be sold for meat for between Rs.2000 and Rs.2500. A two-year old lamb weighing 25 kg can be sold for meat for Rs.5000-6000. The weight of an animal is estimated by the market actors as scales not available in most markets. In the Quetta market, breeds are coming from different parts of Pakistan, Punjab, and other Balochistan districts. When producers cannot sell their animals, they are forced to to keep the animals in the market for the night, and they have to pay Rs.5 per head per night The wool market is in Quetta and price of wool is very variable from year to year because of demand and export. In this year, the wool price ranged from Rs.1500 to Rs.2000 for 40 kg. Producers sell sheep wool without any cleaning. The farmers said they were not familiar with the processes for cleaning wool; also they think it is the job of other people. This practice needs to be compared with the practice of some producers in Syria who clean their wool and sell it for double the price of uncleaned wool. Kurd, a local type of dry cheese, is produced mainly by the owners of large flocks. Dealers come from Quetta market to purchase kurd. Credit is not available for financing livestock production. In Dasht, producers sell their animals in September in Quetta market.: fattened lambs for Rs.6000, and non-fattened lambs for Rs.5000. Producers pay Rs.10 as a market fee per animal in Quetta market. Yogurt and kurd surpluses are given to friends. In Akhtarzai and Alozai (Qilla Saifullah district), milk and yogurt are considered as purely home consumption products. However, surplus kurd would be marketed in Loralai district

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market; because producers are reluctant to sell it in Qilla Saifullah district market. In November, they sell two-year old lambs (weighing between 25 and 30 kg) for meat for between Rs.5000 and Rs.6000. Sheep are taken to the market by the producers. In Nalivalizai (Loralai district), 60-70% of the animals in the community are sold to buyers coming from other communities. Some producers from the same community purchase lambs to increase the size of their flocks. Dealers come from other communities to purchase two-year old lambs ready for the market. Producers sell their culled ewes to butchers in Loralai market for between Rs.2000 and Rs.2500. Yogurt and kurd are consumed domestically. In Lalbagh community (Loralai district), producers sell a one-year old goat weighing 10 to15 kg for between Rs.3000 and Rs.3500, and a one-year old lamb for between Rs.4000 and Rs.5000. They sell their animals whenever they need cash. The main buyers come from nearby villages, or are butchers and dealers from Quetta. They sell cows' milk and yogurt in the Duki market. Sheep's milk and ghee are for home consumption. 3.2.2.3.2. Livestock market structure and regulations In Balochistan, the district and city government fixes the milk price on the recommendations of a price committee. Urban consumers are aware of milk prices, but most of the time they pay a much higher price than the official one. Balochistan is self-sufficient in mutton as it has 45% of the sheep and goat population of the country (Baig 2005), and meets the major part of the demand for mutton in the rest of the country. Development of the mutton industry is, however, constrained by the largely traditional meat marketing system, which provides no incentive for the production of good quality meat. This is evident in the lack of facilities in live animal markets, the old-fashioned slaughter facilities, and the retail price structure. With no system for grading the meat, butchers make more profit by buying the culled female animals for slaughter. Sheep wool is processed to make carpets, and bedding materials. Wool production is 1.5% of the total value of livestock sales (Wangenaar et al. 1997). Wool production can be increased if scientific methods are used and it is properly managed. Again, the lack of incentives for the producer to improve the quality of marketed wool is not so much a reflection of price, but the value of the wool produced, as compared to the value of the animals for meat. In the sale of products, such as wool, hair, and hides/skins, the chain is somewhat similar except that these products are finally sent outside the province, either to markets or agents in Punjab or Karachi. The producer sells fleece wool to a collector or wool merchants in the nearest urban center. A wholesale trader then transports and resells the wool at the large wool markets, usually to a commission agent working on behalf of a processor or exporter. Wool is purchased from producers on the basis of weight. Figure 14 shows the value chain for livestock in Balochistan. 3.2.2.3.3. Livestock pricing and marketing system Pricing. Low producer prices for many livestock products are a major constraint to the adoption of more intensive production techniques (Pizadeh and Islam 1981). Although prices have risen in recent years; still they are low as compared with some neighboring countries. The prices of animals are settled through negotiation, supply and demand, and bargaining skill. Prices of products vary on the basis of supply and demand, the season of the year, and, sometimes, on government pressure to implement the prices fixed for the products.For live animals, the pricing mechanism depends on the type and location of the market under consideration. At the village level, livestock traders visit the producer and a price is negotiated. In such cases, the producer calculates a reserve price based on information obtained from his co-villagers and the various attributes (species, health status, age, sex, etc.) of his animals. Urgent cash needs also play an important role (Mustafa et al. 1995). In livestock markets, the sellers consist of farmers and livestock traders or 'beorparies', while the buyers consist of livestock traders, farmers and butchers. The reserve price for the animals is fixed as follows.

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The farmers determine their selling prices. Livestock traders add on all other costs (transport, taxes, feed, and personal expenses) to the buying price and arrive at the reserve price. The deals are finalized either through brokers or in one-to-one personal negotiations. When brokers are involved, the deals are always secret, whereas in one-to-one deals, it is open. When the deals are finalized, a fixed percentage of the value of the animal (or a fixed amount of money by animal type) is paid as a commission to the market contractor. There is no grading or classification system. Some factors, such as drought and disease outbreaks, may substantially affect the prices of animals. The various intermediaries receive about one-third of the final price for their services (Khalid and Rodriguez 1991; Rodriguez 1992; NMC 1997). Livestock market in Balochistan. The markets called 'Pirrhis' are located near the main towns and generally lack the simplest of infrastructure or facilities. Pirrhis are held on a daily basis. The facilities at livestock/meat markets are very primitive. There is no meat grading system. The consumer usually asks for the cut of his choice, which the butcher with some reluctance provides. Generally, all the carcass cuts are sold at the existing market rates. The prices of the products are fixed by the district administration without any consultation with the livestock department, consumers, or butchers. The products are seldom sold at the fixed prices and the retailers charge what they will. Improvement of livestock marketing. It is proposed that meat animals be sold on a live weight basis so that producers get enough benefits. The meat should be sold on the basis of quality, by introducing a simple grading system. Marketing infrastructure should be improved to provide shelter, water, and access to feed and fodder. A nominal fee could be charged to meet the running expenses of the facility. Livestock marketing system. Marketing and distribution involves many agents. It is difficult to be precise about their exact numbers and their roles. Livestock marketing involves many stakeholders; producers, dealers (usually from the village or adjoining areas), wholesalers, butchers, and consumers. The government has very little control over prices. Meat prices are fixed according to the demands of the butchers, on the recommendations of a price control committee, and by the city and district governments. Market agents and their position in the market chain. Livestock producers are widely dispersed and they rarely coordinate with each other. They sell their livestock basically at the village level. Since they mostly sell small ruminants to meet urgent cash demands, the producers are not in a position to bargain very effectively. Following are the market agents and their position in the market chain in Balochistan: (i) Village dealers. Village dealers purchase animals from surrounding areas and sell them to wholesalers in the town markets. They have to pay the animal transportation costs, feeding costs, and their own transportation and food costs. (ii) Wholesalers and commission agents. Wholesalers buy livestock and their products from village dealers in small towns and transport it to Quetta and major consumption centers in other provinces, such as Karachi and Lahore. They also sell livestock through commission agents in the consumption centers. These agents are considered as an essential link between producers and buyers and undertake the bargaining and arrangements for livestock and the sale of its by-products. (iii) Butchers. Mutton and beef are sold fresh in small shops eight to ten hours after the animal has been slaughtered in traditional type slaughterhouses, which lack proper hygienic facilities. The meat is not kept in cold storage to preserve it. Most of the gross income returns of the butchers come from meat sales, but a substantial portion is also received from the sale of by-products, such as the skin, head, trotters, stomach, lung, and liver, etc. (iv) Consumers. The butchers in their shops sell non-graded meat to consumers under poor hygienic conditions. The government regulates the consumer prices of essential commodities including meat, but does not guarantee minimum meat quality standards. This has been one of the obstacles to providing quality prod-

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ucts to the consumers, who are the ultimate payers of high meat prices. In the agriculture sector of Balochistan, the production side has public support, while the marketing side is dominated by the private sector. The marketing of livestock and its products are facing numerous constraints of various kinds. In general, there are no practical grading and quality standards applied in the marketing of livestock. The absence of grading and a split price system are the major factors which result in the poor quality of the products supplied. There is no regulatory authority or department in the marketing of live animals. Almost all livestock markets lack basic facilities, like watering, fodder availability, veterinary services, animal sheds, loading/un-loading, and weighing facilities. The slaughterhouses are seriously short of basic facilities, like proper lighting, water, hanging arrangements, disposal of wastes, and processing of by-products. The major constraints in wool marketing are the shearing of fleeces using scissors and the lack of grading systems at the producer, primary markets, and intermediary levels. Infection and parasitic diseases of livestock remain important constraints to a more productive and profitable livestock production and marketing industry. There is no proper training of the farmers and they lack an awarenessof preventive methods to save their animals from mortal diseases. 3.3. Recommendations It is crucial to improve the marketing infrastructure, such as roads and transportation facilities, to reduce marketing costs, and enable the products to reach the consumers at reasonable prices. Introduce a grading system to encourage producers to supply high quality products. Introduce formal credit facilities without interest charges (because these are contrary to Sharia law; the institution instead can make a very small service charge) so that producers are free to take appropriate marketing decisions as to whom, or where, and when to sell their products. Promote vegetable production under protected agriculture tunnels (PAT) conditions and reap the benefits of producing off-season crops. Introduce better ways of packing vegetable products. Encourage the communities producing fruits to process low quality fruits to produce jam for the market. Encourage vegetable producers to dry different types of vegetables during the production season, when the prices are low and to sell them during the off-season when prices are higher. Those livestock markets that do exist in a few towns of the province and which are normally under the control of municipalities and/or town committees need to have their infrastructure upgraded to include the provision of sheds, weighing balances, water supplies and troughs, and feeding stalls. The quality of available livestock products needs improvement. Quality improvements would have to be linked to improve marketing arrangements. Take the necessary measures to establish meat markets. First, upgrade the traditional slaughter houses by upgrading and improving slaughtering facilities. Such measures would improve slaughtering techniques, hygiene and sanitation, and the handling of valuable by-products, such as hides, skins and blood. Conclusions Agriculture dominates the economic sector and has been a major source of income for more than 82% of the rural population in Balochistan province. The livelihood characterization study showed that agriculture is the main occupation for all project communities and the average income from farm activities constituted up to 87% of the total family income (Afzal et al. 2006). Access to markets, especially for horticultural products, is a major constraint facing producers. The markets are far from the production areas, and market infrastructure is poor. Constraints that reduce market efficiency are low output prices, high marketing commissions, long distances to market, poor roads, and high transportation costs. It is certain that good marketing of agricultural crops and livestock in Balochistan is a major key to progress for the rural population. There is a significant production of crops and livestock, which is increasing day by day; but given the lack of proper marketing techniques, this sector's performance has never satisfied the producers.

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OUTPUT 7: Human resource capacity of AZRC, ARI, technical officers, and rural communities within both the IRS communities and the overall project areas of Qilla Saifullah, Loralai, and Mastung Background According to the letter of agreement between FAO and ICARDA, ICARDA is required to perform the following activities: Train researchers in participatory, community-based research methods to improve arid land agriculture and other themes (a total of six scientists from AZRC, ARI, and TTI will be trained out of country for two weeks each). In addition, eight scientists will be trained out of country for a period of two weeks each in the areas of crop improvement, livestock and range management, protected agriculture, socioeconomics, high-value crops, and water management. Four female specialists will be trained out of country for 3 weeks on cottage processing. Train line departments (Agriculture, Livestock, and Water). A total of 6 specialists will be trained out of country for a period of two weeks each. Conduct a total of 30 field days and traveling workshops for men and women (around 10 annually) and 10 to 12 in-country training sessions for researchers and line departments for five working days each. Organize two to three workshops annually for different stakeholders, including policy makers, researchers, farmers, and local authorities. These training and education activities will enhance the uptake and dissemination of the technological, institutional, and policy options that are introduced. Identify the effect of the selection criteria employed to identify course participants, and the impact of different approaches employed in training courses on the performances of course graduates and on the adoption of technologies at the household level, and make recommendations for the future.

1. Training activities
1.1. In-country training 1.1.1. Training course on 'Rangeland Co-Management Initiation in Balochistan' A four day training course was conducted, 15-18 August 2005, in Pakistan, on rangeland co-management in Balochistan. The course was organized and executed jointly by the International Center for Integrated Mountain Development (ICIMOD), the International Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas (ICARDA), and the Arid Zone Research Centre (AZRC) in Quetta. Forty participants from the Provincial Forest Department, the Agriculture Research Institute, the Department of Agricultural Extension, the Arid Zone Research Center, the FAO and different NGOs of Balochistan attended the course. The course covered participatory research methods, co-management approaches for natural resource management, and the application of these methods in rangeland management in the IRSs. Most of the participants recognized the usefulness of this course through their increased understanding of the issues of a rangeland system and its management needs. The ability to bring various stakeholders together and negotiate the co-management of rangelands in Balochistan was a rich experience. 1.1.2. Training workshop on 'Participatory Community-Based Research Methods' The training course was held in Quetta, 9-20 November 2005. Twenty-six scientists from AZRC, ARI, TTI, the Forestry Department, the Livestock Department, the Balochistan Poverty Alleviation Project Development (FAO), the Balochistan Rural Support Program (BRSP), and the Women's University. Dr. Njeri Muhia (Department of Economics, Egerton University, Kenya) conducted the training. The training was divided into theoretical and practical parts. The field work was conducted in Siddigabad, one of the integrated research sites of the project. All participants evaluated the workshop positively and they reported that they will apply what they have learned in their future work in the project. During the

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field visits to Siddiqabad, the female participants initiated a useful dialogue with the community's women, which indicated a good start for the project activities with female communities. 1.1.3. Training course on 'FFS-Based Participatory Research Module' ICARDA, FAO and National Agriculture Research Center (NARC) jointly participated in conducting the course on 21-22 November 2005. The main components of the practically oriented, Farmer's Field Schoolbased (FFS-based), participatory research included: (i) participatory monitoring and evaluation of field experiments; (ii) agro-ecosystem analyses as decision making tools; (iii) sharpening research focuses by analyzing field observations; and (iv) the transformation of technical knowledge into experimental activities by farmers. The training of the Applied Research Site (ARS) communities was highlighted to involve them in the monitoring and analyses of field experiments. It was further explained that village resource persons, host farmers and field coordinators would be trained in the weekly/fortnightly collection of data on critical crop growth parameters through training in agro-ecosystem analysis. Through this process, the decision making capacities of the participating farming communities would be enhanced and effective feedback mechanisms would be established for planning or moving technologies into the development phase. Data on field observations could be shared for critical evaluation in the village community meetings which were scheduled monthly. The questions asked by the community would be answered by the technical experts and further clarified by designing/implementing appropriate research activities. The above concepts were communicated to the participants of the workshop initially by showing them documentaries on the FFS concepts, presentations, and practical involvement during field work in apple orchards and wheat fields. During the first day, the concepts that were shared with the trainees included (i) the FFS-approach beyond IPM; (ii) institutionalization or expansion of the FFS approach in Pakistan; (iii) monitoring, evaluation and impact assessment of FFS processes; and (iv) science by farmers. Participants of the workshop spent the mornings in the field collecting data in four groups. They then applied agro-ecosystem analysis procedures, analyzed the data, made presentations of the results, and came to decisions about possible interventions. The practical nature of participatory research through an FFS approach was communic the workshop participants through this two-day training course. 1.1.4. Training workshop on 'Capacity Building of the Integrated Research Sites Facilitators' This workshop was conducted 27-31 March 2006, at Quetta. It was used to train the IRS facilitators on communication between project researchers and rural communities. Six male facilitators from the IRSs, and six women from ARI, Quetta, attended the workshop. 1.1.5. Training course on 'Food Processing' The course was conducted from 29 June to 10 July 2006 at Ternab, Peshawar. The course was jointly organized by ICARDA, FAO and ARI. Four women facilitators from Ternab and four women staff from ARI (Seriab, Quetta) participated in the training. 1.1.6. Training course on 'Statistical and Economic Analysis of Field Experiments' 1.1.6.1. Background In Pakistan, economic, biometric, and statistical support for research at the agricultural research centers is, in general, nominal. The statistical and socioeconomic units at these centers are viewed primarily as data processing units and not as sources for economic and biometric assistance which provide consultancy services for planning, designing, and the analysis and interpretation of agricultural research problems. Thus, the plan was to fill this gap, enabling a more effective and efficient role for, and use of, both statistical and economic analyses in experimental research design, implementation, analysis, and reporting.

