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Chapter 14

The Stars:
How much longer can the Sun sustain life on Earth?
1. The energy source of stars is primarily associated with a. the reactions of atoms in the star corona. b. the reactions of nuclei in the star core. c. the reactions of atoms in the outer regions of the star. d. burning of elements until they become radioactive. e. burning of elements heavier than lead. Ans: b Link To: The Anatomy of Stars Difficulty Level: asy

!. "f scientists located a Dyson Sphere# they would find a. something made from a dismantled planet. b. a planet in orbit around our closest star. c. an energy source built to surround a planet. d. an ob$ect at the core of the Sun. e. the corona during a total eclipse. Ans: a Link To: The Anatomy of Stars Difficulty Level: asy

%. The solar wind a. e&tends into space as far as 'ercury. b. consists of hydrogen and carbon particles. c. is a part of the Sun(s atmospheric circulation. d. affects the magnetic fields of planets. e. is another term for the Sun(s chromosphere. Ans: d Link To: The Anatomy of Stars Difficulty Level: asy

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*hapter 1+

+. ,hich of the following can be said about large starsa. Large stars have a longer lifetime than smaller stars. b. Large stars have a shorter lifetime than smaller stars. c. Large star lifetime is about the same as that of smaller stars. d. The helium in the large star.s core burns to produce hydrogen. e. Large stars are the source of o&ygen in photosynthesis. Ans: b Link To: The Life *ycles of Stars Difficulty Level: asy

/. At this moment# the Sun is producing energy by burning a. plutonium. b. anthracite. c. hydrogen. d. helium. e.iron. Ans: c Link To: The Anatomy of Stars Difficulty Level: asy

). The end products of fusion in the Sun.s core are a. helium isotopes# protons# and gamma rays. b. hydrogen isotopes# photons# and infrared rays. c. helium ions# photons# and hydrogen isotopes. d. hydrogen ions# protons# and gamma rays. e. deuterium# photons# and gamma rays. Ans: a Link To: The Anatomy of Stars Difficulty Level: asy

0. Appro&imately how long does it take the energy of the Sun to be transferred from the stellar core to the photospherea. one light1year b. many thousands of years c. !+ hours d. one month

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*hapter 1+ e. eight minutes Ans: b Link To: The Anatomy of Stars Difficulty Level: asy

2. ,hich of the following affect the life of a stara. gravitational force b. mass c. temperature d. fusion processes e. all of the above Ans: e Link To: The Life *ycles of Stars Difficulty Level: asy

3. 4rom what part of the electromagnetic spectrum is most of the Sun(s energy emitteda. radio waves b .infrared waves c. visible light waves d. gamma rays e. microwaves Ans: c Link To: The 5ature of Stars Difficulty Level: asy

16. ,hich of the following satellite observatories could not detect the presence of a black holea. *ompton 7amma 8ay 9bservatory :789; b. *handra <1ray 9bservatory c. =ubble Space Telescope :=ST; d. Space "nfrared Telescope 4acility :S"8T4; e. only a and b Ans: d Link To: The 5ature of Stars Difficulty Level: 'edium

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*hapter 1+ 11. Differences in how a star appears in the sky are a function of a. the si>e of the star. b. how far away the star is from arth. c. the total energy emitted by the star. d. the star(s apparent brightness. e. all of the above Ans: e Link To: The ?ariety of Stars Difficulty Level: asy

1!. The =ert>sprung18ussell diagram is a graphical techni@ue used in astronomy to compare a. the surface temperature versus the energy output of a star. b. the star(s luminosity versus its distance from arth. c. the absolute magnitude of the star versus the star(s relative temperature. d. the distance the Sun is from the nearest red giant. e. the location of possible solar systems in the 'ilky ,ay. Ans: a Link To: The Life *ycles of Stars Difficulty Level: asy

1%. ,here in the 'ilky ,ay gala&y would astronomers e&pect to find planetary systems other than our owna. Dyson Sphere b. nebulae c. supernovas d. black hole e. *epheid stars Ans: b Link To: The Life *ycles of Stars Difficulty Level: asy

