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TO SUBJECT:

ALL MEMBERS DEPARTMENT DRIVER TRAINING PROGRAM

In order to provide you with uniform, high-quality driver training, the In-Service Training Section, in conjunction with the Driver's Training Committee, has developed a "Driver Training Program" and 'Driver's Training manual" designed to improve your overall driving performance. The new Driver Training Program consists of the following: Phase I: Classroom Study and Review Phase II: Driver Training Course and Driving Rodeos Class-I and Class II Driver's License Requirements and Testing Procedures Training Video Tapes

The program will be scheduled once a year by the Division Driver Training Coordinators. Phase I will consist of in-station study and review of the eight classroom modules in the Driver's Training Manual and Chapters 3, 4 and 22 from the Apparatus Operator's Training Manual. Phase II will be actual participation in the Driver Training Course and Driving Rodeos. All written and driving scores will be reviewed by Company Commanders. Anyone with a below average score will be given a "prescription for improvement," which will consist of a personalized program to raise the skill level of that particular individual. Newly appointed members will be required to successfully complete both Phase I and Phase II of the program to qualify for their initial Class II driver's license. It is my belief that through each member's personal commitment to improving his/her driving performance, we can significantly reduce maintenance costs and the risks of injury, property damage, and financial loss which so often result from traffic accidents.

DONALD 0. MANNING
DONALD 0. MANNING Chief Engineer and General Manager DOM: CAY:ch/cayO2O

LOS ANGELES CITY FIRE DEPARTMENT DRIVER'S TRAINING MANUAL TABLE OF CONTENTS
I. II. III. TABLE OF CONTENTS PROGRAM OVERVIEW GENERAL INFORMATION Motor-Vehicle Accidents, Statistics 1983 &1984 IV. V. VI. STATISTICAL INFORMATION DRIVERS TRAINING AIDS CLASSROOM MODULES Module #1 Vehicle Code Provisions and Procedures Vehicle Code Provisions Vehicular Accident Procedures Basic Theory of Apparatus Drive Train Clutch Clutch Clutch-Brake Assembly Transmissions Manual Automatic Drive-Lines Universal Joint Slip Joint Propeller Shaft (Drive Shaft) Rear-End Final Drive Differential Live Axles Shifting Techniques Pre-Test Manual Transmission Automatic Transmission Apparatus Maintenance Basic Apparatus Heavy and Light Apparatus Preventive Maintenance Daily Schedule Weekly Schedule Monthly Schedule Light Vehicle Preventive Maintenance Daily Schedule Weekly Schedule Monthly Schedule Bimonthly Schedule Apparatus Characteristics That Can Contribute To Accidents

Module #2

Module #3

Module #4

Module #5

TABLE OF CONTENTS (continued) VI. CLASSROOM MODULES Module #6 Module #7 Module #8 VII. Driving Under Non-Emergency Conditions and Rehousing Apparatus Driving Under Emergency Conditions Apparatus Spotting -and Placement Truck and Triple Light Apparatus

DRIVERS TRAINING ARTICLES Article #1 - Lessons Learned Article #2 - Foot Braking Procedures Article #3 - Apparatus Inventory & Traffic Accidents Article #4 - Stale Green Light Article #5 - Skid Recovery and Hydroplaning Article #6 - California Traffic Safety Week Article #7 - National Motor-Vehicle Fatalities Article #8 - Southland School Children on Vacation Article #9 - Mopeds Article #10 - Air Brakes Emergency Systems Article #11 - Fuel Conservation/Driving Procedures, Article #12 - "Smith System, Defensive Driving

VIII.

DIVISION DRIVING COURSE - Evaluation Information Sheet Division I Division II Division III

IX.

DRIVERS TRAINING RODEO Heavy Apparatus Light Apparatus

X. XI.

DIVISION DRIVER TRAINING COORDINATOR BATTALION DRIVER TRAINING INSTRUCTOR

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LOS ANGELES FIRE DEPARTMENT

DONALD 0. MANNING CHIEF ENGINEER AND GENERAL MANAGER

DEPARTMENT DRIVER TRAINING PROGRAM OVERVIEW In order to create a quality Driver Training Program, the In-Service Training Section and Driver's Training Committee has developed a Driver Training Program and Driver's Training Manual designed to improve the overall driving performance of Department members. The Driver Training Program consists of the following: Driver's Training Manual Phase I: Classroom Study and Review Phase II: Driver Training Course and Driving Rodeos Class I and Class II Driver's License Requirements and Testing Procedures Training Videotapes