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This course would be one step along the long road to bridging the gap.The training course was held 21-25 May 2007, at AZRC, Quetta. It was attended by 36 provincial scientists from several research and academic institutions; AZRC, ARI-Seriab, Crop Reporting Services, Crop and Livestock Extension, and Universities (Balochistan University, Center for Advanced Studies in Vaccinology and Biotechnology). 1.1.6.2. Course objectives The course was planned to (i) build the capacity of Balochistan provincial scientists working in research and academic institutions; (ii) provide a comprehensive review of the methods which are being used for economic and statistical analyses; and (iii) introduce a sophisticated statistical package 'STATISTICA' (StatSoft, Inc.) for data analysis. The use of STATISTICA requires a better understanding of design principles, and its output requires a better insight into the subject matter. This helps to maximize the use of the statistical package. The major handicap of many such off-the-shelf packages is that they are unable tohandle complex situations where there is unbalanced data or sophisticated designs, like incomplete block designs of various kinds. However, no such handicap is linked with STATISTICA, and the analysis can be programmed or tailored according to the needs. The purpose of this training workshop was to analyze data from agricultural field experiments, present the results and write up scientific reports from the analyzed data using a professional style. 1.1.6.3. Implementation, concepts and methods The links between statistical and economic analyses of experimental data were explained to the scientists. The premises of economic analysis were explained, including (i) that farmers are concerned with the benefits and costs of particular technologies; (ii) that they usually adopt innovation in a step wise fashion; and (iii) that they will consider the risks involved in adopting new practices. A combination of agronomic and statistical analyses was used to determine yield differences and their significance levels. Training on economic analysis of experimental data included (i) partial budgeting and dominance analysis; (ii) marginal analysis to estimate changes in costs and net benefits of each treatment; (iii) minimum acceptable rate of return; (iv) ways of dealing with location-to-location, and year-to-year variability; and with the costs of inputs and prices of crops that are a primary concern to farmers as they make production decisions; and (v) general guidelines for reporting the results. Exploratory economic analysis helps to simplify future experiments, and marginal analysis helps to select a reasonable range of treatments for those experiments. Partial budget helps in calculating net benefits. 1.1.6.4. Course outputs Training arrangements were excellent in terms of computer facilities, room space, multimedia, microphones, handouts, etc. All important topics on economic and statistical analysis were covered in this training. The 36 participants were able to practice all the topics covered during the training on their computers. A session was conducted each morning to provide an opportunity to the participants to present the results of their analyses.Eight participants used these newly learned methods on their own research data and made presentations to their colleagues. These presentations were critically reviewed by expert resource persons, and improve-ments were suggested in terms of the method used and the interpretations of the results.The inter-relationships between statistical and economic analyses were highlighted during these interpretations of results and the conclusions drawn for developing recommendations for the farmers.The participants and resource persons shared their email addresses for future consultations. The skills of eight to ten scientists from the provincial institutions were improved to an extent that they can now help others in handling simple statistical analyses. An economist working in the provincial system was asked to provide further training in enterprise budgeting (cereal, vegetable, fruit crops, and livestock), whole farm budgeting, feasibility analysis, and Internal Rate of Return (IRR), etc. Participants in this workshop learned applied statistical and economic analysis procedures to produce reports and develop recommendations for farmers.

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1.1.7. Training on 'Protected Agriculture' The training took place at ARI in the period 14-17 April, 2007. Dr. Ahmad from ICARDA (protected agriculture specialist) and Mr. Thair Saleem (a private sector entrepreneur) shared their experiences with the local scientists to improve their skills in protected agriculture. Six farmers from IRSs working in protected agriculture and 16 ARI staff were trained. 1.1.8. Training on 'Village-based Seed Enterprise' Farmers and site facilitators from the three districts were trained, 26-28 October 2007, on the proper practices for the production of quality seed and the use of seed cleaning machines. The training was organized and executed by Mr. Abdul Aziz Niane (ICARDA Seed Unit). 1.1.9. Seminar on 'Potential of Dryland Agriculture in Balochistan and Procedures to Improve Productivity' The seminar was presented by Dr. Zahid Ali Qureshi (Agriculture Officer, Canadian Agriculture Department, Toronto) on the 17 July 2007 and was attended by 36 participants from AARC, ARI, Agriculture Extension, and the Agriculture College. 1.1.10. Training workshop on 'Sampling Vegetation and Grazing Management' A one day training was conducted on the 4 March 2008 at AZRC, Quetta. The workshop consisted of three presentations and practical training at AZRC nursery. The presentations included sampling concepts and study design, methods for determining the attributes of vegetation, and methods for determining grazing capacity and the grazing guidelines for fodder shrubs. A manual on the guidelines for 'sampling vegetation attributes in arid rangelands' was prepared for the training workshop. The training was organized and implemented by Dr. Mahfouz Abu-Zanat (Range Scientist, The Jordan University, Jordan). 1.2. Training at ICARDA (outreach) 1.2.1. Training on 'Management of High-value Crops-Fruit Trees' Mr. Javed and Mr. Razzaq from ARI attended the training in Syria, 9-20 April 2006. The training topics were management of pistachio, almond, pomegranate, olive, and grapes; the establishment of nurseries for the production of saplings; and modern technologies for water-use efficiency. The training included visits to private and government nurseries and orchards in Aleppo, Idlib, and Lattakia. The training program was organized and implemented by Dr. Nazal Eldairi (fruit trees scientist, Aleppo University, Syria). 1.2.2. Training course on 'Integrated Crop and Livestock Production' Mr. Abdul Razzq and Mr. Saifullah Khan (AZRC) attended the training course at ICARDA, Syria, 9-25 May 2006. The purpose of the course was to provide participants from Central and West Asia and North Africa (CWANA) with the necessary practical and theoretical information to improve and promote integrated crop and livestock production, and to increase their capabilities to support sustainable agricultural production without damaging the soil and water resource base. The participants learned how to (i) design, implement, manage, analyze, and report on research and development in the area of integrated crop-livestock production and acquire up-to-date information on research and practical activities in the management of mixed crop-livestock systems in each participating country; and (ii) apply an integrated crop and livestock production and ecosystem management approach to increase land productivity in both rainfed and irrigated crop-livestock systems. 1.2.3. Training course on 'Water Management for Improved Water-use Efficiency in the Dry Areas' Mr. Sadiq Nadeem and Mr. Abdul Razzk (AZRC) attended the course that was held at ICARDA, Syria from 9 May to 8 June 2006. The course focused on improving water-use efficiency through the judicious use of supplemental irrigation in rainfall environments. At the end of the course the participants were able

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to (i) design, implement, manage, analyze, and report on supplemental irrigation research in rainfed environments; (ii) present and transfer knowledge on improving water-use efficiency under supplemental irrigation; and (iii) apply an integrated natural resource management approach to optimize the use of scarce water resources in rainfed environments with supplemental irrigation. 1.2.4. Training course on 'Variety Management and Seed Quality Assurance' Mr. Saleem Sheikh (Director of Crop Research - ARI) was trained to establish a VBSE (village base seed enterprise), 1-7 September 2006. Mr. Afaq Ahmad (Deputy Director Federal Seed Certification and Registration Department) attended the course that was held at ICARDA-Aleppo, Syria, 5-17 May 2007. Mr. Afridi Ghangaheer visited ICARDA on 2-20 May and 1-20 September 2008 to analyze the crop data obtained from crop trials with ICARDA crop scientists. 1.2.5. Regional workshop on 'Marketing of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants' Dr. Sarfraz Ahmad (Senior Scientific Officer) participated in the workshop held 8-12 July 2007. 1.2.6. Training course on 'Seed Enterprises Development and Management' Mr. Abdul Khaliq from Qilla Saifulah district attended the training course during the period 13-24 November 2005 at ICARDA, Aleppo, Syria. Originally the invitation was for two scientists to attend the training, but the other candidate left AZRC and it was too late to nominate another person.

Figure 15. Participatory training course in Siddiqabad

Figure 16. Statistical training course in Quetta

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2. Field days
Three field days were organized at the Dasht, Siddigabad, and Duki sites. The social mobilizers of the FAO development component invited communities from the IRSs and neighboring villages to attend. Around 50 farmers living within a radius of from 10 to 40 km from these sites participated in these field days. The host farmers, multidisciplinary scientists, and visitors were provided opportunities to share their experiences. The neighboring villages' farmers were asked particularly to talk about their expectations from these field days. The participants at the field days said that they came to learn about new technologies tested at IRSs, and they wanted to select the promising ones for adoption at their own farms. The cereal and horticulture crops, range, livestock, water and soil, and social scientists shared their expert views on the technologies being tested at the sites. Farmers took keen interest in the vegetable production in PAT, sowing medicinal plants, range development interventions, and seed production of improved wheat and barley varieties. Farmers were divided into groups and asked to collect information from the experimental fields and then share their views. The following were some of the specific comments of the participants: (i) They asked about the availability of the improved varieties of wheat and barley seed and fruit seedlings, as at this time they do not have access to these materials. They had noticed that the improved wheat varieties were free from diseases, while the local wheat is highly susceptible to different diseases. (ii) They appreciated the work done and said the almond varieties were good as these are late flowering, escape frost injury and could give greater yields. They mentioned that local almond cultivars give fruit after 5 to 7 years, while the improved varieties start bearing fruit within 2 years of planting. (iii) They would adopt the new lentil varieties after testing the cooking quality and drought tolerance. (iv) The farmers asked the scientists to conduct farmers' field days at different times (sowing, fertilizing, and harvesting, etc) so that the farmers can get the maximum amount of information and can improve their yields. The field days helped increase awareness in the larger communities of the range of research activities conducted at IRSs. They assessed the performances of different crops and fruit plant cultivars, as compared to the local varieties. Through these field days, demand was generated for the technologies tested in the farmers' fields. The ICARDA research component is now working with the FAO development component to extend the use of the accepted wheat, barley, almond, and PAT technologies at IRSs and other locations.

Figure 17. Field days at the Integrated Research Sites

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3. Traveling workshop
3.1. Objective The traveling workshop was conducted 13-17 April 2007, when all six IRSs were visited. The objectives of the traveling workshop were to (i) jointly monitor the status of all experiments/demonstration under field situations; (ii) identify the strengths and weaknesses in experimentation; (iii) devise appropriate mechanisms for the rapid dissemination of emerging technologies; and (iv) fully accommodate the feedback from farmers, development agencies, the private sector, and research and extension workers in the scaling-up efforts planned for the future. 3.2. Participants Scientists from ICARDA, AZRC (ARI), the Federal Seed Certification and Registration, (NARC), the Technology Transfer Institute (TTI), a private seed company, the FAO-development component (sector professionals and social mobilizers), and agricultural extension workers actively participated in the field visits at all IRSs. The development component social mobilizers at each IRS briefed the participants about the progress related to community organizations and agricultural sector related developmental activities. Large numbers of host and neighboring farmers shared their views regarding the acceptability of the emerging technologies. The facilitators at each site organized the meetings with the communities and facilitated the field visits. Reports by project components on the status of each component were prepared for feedback communication. Report briefs are presented below. 3.3. Report on germplasm/varietals research Germplasm testing trials were conducted at six IRS and AZRC stations. The traveling workshop started by reviewing the germplasm testing trials at AZRC station and that was followed by visits to all IRSs. The following conclusions were drawn based on observations at the experimental sites. i. Favorable wet weather conditions badly damaged local wheat varieties with yellow rust, while the improved wheat germplasm exhibited resistance to rusts. Farmers understanding of the rust resist ance of new wheat cultivars was improved; ii. Farmers were keenly observing the wheat varieties in terms of stand establishments at different crop growth stages. They finally evaluated them at harvest time on a yield performance basis; iii. Adoption of new varieties is expected to start during the next sowing season, creating demand for the new cultivars; iv. Barley and lentil cultivars are also showing promising growth, and a wider acceptance by farmers was expected; v. Appropriate steps were suggested by the participants to properly harvest/thresh new cultivars to avoid any chances of mixing; vi. The participants suggested holding field days and inviting local communities, in collaboration with the FAO development component. 3.4. Report on seed multiplication Seed multiplication of previously validated wheat, barley, and lentil cultivars was initiated on a large scale at four IRSs (Dasht, Akhtarzai, Nalivalizai, and Duki). Around 40 ha were planted with the different cultivars. Both national and international seed experts, a private seed company representative, and the seed certification department participated in this traveling workshop in evaluating the seed plot situation. A consensus was developed on the following points, based on field observations:

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i. The conditions of the wheat, lentil, and barley seed plot stand establishments were found quite satisfactory at all four IRSs. Only one barley plot at Duki was discarded due to an un-manageable level of mixture; rouging was suggested to perfectly clean wheat and barley plots. ii. Approximately 100 tons of seed production are expected from all seed plots; and a priority order was decided for the distribution of the clean, harvested seeds among the IRS communities. Some will be retained as source seed for next season's multiplication, then distributed to FAO development component communities; iii. The ICARDA Seed Unit has to prepare a comprehensive plan, based on the estimated production of all seed crops, for seed procurement, storage, and distribution. Demand for seed would also be estimated to facilitate organizing seed distribution arrangements; iv. It was decided to distribute seed in small quantities to as many growers as possible to facilitate rapid diffusion. 3.5. Report on range and livestock Different rangeland species planted at Siddigabad site flourished and successfully passed through a dry spell during the previous year's initial plant development stages. Annual grasses planted in between shrubs also showed promising results for enhanced biomass production. Other interventions, like gully plugging with suitable plant species, also prospered. The site is ready to be demonstrated to the neighboring communities for replication purposes. On-the-job-training of site facilitators is further required for the on-site propagation of shrubs and annual grasses. High economic returns were estimated from feed supplement experiments with sheep flocks, both at the AZRC station and in the farming communities. Through a dialogue process, an understanding between communities and AZRC livestock scientists was reached to train the communities in how to process feed at the local level using raw materials available within the communities. The details of low cost equipment, feed ingredients, and production arrangement would be worked out together. 3.6. Horticulture and protected agriculture Fruit plants (almonds, pistachio, and olive) from Syria and local germplasm have shown improvement in growth as a result of exercising proper pruning, replacement of old and/or dead plants with localgermplasm for budding/grafting, and improved management practices. A late flowering (15 days difference) has attracted farmers' attention to these varieties, and they are keenly looking forward to the quality of the produce to make a final judgment prior to a wider adoption of the Syrian almond varieties. All protected agricultural tunnels were planted; three with cucumber and one with tomato. Local, private sector expertise in tunnel farming was invited to share its experience as well as to develop linkages for low cost seed supplies on a sustainable basis. The crops in the tunnels were in good shape at all three farms and one research location. The site facilitators were trained by the private sector resource person to make adjustments in water application levels at different growth stages. They were also instructed on weeding practices during the production cycle, row to row spacing, selection of varieties for the winter and summer seasons, temperature management, humidity control, and plant nutrient management. A year-round crop plan was developed to harvest two to three crops from the tunnels under different climatic situations. 3.7. Water sector Interventions to control water transport losses at the Siddiqabad site, water dikes/diversion constructions at Akhtarzai site, and the development of low cost water harvesting structures and water ponds at Naliwalizai site were all reviewed. The following observations were made during these visits:

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i. Detailed data gathering on water losses was suggested for the control site and deficit irrigation fields. ii. An in-depth study of water sharing arrangements, additional water harvesting, ease of operations, and water productivity estimation was proposed for the Akhtarzai site. iii. The design and construction of low cost water diversions in full collaboration with the communities was particularly appreciated by the participants of the seminar. iv. A few improvements in the design of structures that were suggested by Akhter Ali and Yasin (NARC) would be followed up. v. Additional improvements in the development of water ponds and water availability through hand pumps would be followed up using guidance and technical feasibility documents prepared by Haji Sami-ullah (AZRC). vi. Detailed data gathering methods/procedures would be worked out jointly between Sami-ullah, Akhter Ali, and Yasine. vii. Technical plans for additional water diversion at Siddiqabad, and water harvesting structures at the Dasht sites would be initiated only after getting consent from the FAO (who are responsible for involving communities in cost sharing and construction work)

4. Visits of scientists and senior staff


4.1. Visits of ICARDA scientists to Pakistan The various visits of ICARDA scientists to the Poverty Alleviation Project in Balochistan are summarized in Table 112. Twelve scientists from ICARDA representing different research areas of the project attended the first annual planning meeting held at Quetta, 9-10 June 2005. Dr. Adel Abul Naga visited Quetta and Islamabad twice to meet with the senior officials to facilitate and monitor the implementation of the project activities. Dr. Kamil Shideed visited the project once to monitor the work at the research sites and to meet with the national scientists. Dr. Farouk Shomo visited the sites four times to implement Rapid Rural Appraisal, select the research sites, prepare the base line study, and analyze the survey data. Mr. Akhtar Ali visited the sites three times to implement water activities. Dr. Ashraf Tubeileh visited the sites once to study the potential for introducing high value crops at the project sites. Mr. Abdul Fattah Tarsha visited the project sites once to study the feasibility of establishing protected agriculture. Dr Adel Abul Naga, Applied Research Project Director, and Dr Kamel Shideed, Project Coordinator, visited the project 3-7 January 2006. The purpose was to meet officials of the Government of Balochistan, AZRC, ARI, and the development component staff (FAO), to discuss ongoing work and strengthen the collaboration between all partners. They also visited IRSs to evaluate the work done on the ground. The mission met in Dubai with Dr Ahmed Mustafa to discuss the start of the protected agriculture activities. Mr Akhtar Ali visited the project sites 18-28 March 2006 to provide technical backstopping on ground water management at the Siddigabad site, and floodwater harvesting (sailaba) at the Akhtarzai site. Mr Akhtar Ali visited the project sites 4-15 July 2006 to attend the second planning meeting; provide backstopping on water and soil management for reducing water transport losses; provide support for micro-catchment water harvesting for range rehabilitation and soil conservation; evaluate the conjunctive use of sailaba/khuskaba and groundwater at the Siddigabad IRS; and improve the sailaba divesions to maximize the area benefiting from floodwater and reduce damage at the Akhtarzai IRS. Twelve ICARDA scientists attended the second planning meeting in Quetta, 12-13 July 2006. Mr Abdoul Aziz Niane, seed production specialist, visited the project sites 5-11 October 2006, to initi ate the development of the village-based seed enterprises.

