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# LECTURE 5: SPATIAL DATA ANALYSIS (VECTOR)

MVJapitana

## MSIT 218 Geographic Information System

Objectives
By the end of this presentation, you may be able to: Define spatial data analysis and its significance; Identify frequently used GIS spatial data analysis techniques applied to raster and vector data; Describe spatio-analytic applications commonly employed in GIS Perform actual spatial data manipulation and analysis in ArcView in your Lab Exercise.

INTRODUCTION
Spatial Data and Spatial Analysis Defined:

Spatial Data

Can be defined as any geographically-referenced information that describes the distribution of certain objects or events upon the surface of the earth. Generally involves any data concerning the location, shape of, and relationship among, geographic features. In a broader sense, spatial data need not only be associated in the geographic space but rather to data arrayed in any other space.

Spatial Analysis

A set of techniques involving all of the transformations, manipulations and methods that can be applied to spatial data in order to extract meaningful information necessary for various applications. It turns raw data into useful information that greatly helps people understand real-world situations. Requires access not only to the locations of objects but also to their corresponding attribute data.

## Broad Elements of Spatial Analysis

Description: the accurate portrayal of spatial patterns Understanding: the systematic exploration of spatial relationships to understand different phenomena Prediction: the development of simulation models that forecasts data

## Spatial Data Analysis Techniques

Measurements, Queries, Reclassification, Buffering, Topological Overlays

Measurements
Measurements, Queries, Reclassification, Buffering, Topological Overlays

Simple numerical values that describe certain aspects of the spatial data
Simple

properties of features like lengths and areas, relationship between pairs of objects like distances and directions.

Can be obtained using simple algorithms employed in a GIS (although the values obtained are only approximations of the true values on the ground).

## Raster Data Measurements

Manhattan distance, where the distance is measured along the raster cell sides form one point to another Euclidean distance, the shortest path between two points that can be computed by counting the number of horizontal and vertical grid cell sides between the two points and applying the Pythagorean theorem Proximity, where distance is estimated as the concentric, equidistant circle zonal value from a point at which another point lies
B B A
1

2 3

Figure 1. Distances between points A and B in a raster data: (a) Manhattan=8 units; (b) Euclidean=34 units; (c) Proximity=3 units.

## Vector Data Measurements

Vector data are stored as line segments instead of grid cells; measurements can be directly computed and stored in the features.
Distances

between two points are Euclidean Perimeters are the summation of the straight line distances defining the boundary Areas are computed by subdividing the polygon into simple geometric shapes (e.g. triangles) and summing their individual areas

Queries
Measurements, Queries, Reclassification, Buffering, Topological Overlays

The most basic spatial analysis technique, applied usually in vector data. A form of data retrieval used to answer simple questions posed by GIS user, where no changes occur in the database, and no new data are produced. The term exploratory spatial data analysis is sometimes used to describe these type of data interrogation methods, which allow the users to explore the plain data in a more insightful perspective.

Reclassification
Measurements, Queries, Reclassification, Buffering, Topological Overlays

An important variation of querying in GIS, mainly used for raster data. New values are assigned to each grid cell by using reclassification rules, resulting to a new raster image. This is usually done in order to emphasize the different aspects of spatial data that are necessary for further analysis, and may either be Boolean or Weighted.

Buffering
Measurements, Queries, Reclassification, Buffering, Topological Overlays

One of the most useful spatial analysis techniques in GIS Involves the creation of zones of interest, called buffers or dilations, within a specified distance from objects (e.g. points, lines, or polygons) depending on the type of feature that they represent. Has wide range of uses in GIS, esp. those that involve decisionmaking.
Buffers of different vector entities

Point

Line

Polygon

Topological Overlays
Measurements, Queries, Reclassification, Buffering, Topological Overlays

The way of topologically overlaying two or more maps to produce new thematic maps which is a key spatial analysis function of a GIS. Overlays can be performed on both raster and vector data in different ways.

Raster Overlay
Measurements, Queries, Reclassification, Buffering, Topological Overlays

Utilizes the idea of Map Algebra wherein mathematical operators such as addition and subtraction (and many more operations and functionalities) are performed on corresponding cells from two or more layers to produce a new output value. A straight-forward process and efficient way of producing thematic maps.

Raster Overlay
Measurements, Queries, Reclassification, Buffering, Topological Overlays

3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 1 1 1 3 3 3 3 1 1 1 1 3 3 3 3 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 1 1 1

3 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 3 3 1 1 1 1 1 3 3 3 3 1 1 1 1 3 3 3 3 3 1 1 3 3 3 3 3 3 1 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 2 2 3 3 3 3 2 2 2 2 2 3 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2

6 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 6 6 4 4 4 2 2 4 6 6 6 4 2 2 2 4 6 6 6 6 2 2 4 4 5 5 5 5 2 3 4 4 5 5 5 5 4 3 4 4 5 5 4 4 4 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 3 3 3

A Raster Overlay of Soil and Slope erodability maps to produce an erosion risk map

Vector Overlay
Measurements, Queries, Reclassification, Buffering, Topological Overlays

Measurements are based on the coordinates of the discrete boundaries of the entities instead of counting the grid cells. There are three (3) types of vector overlays:
Point-in-polygon Line-in-polygon Polygon-in-polygon

Other spatial relationships such as point-point, pointline and line-line associations can also be analyzed using vector overlays by simple query operations (i.e. select by theme)

Vector Overlay
Measurements, Queries, Reclassification, Buffering, Topological Overlays

## Sample of Point-in-Polygon Overlay

Vector Overlay
Measurements, Queries, Reclassification, Buffering, Topological Overlays

## Spatial Overlay Tools in ArcView

Measurements, Queries, Reclassification, Buffering, Topological Overlays

Union Clip

## or Cookie-cutting Intersect Dissolve Merge Assign Data by Location or Spatial Join

Union

Is a polygon-on-polygon overlay that corresponds to the Boolean operator OR. This operation combines the features of the input and overlay layers and produce an output theme containing the full extent and attributes of both themes.
2

A B

II

1 5

I
III 4

Is a polygon-on-polygon overlay technique that corresponds to the Boolean operator NOT A polygon layer is used to cut out the portion of the input polygon layer that falls within the first polygon. The attributes of the new clipped theme is the same as that of the input layer

A
C

Input theme

Clip theme

Output theme

Intersect

Is another polygon-on-polygon overlay technique that corresponds to the Boolean operator AND An overlay operation cuts the input theme base on extent of the overlay theme to produce an output layer with features that have attribute data from both themes.
Input theme Overlay theme Output theme

II

D 1 III

2
E

Dissolve

An operation that is used to remove the boundaries or nodes between adjacent polygons or lines that have the same values for a specified attribute Technically, it summarizes a theme based on an attribute.
Input theme Output theme

Merge

An overlay operation that appends the features of two or more themes into a new theme. The attributes from the input themes will not be retained in the new layer, unless they have the same field. Useful in combining datasets that may have been digitized separately.

Input themes

Output theme

## Assign Data by Location or Spatial Join

Does not necessarily overlay multiple themes, instead, the attribute tables of two input themes are joined for those features that share the same location
Theme 1 Theme 2 Output Theme

Reminder: