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Lecture Notes 2: GIS Data Sources, Types and Representation

GIS GEOGRAPHIC DATA Geographic Information System (GIS) utilizes data known as Geographic Data which are also termed as geospatial data. It is a type of data which identifies geographic location of features and boundaries on Earth such as natural features as oceans forests and mountains and man!made features like buildings roads a"ueducts and others. Geographic Data is usually stored as coordinates and topology and can be mapped thematically depending on what information and application you are particular with. #hrough the use of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) we can access manipulate and analyze these data. #here are two types of Geographic Data namely$ %on&entional Data and Digital Data. %on&entional Data is a static data representation for it only represents a general!purpose snapshot of the real world at a gi&en time only. ' good e(ample of this are the analogue maps we are familiar with that is in printed form which contains relati&ely limited information. #he second type of Geographic Data is a Digital Data. Digital Data is a dynamic representation of geospatial data for it allows a range of functions for storing processing analyzing and &isualizing spatial data. It also has tools that allow users to interact with the data to meet specific ob)ecti&es. *ith the ad&ent of technologies and the progressi&e computer era the use of digital data has been e(tensi&e in the field of GIS. #his Digital data pro&ides numerical representations that describe real!world features and phenomena and for them to be useful in GIS it must be encoded in digital form and organized as a geographic database. +nfortunately this data seems to be the most e(pensi&e part of any Geographic Information System. 'ccording to GIS user community ,-. to /-. of the total cost of any GIS technology lies in data ac"uisition data compilation and database de&elopment.

CO RSE LECT RE GIS DATA SO RCES GIS Data Sources are acquired using several Data 'c"uisition 0ethods: For Raster Data we can use methods such as Scanning, Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing; for ector Data we can o!t to use "anual Digiti#ing, $om!uter %ssisted Digiti#ing, Field Surveying and GPS Surveying; and lastly for %ttri&ute Data we can use 'ey&oard (ntry using either note!ad, "S ()cel, "S %ccess and similar software* +o acquire Raster Data we commonly used the method of scanning, where to!ogra!hic ma!s, !olitical ma!s, aerial !hotogra!hs or generally conventional data are scanned to convert into a digital GIS data* %ccuracy de!ends on the scanner quality ,resolution-, quality of the image !rocessing software used to !rocess the scanned data, and quality or com!le)ity .

of source document* /onetheless, "anual0$om!uter %ssisted Digiti#ing on the other hand is a common method of acquiring ector Data* "anual Digiti#ing or $om!uter1%ssisted Digiti#ing method encodes geogra!hic features from conventional0digital !a!er ma!s to vector GIS* GIS DATA REPRESENTATION GIS Data "odel is the heart of any Geogra!hic Information System and a way of re!resenting data* It is essential for defining what is in the GIS and even su!!orts the use of GIS software, according to 2ongley, Goodchild, "aguire 3 Rhind 4GIS Data "odel is a set of constructs for descri&ing and re!resenting selected as!ects of the real world in a com!uter5* %ll s!atial data falls into two categories namely: Field1&ased "odel ,Raster "odel- and 6&7ect1&ased "odel , ector "odel-* Field1&ased "odel is a continuous numeric values, such as elevation, and continuous categories, such as vegetation ty!es, are re!resented using the raster model* 6&7ect1&ased "odels are discrete features, such as customer locations and data summari#ed &y area, are usually re!resented using the vector model !" Raster Data #ode$ +his category of GIS Data model treats geogra!hic s!ace as !o!ulated &y one or more s!atial !henomena, which vary continuously over s!ace and having no o&vious &oundaries* +hey are &est used to re!resent geogra!hic features that are continuous over a large area ,e*g* soil ty!e, vegetation, etc*-* Raster Data "odel uses an array of rectangular cells0!i)els0grids to re!resent real1world o&7ects where each cell is defined &y a coordinate location and an attri&ute that identifies the feature* For similar features equal attri&ute values are assigned* +he cell8s linear dimension defines the s!atial resolution*

Figure .: % Raster "odel where each cell has distinct colour to distinguish corres!onding land use

PI(EL )AL E ! 2 * + , . / 0 " " " .+ ., A A A A " " " -






O O % O O C O O



Raster data are stored in the computer as a matrix. The cells are referenced by lines and elements (Fig. 2.1 & 2.2). In the simplest form each line is a computer record. !ach record "ill contain the #alues for all elements in the line

Figure 9*.: Raster Re!resentation

Figure 9*9: Raster Data alue Stored

Raster Data &i$e &or'ats: Raster Data comes in different file formats for GIS data sources are varied: +he following are the most common ty!es of Raster Data Formats used widely* ;


102 (bitmaps) is a raster data file format used &y gra!hics in "icrosoft <indows a!!lications* +here is no file com!ression; therefore they are large file si#e* +he the advantage of using this file format is its sim!licity and wide acce!tance in <indows !rograms* DI1 (De&ice Independent 1itmaps) is a format used to define device1inde!endent &itma!s in various colour resolutions* +he main !ur!ose of DI=s is to allow &itma!s to &e moved from one device to another* GI3 (Graphical Interchange 3ormat) is a widely used file format for images to &e used on the <orld <ide <e&* It is limited to an >1&it !alette, or 9?@ colours which su!!orts animation and is still widely used to !rovide image animation effects* GIF uses a lossless com!ression that is more effective when large areas have a single colour, and ineffective for detailed images* #I33 (#agged Image 3ile 3ormat) is a non1!ro!rietary, system1inde!endent fle)i&le format that normally saves > &its or .@ &its !er colour ,red, green, &lue- for 9;1 &it and ;>1&it totals, res!ectively* 42EG (4oint 2hotographic E(perts Group) is a file format !rimarily used for storage of !hotogra!hic images and for the <orld <ide <e&* It su!!orts > &its !er colour ,red, green, &lue- for a 9;1&it total, !roducing relatively small files* It is also used as the image com!ression algorithm in many %do&e PDF files* Geo#I33 is an e)tension of the +IFF format that contains georeferencing information and is suited for a!!lications using geogra!hical data* 25G (2ortable 5etwork Graphics) is a !atent1free file format which is intended to re!lace the GIF format* 2%6 (2ersonal %omputer E(change) is a file format su!!orted &y many image scanners* It commonly store !alette1inde)ed images ranging from 9 or ; colours to .@ and 9?@ colors, although the format has &een e)tended to record true1color ,9;1&it- images as well* 0rSID (0ulti!resolution Seamless Image Database) is a file format ,filename e)tension.sid- develo!ed and !atented &y 2i#ard+ech for encoding of georeferenced raster gra!hics, such as ortho!hotos*





@* A* >*


.C* G7ID is a !ro!rietary format used &y (SRI in %rcInfo and %rc iew GIS* Di1ita$ E$e2ation #ode$ 3DE#4: % digital ele&ation model re!resents the ground surface to!ogra!hy or terrain* It is also regarded as the digital terrain model ,D+"-* It is &uilt u!on using the re!resentation of a grid of squares ,raster- or as a triangular irregular networD ,+I/- where ),y,# locations are &eing considered* Remote sensing techniques are used to &uild D(", &ut land surveying can &e another method to derive a D("* It is often used in geogra!hic information systems, and is the most common &asis for digitally1!roduced relief ma!s* ?

Figure :: Digital (levation "odel in a ),y,# coordinate system 2" )ector Data #ode$ +his data model treats geogra!hic s!ace as !o!ulated &y discrete o&7ects, which have identifia&le &oundaries or s!atial e)tent* (ach o&7ect in the real1world is re!resented as a !oint, line, or !olygon features* It is characteri#ed &y the use of sequential !oints or vertices to define a linear segment, each verte) consisting of an E coordinate and a F coordinate* It is useful for re!resenting discrete o&7ects such as roads, &uildings, rivers, &oundaries, etc*

Figure ;: ector Re!resentation of Figure .

+here are two ty!es of +o!ological data model

ector Data "odel: Sim!le or s!aghetti data model and the

Simple or Spaghetti 0odel is a one1for1one translation of the analog ma!* Features such lines and !olygons may overla!; for this ty!e of vector data model, there e)ists no relationshi!s @

&etween features* It is generally used where analysis is not im!ortant and where only visual re!resentation is &eing considered such as digiti#ed ma!s and $%D data* +he advantage of this vector data model is that it is easy to create and store and can &e retrieved and rendered on screen very quicDly however; s!atial analysis ,e*g* shortest !ath networD analysis- cannot &e !erformed easily due to lacD of any connectivity relationshi!s* It is redundant since the &oundary segment &etween two !olygons can &e stored twice ,once for each feature-* It is also infle)i&le since it is difficult to dissolve common &oundaries when 7oining !olygons and cannot &e used in certain a!!lications such as land management &ecause of overla!!ing features* #opological Data 0odel is essentially a sim!le vector data model structured using to!ologic rules. It is often referred to as an intelligent data structure &ecause s!atial relationshi!s &etween geogra!hic features are easily derived when using them* It is regarded as the dominant vector data structure currently used in GIS technology &ecause of the s!atial relationshi! e)isting among feature data* +he most commonly used variants in a to!ological data is the arc1node data model*