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Dr Farouk Shomo visited the project IRSs 16-21 November 2006 to monitor project activities on the ground; and hold discussions with the scientists involved in the implementation. Dr Shomo visited four IRSs, Siddigabad, Dasht, Akhtarzai, and Alozai. Visits to Duki and Nalivalizai were not possible due to the high rainfall and the floods on the day of the visit. Table 112. ICARDA scientists' visits to the Poverty Alleviation Project in Balochistan, 2005 - 2008 Name Date Purpose Dr. Kamil Shideed 9-10 June 2005 First annual planning meeting Dr. Farouk Shomo Mr. Akhtar Ali Dr. Ashraf Tubeileh Mr. Abdul Fattah Tarsha Dr. Adel Abul Naga Dr. Kamel Shideed 3-7 Jan 2006 Meet officials of the Government of Balochistan, AZRC, ARI, and the Staff (FAO) of development component. Technical backstopping on groundwater management at the Siddiqabad site, and floodwater harvesting (sailaba) at the Akhtarzai site. Improvement of sailaba diversions. 2nd planning meet Second planning meeting Initiation of village-based seed enterprises Visit project IRSs to follow up on project activities Conduct Market study in the IRS and main markets in the area Monitoring the project activities Participated in the traveling workshop

Mr Akhtar Ali

18-28 March 2006

4-15 July 2006 12 Scientists from ICARDA 12-13 July 2006 Mr. Abdoul Aziz Niane Dr. Farouk Shomo Dr. Farouk Shomo Dr. M. Azeem Khan Dr. Farouk Shomo Dr. Kamel Shideed Dr. Ahmed Mustafa Dr. Akhtar Ali Dr. Farouk Shomo Dr. Farouk Shomo Dr. Koffi Amagbeto Dr. Farouk Shomo 5-11 Oct 2006 16-21 Nov 2006 9-19 March 2007

22 - 28 July 2007 April 2007

2 - 12 March 2008

Monitoring the project activities

29 June - 9 July 2008 Prepare for the Impact survey

22 Jan- 1 Feb 2009

Visit Islamabad to review the Impact Survey data and to plan for the data analysis and report

4.2. Visits of Pakistani scientists to ICARDA Mr. Afzal Mohammed from TTI-Quetta visited ICARDA in May 2005 to participate with ICARDA scientists in analyzing the base line survey data and preparing the study report. Dr. Islam Muhamad (applied research coordinator) visited ICARDA, 18-28 May, to discuss project activities with the scientists cocerned.

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4.3. Senior visitors to ICARDA Dr. Len Reynolds (FAO-Project Manger in Pakistan) visited ICARDA 18-21 May 2005 and met with scientists and the management of ICARDA. Mr. Saleem Khan, the Additional Secretary, Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Livestock, Pakistan visited ICARDA 23-25 September 2007. Mr. Saleem held a meeting with ICARDA senior management and visited different ICARDA facilities. At the meeting with the senior management, Mr. Saleem acknowledged the contribution of ICARDA to developing Pakistan's agriculture through the Barani and Balochistan Projects. During his meetings at ICARDA, Mr. Saleem raised many issues related to the optimization of irrigation water, livestock production, high value crops (olives), production of oil seeds in rainfed areas, the seed program (VBSE), and the importance of including Pakistan as a member of CGIAR. Mr. David Doolan, FAO-Project Manager visited ICARDA 15-19 January 2007 to discuss the contribution of ICARDA to the development component. During his visit Mr. Doolan met with senior management and the scientists in the different research programs who are contributing directly to the implementation of the Balochistan project. 4.4. Consultants visits to project sites Dr. Njeri Muhia (Department of Economics, Egerton University, Kenya) visited Quetta 9-20 November 2005, and conducted the Participatory Training Workshop. Twenty-six scientists from AZRC, ARI, TTI, the Forestry Department, Livestock Department, Balochistan Poverty Alleviation Project-Development (FAO), Balochistan Rural Support Program (BRSP), and the Women's University participated in the workshop. Dr. Nazal Dairi (fruit trees specialist, Aleppo University, Syria), and Dr. Ashraf Tubaileh (ICARDA) visited the IRSs, 5-15 December 2005, to assess the situation of the orchards in the target areas, and evaluate the potential for introducing high value crops at the sites. The consultancy report suggested training two experts on high value crops in Syria. Dr. Tawfiq Shalabi (animal scientist, Egypt) visited the IRSs, 31 March to 11 April 2006, and discussed with the communities the health and nutritional problems of animals, and identified some technical interventions for improving the performance of the sheep and goats. Dr. Mahfouz Abu-Zanat, a range scientist from Jordan, joined with Dr. Farouk Shomo (Balochistan Project Coordinator, ICARDA), Dr. M. Islam (Project Coordinator, Quetta), and Dr. Sarfraz Ahmad (AZRC) in a visit to the project sites 1-12 March 2008. They discussed with the IRS communities and project staff (i) the implemented rangeland activities, (ii) potential options for sustainable livestock rangeland integration at the village scale, and (iii) development of workplans for scaling-up those activities successfully implemented on the rangelands. The consultant undertook the following activities: (i) Conducted a one-day training workshop on 4 March 2008 at AZRC, Quetta. The workshop comprised three presentations and practical training at the AZRC nursery. The presentations included, sampling concepts and study design, methods for determining vegetation attributes, and methods for determining grazing capacity and grazing guidelines for fodder shrubs. The consultant prepared a training manual on 'sampling vegetation attributes in arid rangelands' for the training worshop and provided the project with two hard copies. (ii) Visited all six IRSs and discussed with the communities the possibility of duplicating the activities implemented at communal rangelands of Siddigabad at other sites. The suggested workplan for the expansion of rangeland activities to other IRSs consisted of updating the biophysical (land resources and livestock population) baseline data of the targeted sites; in-depth analysis of social norms related to land tenure of grazing lands; proper statistical analysis of the collected data and enhancement of the technical reporting; development of a monitoring program focusing on both commodity and

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ecosystem aspects; and development and execution of community-based grazing management. The visit report contained more details on the suggested workplan for the expansion of the rangeland activities to other IRSs. The consultant highlighted the following issues when reviewing the activities implemented at the communal rangelands in Siddiqabad: i. The importance of rational management. The results of protecting rangelands from grazing for two seasons-luckily the period of protection coincided with a period of normal rainfall-revealed that the site ecosystem is resilient and has the potential to produce substantial amounts of forage for grazing animals. The promotion of rangeland protection requires organization of the community and reasonable in-kind incentives. ii. The importance of using permanent transects for monitoring the vegetation to evaluate the impact of project activities (protection, water harvesting micro-catchment, grazing management, etc) on the biophysical aspects of the rangelands. iii. The importance of training in grazing management to ensure sustainable forage production from the established fodder plantations.

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LESSONS LEARNED
1. Linking research and development
Strengthening the linkages between research and policy requires an understanding of the key components of their interface to help link the two processes - research outputs and the use of research products in implementing policies and programs. The project was successful in linking the three partners, the community members, researchers, and decision makers working on agriculture development in the targeted IRSs. The community members expressed their needs and addressed the issues to be investigated. The researchers understood the communities' practices, traditions, and needs and paid attention to the social and economic contexts of knowledge production and use. The decision makers were satisfied with the research findings and showed a strong commitment to incorporating these into the development programs. The technologies or interventions applied in the targeted areas tackled a wide array of issues concerning the community and hence the dissemination and scaling-up of these interventions to other areas is justifiable.

2. Research institutions forum/consortium


An effective and strong collaboration was established among the different research institutions at both district and national levels. The AZRC, ARI, TTI, NARC, and PARC played major roles in communicating with the targeted communities, collecting and analyzing data, training community members and the staff of line departments, and monitoring the research activities at the targeted sites. The planning programs that were developed by ICARDA and FAO were well integrated with the project activities. This fruitful cooperation among the different research institutions is a great asset and should be fully utilized for the future scaling-up of project activities.

3. Community mobilization
The project adopted many participatory approaches, such as co-management, a participatory research module for mobilizing local communities in the implementation and evaluation of research activities. The researchers worked very closely and hand-in-hand with farmers and stockowners, exchanging ideas about the pressing problems and identifying potential solutions which took into consideration the capabilities of both the farmers and the biophysics of the site. For example, the village-based seed enterprise (VBSE) approach developed by ICARDA was successfully implemented and facilitated access to improved seeds for the farming communities. An integral part of this VBSE is the mobile seed cleaning machines (MSCM), which helped farmers to multiply the improved seeds in their field for later distribution to other farmers.

4. Economic benefits
The main goal of the project was to increase agricultural productivity thus enhancing the livelihoods of rural communities. Therefore, the direct and indirect economic dimensions were the main concerns when implementing project activities. For example, the leveling of fields (bandats) saved 16% of the time needed for flood irrigation, and the water regulation structures increased harvested water by 67%. Modifications to the stock water ponds improved water availability by about 44% and enhanced the original storage by 50%. A significant reduction in water losses, ranging from 79 to 100%, was achieved by lining the irrigation water channels.

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POLICY BRIEFS
Balochistan is the largest province in Pakistan, but, unfortunately, it is also the poorest . For the last twenty years, many projects have been implemented to alleviate poverty in the rural areas of Balochistan. A policy is needed that identifies, designs, and implements the necessary actions for improving agricultural production in order to enhance the livelihoods of the rural communities in Balochistan. The purpose of this chapter is to highlight the main issues facing the decision makers in Balochistan which govern the development of crop-based agriculture and livestock production. The findings that stemmed from the various technical options implemented by the project showed that many opportunities exist to enhance the livelihoods of rural communities in the province. Therefore, the government should design and implement policies for the scaling-out of the successful interventions for improving agricultural production. The suggested policy briefs on livestock production, rangeland management, and water resources are viewed as components within the larger frame of the agricultural sector policies in Balochistan. The main themes of the suggested policy briefs focus on improving the efficiency of the smallholders producing crops and livestock for the local market. They need to better meet the increasing demand for crops and livestock products and enhance the livelihoods of poor stockowners and farmers in the rural areas in Balochistan.

1. Livestock production
1.1. Overview Livestock production is one of the major sources of livelihood for around 70% of the rural population in Balochistan. According to the 1996 census, the number of small ruminants is about 20 million head. Livestock production is, predominantly, a range-based system, which can be categorized into one of four types; nomadic, transhumant, sedentary, and household. Most of the people living in agricultural villages raise a few animals. This supplementary livestock production accounts for a major portion of household income and helps to improve farm productivity. Household flocks usually have from 5 to 15 animals, and often a single shepherd is hired to look after the livestock of the entire village. As agricultural villages are normally inhabited by members of the same lineage or clan group, they have the usufruct rights over rangelands adjacent to their villages; this is traditionally called shamalat. Since the introduction of tube-well irrigation in the mid 1970s, there has been a steady increase in the number of stockowners who have become sedentary and settled near irrigated land to combine agriculture with livestock production. The increased number of sedentary flocks has aggravated the grazing pressure on the shamalat, and has resulted in a complete depletion of winter feed resources for the villages' flocks. In the mid 1970s, the villagers owned relatively small flocks, which resulted in the shamalats remaining in good condition as the grazing pressure was slight. Grazing animals, especially the dams, derived adequate nutrients from the range plants and produced enough milk to nourish their young (lambs and kids). Supplemental feeding of adult animals was practiced only in severe cold conditions or prolonged drought. Feeding concentrates to fatten the growing animals was practiced on a limited scale because lambs and kids were sufficiently well nourished on their dams' milk for three to four months before being sold to the butchers. The severe and long drought that struck Balochistan in the last few years dramatically reduced the forage productivity of the grazing and non-grazing resources and stockowners were obliged to sell almost all their animals. The serious forage shortage, particularly during the cold winter months and before the monsoon

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rains in July and August, resulted in malnutrition of the sheep and goats. Poor nutrition in combination with livestock diseases is a serious problem limiting the production of small ruminants. The veterinary services at the district level are weakly structured. It is estimated that only 11% of Balochistan's livestock have access to veterinary dispensaries. Most commonly the high mortality in animals can be due to infectious diseases like anthrax, black quarter, sheep pox, pleuropneumonia, foot and mouth, enterotoxaemia, and parasitic diseases (endo-parasites, such as lung worm, intestinal worms, liver fluke, and ecto-parasites, like ticks, mange, mites, and warbles). The imperfect markets often trap poor livestock owners in low-income equilibria, preventing them from making use of the production-increasing inputs necessary to escape from poverty. For instance, a lack of information about prices prevents the smallholders from fully benefiting from a potential increase in the value of animal products. Thus poor nutrition of livestock results in considerable mortality, a low lambing percentage, a high incidence of parasitic loads in the livestock, and the stunned growth of young animals. This is in addition to imperfect markets causing enormous losses to stockowners. 1.2. Challenges The pastoral animal production sector in Balochistan is facing many challenges. These include a shortage of feed resources for grazing animals, poor animal health, and a lack of infrastructure for marketing livestock and their products. Strategies to develop pastoral animal production are expected to tackle both the animal feed and animal health issues in an integrated approach. From a practical point of view, the two issues should be stratified at the village level (sedentary and household livestock production) and at the rangeland level (nomadic and transhumant livestock production). The common/open access rangeland will be discussed under the policy of rangeland management and rehabilitation. 1.3. Directions 1.3.1. Promotion of a 'village feed production system' This village model depends to a large extent on the natural capital available in the village. This means that the potential of the natural resources (soils, water, and vegetation) of a certain village will dictate the specific model for feed production. For example, in villages with available irrigation water (from ponds or tube-wells), production of feed crops (annual forage crops and grain crops) should be promoted. The forage produced can be used to feed dairy cows. The types and tonnage of forage produced govern the scale of the dairy enterprise in the village. If grain production is possible in the target village, then the establishment of feed lots for fattening lambs and kids should be promoted. In villages depending mainly on horticulture, the production of perennial forage crops (alfalfa) inside and/or outside these orchards is helpful in raising a limited number of animals for the poor households. Members of poor households can work in the orchards in exchange for the forage produced. Leaves dropped from the fruit trees and the pruned materials (small twigs and leaves) could also be used for feeding mature animals. In villages with significant areas of rangeland (shamalat), the rehabilitation of these rangelands and promotion of community-based grazing management of the improved sites will be the best choice. The technical interventions demonstrated by the Poverty Alleviation Project in Balochistan showed that forage productivity of village rangelands (shamalat) can be increased substantially through management (resting of rangelands for two or three seasons) and through fodder plantations in micro-catchments. These interventions can secure the winter feed requirements for the village flock.

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1.3.2. Feed lot fattening With young animals, the growth rate is rapid when good nutrition is provided. The project has demonstrated that if the lambs and kids are separated from the flock and offered a high quality feed it can be economically very profitable. Fattening lambs and kids at the household level faces two major problems. It requires space in which to keep the young animals, and finances with which to purchase concentrated feed and medications. This requires at least one feed lot to be established in each village and managed by the 'Village Cooperative'. The Cooperative is expected to develop reasonable and practical incentives to encourage stockowners to sell it the lambs and kids. Incentives, such as purchasing the young animals at a reasonable price, and giving 5 to 10% of the net profit per head generated from the fattening, can maintain good collaboration between the stockowners and the cooperative. The fattening enterprise requires that one or two feed factories be established at the District level. The raw materials for making the fattening rations can be purchased from the different villages in the district or through contracting farmers outside the district. 1.3.3. Animal health Good results have been achieved by the project in controlling the major infectious disease and internal parasites. Capacity building of both stockowners and the staff of line departments (the Livestock Department, and Veterinary Research Institute, for example) is a major element in a successful program for controlling animal diseases. Training is a continuous activity and should be given a high priority in animal production programs. The expected outcome of the training is the formation of a skilled veterinary team (three to five members) in each village which is provided with the needed tools and equipment for the effective control of animal diseases. The provincial veterinary programs should encourage the participation of local communities in the design and delivery of animal health care services. Continuous evaluation of the feedback from the stockowners and the technical staff is necessary in order to adjust and boost the animal health programs. 1.3.4. Monitoring of livestock production Monitoring of livestock populations, feed resources, and animal diseases is important for tracking the changes or trends in animal production at the village level and to identify the factors triggering these changes. Internal factors at the village or district level could be addressed to improve livestock production and economic profitability. In other words, the village is viewed as an integrated enterprise for crop and animal production. The collection of data and the monitoring of animal production of require an institution with well defined terms of reference. Beyond the collection of information, the target institution is expected to process the compiled information and make the necessary recommendations.

2. Rangeland management and rehabilitation


2.1. Overview In Balochistan, the rangeland constitutes 79% of the total area, but provides more than 90% of the total feed requirements of the sheep and goats. The rangelands located in the north of the province are considered the best in terms of forage productivity and diversity because of the high rainfall. This region constitutes about 38% of the total area of the province and carries 76% of the total livestock in the province. The 62% of the rangelands that are in the south are less productive and carry about 24% of the livestock. The variable ecological conditions in Balochistan make it necessary for livestock owners to migrate in search for grazing areas. The migratory livestock constitutes about 90% of the livestock population in Balochistan. Of this migratory livestock, 60% is transhumant and only 30% nomadic. The migration is from the uplands to the low lands in winter and vice versa in the summer season. The migrations follows fixed routes where they have contact with the communities who provide grazing facilities and animal feed, and in return, the nomads sell them animals, animal products, and provide farm labor.

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The rangelands fall into two types of property regime, common property rangelands, and open access rangelands. Common property rangelands are traditionally owned by tribes, with customary institutional arrangements for their sustainability and effective management. Open access rangelands experience unrestricted exploitation and are usually in poor condition. Open access rangelands have been increasing in area, as common property rangelands have undergone degradation and have been abandoned by their owners. Grazing is generally free of charge, but in some cases, owners are obliged to pay nominal fees to the tribe of the area. Over 90% of the forage consumed by nomadic flocks comes from the rangelands, but in times of acute shortages the shepherds have to buy stubble to feed the livestock. The increased number of grazing animals (local and outsiders) far exceeds the actual grazing capacity of the rangelands. It is estimated that 62% of the rangelands in Balochistan are poor or have virtually no grazing capacity. The central Balochistan rangelands, comprising only 15% of the total rangelands in the province, have promising potential for rehabilitation. Because of their moderate production potential, the central rangelands should be given priority in future rehabilitation programs. It is worth noting that nomadic or mobile pastoralism appears to be not only ecologically sustainable, but also relatively productive as an opportunistic way of exploiting natural resources. The encroachment of farming into the traditional rangelands, especially in places where irrigation water is available, have undermined traditional pastoral movements and contributed to the continual displacement of pastoralists. The steady increase in grazing pressure due to the shrinkage of traditional rangelands and the continuous grazing of the remaining rangelands without resting has resulted in severe degradation, loss of biodiversity, and drastic reduction in forage productivity. If no action is taken to halt rangeland degradation, and to develop rational strategies for the mitigation of rangeland deterioration, the whole pastoral economy in Balochistan will collapse, making more people vulnerable to poverty. 2.2. Challenges Animal production based on the common/open access rangelands is facing three main constraints, the continuous and accelerated degradation of the rangelands, widespread animal diseases, and frequent droughts. The vast areas of common rangelands and the huge number of mobile flocks roaming them require a long-term policy to strengthen pastoral animal production. The dramatic decline in rangeland forage productivity has resulted in high animal mortality and a reduction in animal performance. The nomadic stockowners used to rebuild their flocks to a certain size as an insurance against drought or an outbreak of disease. The continuous rebuilding of flocks increases pressure on the deteriorated grazing resources. The animals of the nomadic flocks are characterized by low productivity, which discourages stockowners from seeking medication in the event of disease. The inaccessibility of these vast and remote grazing areas and the mobility of the nomadic flocks make it difficult for the proper delivery of veterinary services. Even if the veterinary services are available many pastoralists prefer to use the traditional medications (herbs) to treat their animals. The mobile flocks, carrying a wide array of diseases and insects, are acting as moving trains for spreading diseases and parasites. The rural regions of Balochistan are drought-prone areas, and lack any measure of pastoral risk management which leaves the majority of the nomadic livestock keepers to the mercy of the harsh climatic conditions. Unless there are practical, reasonable, and positively felt measures to secure pastoral animal production, the nomadic stockowners will not collaborate with any intervention.