1+. ,hich of the following is not an endpoint of stellar evolutiona. white dwarf b. main se@uence star c. pulsar d. black hole e. neutron star

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*hapter 1+

Ans: b Link To: The Life *ycles of Stars Difficulty Level: asy

1/. ,here were the heaviest chemical elements on arth createda. neutron stars b. black holes c. the Sun d. supernovae e. the asteroid belt Ans: d Link To: The Life *ycles of Stars Difficulty Level: asy

1). "f you were to observe a pulsar# what would you seea. a blinking red glow b. intermittent radio waves c. a steady glow that oscillates among the stars d. the sudden brightening of a star e. the total eclipse of the Sun Ans: b Link To: The Life *ycles of Stars Difficulty Level: asy

10. ,hat is Supernova 1320A likely to becomea. black hole b. pulsars c. main se@uence star d. *epheid variable e. solar wind Ans: b Link To: The Life *ycles of Stars Difficulty Level: asy

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*hapter 1+ 12. "f the =ubble telescope detects an intensely bright region in the sky that lasts only a few days# it has probably found evidence of a a. white dwarf. b. supernova. c. main se@uence star. d. new gala&y. e. black hole. Ans: b Link To: The 5ature of Stars Difficulty Level: asy

13. ,hich of the following star variables would not be in an astronomer(s dataa. wave length b. intensity c. sound d. position e. brightness Ans: c Link To: The 5ature of Stars Difficulty Level: asy

!6. ,hich of the following telescopes would have a collecting mirrora. *handra <1ray orbiting observatory telescope b. =ubble telescope c. ?ery Large Array telescope in 5ew 'e&ico d. =ert>sprung18ussell telescope at =arvard e. all of the above Ans: b Link To: The 5ature of Stars Difficulty Level: asy

!1. ,hich of the following is among the things scientists predict for Sun.s demisea. The burning of helium will produce a carbon ash core. b. The Sun will e&pand until it e&tends past the present orbit of ?enus. c. The sun will emit more energy but appear to be cool. d. At different points in its final years# the Sun will become a red giant and a white dwarf. e. All of the above are true.

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*hapter 1+

Ans: e Link To: The Life *ycles of Stars Difficulty Level: asy

!!. 8ed giants can be described as a. huge planets that are surrounded by gases. b. large stars that emit a lot of energy but have cool surfaces. c. large stars that emit a lot of energy but have glowing# hot surfaces. d. stars that are in the hydrogen1burning stage of their lives. e. large planets with glowing iron o&ide surfaces. Ans: b Link To: The Life *ycles of Stars Difficulty Level: asy

!%. The starry night sky seen from arth is a temporary phenomenon that has lasted about 1/ billion years. Ans: True Link To: The 5ature of Stars Difficulty Level: asy

!+. Some stars will burn forever. Ans: 4alse Link To: The Life *ycles of Stars Difficulty Level: asy

!/. The Sun.s peak output of energy is within the visible spectrum. Ans: True Link To: The Anatomy of Stars Difficulty Level: asy

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*hapter 1+ !). 8ecord numbers of neutrinos from the Sun have been isolated at the solar neutrino laboratory in South Dakota. Ans: 4alse Link To: The Anatomy of Stars Difficulty Level: asy

!0. All ob$ects with temperatures above absolute >ero will radiate some form of electromagnetic waves. Ans: True Link To: The 5ature of Stars Difficulty Level: asy

!2. &cept for visible light and radio waves# the atmosphere of the arth is opa@ue to most of the electromagnetic spectrum. Ans: True Link To: The 5ature of Stars Difficulty Level: asy

!3. The absolute magnitude of a star is the brightness as seen from arth# depending on the star(s distance from arth. Ans: 4alse Link To: The ?ariety of Stars Difficulty Level: asy

%6. The distance to stars greater than /66 light1years away is measured using *epheid variable stars. Ans: True Link To: The ?ariety of Stars Difficulty Level: asy

%1. A main se@uence star in the =18 diagram is in the hydrogen burning stage of its e&istence.