+he +o!ological Data "odel has ? com!onents namely: 2oint (&erte() where a line originates or terminates; 5ode where a linD originates or terminates; 8ine which is a segment &etween two !oints ,vertices-; 8ink (or arc or chain) that a connects two nodes and may consist of several lines which are 7oined at !oints ,vertices- and can only originate, terminate or &e connected at nodes; 2olygon (area) which is com!osed of linDs, wheread7acent !olygons have only one linD &etween them* +hese ? com!onents of a +o!ological Data "odel have : distinct relationshi!s that e)ists among them: %onnecti&ity! it is the information a&out linDages among s!atial o&7ects and Dee! tracD of which linDs are connected at a node; 'd)acency or the information a&out neigh&ourhood among s!atial o&7ects and determines the !olygon to its left and its right side; %ontainment descri&es the inclusion of one s!atial o&7ect within another s!atial o&7ect and answer the questions 4<hat nodes and linDs and other !olygons are within a !olygonG5

Figure ?: +o!ological Data "odel Relationshi!

Net5or6 Data #ode$ It is a s!ecial ty!e of to!ologic model that shows how lines connect with each other at nodes* It is commonly used for load analysis over an electric networD, vehicle routing over a street networD and even !ollution tracing over a river networD*

Figure ?: ()am!le of a /etworD Data "odel Flowchart is a common e)am!le of a networD data model* %nalysis is inter!reted &y determining inter1connected lines in each entity*

Areas in GIS 57erein topo$o1ica$ re$ations7ips are app$ied are: .* Data in!ut and re!resentation 9* S!atial search :* $onstruction of com!le) s!atial o&7ects from &asic gra!hical elements ;* Integrity checDs in data&ase creation So'e t7in1s to consider in doin1 GIS data representation: .* $reating a to!ologic geogra!hic data&ase is e)tremely time1consuming and error1!rone* 9* +o!ological Data "odel requires all gra!hical elements to &e digiti#ed and num&ered in >

sequence and it is not !ractical for com!le) ma!s* :* Possi&le to ado!t the s!aghetti digiti#ation for gra!hical data in!ut and then later on let the com!uter refine and structure them using to!ological relationshi!s

Figure @: GIS Data In!ut and Re!resentation Construction o8 co'p$e9 spatia$ o:;ects GIS Data "odel always involves com!le) o&7ects and is re!resented as com!le) !olygons in a geogra!hic data&ase* +hese two ty!es of com!le) !olygons are: #hose containing one or more holes (or islands9encla&es) which are constructed from vector lines using to!ological information and those made up of two or more polygons that are not physically connected which constructed using a common identifier*

Figure A: $onstruction of $om!le) S!atial 6&7ects Data Inte1rity c7ec6s It is a must that gra!hical data must &e to!ologically cleaned &efore using them in GIS a!!lications* GIS data must not contain any to!ological errors* During to!ology &uilding, the com!uter detects to!ological errors and marDs them immediately and it is with the o!erator that decides what to do with the errors*

Figure >: +a&le of $ommon +o!ological (rrors Trian1u$ated Irre1u$ar Net5or6 3TIN4 Data #ode$ % +I/ Data model 7ust liDe a D(" model re!resents surfaces in GIS* +he surface &uilt is re!resented as contiguous, non1overla!!ing triangles* +he si#e of triangles may &e ad7usted to reflect the relief of the surface &eing modelled* 2arger triangles for relatively flat terrain while smaller triangles for rugged terrain* +his model manages information a&out the nodes .C

that com!rise each triangle and the neigh&ours of each triangle* It is commonly used for a!!lications such as: volumetric calculations for road design, drainage studies and even landslide studies*

Figure B: +riangulated Irregular /etworD ,+I/- Data "odel <hy use +I/ Data "odelG +I/ Data "odel incor!orates original sam!le !oints so the accuracy of the model can &e checDed* It is an efficient way of storing surface re!resentations &ecause the si#e of triangles can &e varied according to the terrain and data structure maDes it easy to calculate elevation, slo!e, as!ect, and line1of1sight &etween !oints* )ector &i$e &or'ats .* G139DI0E (Geographic 1ase 3ile9Dual Independent 0ap Encoding) is originally used for storing street ma!s* DI"( is an encoding scheme develo!ed &y the HS =ureau of $ensus for efficiently storing geogra!hical data* +he file format develo!ed for storing the DI"(1encoded data was Dnown as Geogra!hic =ase Files ,G=F-* 9* #IGE7 (#opologically Integrated Geographic Encoding and 7eferencing System) is an im!rovement for GDF0DI"(* +his is a file format used &y the Hnited States $ensus =ureau to descri&e land attri&utes such as roads, &uildings, rivers, and laDes, as well as areas such as census tracts* :* D8G (Digital 8ine Graphs) is a file format for HSGS to!ogra!hic ma!s* It is a digital vector data re!resenting cartogra!hic information* D2G contains wide variety of information de!icting geogra!hic features e*g* hy!sogra!hy, hydrogra!hy, &oundaries, roads, utility lines, etc-* It was derived from a hy!sogra!hic data ,contour lines- using HSGS A*?1minute, .?1minute, 91arc1 second ,:C1 &y @C1minute-, and .:9 million1scale to!ogra!hic quadrangle ma!s* ;* 'uto%'D D63 (Data E(change 3ormat) is a widely used e)!ort format in many GIS a!!lications* ?* IGDS (Intergraph Design System) is a file format widely used in ma!!ing* @* 'rcInfo %o&erage is a file format that stores vector gra!hical data using to!ological structure e)!licitly defining s!atial relationshi!s* ..