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2.3. Directions 2.3.1. Rangeland Resources Unit The vast areas of rangelands in Balochistan, the large number of sheep and goats exploiting these resources, and the number of households making their living from pastoral activity requires the establishment of a unit concerned with rangeland resources. The responsibilities of such a unit could include: Making an inventory of rangeland resources, and an assessment, based on the type and scale of inter vention required, with the objective of grouping the rangelands into three categories: (i) high potential rangelands requiring only slight modifications to the current management practices, (ii) medium potential rangelands requiring classical, technical interventions, and (iii) low potential rangelands that need long-term interventions. Delineating and mapping the categorized rangelands within the different districts of the province. Collecting further details on the edaphic and biotic characteristics of each rangeland category. Developing management work plans for each rangeland category based on the compiled information. The work plan will focus on the grazing arrangements (spatial and temporal of flocks) through which the tribes commonly exploit the grazing resources of these areas. Establishing veterinary centers or campaigns within each rangeland category or sub-category to control animal diseases. Developing monitoring programs to track changes in rangeland condition under the different work plans. Using the information obtained from the monitoring of the livestock and rangelands to develop 'pastoral risk management' programs. 2.3.2. Capacity building of range staff Training (in-country and abroad) of range staff is essential for them if they are to play an effective role in the proposed Rangeland Resources Unit. Training should focus on the following: Development of vegetation sampling protocols to obtain quality data of practical significance for use in the development of management plans. Grazing management (estimation of grazing capacity, grazing plans, etc) of the communal rangelands taking into consideration the seasonality of forage production and tribal grazing rights. Statistical analysis of the data collected, and reporting the findings. 2.3.3. Linking pastoral production to market chains The outputs of nomadic flocks (lambs, kids, and wool production) should be linked to marketing stations in the villages along the traditional grazing routes used by the mobile flocks. Offering veterinary services at these stations, especially for young animals, can reduce mortality and increase the profitability of the lambs/kids crop. These stations can serve as temporary fattening centers during the grazing season. 2.3.4. Multi-disciplinary research Pastoral animal production and the management of rangelands require skilled staff having various specialties. The staff is expected to play a major role in shaping the programs and the associated work plans of all line departments and units related to pastoral animal production and the management of natural resources.

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3. Policy review: Water resources


3.1. Overview Recurring droughts in recent years have reduced water suppplies to about 50% of their normal levels. In response, farmers have taken various measures including judicious use of water, exploitation of groundwater, and purchase of water from tube wells. In non-irrigated areas, the traditional water harvesting systems (sailaba and kushkuba) were severely affected by the droughts. In irrigated areas, the subsidy on electricity resulted in a dramatic increase in the number of tube wells with the consequent lowering of the water table and the mining of groundwater. One effect of this subsidy, and the ready the availability of cheap irrigation water was that farmers neglected the maintenance of the sailaba and kushkuba systems. This ineffective management of surface waters reduced the recharge of groundwater. The two major challenges are negligence of traditional water harvesting systems for farming, and mining of groundwater. Additionally, the systems which deliver irrigation water to the farms are ineffective and substantial amounts of water are wasted. 3.2. Directions 3.2.1. Watershed water farming The unreliability of spate irrigation farming requires the introduction of conjunctive water use and maagement at the basin, sub-basin, catchment, and farm levels. Such conjunctive use must include all sources of water - precipitation, runoff, stream flows, and shallow and deep groundwater. The project has shown that significant amounts of harvested water can be saved by dividing the sailaba irrigation system into sub-units for efficient transport and distribution of harvested water. There are two types of spate irrigation systems, perennial spate and non-perennial spate. Over 35% of the spate area is under perennial spate irrigation systems and more attention must be given to developing and managing these systems. The perennial spate systems receive water from the rivers, while the non-perennial ones receive water from the flash floods which follow the rainfall. 3.2.2. Crops with low water requirement Poor farmers in rural Balochistan own small fields under sailaba and kushkuba irrigation systems. Wheat and barley are the main crops. In perennial spate irrigation, grain crops,vegetables, and fruits are commonly produced. Therefore, it is strongly recommended that crops of high water productivity and, at the same time, low water requirement be selected. Close monitoring of the irrigation water applied and the performance of different crops under perennial spate irrigation systems for several seasons will help evaluated the economic and environmental dimensions. 3.2.3. Phasing out the subsidy on electricity Subsidies encourage misuse of resources and corruption. Many reports indicate that electricity subsidies benefits only the rich, who use large quantities of water to irrigate large orchards and/or vegetables fields. Phasing out the subsidy to would reduce this waste of irrigation water. Electricity from the national grid could be sold at a marginal profit to the village electricity center, which in turn distributes the electricity to farmers. Controlling the delivery and pricing of electricity can help rationalize the use of irrigation water. 3.2.4. Improving water conveyance The project showed that lining the water distribution system saved significant amounts of the scare irrigation water resources. The farming community should be mobilized to join with the line departments and authorities in planning and implementing a proper system for transporting irrigation water.

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IMPACT ASSESSMENT 1. Introduction


The main goal of investments in agricultural research is to generate or increase the benefits from agriculture at the farm, community, and national levels through technology adoption, institutional and human capacity building, and policy change. Indicators such as productivity, profitability, food security, income level and its distribution, are widely used to evaluate technical and economic impacts of research projects. The project on food security and poverty alleviation in arid agriculture in Balochistan sought to enhance economic returns through dissemination and adoption of improved crop germplasm. ICARDA supplied drought- and cold-tolerant varieties of wheat, barley and lentil, which were planted under farmers' in the 2004/05, 2005/06, 2006/07 and 2007/08 seasons. To assess the uptake and impact of introduced varieties, a farm survey of 210 farmers was conducted. The survey revealed a wide range of improved and local varieties used by farmers. A total of ten different wheat varieties were encountered during the survey. These include the new improved variety (Cham-6), old improved varieties (Azri-96 and K-98), other new varieties (Baker and Zarlish), and local varieties (Zarghoon, Sorbeag, Sariab, Inglab, and Zardana). Similarly, the survey identified six different barley varieties, including the new improved variety Arta, the old improved variety Sanobar, other new varieties (Azww and Awaran), and local varieties Sorab and Local. Finally, three different varieties of lentil were identified, namely: the new improved variety Ill-8081, the old improved variety Shiraz-96, and a local variety. The seeds of these crop varieties were produced during the life of the project, and disseminated to farmers in the main research sites and to development sites managed by the FAO.An important objective of this project is to increase economic returns from cropping and dissemination of improved drought-adapted crop germplasm

2. Measuring farm level impact


The study focuses mainly on the following indicators to measure farm-level impacts of the project. In that respect, the study was designed to: Measure crop productivity change following the adoption /use of improved varieties. Estimate and compare the economic returns to adopting new varieties. Determine food security outcomes by measuring the increase of the share of food produced in the farmers' own farms. Analyze poverty alleviation among the communities through measuring the income increase realized from the new improved varieties. 2.1. Data collection A questionnaire was designed and pre-tested by sampling few farmers. Five staff of TTI and AZRC were trained for questionnaire administration and data collection using one visit survey technique. The sampling approach and methodologies for survey implementation were discussed. Based on information obtained on the number of farmers who have been exposed to the new varieties through testing, demonstration, field days, seed multiplication or use, a total of 100 farmers (50 adopters, 50 non-adopters) were sampled from the development sites and 110 (60/50) farmers from the research sites. The distribution of sample size per site is presented in Table 1. Communities were selected purposively based on dissemination of the new varieties and farmers were then randomly selected.

110

The sample included farmers who received improved new varieties and farmers who did not receive new varieties. In the integrated research sites 44% of the famers participated in seed multiplication activities, while only 8% participated in variety testing. The remaining 48% did not participate in project crop activities (Table 2). Ten new wheat varieties that were tested include Cham-6, Zardana and Bakar, which were the dominant varieties. Sorab was the dominant barley variety followed by AZWW, while Shiraz-96 and ILL8081 were the most tested lentil varieties. Tables 3, 4 and 5, respectively present the proportions of improved varieties of wheat, barley and lentil planted during the tenure of the project. Table 1. Sample distribution by research and development Sites: District Site Research Sites Total number of farmers with new varieties 80 Mastung Siddiqabad 3 Mastung Dasht 12 Qilla Saifullah Akhtarzai 10 Qilla Saifullah Alozai 4 Loralai Lalbagh /Duki 15 Loralai Nalivalizai 16 Sub-total 60 Number of farmers without new varieties Mastung Siddiqabad 5 Mastung Dasht 10 Qilla Saifullah Akhtarzai 10 Qilla Saifullah Alozai 5 Loralai Lalbagh /Duki 10 Loralai Nalivalizai 10 Sub-total 50 Total sample 110 100
Note: Sample size allocation for Development Areas is by District.

Development SitesTotal 314 394 20 15 15 50 20 15 15 50 210 100 110

Table 2. Level of project participation by respondents Item Percent of respondents Variety testing 8 Seed multiplication 44 Non-participation 48 Total 100 Table 3. Proportion (%) of improved wheat varieties planted during the project Cham-6 AZRI-96 K98 Sariab Zarghun Bakar Zardana Inqlab Local 25 4.3 6.4 10 8 15 19.3 2 5 Table 4. Proportion (%) of improved barley varieties planted during the project Sanobar AZWW Awaran Sorab Arta Local 8 16 4 60 4 8 Table 5. Proportion (%) of improved lentil varieties planted during the project Shiraz-96 ILL8081 Local 66 27 7

Zarlish 5

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The study solicited reasons for adopting or not adopting new improved crop varieties. Table 6 indicated that the most important factors for adopting improved wheat varieties were better yield, good bread quality, resistance to disease and resistance to lodging. Table 7 shows the reasons preventing farmers from adopting new wheat varieties. These reasons include yield fluctuation as the most important factor preventing farmers from adopting the new varieties. Other important factors are high cost of improved seeds and their availability, demand for fertilizer and water requirementShattering was also mentioned as a factor negatively affecting the adoption of new varieties. Among adopters of new varieties, 44% of the farmers were advised by ICARDA, 26% by FAO, and 28% of the farmers obtained the new varieties on their own through farmer-to-farmer exchange of improved seeds (Table 8). Table 9 indicates that new barley varieties were adopted mainly because of comparatively better yield, and resistance to disease, lodging, frost and drought, and also because they are early-maturing. Farmers who did not adopt new barley varieties mentioned shattering and yield fluctuations as contributing reasons. Other reasons mentioned for not adopting new barley varieties include unavailability, high cost and susceptibility to cold and frost. (Table 10). Among barley adopters, nearly 50% operated under the auspices of ICARDA, 32% under FAO and 18% used new varieties obtained through farmer-to-farmer interactions (Table 11). Table 12 shows that new lentil varieties were adopted mainly because of better yield, and resistance to disease, lodging, frost and heat. Good cooking qualities and taste were also important factors in the decision to adopt new lentil varieties. On the other hand, the main reasons given for not adopting new varieties included terminal to drought, disease susceptibility and shattering (Table 13). ICARDA advised 71% of the farmers who adopted new varieties and the rest adopted the new varieties on their own (Table 14). Wheat grain had three main uses: home consumption (32%), sale to local market (23%), and seed (16%) (Table 15). Table 16 shows similar pattern of utilization of lentil grain, including 39% for home consumption, 33% for milling plants and 28% for seed In Balochistan province two agricultural production systems were identified: Sailaba and irrigated. Farmers from each system were grouped into four categories based on their wealth status (Table 17). In Sailaba system the farm size ranged between 16.5 acres for the lowest wealth category and 155.7 acres for the highest wealth category, with an average farm size 47.2 acres. In irrigated systems, farm size ranged from18.5 acres for the lowest category to 119.6 acres for the highest wealth category. In addition, Table 17 shows total irrigated areas for each category and shows the number of houses own by each category, tractors, livestock numbers, education level and experience in agriculture for all categories and for the whole sample.

112

Total

Table 6. Farmer rankings of preferred characteristics of wheat varieties (% of farmers) Variety Yield Resistant Resistant Early Good Adaptable Resistant Good Resistance Good Good Resistant better to disease Lodging mature market to the to frost bread drought tillering emergence to heat price locality quality Cham-6 24.6 19.2 9.2 0.0 7.7 3.8 0.8 17.7 3.1 5.4 7.7 0.8 Azri-96 12.5 25.0 25.0 0.0 0.0 12.5 0.0 0.0 25.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 K98 0.0 0.0 12.5 0.0 0.0 25.0 25.0 37.5 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 Sariab 17.4 8.7 13.0 0.0 8.7 4.3 17.4 21.7 4.3 4.3 0.0 0.0 Zarghum 20.0 15.0 15.0 0.0 5.0 10.0 5.0 12.5 10.0 5.0 2.5 0.0 Baker 20.8 20.8 22.9 0.0 2.1 8.3 6.3 6.3 0.0 6.3 3.1 3.1 Zardana 11.8 18.6 10.8 5.9 2.0 2.9 5.9 17.6 9.8 6.9 2.0 5.9 Inqlab 40.0 20.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 20.0 0.0 20.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 Zarlish 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 100 0.0 Local (Sorbbeag) 14.3 3.2 19.0 0.0 3.2 0.0 7.9 38.1 14.3 0.0 0.0 0.0 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100

113

Total

Table 7. Farmer rankings of non-preferred characteristics of wheat varieties (% of farmers) Variety Improved Improved Fertilizer Terminal Performs Disease Yield High Late Shattering Susceptible seed not seed is requirement drought no better attack fluctuation water maturing to cold/frost available expensive tham local Cham-6 22.5 22.5 5.0 2.5 2.5 2.5 5.0 5.0 0.0 17.5 15.0 Azri-96 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 25.0 0.0 25.0 0.0 50.0 K98 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 Sariab 20.0 20.0 13.3 0.0 0.0 6.7 20.0 6.7 0.0 0.0 13.3 Zarghum 12.0 16.0 12.0 0.0 0.0 8.0 20.0 12.0 4.0 16.0 0.0 Baker 1.7 15.0 35.0 3.3 11.7 1.7 11.7 10.0 0.0 3.3 6.7 Zardana 18.3 18.3 4.9 0.0 8.5 3.7 15.9 13.4 6.1 9.8 1.2 Inqlab 0.0 0.0 44.4 0.0 0.0 11.1 0.0 33.3 0.0 11.1 0.0 Zarlish 0.0 0.0 33.3 0.0 0.0 0.0 33.3 0.0 0.0 33.3 0.0 Local (Sorb beag) 1.8 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 32.1 25.0 3.6 7.1 25.0 5.4

100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100

Table 8. Source of improved wheat seeds used by farmers (% of farmers) Cham-6 Azri-96 K98 Sariab Zarghum Baker ICARDA 70 100 100 100 64 0 FAO 27 0 0 0 27 68 Own 0 0 0 0 9 23 Neighbour 3 0 0 0 0 3 Trader 0 0 0 0 0 7 Total 100 100 100 100 100 100 Zardana 3 37 51 9 0 100 Inqlab 0 0 100 0 0 100 Local (Sorb beag) 0 0 100 0 0 100 Zarlish 0 100 0 0 0 100

Total

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Table 9. Farmer rankings of preferred characteristics of barley varieties Yield Resistant Resistant Early Good Adapted better to disease to lodging mature market to the price locality Sanobar 20.0 20.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 20.0 AzWW 37.5 0.0 12.5 37.5 0.0 0.0 Awaran 2002 0.0 33.3 33.3 0.0 0.0 0.0 Sorab 23.3 23.3 20.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 Arta 25.0 14.3 10.7 14.3 0.0 0.0 Local 0.0 0.0 33.3 0.0 0.0 0.0

(% of farmers) Resistant Good Resistant Good Good Resistant to frost bread drought tillering emergence to heat quality 20.0 0.0 0.0 20.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 12.5 0.0 0.0 33.3 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 16.7 0.0 6.7 6.7 3.3 0.0 17.9 0.0 7.1 10.7 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 33.3 33.3 0.0 0.0

100 100 100 100 100 100

Table 10. Farmer rankings of non-preferred characteristics of barley varieties (% of farmers) Improved Improved Fertilizer Terminal Performs Disease Yield High seed not seed reqmt drought no better attack fluctuation water available expensive than local demand Sanobar 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 Azww 16.7 16.7 16.7 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 16.7 Awaran 2002 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 Sorab 13.3 13.3 0.0 0.0 33.3 0.0 13.3 0.0 Arta 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 37.5 0.0 Local 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 33.3 33.3 Total 7.0 7.0 2.3 0.0 11.6 0.0 20.9 4.7

Late Shattering Susceptible maturing to cold/frost 0.0 0.0 0.0 6.7 12.5 0.0 7.0 0.0 33.3 0.0 13.3 50.0 33.3 30.2 100.0 0.0 100.0 6.7 0.0 0.0 9.3