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*hapter 1+

Ans: True Link To: The Life *ycles of Stars Difficulty Level: asy

%!. A star balances the forces of gravity against the high temperature and pressure of nuclear fires in the stellar core. Ans: True Link To: The Life *ycles of Stars Difficulty Level: asy

%%. The degeneracy pressure of electrons is usually measured at the earliest stage of a star(s e&istence. Ans: 4alse Link To: The Life *ycles of Stars Difficulty Level: asy

%+. A star will start its e&istence as a white dwarf and end as a red giant. Ans: 4alse Link To: The Life *ycles of Stars Difficulty Level: asy

%/. A neutron star is dense and small# compared to the Sun. Ans: True Link To: The Life *ycles of Stars Difficulty Level: asy

%). The supernova 1320A contradicted all the theories of stellar evolution proposed up to that time. Ans: 4alse Link To: The Life *ycles of Stars

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*hapter 1+ Difficulty Level: asy

%0. ,hat are the two factors that affect the behavior of every starAns: 'ass and age. Link To: The ?ariety of Stars Difficulty Level: asy

%2. The iron in your blood was made during a. a chemical process that occurred during arth.s formation. b. the final moments in the life of a small star. c. fusion during our Sun.s creation. d. fission reactions during the Aig Aang. e. the nuclear burning of a very large star. Ans: e Link To: The Life *ycles of Stars Difficulty Level: 'edium

%3. "f you were describing the structure of the Sun correctly# you would say that a. ten percent of the total volume of the Sun is the core. b. the Sun(s outer region is a convection >one. c. the photosphere thins away from the Sun.s surface. d. a gaseous chromosphere and corona are visible only during a solar eclipse. e. All of the above are true. Ans: e Link To: The Anatomy of Stars Difficulty Level: 'edium

+6. ,hy do astronomers prefer orbiting telescopes over arth1based telescopesa. lower user costs and more research time options b. e&citing space travel possible for observations c. wider range of electromagnetic wavelengths detected d. greater international cooperation e. more aesthetically pleasing Ans: c

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*hapter 1+ Link To: The 5ature of Stars Difficulty Level: 'edium

+1. "t is impossible to e&tract energy from iron by fusion or fission. Ans: True Link To: The Life *ycles of Stars Difficulty Level: 'edium

+!. ,hy are new stars made of hydrogen gasAns: =ydrogen gas is the simplest and the most common material in space. Link To: The Life *ycles of Stars Difficulty Level: 'edium

+%. ,hat is the difference between apparent brightness and absolute brightness in star classificationAns: Apparent brightness is relative brightness when viewed from arth with distant stars appearing dimmer. Absolute brightness is a measure of stellar brightness from a standard distance. Link To: The ?ariety of Stars Difficulty Level: 'edium

++. *ompare the process of hydrogen burning with helium burning in a star. Ans: After the hydrogen fuel in the core of a star is depleted# the star will contract under the force of gravity. At the same time the temperature will rise in the core until helium is fused to form carbon. =elium burning is the final stage in a star.s life that produces energy. Link To: The Anatomy of Stars Difficulty Level: 'edium

+/. ,hy do scientists believe that black holes e&ist# since black holes cannot be seen and none have ever been confirmed in space-

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*hapter 1+ Ans: Alack holes give off a particular radiation signatureB ob$ects around the black hole behave in a particular manner. Link To: The Life *ycles of Stars Difficulty Level: 'edium

+). 4rom an observer(s point of view# how would the birth of a star appear different from the death of a large star :supernovae;Ans: These events are similar in that they both e&pel a shell of material although the supernova is more dramatic. These events are different in that the new star emits continuous light whereas the dying star fades to black. Link To: The Life *ycles of Stars Difficulty Level: 'edium

+0. 4rom the perspective of arth# how are neutron stars and pulsars the same and how are they differentAns: They are actually the same ob$ectB pulsars are only neutron stars whose poles are pointing toward the arth. Link To: The Life *ycles of Stars Difficulty Level: 'edium