A* 'rcInfo E-- is an e)!ort format of %rcInfo >* Shapefiles are file format of %rc iew GIS* It defines geometry and attri&ute of geogra!hically referenced o&7ects using the main file, inde) file and data&ase ta&le* B* %G0 (%omputer Graphics 0etafile) is an IS6 standard for vector data format; widely used in a P$1&ased com!uter gra!hics a!!lications .C* 2age Description 8anguages (2D8:s) is a language that descri&es the a!!earance of a !rinted !age* <ith the two categories of s!atial data model, there are some considerations to maDe when choosing what s!atial data model to choose* First and foremost, you need to consider the type and data source, its availa&ility matters es!ecially when doing a GIS a!!lication* /ot all data sources are availa&le in the format you wish it would &e* $ertain limitations arise liDe where each corres!onding data comes from, can you have the data and in what format will you acquire it* %nother thing to consider is the analytical procedures used es!ecially for a !re1 !rocessed data, does it overlay with the corres!onding data you acquireG Is the !re1!rocessing efficient or there have &een gliche in the systemG %nd most of all consider the usage of data, if you 7ust need small scale ma!s in !lanning then a detailed ma!s or geogra!hical data is not really needed &ut if analysis and mitigation !lans is the main o&7ective then data gathering should &e given !riority* Remem&er that @CI to >CI of any GIS a!!lication costs mainly concentrate on data gathering alone* 2isted &elow are the advantages and disadvantages of a raster and vector data model and see for yourself which is suited in your GIS a!!lication* RASTER DATA #ODEL Disadvantages .* Do not !rovide !recise locational and area com!utation information due to grid cells 9* Requires large storage ca!acity, &ased on si#e and num&er of colours :* /o to!ological !rocessing ;* 2imited attri&ute data handling ?* Inefficient !ro7ection transformations @* 2oss of information when using large cells A* 4=locDy5 a!!earance when image is viewed in detail

%dvantages .* Sim!le data structure

9* (asy to conce!tuali#e s!ace re!resentation :* (asy data collection and !rocessing ;* (asy and efficient overlaying ?* Jigh s!atial varia&ility is efficiently re!resented* @* (asier and efficient for surface modelling, wherein individual features are not that im!ortant* A* %llows easy integration of image data ,satellite, remotely1sensed, etc*>* Pi)el values can &e modified individually or in a grou! &y using a !alette B* Sim!le for own !rogramming



)ECTOR DATA #ODEL Disadvantages

.* Far more efficient in storage than grids .* $om!le) data structure therefore com!act data structure 9* Provides !recise locational information of 9* Difficult overlay o!erations !oints :* $an re!resent !oint, line, and area features :* Jigh s!atial varia&ility is inefficiently very accurately, leading to more accurate re!resented measurements and ma! out!uts ;* +o!ological models ena&le many ty!es of ;* /ot com!ati&le with RS imagery analysis ?* So!histicated attri&ute data handling @* (fficient for networD analysis A* (fficient !ro7ection transformation >* <orD well with !en and light1!lotting devices and ta&let digiti#ers ?* ()!ensive data collection @* /ot good at continuous coverage or !lotters that fill areas