Total

100 100 100 100 100 100 100

Table 11. Source of improved barley seeds used by farmers (% of farmers) Sanobar AzWW Awaran 2002 Sorab Arta ICARDA 50 100 100 33 18 FAO 50 0 0 67 73 Own 0 0 0 0 9 Total 100 100 100 100 100 Local 0 0 100 100

Table 12. Farmer rankings of preferred characteristics of lentil varieties (% of farmers) Yield Resistant Resistant Earliness Good Adaptable Resistant Good Resistant Good Good Resistant better to disease to lodging market to the to frost cooking to drought tillering emergence to heat price locality quality 25.0 8.3 0.0 0.0 8.3 0.0 16.7 0.0 0.0 0.0 16.7 Shiraz-96 25.0 ILL-8081 23.1 23.1 7.7 0.0 0.0 0.0 7.7 23.1 7.7 0.0 0.0 7.7 Local 16.7 27.8 16.7 5.6 5.6 11.1 11.1 5.6 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0

Total

100 100 100

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Table 13. Farmer rankings of non-preferred characteristics of lentil varieties (% of farmers) Improved Improved Fertilizer Terminal Performs Disease Yield High Late Shattering Susceptible Total seed not seed is requirement drought no better attack fluctuation water maturing to available expensive than local reqmt cold/frost Shiraz-96 0.0 0.0 0.0 25.0 0.0 25.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 25.0 25.0 100 ILL-8081 14.3 14.3 0.0 0.0 0.0 28.6 0.0 0.0 14.3 14.3 14.3 100 Local 0.0 0.0 0.0 27.3 0.0 9.1 0.0 9.1 0.0 1.2 36.4 100 Total 4.5 4.5 0.0 18.2 0.0 18.2 0.0 4.5 4.5 18.2 27.3 1

Table 14. Source of improved lentil seeds used by farmers (% of farmers) Shiraz-96 ILL-8081 Local ICARDA 100 100 14 Own 0 0 86 Total 100 100 100

Table 15. Utilization of wheat grain (% of farmers) Usage Cham-6 Azri-96 K98 Sariab Zarghum 28.9 25.0 0.0 7.2 12.7 4.5 21.7 100 24.7 28.1 0.0 4.4 26.4 4.5 11.8 100 41.0 14.7 6.2 7.2 14.9 4.5 11.5 100 20.3 23.9 30.2 3.1 5.8 10.2 6.5 100 Baker Zardana Inqlab 55.5 10.5 0.0 8.9 16.7 8.5 0.0 100 46.8 10.0 0.0 10.9 18.7 5.6 8.0 100 Local Zarlish sorbbeag 41.0 30.4 20.2 28.8 8.0 0.0 4.2 9.2 13.3 11.2 5.2 2.9 8.2 17.4 100 100

Consumption Local market Milling Sold seed Save as seed Donated to others Other uses Total

26.8 8.6 3.0 21.1 19.5 4.7 16.2 100

0.7 63.2 0.0 4.4 18.7 2.7 10.3 100

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Table 16. Utilization of lentil grain (% of farmers) Shiraz-96 ILL-8081 Home consumption 0 100 Local market 0 0 Milling 100 0 Sold seed 0 0 Save as seed 0 0 Donated to others 0 0 Other uses 0 0 Total 100 100 Local 16 0 0 0 84 0 0 100

Table 17. Household characteristics by wealth quartiles Wealth Total land Total House quartile holding irrigated (ac) (ac) (no.) Sailaba Lowest 25% 16.5 5.2 1.0 25-50 % 43.4 9.0 1.0 50-75% 42.5 9.0 1.1 Highest 25% 155. 7 27.3 1.2 Average 47.2 9. 9 1.1 Tractor (no.) 0.00 0.00 0.13 0.83 0.15 0.03 0.07 0.28 0.78 0.31 0.5 1.2 1.7 4.3 2.0 1.8 7.3 10. 7 20.7 10.6 1.4 0.9 0.9 1.5 1.2 10.3 18.3 25.7 29.6 21.5 2.0 2.0 1.9 1.8 1.9 (head) 0.4 2.1 1.8 2.8 1.4 (head) 1.1 12.9 13.9 37.0 11.7 (years) 0.8 0.9 1.1 0.7 0.9 Cows Sheep Education Agric. Hold experience university (years) degree 9.4 2.0 16.7 2.0 29.1 1.9 27.3 1.9 19.3 1.9 7.9 11.2 20.2 44.2 21.8 1.0 1.0 1.1 1.0 1.0

Irrigated

Lowest 25% 25-50% 50-75% Highest 25% Average

18.5 35.8 41.3 119.6 56.2

Total

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Lowest 25% 25-50% 50-75% Highest 25% Average

18.1 36.4 41.5 122.1 55.0

7.3 11.0 18.4 43.1 20.2

1.0 1.0 1.1 1.1 1.0

0.02 0.06 0.26 0.78 0.29

0.5 1.3 1.7 4.2 1.9

1.6 7.7 11.2 21.8 10.7

1.3 0.9 1.0 1.4 1.1

10.1 18.2 26.2 29.4 21.2

2.0 2.0 1.9 1.8 1.9

Farmer's characteristics and household assets


Natural capital Results of the survey show that average land holding is 31.98 acre, of which nearly 77% is arable. Average irrigated land is 15.12 acre (Table 18). Physical capital Table 19 shows physical assets owned by farmers. Most of the farmers own irrigation equipment (71%), which suggests the importance of irrigation in the study area. About 28% of the farmers own tractors and approximately half of the farmers keep livestock such as sheep, cows, goats and poultry. Human capital The family size is relatively large, at more than 17 persons per family, while the average size of family labor does not exceed 2.69 persons (Table 20). A high percentage (48%) of the population is illiterate. Nearly half of the population belong to a community argenizetion Financial capital Main financial sources are farmer's savings and credits. Approximately 47% of the farmers used their own savings to finance their farm operation, while 45% of the farmers used credits. The main sources of credit are commission agents, relatives, shop keepers and seed dealers (Table 21). Adoption of wheat varieties (rate, degree, intensity) The adoption rate is commonly measured as the proportion of producers using the improved variety being studied and adoption degree measures the proportion of land under the new wheat varieties compared to the total area of wheat cultivated. Adoption intensity is derived by multiplying adoption rate and adoption degree. Adoption rate of new improved wheat varieties reached 12.07 %, the adoption degree was 6.17 %, with an adoption intensity 0.74%. The adoption rate of local varieties was 66.38, adoption degree was 74.01%, with an adoption intensity of 49.13 (Table 22). Among all wheat varieties cultivated by the sampled producers, adoption rate for new improved by lowest 25% wealth quartile was 10.71%, adoption degree was 4.69% and adoption intensity was 0.50%. For 2550% wealth category, adoption rate was 8.43%, adoption degree was 3.13% and adoption intensity was 0.26%. For the 50-75% wealth category, adoption rate was 11.83%, adoption degree was 6.86% and adoption intensity was 0.81%. For the highest 25% wealth category, adoption rate was 17.05%, adoption degree was 8.74% and adoption intensity was 1.49 % (Table 23). Adoption of wheat varieties by Sailaba/irrigation Table 24 shows the adoption rates, adoption degrees and adoption intensity for Sailaba and irrigated systems. Farmers in irrigated systems have very low adoption rates of old varieties compared with the new varieties adopted.

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Table 18. Natural capital of respondents Total land holding (ac) 31.98 Arable (ac) 24.53 Non-arable (ac) 7.45 Owned land (ac) 27.19 Sharecropping land (ac) 4.02 Rented land (ac) 0.78 Total irrigation area (ac) 15.12 Table 19. Physical capital (% of farmers) Having a house 100.00 Having a shop 6.00 Having a tractor 27.90 Having a drill 14.40 Having a plough 19.83 Having a irrigation equipment 70.98 Having a car 7.18 Having a pick-up 9.20 Having a sheep 43.97 Having a cow (s) 51.15 Having a goat (s) 49.10 Having poultry 46.26 Having a telephone/mobile 75.6 Table 20. Human capital Family size (persons) Size of family labour (persons) Age of household head (years) Agricultural experience (years) Education - none - primary - secondary - high school - university Study agriculture school % Have community organization % CO member % Member of any other organization % Leader grouping % - leader - very active - somewhat active - not active Trust level % - better - the same - worse

17.53 2.69 40.96 21.24 48.28 15.52 18.39 11.21 6.61 0.60 82.76 50.29 12.36 10.34 16.67 32.47 40.52 12.93 62.93 24.14

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Table 21. Financial capital Save money (% of farmers) Credit 2007-08 (% of farmers) Credit (Rs) Source of credit (% of farmers) - commission agent - seed dealer - shop keeper - friends - relatives - neighbours - contractor

46.80 44.80 45506 54.30 9.93 11.26 1.99 13.91 1.32 7.28

Table 22. Wheat adoption by type of variety (rate, degree, intensity) Adoption rate Adoption degree Adoption intensity New improved 12.07 6.17 0.74 Old improved 4.31 1.43 0.06 Other new varieties 17.24 18.39 3.17 Local 66.38 74.01 49.13 Total 100.00 100.00 100.00 Table 23. Wheat adoption by type of variety by wealth category (rate, degree, intensity) Wealth Category Variety type Adoption rate Adoption degree Adoption intensity Lowest 25% New improved 10.71 4.69 0.50 Old improved 7.14 3.06 0.22 Other new varieties 16.67 17.04 2.84 Local 65.48 75.21 49.25 25-50 % New improved 8.43 3.13 0.26 Old improved 3.61 1.46 0.05 Other new varieties 16.87 16.70 2.82 Local 71.08 78.71 55.95 50-75 % New improved 11.83 6.85 0.81 Old improved 4.30 0.84 0.04 Other new varieties 13.98 8.91 1.25 Local 69.89 83.40 58.29 Highest 25% New improved 17.05 8.74 1.49 Old improved 2.27 0.93 0.02 Other new varieties 21.59 28.29 6.11 Local 59.09 62.03 36.65 Table 24. Adoption of wheat varieties by Sailaba/irrigation Adoption rate Adoption degree Irrigated Sailaba Irrigated Sailaba New improved 15.22 11.59 5.87 6.20 Old improved 15.22 2.65 5.81 1.00 Other new varieties 6.52 18.87 7.20 19.48 Local 63.04 66.89 81.12 73.31

Adoption intensity Irrigated Sailaba 0.89 0.72 0.88 0.03 0.47 3.68 51.14 49.04

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Impact of the new varieties on productivity Comparison of wheat yields. The impact of different varieties on productivity was assessed through a comparison of average yields between variety groupings (using data provided by farmers). In the Sailaba system, the average yield obtained from the new improved varieties was 807.2 kg/acre compared to 516.4 kg/acre for old improved varieties and 513.3 kg/acre for other new varieties and 361 kg/acre for local varieties (Table 25). In the Sailaba system new improved varieties yield exceeded the old improved yield by 56% and the local variety by 124%. Under irrigation, new improved varieties gave average yield of 1031.9 kg/acre, compared to 820 kg/acre for old improved varieties and 636 kg/acre for other new varieties, and 572 kg/acre for local variety (Table 25). The new improved varieties yield outyielded the old improved variety by 26% and the local variety by 80%. In Sailaba and in irrigated systems the gross margins of wheat varieties exceeded the gross margins from old varieties. In Sailaba system the gross margin exceeded the gross margin from old varieties by 39% and by 18% in irrigated system. This indicates the importance of introducing new wheat varieties in the Salaiba system. Table 25. Impact of new wheat varieties on productivity New improved Old improved Other new variety Irrigated Yield (kg/acre)*** 1032 820 636 Sailaba Yield (kg/acre)** 807 516 513 Variable cost(Rs/acre)* 7885 6804 7663 Gross margin (Rs/acre)** 35797 25745 22412 Gross margin with support (Rs/Acre)** 54967 37482 34603 Variable cost(Rs/acre)** 11223 11950 9548 Gross margin (Rs/acre)*** 37664 31891 26670 Gross margin with support (Rs/acre)*** 62432 51366 41775

Local 572 361 6662 19211 27862 9628 23718 37379

Production function analysis: Cobb-Douglas production function Results of the Cobb-Douglas production function regressions are presented in Table 26. Estimated coefficients on the continuous variables represent elastic measuring and the percentage increase in yield in response to increases in the respective inputs. The impact of the new improved of wheat was estimated by adding a dummy variable which took a value of one for the variety of interest, and zero for other varieties. The estimated coefficient on the dummy variable measured the shift in the intercept of the production function resulting from the new technology, and this shift captured the impact of the monitored varieties on total factor productivity. The coefficient for new improved varieties is positive (0.44) and significantly at the 1% level. This means the new improved variety increased yield by 55.2% compared with the other variety. This also implies that with the same levels of other farm inputs, the new improved varieties do indeed increase wheat yield compared to other varieties. Other inputs significantly contribute to increased productivity in wheat production, with most important being irrigation, which increases wheat productivity by 18.5%. There is also a net increase of productivity by 10% attributed to increase in the number of ploughs. However, wheat shows a negative response to quantity of Urea46 fertilizer application, because in many parts of the country, the soil is naturally rich in this mineral and so application of this nutrient is counterproductive. In addition, wheat productivity increases with the wealth level of the producer as indicated by the positive and significant coefficient on the wealth index.

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Table 26. Results of the Cobb-Douglas production function B (Constant) 4.79*** dummy variable (1,0) 1 new improved 0.44*** dummy(1,0) irrigated 1 0.17*** Ln (wealth index) 0.01 Ln( number of plough) 0.10** Ln (seed rate) 0.14* Ln(A. Phosphate ) 0.21*** Ln (NP) 0.03** Ln (Qty Urea46) -0.02 Ln (Area sown) 0.05*** Ln (Education years) 0.06 Ln (Age of respondent) years 0.00

t 9.93 6.23 2.57 0.59 1.22 1.47 14.52 2.26 -1.57 2.46 1.18 0.00

Dependent Variable: LN Yield kg/acre *, **, *** Significant at 5 percent, 1 percent and less1percent levels of significance, respectively

Adoption of barley Many barley improved varieties were adopted in the integrated research sites and in the development sites. New improved varieties reached adoption rates of 47 percent, compared with 7 for old improved varieties and 38 for local varieties (Table 27).Table 28 shows adoption rates, adoption degree and adoption intensity according to wealth categories. Almost all wealth categories reported high adoption rates and adoption degrees for the new improved variety. Table 29 shows barley adoption rates, adoption degree and adoption intensity by production systems. The highest adoption rate was reported for new improved varieties under irrigation system. The highest adoption rate of local variety was reported for Sailaba production system. Impact of new barley varieties on productivity and income Under Sailaba system the yield of new improved barley varieties exceeded that of the local variety by 112% and the gross margin of new improved variety was higher than the local variety by 85% (see Table 31). For the irrigation system the yield of the new improved varieties was higher compared with the local variety by 39% and the gross margin was higher by 72%. Lentil adoption New improved lentil varieties adoption rate was 33% , and 44% for local varieties. Adoption intensity was low (3.99%) compared with local varieties (35.54%), which indicates that most of the area was cultivated with local varieties (see Table 31). Table 32 shows lentil adoption rates, degree and intensity by wealth categories. Results indicate that for new improved varieties the highest adoption rate was reported by the 25%-50% wealth category, where it reached 50 %, and the lowest adoption rate was reported for the 50%-75% wealth category, where it was 2.17 %. The highest adoption intensity was reached 47.6 % for the 25%-50% wealth category. In general the adoption rate of the local variety was the highest. The adoption rate of new improved varieties is higher than that of the old improved varieties, which indicates that the new varieties are accepted by the farmers in the integrated research sites and in the development sites. The new improved lentil varieties exceeded the yield of the old improved variety by 21% and the local variety by 190%. New improved lentil had the highest gross margin. The gross margin of the new improved varieties exceeded that of the old improved variety by 29% and the local gross margin by 715%. The irrigated new improved varieties attained a gross margin of Rs10425 per acre (Table 33).

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Table 27. Adoption of barley by type of variety Adoption rate Adoption degree New improved 47.06 51.78 Old improved 7.35 3.07 Other new varieties 7.35 23.74 Local 38.24 21.41

Adoption intensity 24.37 0.23 1.75 8.19

Table 28. Barley adoption by wealth categories Wealth Category Variety Type Adoption rate Adoption degree Adoption intensity lowest 25% New improved 60 78.57 47.14 Old improved 20 7.14 1.43 Other new varieties 0 0.00 0.00 Local 20 14.29 2.86 25-50% New improved 50.00 28.21 14.10 Old improved 0.00 0.00 0.00 Other new varieties 7.14 64.10 4.58 Local 42.86 7.69 3.30 50-75% New improved 40 46.48 18.59 Old improved 10 7.97 0.80 Other new varieties 10 1.99 0.20 Local 40 43.56 17.42 highest 25% New improved 48.28 75.97 36.68 Old improved 6.90 0.65 0.04 Other new varieties 6.90 8.44 0.58 Local 37.93 14.94 5.67 Table 29. Barley adoption rates, degrees and intensity by production system Adoption rate Adoption degree Adoption intensity Sailaba Irrigated Sailaba irrigated Sailaba Irrigated New improved 14.29 50.82 37.04 53.76 5.29 27.32 Old improved 14.29 6.56 7.41 2.54 1.06 0.17 Other new varieties 14.29 6.56 18.52 24.46 2.65 1.60 Local 57.14 36.07 39.26 19.24 22.43 6.94 Table 30. Impact of new barley varieties on productivity Sailaba / Variety type Yield Revenue Irrigated (kg/acre) (Rs) Sailaba New improved Old improved Other new varieties Local New improved Old improved Other new varieties Local 325 200 250 153 682 550 591 492 14400 10650 11625 8618 24041 20100 20839 17771

Variable cost (Rs) 2251 1984 4990 2047 5530 3330 7722 7001

Gross margin (Rs) 12149 8666 6635 6571 18511 16771 13116 10769

irrigated

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Table 31. Lentil adoption by type of variety Variety type Adoption rate Adoption degree New improved 33.33 11.98 Old improved 22.22 8.06 Local 44.44 79.95 Table 32. Lentil adoption by to wealth categories Wealth category Variety type Adoption rate Lowest 25% New improved 40.00 Old improved 20.00 Local 40.00 25-50% New improved 50.00 Old improved 0.00 Local 50.00 50 -75% New improved 2.17 Old improved 0.00 Local 97.83 Highest 25% New improved 28.57 Old improved 42.86 Local 28.57

Adoption intensity 3.99 1.79 35.54

Adoption degree 25.00 5.21 69.79 4.76 0.00 95.24 46.48 7.97 43.56 28.57 42.86 28.57

Adoption intensity 10.00 1.04 27.92 2.38 0.00 47.62 1.01 0.00 42.61 8.16 18.37 8.16

Table 33. Yield and gross margin of different lentil varieties. Variety type Yield variable cost (kg/acre) (Rs/acre) Sailaba New improved 110 2720 Old improved 91 2538 Local 38 2254 Irrigated New improved 205 5975 Conclusions

Revenue (Rs/acre) 8800 7240 3000 16400

Gross margin (Rs/acre) 6080 4702 746 10425

Yields of new improved varieties of wheat, barley and lentil exceeded the yields of old improved varieties and local varieties significantly. This shows there is considerable potential to increase crop yields and production, and thus achieve food security in staple foods, by adopting the new improved seeds. In terms of gross margins, the new improved varieties were clearly superior to the old improved varieties and the local varieties. This is a good indication that adopting the new improved varieties will increase household income. In other words adopting new improved varieties will provide food security and generate more income for the household.