+2. ,hy are imaginary space creatures often depicted as havingeyes larger than those of arth dwellers- *ompare the CeyesD of a ?enusian with the CeyesD of a Elutonian. Science fiction writers and illustrators may be enlarging Ans: the eyes of e&traterrestrials to indicate their need to collect more photons# similar in the theory e&plaining the large eyes of nocturnal animals. 4ollowing that logic# ?enusian CeyesD would be smaller than those of the Elutonians. Link To: The Anatomy of Stars Difficulty Level: =ard

+3. ,hat is the answer to the solar neutrino problem-

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*hapter 1+ Ans: &periments before !661# designed to measure the number of neutrinos given off by the Sun# had detected fewer neutrinos than e&pected. Scientists hypothesi>ed that the ordinary electron neutrinos were converted to other types of neutrinos during their transit to arth. The FlostF neutrinos were recently detected in an e&periment comparing neutrino capture in pure water versus heavy water. =eavy water will only react with the electron neutrino. Eure water will react with all kinds of neutrinos. 9ne1third of the neutrinos are ordinary electron neutrinosB two1thirds have been converted. Link To: The Anatomy of Stars Difficulty Level: =ard /6. List the events in the life of a Sun1like star in chronological order. ,ill the star becomes a supernova- ,hy or why notAns: "t is a part of a concentration of mass in a cloud of gas and debris. "t becomes a plasma made mostly of protons and electrons. =ydrogen is burned in the star(s core. The star collapses temporarily. The star e&pands and becomes a red giant. The star shrinks to become a white dwarf. Link To: The Life *ycles of Stars Difficulty Level: =ard

/1. ,hat four aspects of photons are measured by astronomers and what instruments do the scientists useAns: Astronomers measure photon wavelength with spectroscopyB photon intensity with light metersB photon direction by recording two anglesB and the variation of wavelength# intensity# and position over time. Link To: The 5ature of Stars Difficulty Level: =ard

/!. &plain how the 5orthern Lights are formed. Ans: The 5orthern Lights# also called the Aurora Aorealis# are flashing colored lights seen in the arth(s night sky at high northern latitudes when the ions forming the solar wind interact with the arth.s magnetic field in the outer reaches of the arth(s atmosphere. Link To: The 5ature of Stars Difficulty Level: =ard /%. =ow can the ashes of one stellar nuclear fire become the fuel for the ne&t stellar nuclear fire-

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*hapter 1+ Ans: "n medium si>e stars# hydrogen is burned in nuclear fusion reactions to form helium and# in the later stages# the helium ash is burned to produce carbon. The carbon itself cannot ignite in stars the si>e of our Sun. "n very large stars# the pressure in the cores is so intense that the carbon can be changed by fusion into even larger nuclei like o&ygen and silicon. Link To: The Life *ycles of Stars Difficulty Level: =ard

/+. ,hy do larger stars have shorter life spansAns: Larger stars may have more hydrogen fuel to burn but have shorter life spans# when compared with small or average si>e stars. The reason is that large stars must burn hydrogen at rates many times greater than that of smaller stars to overcome the intense force of gravity caused by the star(s massiveness. Link To: The Life *ycles of Stars Difficulty Level: =ard

//. =ow are naturally occurring elements heavier than iron formed in stellar processesAns: lements heavier than iron are created when a very large star e&plodes in a supernova# sending out shockwaves. This raises the temperature and causes collisions of nuclei# which forms new elements. Link To: The Anatomy of Stars Difficulty Level: =ard

/). =ow are *epheid variables used to classify starsAns: The distance a star is from the arth can be determined with triangulation :for nearby stars; or with *epheid variables. The *epheid variable stars are standards of comparison for stars greater than a few hundred light1years away using known values of energy output from the star and energy received by arth. Distance is calculated from comparable brightness :magnitude;. Link To: The ?ariety of Stars Difficulty Level: =ard

/0. ,hat advantages might there be to living inside a Dyson Sphere- ,hat would be the limitations future scientists must face before constructing a Dyson SphereAns: A Dyson sphere would not only intercept and utili>e all of a star(s energy# it also could support a tremendous population. Such an immense structure would have an internal surface area