R%S+(R R(PR(S(/+%+I6/

($+6R R(PR(S(/+%+I6/

Figure .C: Re!resentation of a line using raster and vector model

RE&ERENCES I" On$ine 5e: sources: htt!:00en*wiDi!edia*org htt!:00serc*carleton*edu0introgeo0gis06nlineKGISKResources*html htt!:00tahoe*usgs*gov0D2G*html .:

htt!:00www*geom*unimel&*edu*au0giswe&0GIS"odule0GIS+KRaster*htm htt!:00www*gis*com0content0data1ty!es1and1models htt!:00www*gis*com0content0ma!1data htt!:00www*gis*com0content0data1ty!es1and1models htt!:00www*hum&oldt*edu0Ldgf90F%Mfile*htm htt!:00www*rocDware*com0!roduct0faq*!h!GidN.B> htt!:00www*umich*edu0Li!caa0GIS0GeneralI9CGISI9C$once!ts*htm htt!:00www*we&o!edia*com0+(R"0S0s!atialKdata*html +he GIS Primer: %n Introduction to Geogra!hic Information Systems* %vaila&le at htt!:00www*innovativegis*com0&asis0!rimer0!rimer*html Geogra!hic Information Systems, GIS Data Structures* %vaila&le at htt!:00www*n!wrc*usgs*gov0resource0ha&itat0research0struct*htm "odeling $%D Data in %rcview GIS* %vaila&le at htt!:00www*esri*com0news0arcuser0.CCC0modeling*html II" %oo6s DecDer, Drew* GIS Data Sources* Oohn <iley and Sons 9CC.* Johl, Pat* GIS Data $onversion: Stategies, +echniques and "anagement* 6nword Press .BBA* 2ongley, P*, Goodchild "*, "aguire,D* and Rhind D*, Geogra!hic Information Systems and Science 9nd edition* $ha!ters :3; !!* @:1>:* Oohn <iley and Sons 2td* III" Ot7er Sources +$ 9?: Geogra!hic Information System 2ecture /otes &y (ngr* "argau) %&ella

LA%ORATOR< E(ERCISE NO" ! Arc)ie5 GIS &a'i$iari=ation, Data Sources Con2ersion, Tec7ni>ues and #et7ods #ateria$s: %rcview :*9 software Google (arth software /ote!ad Data: found in c$;neda<training<data=e(ercise> &ut you may o!t to use your regional data !rovided they are in the same file format O:;ecti2es: +he main goal of this e)ercise is to familiari#e the student to %rc iew :*9P which is one of the most !o!ular GIS software from the world8s leading GIS solution !rovider 1 (SRI ,(nvironmental System Research Institute- and the &asic !rotocols involved in creating GIS !ro7ects* %t the end of the lecture the students should learn how to: .* Identify and differentiate sources of Geogra!hic Data* 9* (numerate and &e familiar with GIS data ty!es* :* Recogni#e different GIS Data "odels* .;

;* Htili#e Raster and ector Data "odels in any GIS a!!lication* ?* "anage and e)!lore common GIS Data Sources* @* $onvert several GIS Data ty!es into com!ati&le GIS data formats &y utili#ing different %rcview e)tensions* Procedures: I" Arc)ie5 *"2 &a'i$iari=ation Loading the Program .* 6!en %rcview :*9 software* +o start %rc iew GIS :*9 software, dou&le clicD on the icon
or go to Start ? A$$ Pro1ra's ? ESRI ? Arc )ie5 GIS *"2 ? Arc )ie5 GIS *"2" +he <elcome to %rc iew GIS dialog a!!ears*

9* $reate a new !ro7ect* Select the as a :$an6 pro;ect radio &utton, then clicD O@* +he 4Hntitled5 Pro;ect window dialog a!!ears*
% pro;ect is the file in which worD you do in %rc iew is stored* % !ro7ect ty!ically contains all ty!es of GHI documents e*g* view, ta&les, charts, layouts and scri!ts that you use for a !articular %rc iew a!!lication* %ll the com!onents in the !ro7ect are listed in the Pro7ect window* From the Pro7ect window, you can create new !ro7ect com!onents, o!en or rename e)isting com!onents, or remove com!onents from your !ro7ect* <hen the Pro7ect window is active, menu o!tions and &uttons are availa&le that let you !erform additional o!erations on the !ro7ect and its com!onents*

:* In the !ro7ect window, clicD on the )ie5 com!onent, and then clicD Ne5" +he 4 iew .5 window a!!ears* +ry to ma)imi#e this window* Fou can rename this view as:


4Getting to 'now %rc iew: QFour SurnameR5* +o do this, select )ie5 #enu R Properties""" , change the default name of the iew and clicD 6'*

% 2ie5 is an interactive ma! that lets us dis!lay, e)!lore, query and analy#e geogra!hic data in %rc iew* iews are saved in the %rc iew !ro7ect you are currently worDing with* % view defines the geogra!hic data that will &e used and how it will &e dis!layed or !ro7ected* %t this !oint, the view you 7ust defined , iew .- does not contain geogra!hic data*

;* In the iew interface, the default &uttons or tools are dis!layed for which each can &e used in adding data file, editing, viewing and for doing sim!le queries and analyses*