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Perrier, E.R. and A.B. Salkini. 1991. Supplemental irrigation in the near East and North Africa. Kluwer, Amsterdam, Netherlands. Pizadeh, T. and U. Islam, 1981. Consumption patterns of milk and meat in Lahore. Results of a consumer survey. Livestock population and marketing survey Punjab. Report No.11 Directorate of Livestock Production Extension and Artificial Insemination Service, Punjab, (LPE/AI), Lahore and GTZ, Eschborn) Quraishi, M.A.A, G.S Khan and M.S. Yaqoob. 1993. Range management in Pakistan. Qazi Publications, Lahore, Pakistan. Radostitis, O.M.D., D.C. Blood and C.C. Gay. 1994. Veterinary medicine: a textbook of diseases of cattle, sheep, pig, goat and horses. 8th edition. Ballire Tindall, London, UK. Rafique S., M. Munir, M.I. Sultani and Rehman A. 1990. effect of different level of protein and energy supplementation on the productivity and fertility of ewes grazing native rangelands in highland Balochistan. The MART/AZR Repot No. 59, AZRC Quetta (3-6). Rees, D.J., M. Islam, A. Samiullah, F. Rehman, S.H. Raza, Z. Qureshi and S. Mahmood. 1991. Rainfed crop production systems of upland Balochistan: wheat (Triticum aestivum), barley (Hordeum vulgare) and forage legumes (Vicia spp.). Journal of Experimental Agriculture 27: 53-69. Rodriguez, A. I.Ali, M. Afzal and N.A. Shah. 1992. marketing of goat and sheep skins in highland Balochistan. Mart/AZR Project Arid Zone Research Institute, Quetta. Shah, H. 2000 Annual progress report 1998-99. Directorate of Animal Health, Livestock and Dairy Development Department, Govt. of Balochistan, Quetta, Pakistan. Shepherd, K.D., P.J.M. Cooper, A.Y. Allan, D.S.H. Drennan and J.D.H. Keatinge. 1987. Growth, water use and yield of barley in Mediterranean-type environments. Journal of Agricultural Science. 108: 365-378. Siddique, K.H.M., S.P. Loss, D.L. Pritchard, K.L. Regan, D. Tennant, R.L Jettner and D. Wilkinson. (1998). Adaptation of lentil (Lens culinaris Medik.) to Mediterranean-type environments: effect of time of sowing on growth, yield and water use. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research 49: 613-626. Siddique, K.H.M., K.L. Regan, D. Tennant, B.D. Thomson. 2001. Water use and water use efficiency of cool season grain legumes in low rainfall Mediterranean-type environments. European Journal of Agronomy 15: 267-280. Thienpont, D., F. Rochette and O.F.V. Vanparijs. 1979. Diagnosing helminthiasis through oprological examination. Janssen Research Foundation, Beerse, Belgium. Turner, N.C. 2004. Sustainable production of crops and pastures under drought in a Mediterranean envi ronment. Annals of Applied Biology 144: 139-174. Urquhart, G.M., J. Armour, J.L. Duncan and F.W. Jennings. 1996. Veterinary parasitology. 2nd edition. Blackwell, Oxford, UK. Wagenaar, J.P., F. Muhammad, S. Hassan, A. Rebaz and A. Wahab. 1997. Final report on migratory livestock and the marketing system in Balochistan. National Management Consultants (Pvt) Ltd.

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APPENDIX A: LETTER OF AGREEMENT 1. Terms of reference


1.1. Description of outputs and activities The services to be rendered by the Recipient Organization under this agreement are divided into two, a Preparatory Phase of four months and the Main Phase of thirty-two months. As part of this agreement, the Recipient Organization will specifically be responsible for the following activities under each project output. Preparatory Phase Output 1 Integrated research sites and representative communities selected and characterized using criteria developed for the project areas and communities as a whole throughout the project Districts and community approach for participatory applied research and technology transfer developed jointly with the other project components. Activities The Recipient Organization will pursue the following methodological approach. Two villages will be selected within each of the three target districts as an integrated research site (IRS) representing varying biophysical and socioeconomic parameters of the project area as a whole, including the IRSs. The selected communities will be fully characterized. For each IRS a community organization (CO) will be identified. The research approach will be participatory and community-based with the CO as the focal point to enable communities to play a central role from constraint evaluation and planning through innovation testing to evaluation. The activities will all be implemented in close interaction with female and male Group Promoters and other research stakeholders, in consultation with the International Project Manager. The particular activities (with equivalent outcomes) for the Adaptive Research Component for the preparatory stage are as follows: Establish criteria to select Integrated Research Sites (IRSs) and finalize choice of IRS communities. Complete a detailed baseline study on the socioeconomic conditions of the farming communities in the IRSs for use in monitoring and evaluation and to identify household typologies based on liveli hoods. In addition to the baseline information from the baseline studies for all sites (as mentioned above) the IRS baseline studies will be more detailed and focused towards information for applied research purposes. Identify with communities opportunities and key limiting factors to commodity productivity and resource management. Based on community identified constraints and opportunities across the project as a whole and in the IRSs, in discussion with IRS communities, assemble a portfolio of options (technologies and innovations) to compare with current practice within the themes delineated above. Identify research and technology transfer partners and develop workable linkages. Main Phase Output 1 Innovations in water resource management, and promising technologies to improve water use efficiency demonstrated and transferred to farmers.

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Activities Compare with resource users' water harvesting technologies, Sailaba and Kushkaba with modifications considering factors such as geological, topographic, climatic, agronomic, crop specific and economic that make more efficient use of scarce runoff water and thereby increase rainfed productivity. Evaluate protected agriculture techniques utilizing marginal land and limited water supply to produce high-value crops for Balochistan markets (a minimum of 2-3 crops will be evaluated within the project life. The final selection of the crops will be done after the completion of IRS selection and characterization during the preparatory phase. Introduce proven technologies for efficient use and monitoring of sustainable management of groundwater considering the quantity and quality parameters. Conduct technology adoption surveys and assess the social and economic impact of technologies on rural livelihoods. Output 2 Crop/livestock integration at the farm level enhanced through better utilization of agricultural by-products and improved management of rangelands Activities Survey communities, tribes and range users to identify traditional range management practices and review existing options to improve range management in the IRSs using GPS and GIS during the first year of the project. Introduce range management options with resource users. Test the establishment of potential native shrubs for forage reserves to provide animal feed with resource users. Evaluate the re-establishment potential of native perennial shrubs and grass species with resource users. Test, multiply and disseminate seed of annual forage legume - wooly pod vetch (Kohak-96) and other legumes to provide feed during periods of shortage. Recommend provincial policy and institutional options that can lead sustainable management of rangeland with full participation of local communities. Demonstrate and disseminate alternative feed resources such as feed blocks (e.g. urea molasses blocks), enriched crop residues, and feed lots for early fattening of lambs. Conduct technology adoption surveys and assess the social and economic impact of technologies on rural livelihoods. Output 3 Economic returns from cropping improved through diversification of high-value crops and through dissemination to end user of drought-adapted crop germplasm. Activities Evaluate germplasm and management options of high-value crops, which have comparative advantage, such as olive, pistachio, almonds. Test, multiply and disseminate seed of such crop material as yellow rust resistant wheat (AZRI-96); large seeded lentil (Shiraz-96); and short-season spring barley (Snobar-96) - selected from the Recipient Organization germplasm in the earlier USAID-funded Management of Agriculture Research and Technology-Arid Zone Research Institute (MART-AZRI) project and other sources. Identify and introduce drought tolerant germplasm of economic interest and best suited to local conditions to increase rainfed crop production. Conduct technology adoption surveys and assess the social and economic impact of technologies on rural livelihoods.

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Output 4 Household income in targeted communities increased through introduction of value added options from indigenous production Activities Evaluate processing alternatives for above commodities according to market possibilities, and introduce to communities Conduct technology adoption surveys and assess the social and economic impact of technologies on rural livelihoods. Output 5 Women's capacity in cottage agro-processing enhanced Activities Identify how to improve the managerial skills of rural women in livestock husbandry and cottage processing. Evaluate selected techniques employed to improve managerial and technical skills of rural women in livestock husbandry and cottage processing at each IRS Conduct technology adoption surveys and assess the social and economic impact of technologies on rural livelihoods. Output 6 Effectiveness of existing and/or alternative institutions and policies in improving the performance of the agricultural sector in target areas better understood and communicated to policy makers. Activities Assess the impact of community participation on technology testing and validation on uptake and adoption. Assess the market structure of major and potential farm products, and determine how access to market affects decisions on technology adoption and farm income, and identify options to improve market accessibility. Review drought mitigation strategies and public policies. Review the effect of policy on adoption and impact of technologies employed in IRSs, and suggest policy options as appropriate. Output 7 Human Resource Capacity of AZRC, ARI, technical officers and rural communities within both IRS communities and the overall project area of Qila Saifullah, Loralai, and Mastung enhanced. Activities Train researchers in participatory community-based research methods to improve arid land agriculture and other themes (a total of six scientists from AZRC, ARI, and TTI will be trained out of country for two weeks each). In addition eight scientists will be trained out of country for a period of two weeks each in the areas of crop improvement, livestock and range management, protected agriculture, socioeconomics, high-value crops, and water management. Four female specialists will be trained on cottage processing out of country for 3 weeks Training line departments (Agriculture, Livestock, and Water departments). A total of 6 specialists will be trained out of country for a period of two weeks each) Total of 30 field days and traveling workshops for men and women (around 10 annually) and 10-12 in-country training for researchers and line department for five working days each.

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2-3 workshops will be organized annually for different stakeholders, including policy makers, researchers, farmers, and local authorities. These training and education activities will enhance th uptake and dissemination of introduced technological, institutional, and policy options. Identify the effect of selection criteria employed to identify course participants, and the impact of different approaches employed in training courses on performance of course graduates and on the adoption of technologies at HH level, and make recommendations for the future. Other Activities Bio-physical characterization of the IRSs to prepare for dissemination of innovations through use of such techniques as Geographical Information Systems (GIS). Definition of Outputs Technologies, innovations and policies identified within IRSs for: Innovations in water resource management, and promising technologies to improve water use efficiency Enhanced crop/livestock integration at the farm level through better utilization of agricultural byproducts and improved management of rangelands Improved economic returns from cropping through diversification of high-value crops and through dissemination to end user of drought-adapted crop germplasm Increased household income in targeted communities through introduction of value added options from indigenous production Enhanced Women's capacity in cottage agro-processing Enhanced understanding of the role of existing and/or alternative institutions and policies in improving the performance of the agricultural sector in target areas, and communicated to policy makers. Enhanced Human Resource Capacity of AZRC, ARI, technical officers and rural communities within both IRS communities and the overall project area of Qila Saifullah, Loralai, and Mastung.

2. Indicators from research


Output 1 Efficiency of water harvesting technologies improved by 20% Improve on-farm water productivity and water-use efficiency by 40-50% Three high-value crops adopted by IRS communities for production on marginal land using protect agriculture techniques Increase yield stability by reducing yield variability by 30% through water harvesting Technology adoption surveys completed Household livelihoods improved by 10% Output 2 Traditional range management systems identified and options for improvement selected by communities within IRSs by the end of Year 1 Improved range management options adopted by communities with IRSs Native shrubs and grass species tested, identified and adopted by communities increasing forage available from grazing areas by 20% Seed produced for the annual forage legume - wooly pod vetch (Kohak-96) and established by IRS communities increasing feed available during shortage periods by 10%. Improve vegetative cover of rangeland by 15% to combat desertification and rangeland degradation. Sustainable management systems accepted by communities and recommendations for policy formally submitted to GoB

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Alternative feed strategies adopted by communities, resulting in a 20% increase in kg of marketable lambs per ewe per year, increasing economic returns to producers by 15% Twenty % of producers in IRS communities adopted improved range/livestock strategies, improving household livelihoods by 10% Output 3 Advantageous germplasm and management options identified for three high-value crops, increasing HH income by 10% Advantageous crop germplasm for irrigated areas multiplied, disseminated and adopted by 20% of producers in IRS communities, increasing crop productivity by 20% Drought tolerant germplasm, adapted to local environments identified, multiplied and disseminated and adopted by 15% of producers, increasing crop productivity by 20% Technology adoption surveys completed, and household livelihoods improved by 10% Output 4 Three biologically feasible, economically viable and socially acceptable processing alternatives identified Technology adoption survey completed, and income increased by 10% Output 5 Methods to improve the managerial skills of rural women identified, and training courses he Improved managerial and technical skills result in a 15% increase in female labor productivity and in income for women engaged in livestock husbandry and cottage processing Technology adoption survey completed Household livelihoods improved by 10% Output 6 Technology uptake and adoption enhanced by 20% through community participation in technology testing and validation Market structure for crop, livestock and agro-processing products described The effect of market access on technology adoption and HH income described Options identified to improve market access, and recommendations presented to GoB Alternative drought mitigation strategies and policy options reviewed, and recommendations presented to GoB The effect of policy on technology adoption reviewed and recommendations presented to GoB Output 7 Six scientists from AZRI, ARI and TTI, and eight other scientists trained on crop, livestock/range and water management technology out of country Four female specialists trained on cottage processing out of country for 3 weeks Six specialists from line departments trained out of country Thirty field days and traveling workshops for producers, and twelve workshops for researchers and technical specialist held in-country Two/three workshops held annually for stakeholders to enhance the uptake and dissemination of introduced technological, institutional, and policy options Impact of different selection criteria for training course participants, of different training approaches on performance of course participants, and the adoption of technologies at HH level reviewed and recommendations presented to GoB. Recommended methods result in 15% increased adoption of technologies by producers.

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Overall Household income increased by 15%, and food security enhanced by 10% in 15% of households within the IRSs Data collected under the research component formatted and digitized as necessary for entry into GIS systems. The benefits from use of GIS material in planning demonstrated to GoB. Technology tested within the IRSs proven to be relevant to, adoptable by and social and economically beneficial to producers in the wider range of communities of the Project as a whole.

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APPENDIX B: RESEARCH COMPONENT ACTIVITY MATRIX


Activity Matrix of ICARDA Research Component for 2005/2006, 2006/2007 and 2007/2008 Cropping season: 2005/2006 Akhtarzai Integrated Research Sites Hassan Khan Starting date Siddiqabad

I. Water and soil management 1. Water harvesting Sailaba and Kushkaba 2. WH for range improvement and fodder 3. Evaluate protected agriculture techniques 4. Sustainable use of groundwater: i. Surface reservoir ii. Conveyance channel losses iii. Improve on-farm irrigation system iv. Improve water productivity 5. Training for water management team 6. Field days, workshops II. Sustainable crop production 1. Test, multiply, and disseminate seeds of wheat (AZRI-96), lentil (Shiraz) and barley(Snobar-96) i. Evaluation of cereal varieties ii. Evaluation of pulses varieties iii. Evaluation of feed legumes varieties iv. Profitability of on-farm seed production and marketing v. Multiply seeds 2. Identify and introduce drought tolerant germplasm of economic interest i. Introduce drought tolerant germplasm (wheat, barley, lentil) ii. Introduce drought tolerant germplasm of vetch and cumin iii. Introduce drought tolerant germplasm of medicinal plants iv. Training on farmer participatory approach v. Training in seed production and marketing vi. Training on post-harvest processing vii. Training in germplasm enhancement, cultural practice IPM, and plant nutrition viii.Layout of field experiments ix. Farmer field schools III. Horticulture/post harvest components 1. Commence evaluation of germplasm and management option of high-value crops such as olive, pistachio, and almonds i. Evaluate and asses existing olive, pistachio, almonds, grapes, pomegranate, and figs ii. Introduce olive from neighboring countries such as Iran and Syria iii. Identify and implement improved management option for olives and pistachio iv. Training in nursery establishment and management.