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*hapter 1+ comparable to more than /66 million eternal daylight. Link To: The Anatomy of Stars Difficulty Level: =ard arth1like planets# and it would be uniformly heated in

/2. =ow are the original telescopes different from modern telescopes- =ow do the former improve upon the latterAns: Answers will vary but could include facts about early telescopes using only light whereas modern# non1optical telescopes use other sources of energy to Gsee( distant ob$ects. 'odern non1 optical telescopes can be used !+ hours a day# in good weather or bad. 'odern optical telescopes have technological advances such as better glass grinding# computer operations# etc. Link To: The 5ature of Stars Difficulty Level: =ard

/3. ,hen pulsars were first detected# they were called L7'# which stood for Little 7reen 'en. ,hat characteristic of pulsars might have caused astronomers to give them this nameAns: Answers will vary but should include reference to the regular pulse rate that appeared as if someone controlled the pro$ection of energy. Link To: The Life *ycles of Stars Difficulty Level: =ard

)6. "f the Sun had not burned fairly evenly since the creation of the arth# how would life on arth be differentAns: Answers will vary but could include plant and animal adaptations# different abundances of elements# and so forth. Link To: The 5ature of Stars Difficulty Level: =ard

)1. "f a new star were discovered# what characteristics would it have to have in order to be identified as a main se@uence starAns: 'edium si>e# temperature# color. Link To: The Life *ycles of Stars Difficulty Level: =ard

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*hapter 1+

)!. During ocean voyages# early sailors used a method called triangulation to determine the location of their ships. =ow is this same method used today by astronomers to determine the distance to certain neighboring starsAns: Ay measuring the angle of sight to a given star from two points of known separation# we can determine the star(s distance from us. Link To: The Anatomy of Stars Difficulty Level: =ard

)%. valuate the positive and negative aspects of using a star as an energy source as proposed by the construction of a Dyson Sphere. Ans: Eositive: a source of energy lasting billions of years 5egative: what to do with the solar wind particles and what happens if the star changes energy outputHeven by 11!ILink To: The Anatomy of Stars Difficulty Level: =ard

)+. ,e don(t often see stars in the daytime# but if you dug a hole deep enough could you see the stars from the bottomAns: Jes# but it would be a hole tens of miles deep. Link To: The Anatomy of Stars Difficulty Level: =ard

)/. "f some one says to you# Call stars are the sameH$ust tiny points of lightD# how might you convince them they have different temperatures :color; and different magnitudes :brightness;. Ans: Answers will vary# however# the human eye is not good at discriminating color at low light levels# but a color photograph can illustrate different colors. As for brightness# light bulbs of the same wattage placed at different distances :or varying wattages placed at the same distances; can illustrate magnitude. Link To: The ?ariety of Stars Difficulty Level: =ard

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*hapter 1+ )). "n the 1266s scientists knew that if the Sun was composed of conventional fuels :coal# oil# wood; it would have a burning life of only a few thousand years at best. =ow might this information impact the debate of Chow old is the arthD in that eraAns: ither the arth is only a few thousand years old or the Sun is using a different source of fuelHone with a greater lifetime. Link To: The 5ature of Stars Difficulty Level: =ard )0. "f the arth had evolved around a different starHa redder star that produced more fre@uencies in the infrared and microwave bandsHhow might plant and animal development been altered to respond to these fre@uenciesAns: Answers will vary but for sure if eyes developed they would have to be much larger to receive these longer fre@uencies. Elants would have evolved chlorophyll that responded to different wavelengths than that of green light. Link To: The Anatomy of Stars Difficulty Level: =ard

)2. ,hat elements on the periodic table are the products of supernovae- ,hy would this be trueAns: All elements heavier than iron are formed as a result of higher temperatures and pressures generated by larger stars when they undergo a catastrophic gravitational collapse. Link To: The Life *ycles of Stars Difficulty Level: =ard

)3. =ow is it that optical telescopes are placed in orbit but radio telescopes are notAns: The visible spectrum fre@uencies are distorted and absorbed by the atmosphere but radio waves pass through relatively undisturbed. Link To: The 5ature of Stars Difficulty Level: =ard

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