#enu %ar

Dra5in1 D Editin1 Too$s

Te9t Too$s

%uttons 8or 2ie5in1 and =oo'in1 s7ape8i$esC$ayers TOC Pane Disp$ay Bindo5

Adding Themes/Layers in ArcView ?* /ow, in the view interface, a theme may &e added &y selecting the &utton the menu &ar, select )ie5 menu R Add T7e'e* +he %dd +heme dialog will a!!ear, &rowse on the folder that contain the datasets for this e)ercise* or in


TO DO: %dd the following datasets located at $:T Data for ()ercise.:
a. Road Network of Agusan b. Stream Network of Agusan

%s you add these themes, they are listed in the +6$ !ane* +o set the ma! units of the iew, Go to iew Pro!erties and change the #ap and Distance nits to 'eters* In the set of &utton in the iew interface you can find the "easure +ool , use this to measure the distance from 2i&ertad1=on&on intersection to the $SH front gate* "easure also the a!!ro)imate length of and the average width of %gusan River*
c. 2005 ASTER Image (jpeg format

+o add the image file ,%S+(R-, maDe sure to set the Data Source +y!e as Image Data Source* $an you see the image file after changing the data source ty!eG If not, this doesn8t mean that the file does not e)ist at the s!ecified directory* +o maDe the file visi&le, you need to load an ()tension ,OP(G Image Su!!ort- first &efore adding the image theme* 2oad the e)tension &y selecting File R ()tensions*
@* Hsing the Identify +ool &utton, clicD on the line features ,road or stream networDs- to see the attri&utes associated to the line features* A* Save your !ro7ect* Go to File menu R Save Pro7ect %sS Save the !ro7ect as ()er.KF6HR SHR/%"( at this location $:T Data for ()ercise.*

Creating New Vector Layers

>* In %rc iew, we can also create new vectors or themes* Hnder the )ie5 menu, select Ne5 T7e'e* +he /ew +heme dialog will a!!ear*

B* $reate a new !oint theme, to re!resent few road intersections that you thinD are the most !ro!er sites to install new traffic light systems* =e sure that the !oints are at least at 9 Dilometers interval* $reate another theme, this time a !olygon feature ,use the dro!down arrow to change the feature ty!e into !olygon- to re!resent an area or &uilding e*g* an a!!ro)imate location of the $SH cam!us, =ayugan Pu&lic "arDet or the Gaisano "all-*


/ote: $reate a new folder in your desDto!, name it as "SI+9.>KF6HR SHR/%"(* +his is where you will save your newly created themes* .C* Save the !ro7ect to the new directory*

II" #ana1in1 GIS Data Sources %rcview software8s native data format is sha!efile* Sha!efile can only store one feature class such as a !oint, a line or a !olygon* +hese sha!efiles are com!osed of three data files with .S?2 .S?6 and .D13 e)tensions* +he *SJP file contains the gra!hic sha!es allow us to see the file visually* +he *D=F file contains the ta&ular data or the attri&ute data of the sha!efiles and the *SJE file contains the sha!e to record linDs* .* 6!en %rcview :*9 software* 9* +o avoid from &rowsing to your directory every time you need to load a data or save a newly created theme, you can set your !ro7ect8s worDing directory* 6n the Pro7ect menu, clicD on Pro7ect R Pro7ect Pro!erties*

Fou will &e !rom!ted to the Pro7ect Pro!erties Dialogue &o)* In!ut your worD directory ,where all your files will &e saved later-, for e)am!le, $:TdesDto!T"SI+9.>KQSurnameRTe)ercise.T, your name for the $reator and the $reation Date is automatically indicated* Fou can select color and include $omments for the !ur!ose of !ro7ect descri!tion* $licD on 6' and now you are ready to start your !ro7ect* .* Jighlight the ta& iews and clicD on /ew* Fou will then &e !rom!ted to the view screen* $licD on File R Set <orDing Directory*


Fou will notice that the s!ecified new worD directory is the same as the <orD Directory you in!ut in the Pro7ect Pro!erties Dialogue =o)* 6therwise you can change your worDing directory &y sim!ly indicating the new directory !ath* Don8t forget to save your !ro7ect every now and then to avoid loss of data* 9* From the +ool&ars* $licD on File R "anage Data Sources Sha!efile "anager will &e !rom!ted* +his will allow you to $o!y, Rename and Delete files from your directory*

:* +he corres!onding datasets are located at c:TData for ()ercise.TSurigaoKDelK/orteT%dministrativeK=oundary* +ry to co!y the following filenames: $licD sdnK&rgyK&oundary*sh! and clicD $6PF to co!y the files to your designated folder c:TdesDto!TQSurnameR* $licD 6' when finish*

Re'e':erA Fou can only $o!y, Rename a sha!efile or Delete a sha!efile one &y one* Hsing Sha!efile "anager you can co!y, rename and delete all of the sha!efiles data files*

()!lore also the Rename and Delete =uttons in the Sha!efile "anager* $licDing on these &uttons will allow you to rename0delete a sha!efile and all its corres!onding data files* ;* Hsing <indows ()!lorer, you can also co!y sha!efiles directly from the source directory* 6!en c:TdesDto!TData for ()ercise.TSurigaoKDelK/orteT%dministrativeK=oundary* $licD on the files !ertaining to SD/KmuniK&oundary and co!y &y highlighting the corres!onding files ,*d&f, *sh! 3 *sh)- using the Dey&oard shortcut Dey %trl @ % and then !aste to your designated folder using %trl @ A*


$o!ying sha!efiles can &e done using the file manager or <indows ()!lorer* Oust maDe sure you co!y all of the files (1mailing sha!efiles are easy 1 maDe sure you send all of the files needed*

$licD on the %dd +heme &utton on +ool&ar and add the sha!efile SD/KmuniK&oundary* Fou can also co!y all the necessary files !ertaining to Surigao Del /orte such as elevation, landuse, infrastructure, rivers and streams and road, for this will &e use for the succeeding la&oratory e)ercises* III" Arc2ie5 E9tensions

+he %rcview :*9 software can &e !lug1in with several e)tensions so that you can load additional functionalities* +here are several e)tensions that came in &undled with %rcview and even o!tional e)tensions to !rovide advanced analysis and functional ca!a&ilities* Some of these e)tensions can &e freely downloaded over the we&* 2et us try to use some of the common %rcview e)tensions that will hel! us manage GIS Data Sources* A" Disp$ayin1 TIN Data #ode$ .* 9* :* ;* ?* Hsing the $amiguinK$ontourK2ine*sh! generated !reviously* 6n iew menu, activate %rcview ()tension: Geo!rocessing* %ctivate $amiguinK$ontourK2ine*sh! theme &y clicDing on it* 6n the iew menu, clicD +heme R Start (diting* /ow, clicD on the &utton Select Feature and select the entire sha!efile ,to determine what !arts of the sha!efile are selected it will &e highlighted in yellow@* Still on the view menu, clicD on iew R Geo!rocessing <i#ard* +he Geo!rocessing dialog &o) will a!!ear, select the o!tion Dissol&e features based on an attribute then clicD /e)t* 6n Select +heme to dissolve choose the name of the theme $amiguinK$ontourK2ine*sh!, on Select an attri&ute to dissolve choose 2ayer and S!ecify the out!ut file: $amiguinK$ontourK2ineKdisslv and corres!onding directory and then clicD /e)t*


A* Still on the Geo!rocessing dialog &o), choose one or more additional fields and o!erations in the out!ut file: choose %veK(levation &y %verage, %veK(levation &y "inimum alue 3 %veK(levation &y "a)imum alue then clicD Finish* >* %ctivate %rcview ()tension: :D %nalyst and using your out!ut file: $amiguinK$ontourK2ineKdisslv*sh!, clicD on the iew menu Surface R $reate +I/ from Features* 6n the $reate new +I/ dialog &o) choose the following: %ctive feature themes: $amiguinK$ontourK2ineKdisslv*sh!, $lass: Polyline U, Jeight Source: Sha!e, In!ut as: Jard =reaDline and alue field: QnoneR then clicD 6'*

B* Fou may edit the +I/ theme and not to dis!lay the &reaDlines &y unchecDing the &o) &eside the 2ines in the +I/ 2egend (ditor dialog &o)* To Do: $reate a new +I/ with Jeight source equal to %veK(levation*

%" Bor6in1 5it7 Raster Data 3";pe14 .* 6!en a new iew and rename it as Raster Data* 9* In the iew menu, clicD on FileR ()tensions* $licD on the &o) for 42EG (43I3) Image Support then !ress 6'* Doing this will ena&le you to o!en image ,*7!eg- files in %rc iew* :* /ow, &rowse file under c:TnedaKtrainingKdataTe)ercise9 for &olinao*7!g file* Select Image Data Source for Data Source +y!es and then !ress 6'*


;* $hecD the &o) &eside the fullKaster.*7!g theme in the view window to dis!lay the theme* Dou&le1clicD on the theme name to access the 2egend (ditor* ?* +o !erform &rightness or contrast ad7ustments, clicD on the 2inear &utton in the Image 2egend (ditor dialog, choose Single =and* % se!arate window for 2inear 2ooDu! will &e dis!layed*