134

Turkman

Lalbagh

Alozai

Hassan Khan

Cropping season: 2005/2006 Akhtarzai

Integrated Research Sites Starting date Siddiqabad

IV. Rangeland and livestock 1. Survey communities, tribes and range user to identify range management practices i. Review past work ii. Assess rangeland resources (GIS images, validation of rangeland resources, community survey of indigenous knowledge on range and livestock) 2. Introduce range option/potential intervention i. Control grazing management in 3 IRSs 3. Establishment of potential native and exotic shrubs i. Identification of potential fodder plants in 3 IRSs using water-harvesting technologies ii.Evaluate selected fodder plants (5-10 ha at each IRS) iii. Adaptive research on feeding and health management iv. Adaptive research on flock management v. In-country training on range and livestock management V. Socoeconomics and income generation Activities: 1, 2, and 3. Identify how to improve marginal skills of rural women. i. RRA for women ii.Identify areas of past activities where managerial skills need to be improved iii. Identification of potentials iv. Training of trainers v. Training of community women Activity 4. Impact of community participation i. Developing implementation mechanisms of community approach (institutional arrangements) ii. Monitoring & evaluation of technology testing iii. Adoption & impact survey at the end of the project Activity 5. Assess the market structure and potential farm products. i. Characterization of existing marketing channels, constraints (input, output, credit) ii. Marketing margins and information affecting farmer's marketing decisions Activities: 6 and 7. Review effect of policy on adaptation and review drought mitigation i. Review drought mitigation policies ii. Understand and document farmer's drought coping strategies iii.Document the intensity of using improved technologies and draw policy implications iv. Review and assess the effectiveness of existing policy related to the areas of project intervention (including rangeland and water) v. Ex-anti assessment of the impact of existing alternative polices on introduced new options VI. Out-country training of researchers

135

Turkman

Lalbagh

Alozai

Hassan Khan

Cropping season: 2006/2007 Akhtarzai

Integrated Research Sites Starting date Siddiqabad

Output 1: Water and soil management 1. Water harvesting Sailaba system i. Mapping/characterizing the spate irrigation system (conveyance and farm fields) ii.Document water rights from up to downstream iiiDesigning water distribution,regulation and field outlets interventions iv. Evaluation of existing water harvesting system and improvements v. Horticultural plantation with water harvesting 2. Evaluation and improvement of stock water system 3. Water harvesting for range improvement and fodder 4.Sustainable use of groundwater i. Estimation of conveyance losses ii. Improve irrigation water productivity 5. Field days Output 2: Rangeland and livestock 1. Assessment of rangeland resources i. GIS images ii.Validation of rangeland resources 2. Performance of fodder shrubs established with MCWH 3.Monitoring performance of fodder shrub plantation in MCWH 4. Assessing effect of animal health package i.e. vaccination and internal and external parasites control. 5. Adaptive research on flock management i. Supplemental feeding (feeding of ewes and does during breeding, late gestation, and early lambing) ii.Lamb fattening after weaning (grains vs. mix concentrates) iii.Assessing effect of urea-treated straw and molasses blocks during winter Output 3: Sustainable production and agro-processing 1. Evaluate crops planted in Oct 2006 i. Evaluation of cereal varieties ii. Evaluation of pulses varieties iii. Evaluation of feed (forage) legume varieties iv. Profitability of on-farm seed production and marketing v. Capacity building on quality seed production vi. Multiply seeds

136

Turkman

Lalbagh

Alozai

Hassan Khan

Cropping season: 2006/2007 Akhtarzai

Integrated Research Sites Starting date Siddiqabad

2. Identify and introduce drought and cold tolerant germplasmof economic interest. i. Introduce drought and cold tolerant germplasm of Wheat,barley, lentil and vetch (new lines of lentil will be provided by NARC to AZRC; NARC will coordinate the availability of rhizobia) ii. Introduce drought tolerant germplasm of cumin 3. Introduce seed cleaning machines in 3 IRSs 4. Train resource person on seed production at ICARDA 5. Train farmers and facilitators on seed production at IRSs Horticulture/post-harvest components 1. Replanting of local varieties of almond, introduction of olive (under water harvesting), pistachio, almond from Syria to farmers and pomegranate from Syria to research stations 2. Train farmers on improved management options for olives, pistachio, almond(irrigation schedule, fertilizer and farmyard manure application, pruning), monitoring visits and survey of pest and diseases and one in ARI 3. Establish 3 plastic houses on the IRSs 4. Soil and water testing Outputs: 4,5 and 6: Socioeconomic and income generation 1. Improve skills of rural women i.Training of community women (dehydration of tomatoes, okra, brinjal,fruit jam; chili processing, drying of tomatoes,egg plant, okra, processing, etc) ii. Identification of consumption goods iii. Identification of marketing goods iv. Market linkages for new products v. Socioeconomic assessment in terms of feasibility, profitability, increase income of participating HH 2. Impact of community participation i. Implementation of mechanisms of community approach (institutional arrangements) ii. Monitoring and evaluation of technology testing iii. Market opportunities studies for new field crop products (lentil, protected agriculture, potential new crops) iv. Adoption studies of interventions v. Impact survey at the end of the project 3. Review effect of policy on adaptation and review drought mitigation: i. Review drought mitigation policies with respect to NRM, supported by case studies ii.Explore opportunities to benefit from information gathered by other organizations (ADB) on drought management iii.Review existing policies as linked technologies iv.Effect of policies on technology adoption and development of recommendations

137

Turkman

Lalbagh

Alozai

Hassan Khan

Cropping season: 2007/2008 Akhtarzai

Integrated Research Sites Starting date Siddiqabad

Output 1: Water and soil management 1.Sailaba System Improvement (crops, WUE and WP) i. Soil analysis, and survey twice a year after crop harvesting to estimate sediment inflows to the field ii.Water productivity for farmers practices versus water productivity with intervention should be assessed iii. Survey for proper drainage of flood flow 2.Arid Horticulture plantation i. Water harvesting + supplemental irrigation(wheat and almond) ii. Sailaba water + supplemental irrigation (fruit trees and vegetables) iii. Supplemental irrigation and Sailaba for field crops. 3.Stockwater i. Objectives and data collection ii.Design aspect should cover(water regulation and losses) + design methodology iii. Water budget assessment(evaporation + water use + seepage) iv. Advised to ensure seepage control v. Water quality (monitoring)and outside outlet were also emphasized 4. Project up-scaling: i. Assign some priority to perennial Sailaba ii. Role of supplemental water in improving Sailaba water productivity iii. Preparation of project iv. ICARDA, WRRI and AZRC jointly develop feasibility (PC-II) for development a project on spate system improvement. Output 2: Rangeland and Livestock Rangeland i. Monitoring of established fodder shrubs with MCWHS at Mastung, and completion of plantation at Loralai ii. Establishment of forage reserve block on 1 ha with development component iii. Monitoring and evaluation of native shrub and grass species iv. Community awareness and mobilization for range management option(Co-training, Co mobilization,formation of herder association, linkage development with R&D). v. Interaction with social group for scaling-up the activity and impact assessment Livestock i. Using participatory approach to prevent animal diseases and worm load through vaccination and deworming ii.Awareness regarding handling preservation, application through on-site practical training. iii.Vaccines - ETV, anthrax, sheep pox, FMD, CCPP continue monitoring worm load through assessment of epidemiology, mapping, drug efficacy/resistance lamb fattening trials for replication,with low-cost concentrated ration and commercial feed. iv. Improving performance of sheep and goats at selected sites v. Training of farmers on animal health, and nutrition. vi. Awareness brochure; and training on animal feed analysis and formulation

138

Turkman

Lalbagh

Alozai

Hassan Khan

Cropping season: 2007/2008 Akhtarzai

Integrated Research Sites Starting date Siddiqabad

Output 3: Economic returns from cropping system improvement through diversification of high-value crops and disseminating of drought-adapted germplasm Wheat varieties 1. Varieties to be tested i. Cham-6 ii. AZRI-96 iii. k-98 iv. Saraib-92 v. Local varieties 2. Recommendation for wheat varieties: - Test all improved and local varieties for one more year. - Location will be same or as the scientist decide. - Test quality of those wheat varieties which were not done and also taste test. - Make a plan for seed dissemination. - Cham-6 should be submitted to provincial seed council for recommendation to Balochistan - Continue seed multiplication following VBSE work plan Barley varieties 1. Varieties to be tested i. Sanober-96 ii. AZ/WW iii. Soorab-92 iv. Awaran-02 v. Local vi. Arta 2. Recommendation for barley: - Repeat for third year Arta after consultation with all stakeholders (AZRC/ICARDA/FAO) - Quality testing of varieties. - Dissemination of seed to other farmers in the target area. - Seed multiplication Lentil varieties 1. Varieties to be tested: i. Shiraz-96 ii.ILL-8081 iii. Local 2. Recommendation for lentil varieties: - Repeat testing quality testing(cooking, taste, protein etc) - Seed available for dissemination to other farmers - Seed multiplication

139

Turkman

Lalbagh

Alozai

Hassan Khan

Cropping season: 2007/2008 Akhtarzai

Integrated Research Sites Starting date Siddiqabad

Horticultural and protected agriculture i. Inventory and monitor the fruit trees imported from Syria ii.Develop and implement management options for olives, pistachio, almond and pomegranate iii.Train the farmers continuously on tree management through FFS iv. Grow three crops in the 4 PATs, with needed cultural practices and management March-June (cucumber - all IRSs); July-October (tomato-ARI; cucumber in IRSs) November-February (green peas in all IRSs) Outputs: 4 and 5: Socioeconomic and income generating, enterprise & managerial skill development 1 Training of community women pickle(mixed vegetables),fruit,tomato, brinjal drying with solar drier, apple jam for home consumption 2 Finalization of market assessment studies 3 Market linkages for new products 4. Socioeconomic assessment in terms of feasibility, profitability, increase income of participating HH 5. Monitoring & evaluation of technologies tested (filling data gaps -PAT, VBSE, Diversion and further analysis of already assessed components-demand survey) 6. Livestock production packages for scaling-up 7. Assessment of clean vs. un-cleaned seeds 8.Adoption and impact assessment study to document technology uptake by end-users, identify constrains to adoption, and quantify the impact. 9. Economic feasibilities and market opportunities for new feasible and viable enterprises (VBSE, seed cleaning machines, small feed mills, PAT, arid horticulture) Output 6: Effectiveness of existing and/or alternative institutions and policies in improving the performance of the agriculture sector in target areas better understood and communicated to policy makers 1. Impact assessment of community participation, food security and livelihood 2. Review of drought mitigation policies with respect to NRM/ supported by case studies 3. Review the effectiveness of existing drought and water-use polices in Balochistan 4. Effect of policies on technology adoption and development of recommendations

140

Turkman

Lalbagh

Alozai

APPENDIX C: PROJECT PUBLICATIONS 1. Annual reports


ICARDA. 2005. First Annual Report, Food Security/Poverty Alleviation in Arid Agriculture Balochistan (GCP/PAK/095/USA) Project-Pilot Phase. Arid Zone Research Center, Agricultural Research Institute, Livestock and Dairy Development Department, and Technology Transfer Institute. ICARDA. 2006. Second Annual Report, Food Security/Poverty Alleviation in Arid Agriculture Balochistan (GCP/PAK/095/USA) Project-Pilot Phase. Arid Zone Research Center, Agricultural Research Institute, Livestock and Dairy Development Department, and Technology Transfer Institute. ICARDA. 2007. Third Annual Report, Food Security/Poverty Alleviation in Arid Agriculture Balochistan (GCP/PAK/095/USA) Project-Pilot Phase. Arid Zone Research Center, Agricultural Research Institute, Livestock and Dairy Development Department, and Technology Transfer Institute.

2. Technical reports
Muhammed, A., K. Shideed and F. Shomo. 2005. Socioeconomic and Livelihood characterization, and baseline information of integrated research sites in Balochistan. International Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas. ICARDA. 2006. Women's role in crop-livestock production and food processing: results from rapid rural appraisal. Agricultural Research Institute, Sariab, Quetta, Balochistan. ICARDA. 2006. Site facilitators training workshop report. Arid Zone Research Center and Agricultural Research Institute. March 27-31, 2006. ICARDA. 2006. Field days report. Arid Zone Research Center and Agricultural Research Institute. May 10-15, 2006.

3. Consultancy reports
Shalabi, T. 2006. Potential interventions to improve small ruminant performance. International Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas. March 30 to April 12, 2006. Eldairi, N. 2006. Introduction of high-value crops in Balochistan. International Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas. Abu-Zanat, M. 2008. Rangeland activities and grazing management at the Integrated Research Sites in Balochistan. International Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas. March 1-12, 2008.

4. Brochures
- Fighting poverty, improving food security in Balochistan. - Enhancing rural livelihood by increasing farm income: protected agriculture for the high-value crops in Balochistan, Pakistan. -Village-based seed supply system.

5. Posters
- Enhancing rural livelihoods by increasing farm income: protected agriculture for high-value crops in Balochistan, Pakistan - Guidelines for quality seed production

141

6. Published papers
Shomo, F., M. Azeem Khan and G. Khan. 2007. Current agricultural marketing and its future prospects for the economic development of Balochistan, Pakistan. Agricultural Marketing for the Economic Development. Shomo, F., A. Khan, K. Shideed, A.T. Moustafa and M. Islam. 2008. Feasibility of protected agriculture techniques for cash crop production in Balochistan Province, Pakistan.

142

Appendix D: Questionnaire for Impact Assessment of Improved Crop Varieties


1. General information a) Farmer name b) Community name . c) District name d) Farmer sex Male Female e) Farmer education . 2. What improved varieties you planted during the project duration Wheat . Barley . Lentil .. 3. Area planted to each variety this year (in 2007 /08) Crop Variety name Area sown (acre) Yield (kg/acre) Wheat Cham-6 AZRI-96 K-98 Sariab-92 Local (Sorb beag) Barley Sanobar-96 AZWW Awaran 2002 Soorab Arta Local Lentil Shiraz-96 ILL-8081 Local

Rainfed or irrigated 1.Salaiba 2.Irrigated 1.Salaiba 2.Irrigated 1.Salaiba 2.Irrigated 1.Salaiba 2.Irrigated 1.Salaiba 2.Irrigated 1.Salaiba 2.Irrigated 1.Salaiba 2.Irrigated 1.Salaiba 2.Irrigated 1.Salaiba 2.Irrigated 1.Salaiba 2.Irrigated 1.Salaiba 2.Irrigated 1.Salaiba 2.Irrigated 1.Salaiba 2.Irrigated 1.Salaiba 2.Irrigated

143

4. Farmers' perceptions of each variety Crop Name of Preferred variety characteristics Wheat Cham-6 AZRI-96 K-98 Sariab-92 Local (Sorb beag) Barley Sanobar-96 AZWW Awaran 2002 Soorab Arta Local Lentil Shiraz-96 ILL-8081 Local

Non-preferred characteristics

Who advised you to use this variety?

* Code of reason for preferring the variety 1. Yields better 2. Resistant to disease 3. Resistant to lodging 4. Earliness 5. Fetch good market price 6. Adaptable to the locality 7. Resistant to frost 8. Good bread quality 9. Resistance to drought 10. Good tillering 11.Good emergence 12. Other, specify__________ ** Code of reason for not preferring the variety 1. Improved seed is unavailable 2. Improved seed is expensive 4. Unavailability of credit 5. Performs no better than local 7. Yield is declining from time to time 8. Shortage of land 10. Late maturing 11. Shattering 12. Susceptible to cold /frost 13. Other, specify ___________ 5. Wheat: Information on production costs 5.1. Land preparation (Rs per acre) Factors Cham-6 First cultivation (Rs/ acre) Second cultivation (Rs/ acre) Third cultivation (Rs/ acre) Fourth cultivation (Rs/ acre) Others ----------------------Improved variety AZRI-96 K-98 Local Sorb beag

3. Fertilizer is expensive 6. Disease attack 9. Susceptible to water

Sariab-92

144

5.2. How did you plant your wheat in 2007/08 season? Factors Cham-6 Previous crop grown before wheat Seed source 1.Owned 2. Research Inst. 3. Trader 4. Neighbor /relative 5. Other----------Seed price at farm gate (Rs/kg) Seed rate (kg/acre) Sowing method 1.Drill 2.Hand 3.Spinner 1.Drill 2.Hand 3.Spinner 1.Drill 2.Hand 3.Spinner 1.Drill 2.Hand 3.Spinner 1.Drill 2.Hand 3.Spinner AZRI-96 1.Owned 2. Research Inst. 3. Trader 4. Neighbor /relative 5. Other----------Improved variety K-98 Sariab-92 1.Owned 2. Research Inst. 3. Trader 4. Neighbor /relative 5. Other---------1.Owned 2. Research Inst. 3. Trader 4. Neighbor /relative 5. Other--------Local Sorb beag 1.Owned 2. Research Inst. 3. Trader 4. Neighbor /relative 5. Other---------

If it is Manual, number of man days /acre Cost of sowing (Rs/acre) Method of seed treatment 1.Chemical 2.Mechanical 3.None Cost of seed treatment (Rs /kg) Seed covering(if handsown) 1. Cultivator 2. Roller 3. Harrow Cost of seed covering (Rs/acre) 5.3. Fertilizer & manure application (for 2007/08 season) Factor Did you apply manure? At planting time Di-Amonium Phosphate (kg/acre) Cost of DAP application (Rs /acre) Second application Quantity of Urea 46% (kg/acre) Cost of application Urea (Rs/da) Third application Quantity of Urea 46% (kg/acre) Cost of application Urea (Rs/acre) Cham-6 1-Yes 2-No Improved variety AZRI-96 K-98 1-Yes 1-Yes 2-No 2-No Local Sorb beag 1-Yes 2-No

1.Chemical 2.Mechanical 3.None

1.Chemical 2.Mechanical 3.None

1.Chemical 2.Mechanical 3.None

1.Chemical 2.Mechanical 3.None

1. Cultivator 2. Roller 3. Harrow

1. Cultivator 2. Roller 3. Harrow

1. Cultivator 2. Roller 3. Harrow

1. Cultivator 2. Roller 3. Harrow

Sariab-92 1-Yes 2-No

145

5.4. Farm-gate price of fertilizers and manure (Rs /kg) (Only fertilizers used by the farmers) Price of DAP (Rs/kg) Price of Urea (Rs/kg) Were fertilizers purchased on credit? 1. Yes 2. No

5.5. Disease and pest control methods and costs Improved variety AZRI-96 K-98 Local Sorb beag

Cham-6 Name of disease Degree of infestation 1.High 2.Medium 3.Low

Sariab-92

1.High 2.Medium 3.Low

1.High 2.Medium 3.Low

1.High 2.Medium 3.Low

1.High 2.Medium 3.Low

Quantity of chemical (liter/acre) Cost of chemical (Rs/liter) Cost of chemical application (Rs/acre) Name of insect Degree of insect infestation

1.High 2.Medium 3.Low

1.High 2.Medium 3.Low

1.High 2.Medium 3.Low

1.High 2.Medium 3.Low

1.High 2.Medium 3.Low

Quantity of chemical (liter/acre) Cost of chemical (Rs/liter) Cost of chemical application (Rs/acre) 5.6. Irrigation regimes in wheat production (2007/08 season) Did you produce any variety of wheat under irrigation? 1. Yes 2. No (if no, skip this section & continue with question on harvesting) If yes, provide details about irrigation practices Improved variety K-98 1212Local Sorb beag 12-

Cham-6 Irrigation source 1-Surface 2-Groundwater (well) 12-

AZRI-96 12-

Sariab-92

Number of irrigations for the growing season (2007/08) Costs of one irrigation/electricity, labor; (actual cost Rs /acre) Estimate amount of water per irrigation

146

5.7 . Harvesting and marketing costs Cham-6 Method 1. Hand /manual 2. Mechanical 3. Combine 1. 2. 3. AZRI-96 1. 2. 3. Improved variety K-98 1. 2. 3. Sariab-92 1. 2. 3. Local Sorb beag 1. 2. 3.