For images, the 2egend (ditor8s main !ur!ose is to maDe ad7ustments on the color re!resentation of the image and its &rightness and contrast*

In the 2inear 2ooDu! dialog, the diagonal line dis!lays the in!ut !i)el value relative to the out!ut !i)el value* % diagonal line connecting the lower left and u!!er right corners of the !lot indicates that the out!ut !i)el value is equal to the in!ut !i)el value ,no transformation-* +he &rightness or contrast of the image can &e modified &y changing the !osition and slo!e of the line* /otice that there are three handles for the line* +he middle handle is used to move the line left or right without changing the slo!e* +his is the handle used to change image &rightness*

@* Gra& the middle handle and move the line towards the left, then clicD %!!ly &utton* <hat did you o&serveG %gain, re!eat the !rocedures, &ut try moving the line towards the right side* <hat do you o&serve on the imageG A* Gra& the to! handle and drag it towards the left side then clicD on 'pply* <hat ha!!ens to the contrast of the imageG +hen, drag the to! handle towards the right* <hat ha!!ens to the contrastG To Do: ()!lore on the "ulti =and* 6&serve what ha!!ens to the image color and contrast as you move the : &ands left and right side*
+he Image 2egend (ditor also contains the $olorma! &utton, which is used to define the colors that will re!resent each of the 9?@ values in an image* =y default, these values are assigned to grayscale &ut you can change this*


>* /ow, clicD on the $olorma! &utton* From the Image $olorma! dialog, dou&le1clicD on the first row ,value N C- to dis!lay the $olor Palette* In the $olor Palette, select the !ure red value* +his will &e the new value assigned to the #ero1valued row* $lose the $olor Palette* In the Image $olorma!, clicD on the Ram! &utton and then %!!ly* +he image should now &e dis!layed in red*

+o !roduce more s!ecific effects, the color for any image value can also &e changed to any s!ecified color* Fou may o!t to assign a unique color for each image value or assign a s!ecified num&er of colors less than the total num&er of image values %fter changing the color scheme of the image, you can always return it to the original grayscale &y clicDing on the Gray &utton

B* ()!lore on the Image $olorma! dialog: a* $licD on the /ominal &utton and Random &utton* Does this o!tion yield a good result for dis!laying your imageG &* Dou&le clicD on rowN C to dis!lay the $olor Palette* Jold down SJIF+ Dey and clicD Row C to ?C to highlight them in the colorma!* In the $olor Palette, select the color &lue to assign to the highlighted values* +hen, highlight row values ?. to .CC and assign a red color* +hen, re!resent values .C. to .?C with green, values .?. to 9CC with yellow, and finally 9C. to 9?? white color* $licD %!!ly for each color assignment* Does this scheme !roduce a &etter image resultG To Do:
Re!resent the image using only : colors to re!resent the image* +he division of the image !er color is u! to you* Does this yield &etter results than using ? colors to re!resent the imageG


C" Addin1 DE# Data

.* 2oad %rc iew :D %nalyst &y choosing on the iew menu, File R ()tension and checDing the &o) ne)t to :D%nalyst* 9* 6n the iew menu, clicD on %dd +heme &utton and &rowse for asternew on the directory c:TData for ()ercise.Tasternew* "aDe sure that the Data Source +y!es is Grid Data Source* $licD 6' when finished* +he %ster D(" for =utuan will then &e dis!layed* :* /ow, overlay the %gusan road and Stream networD themes in the view* Did the sha!efiles overlay with each otherG

D" ATTRIBUTE DATA (Loading Text File)

.* =rowse to the data directory and o!en file in!ut*t)t* %dd the additional information, following the same format and don8t forget to save your file* 9:,AA>C@.*@>A?C,.99.@:.*CCCCC,9;C 9;,AAA:9@*?CCCC,.999C>>*?CCCC,9;C 9?,AA>.:A*>A?CC,.99.>?9*.9?CC,9@C 9* 6n the Pro7ect menu &ar, select Pro7ect R %dd +a&le* ,%lternatively, you can also do this in the Pro7ect window &y clicDing +a&le R %dd*:* From the %dd +a&le window, set the 2ist Files of +y!e to Delimited +e)t ,V*t)t-* /avigate to data file location and select in!ut*t)t* $licD on 6' when done* +he ta&le or data&ase should o!en in a new window* ;* %dd a new view and rename it as +e)t File Data* ?* From the iew menu, clicD on iew R %dd (vent +heme* "aDe sure that the entry in +a&le corres!onds to in!ut*t)t, E field to (asting, and F field to /orthing res!ectively* $licD 6' when done* @* +he ta&le should now &e dis!layed in the +a&le of $ontents !anel* $hecD the &o) to dis!lay all the !oints*