Cost of harvesting(Rs/acre) If it is manual how many man days/acre Cost of grain transportation (Rs /kg) Cost of handling straw (Rs /acre) 5.8. What are the average grain yields (k g/acre) of the following varieties in different seasons? Improved variety Local Cham-6 AZRI-96 K-98 Sariab-92 Sorb beag 2004/2005 2005/2006 2006/2007 2007/2008 5.9. What were the farm-gate prices (producer prices) for grain in 2007/08 season? Improved variety Cham-6 AZRI-96 K-98 Sariab-92 Grain selling price (Rs /ton) 5.10. Disposal of grain wheat production in 2007/08 (kg) Improved variety Cham-6 AZRI-96 K-98 Local market Milling Sold as seed Saved as seed Donated to others Other uses ..

Local Sorb beag

Sariab-92

Local Sorb beag

5.11.What is the average straw yield (kg/acre) of the following crops in different seasons? Improved variety Cham-6 AZRI-96 K-98 Sariab-92 2004/2005 2005/2006 2006/2007 2007/2008 5.12. What were the farm-gate prices (producer prices) for straw in 2007/08 season? Improved variety Cham-6 AZRI-96 K-98 Sariab-92 Straw selling price (Rs /ton) 5.13. Amount of grain production kept for food and straw for livestock on farm (2007/08) Improved variety Cham-6 AZRI-96 K-98 Sariab-92 Wheat grain for household food (kg) Wheat straw kept for feeding livestock (kg)

Local Sorb beag

Local Sorb beag

Local Sorb beag

147

6. Barley: Information on production costs 6.1. Land preparation (per acre) Sanober-96 First cultivation (Rs/acre) Second cultivation (Rs/acre) Third cultivation (Rs/acre) Fourth cultivation (Rs/acre) Others -----------------------6.2. How did you plant your barley in 2007 /08 season? Improved variety Sanober-96 AZ/WW Awaran 2002 Previous crop grown before wheat Seed source 1.Owned 1.Owned 2. Research Inst. 2. Research Inst. 3. Trader 3. Trader 4. Neighbor / 4. Neighbor / relative relative 5. Other---------- 5. Other---------Seed price at farm gate (Rs/kg) Seed rate (kg/acre) Sowing method 1.Drill 2.Hand 3.Spinner Cost of sowing(Rs/acre) 1.Drill 2.Hand 3.Spinner 1.Owned 2. Research Inst. 3. Trader 4. Neighbor / relative 5. Other---------Improved variety AZ/WW Awaran 2002 Local Soorab Arta

Local Soorab Arta

1.Owned 1.Owned 1.Owned 2. Research Inst. 2. Research Inst.2. Research Inst. 3. Trader 3. Trader 3. Trader 4. Neighbor / 4. Neighbor / 4. Neighbor / relative relative relative 5. Other------- 5. Other---------- 5. Other----------

1.Drill 2.Hand 3.Spinner

1.Drill 2.Hand 3.Spinner

1.Drill 2.Hand 3.Spinner

1.Drill 2.Hand 3.Spinner

If it is manual no.of man days/acre Method of seed treatment 1.Chemical 2.Mechanical 3.None 1.Chemical 2.Mechanical 3.None 1.Chemical 2.Mechanical 3.None 1.Chemical 2.Mechanical 3.None 1.Chemical 2.Mechanical 3.None 1.Chemical 2.Mechanical 3.None

Cost of seed treatment (Rs /kg) Seed 1. Cultivator covering (if 2. Roller hand sown) 3. Harrow 1. Cultivator 2. Roller 3. Harrow 1. Cultivator 2. Roller 3. Harrow 1. Cultivator 2. Roller 3. Harrow 1. Cultivator 2. Roller 3. Harrow 1. Cultivator 2. Roller 3. Harrow

Cost of seed covering (Rs/acre)

148

6.3. Fertilizer & manure application (for 2007/08 season) Improved variety Sanober-96 AZ/WW Awaran 2002 Did you apply manure? 1-Yes 1-Yes 1-Yes 2-No 2-No 2-No At planting time Di-Amonium Phosphate (kg/acre) Cost of DAP application (Rs /acre) Second application Quantity of Urea 46% (kg/acre) Cost of application Urea (Rs/acre) Third application Quantity of Urea 46% (kg/acre) Cost of application Urea (Rs/acre) 6.4. Farm-gate price of fertilizers and manure (Rs/ton) (Only fertilizers used by the farmers) Price of DAP Price of Urea Were fertilizers purchased on credit? 1. Yes 6.5. Disease and pest control methods and costs Sanober-96 Name of disease Degree of infestation 1.High 2.Medium 3.Low AZ/WW Improved variety Awaran 2002 1.High 2.Medium 3.Low

Local Soorab 1-Yes 2-No Arta 1-Yes 2-No 1-Yes 2-No

2. No

Local Soorab 1.High 2.Medium 3.Low Arta 1.High 2.Medium 3.Low 1.High 2.Medium 3.Low

1.High 2.Medium 3.Low

Quantity of chemical (liter /acre) Cost of chemical (Rs /liter) Cost of chemical application (Rs /acre) Name of insect Degree of insect infestation Quantity of chemical (liter /acre) Cost of chemical (Rs /liter) Cost of chemical application (Rs /acre)

1.High 2.Medium 3.Low

1.High 2.Medium 3.Low

1.High 2.Medium 3.Low

1.High 2.Medium 3.Low

1.High 2.Medium 3.Low

1.High 2.Medium 3.Low

149

6.6. Irrigation regimes in wheat production (2007/08 season) Did you produce any variety of wheat under irrigation? 1. Yes 2. No (if no, skip this section & continue with question on harvesting) If yes, provide details about irrigation practices Improved variety Awaran 2002 Soorab 1212Local Arta 1212-

Sanober-96 Irrigation source 1-Surface 2-Groundwater (well) Number of irrigation for the growing season (2007/08) Costs of one irrigation/ electricity, labor; (actual cost Rs /acre) Estimate amount of water per one irrigation 6.7. Harvesting and Marketing costs Sanober-96 Method 1. Hand /manual 2. Mechanical 3. Combine 1. 2. 3. 12-

AZ/WW 12-

Improved variety AZ/WW Awaran 2002 1. 2. 3. 1. 2. 3.

Local Soorab 1. 2. 3. Arta 1. 2. 3. 1. 2. 3.

Cost of harvesting (Rs/acre) If it is manual, no.of man days/acre Cost of grain transportation (Rs/ton) Cost of handling straw (Rs/acre) 6.8.What are the average grain yields (kg/acre) of the following varieties in different seasons? Improved variety Local Sanober-96 AZ/WW Awaran 2002 Soorab Arta 2004/2005 2005/2006 2006/2007 2007/2008 6.9. What were the farm-gate prices (producer prices) for grain in 2007/08 season? Improved variety Sanober-96 AZ/WW Awaran 2002 Soorab Arta Grain selling price (Rs /ton) 6.10. What is the average straw yield (kg/acre) of the following crops in different seasons? Improved variety Sanober-96 AZ/WW Awaran 2002 Soorab Arta 2004/2005 2005/2006 2006/2007 2007/2008

Local

Local

150

6.11. What were the farm-gate prices (producer prices) for straw in 2007/08 season? Improved variety Sanober-96 AZ/WW Awaran 2002 Soorab Arta Straw selling price (Rs /ton) 6.12. Amount of grain production kept for food and straw for livestock on farm (2007/08) Improved variety Sanober-96 AZ/WW Awaran 2002 Soorab Arta Barley grain for household food (kg) Barley straw kept for feeding livestock (kg) 7. Lentil: information on production costs 7.1. Land preparation (per acre) Improved variety Shiraz -96 First cultivation (Rs/acre) Second cultivation (Rs/acre) Third cultivation (Rs/acre) Fourth cultivation (Rs/acre) Others ---------------------7.2. How did you plant your lentil in 2007 /08 season? Improved variety Shiraz -96 ILL-8081 Previous crop grown before wheat Seed source 1.Own 2. Research Inst. 3. Trader 4. Neighbor /relative 5. Other----------1.Own 2. Research Inst. 3. Trader 4. Neighbor /relative 5. Other----------ILL-8081

Local

Local

Local

Local

1.Own 2. Research Inst. 3. Trader 4. Neighbor /relative 5. Other-----------

Seed price at farm gate (Rs/kg) Seed rate (kg/acre) Sowing method

1.Drill 2.Hand 3.Spinner

1.Drill 2.Hand 3.Spinner

1.Drill 2.Hand 3.Spinner

Cost of sowing (Rs/acre) If it is hand: No of man days per acre Method of seed treatment 1.Chemical 2.Mechanical 3.None 1. Cultivator 2. Roller 3. Harrow 1.Chemical 2.Mechanical 3.None 1. Cultivator 2. Roller 3. Harrow 1.Chemical 2.Mechanical 3.None 1. Cultivator 2. Roller 3. Harrow

Cost of seed treatment (Rs/kg) Seed Covering (if hand sown)

Cost of seed covering (Rs/acre)

151

7.3. Fertilizer & manure application (for 2007 /08 season) Improved variety Shiraz -96 ILL-8081 Did you apply manure? 1-Yes 1-Yes 2-No 2-No Did you apply manure? At planting time Di-Amonium Phosphate (kg/acre) Cost of DAP application (Rs /acre) Second application Quantity of Urea 46% (kg/acre) Cost of application Urea (Rs/acre) Third application Quantity of Urea 46% (kg/acre) Cost of application Urea (Rs/acre) 7.4. Farm-gate price of fertilizers and manure (Rs /ton) (Only fertilizers used by the farmers) Price of DAP . Price of Urea . Were fertilizers purchased on credit? 1. Yes

Local 1-Yes 2-No

2. No

7.5. Disease and pest control methods and costs Improved variety Shiraz -96 ILL-8081 Name of disease Degree of infestation 1.High 1.High 2.Medium 2.Medium 3.Low 3.Low Quantity of chemical (liter/acre) Cost of chemical (Rs/liter) Cost of chemical application(Rs/acre) Name of disease Degree of infestation 1.High 1.High 2.Medium 2.Medium 3.Low 3.Low Quantity of chemical (liter /acre) Cost of chemical (Rs /liter) Cost of chemical application (Rs /acre)

Local

1.High 2.Medium 3.Low

1.High 2.Medium 3.Low

7.6. Irrigation regimes in wheat production (2007/08 season) Did you produce any variety of wheat under irrigation? 1. Yes 2. No (if no, skip this section & continue with question on harvesting) If yes, provide details about irrigation practices Improved variety Shiraz-96 ILL-8081 Irrigation source 1-Surface 12-Groundwater (well) 2Number of irrigations for the growing season (2007/08) Costs of one irrigation/ electricity, labor; (actual cost Rs /acre) Estimate amount of water per one irrigation 12Local

12-

152

7.7. Harvesting and Marketing costs Shiraz -96 Method 1. Hand /manual 2. Mechanical 3. Combine Cost of harvesting (Rs/acre) 1. 2. 3. Improved variety ILL-8081 1. 2. 3. Local

1. 2. 3.

If it is manual: no. of man days per acre Cost of grain transportation (Rs/kg) Cost of handling straw (Rs/acre) 7.8. What are the average grain yields (kg/acre) of the following varieties in different seasons? Improved variety Local Shiraz-96 ILL-8081 2004/2005 2005/2006 2006/2007 2007/2008 7.9. What were the farm-gate prices (producer prices) for grain in 2007/08 season? Improved variety Local Shiraz-96 ILL-8081 Grain selling price (Rs /kg) 7.10. What is the average straw yield (Kg/acre) of the following crops in different seasons? Improved variety Local Shiraz-96 ILL-8081 2004/2005 2005/2006 2006/2007 2007/2008 7.11. What were the farm-gate prices (producer prices) for straw in 2007/08 season? Improved variety Shiraz-96 ILL-8081 Straw selling price (Rs /kg) 7.12. Amount of grain production kept for food and straw for livestock on farm (2007/08) Seasons Improved variety Shiraz-96 ILL-8081 Lentil grain for household food (kg) Lentil straw kept for feeding livestock (kg) 7.13. Disposal of grain lentil production in 2007/08 (kg) Item Improved variety Shiraz-96 ILL-8081 Local market Sold as seed Saved as seed Donated to others Other uses ..

Local

Local

Local

153

8. Food and Feed Security 8.1. Household food security in the last two seasons: Family need % produced kg/month Wheat (2006/07) Wheat (2007/08) Lentil (2006/07) Lentil (2007/08) 8.2. Household feed security Family need kg/month Barley grain (2006/07) Barley grain (2007/08) Cereal straw (2006/07) Cereal straw (2007/08) 9. Sources of household income from other crops 9.1. Crop production and revenues for 2007/2008 Area cultivated (acre) Estimated production (kg) Dry bean Onion Carrot Tomate Appels Grapes Apricot Almond 9.2. Income from livestock activities What was the sale of livestock and livestock products during 2007/08 Specify unit Number of units sold Cattle /cows etc. Head Sheep Head Goats Head Poultry Head Rabbit Head Egg Number Milk /cream Liter Hides /skin /leather Number Butter /cheese kg Honey kg Others--------------

% purchased on farm

Price of purchased (Rs/kg)

% produced on farm

% purchased

Price(Rs /kg)

Average unit price(Rs)

9.3. Income from other activities (2007/08) Please list the amount of income /revenues obtained from other activities Estimated income obtained (Rs) Labor wage from agriculture Non-agriculture wage (off-farm income) Land rental /receipts from share cropping Money transfer from household members Rent of tractor & equipment to other farmers Shops /small business Others

154

10. Livelihoods characterization 10.1. Natural capital 1. What is your total land holding? ... (acre) Land type: a. Arable (can be cultivated) (acre) b. Non-arable (grazing)..(acre) Land ownership a. Owned . (acre) b. Sharecropping . (acre) c. Rented land . (acre) What is the total area irrigated on your farm (all crops in 2007/08)? acre 10.2. Physical capital Can you estimate the value of the following items if available? No. of units Market price per unit (current value) Non-arable land Arable land Land planted with trees House Shop Tractors Drill Plough Irrigation equipment Harvesting machines Trailer Other equipment---Cars Pick-up Lorry / truck Sheep Cows Goats Poultry Rabbits - How far do you have to transport wheat for selling? - Do you have a telephone in your house or Mobile phone? 10.3. Financial capital How can you classify the livelihoods of your household? 1- Very poor 2-Poor 3- Moderately well-off - Did your household save money last year? - Did you use credit to fund production in 2007/08? 1-Yes If yes, what is the source of credit?-----------------------------------If yes, how much? --------------------- (Rs) 4-Well-off 1-Yes 2-No ------- km 1-Yes

Total value

2-No

2-No

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10.4. Human capital A. Socio demographic characteristics Response Age of household head (years) Highest level of school education completed 0 =None 1=Primary 2= Secondary 3=High school 4=University 5= Can read and write Number of years of experience in agricultural production? B. Household composition Age range Members residing in the village Female Male < 7 years 8 - 15 years 16 - 59 years > 60 years

Members non-resident in the village Female Male

Total family size:-------------- persons Size of family labor (Number family members above 16 and below 60 yrs old, including the household head, who work full time on household's farms ------------- Persons Number of specific agricultural training courses /workshop you and other household members received in the past 5 years?-----------------Times. Did any member in the household studied or is studying in agriculture school? 1-yes 2-No If yes, what is the type of the study? -----------------------------------------------Did any member in the household have university degree? 1-Yes 2-No

Where do you have information on agriculture and animal husbandry? 1. Agricultural extension 2. Relatives 3. Neighbors 4. Own experience 5. Other ---------------------------------How many times you had contact with extension services in 2007/08? ________ times 10.5. Social capital Is there a community organization in your community? Are you a member in the CO? Are you a member of any other organization?

1-Yes 1-Yes 1-Yes

2-No 2-No 2-No

Did you exchange the agricultural information with others farmers? If yes, with who -----------If yes, how frequent? ----------- Time/year Do you consider yourself /household member to be active in the group or your community (e.g. attending meetings, volunteering your time in other ways), or are you relatively inactive? Are you /household member a leader in the group? 1- Leader 2- Very active 3- Somewhat active 4- Not active Do you think that in this village/neighborhood people generally trust one another in matters of lending and borrowing? 1- Do trust 2- Trust sometimes 3- Do not trust Do you think over the last few years this level of trust has become better, worse or remained the same? 1- Better 2- The same 3- Worse Note for the interviewer: Please can you collect a rainfall data from the IRS if available.

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