The Driver Training program will be scheduled once a year by the Division Driver Training Coordinators and will be conducted in two separate phases. The program will be coordinated by a Division Driver Training Coordinator from each Division, on each platoon, with the assistance of a Battalion Driver Training Instructor from each Battalion, each platoon. Phase I will consist of in-station study and review of the eight classroom modules in the Driver's Training Manual and Chapters 3. 41 and 22 from the Apparatus Operator's Training Manual. This training will be conducted in preparation for a written examination scheduled and conducted by the Battalion Driver Training Instructor. Phase I shall be supervised by the Battalion Driver Training Instructor and completed prior to the member's participation in Phase II of the program. Phase II will be scheduled on a Division-wide basis, per Battalion, and will consist of fire suppression and EMS personnel participating in the Division Driver Training course and Driving Rodeos. Phase II will consist of fire suppression and EMS personnel participating in the Division Driver Training course and Driving Rodeos. The Division Driver Training courses will consist of a predetermined route that will use the same basic criteria as the driving portion of the Apparatus Operators and Engineers Practical exam., i.e., controlled and uncontrolled intersections, stopping on a grade, etc. Members' driving performance will be evaluated by the Division Driver Training Coordinator or Battalion Driver Training instructor using a standardized grade sheet.

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The Driving Redeo will consist of two phases. One will be designed for heavy apparatus that will be driven by fire suppression personnel only. The second, will be a modified rodeo to be used by both fire suppression and EMS personnel to evaluate their skills in driving a rescue ambulance. This modified rodeo will be designed specifically to address problem areas inherent when driving this type of vehicle. Each driver will be given a score based on their performance on both the Division Driver Training course and Driving Rodeos. Company Commanders will receive the scores of each of their members, on the written examination, Division Driver Training Course, and Driving Rodeos. Members with below average scores will be given a prescription for improvement designed to assist the Company Commander and/or Battalion Driver Training Instructor in improving the member's driving performance. Members who presently maintain a Class II Drivers License and do not complete the Division Driver Training course and Rodeo with a passing score will be required to complete remedial training and be reexamined within three months. During this period, members will lose their certification to drive heavy apparatus, except for training or non-emergency driving, until they complete the Division Driver Training course and/or Rodeo with a passing score. Newly appointed members will be required to successfully complete both Phase I and II of the Driver Training Program in order to qualify for their initial Class II driver's license. Members requiring testing for initial issuance of Class I and Class II drivers licenses, and remedial testing, shall be scheduled, when possible, with Battalions conducting their annual Drivers Training Program.. The Driver Training Program is designed to utilize minimum staffing requirements, but maintain maximum consistency in the implementation of this program. The Drivers Training Program shall be staffed by officers within the Department who have experience and expertise in teaching and evaluating a person's driving performance with both heavy apparatus and light vehicles. A Captain II from each Division on each platoon shall be assigned the responsibility of Division Driver Training Coordinator. The Division Driver Training Coordinator shall perform the duties as specified in the Division Driver Training Coordinator 'Information Guide" included in the Drivers Training Manual.

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A Captain from each Battalion, on each platoon shall be assigned the responsibility of Battalion Driver Training instructor. The Battalion Driver Training instructor shall assist the Division Driver Training Coordinator and perform the duties as specified in the Battalion Driver Training instructor "Information Guide" included in the Drivers Training manual. The annual Drivers Training Program shall be staffed by three officers (Division Driver Training Coordinator and/or Battalion Driver Training instructors), a Task Force and appropriate EMS District Supervisor. The Division Driver Training Coordinator/Battalion Driver, Training instructors shall evaluate members driving performance during the Division Driver Training course and coordinate the Driving Rodeos. The designated task force and appropriate EMS District Supervisor shall conduct and evaluate members driving performance during the Driving Rodeos. In addressing the needs of a quality. Driver Training Program, the In-Service Training Section has, in conjunction with the Drivers Training Committee, developed a comprehensive Driver Training Program, and Drivers Training manual. The Driver Training Program is designed to provide the best possible In-Service Driver Training Program with minimal impact on present funding.

MOTOR-VEHICLE ACCIDENTS, 1984


(See also page 2 for National Health Survey totals) Between 1912 and 1984, motor-vehicle deaths per 10,000 registered vehicles were reduced 91 per cent, from 33 to about 3. (Mileage data were not available in 1912.) In 1912, there were 3,100 fatalities when the number of registered vehicles totaled only 950,000. In 1984, there were 46,200 fatalities, but registrations soared to 174 *million. The 1984 mileage death rate is the lowest on record. Motor-vehicle deaths decreased in 1983 and increased in 1984, while vehicle miles increased in both years. Deaths ................................................................................................................. 46,2000 Disabling injuries. ............................................................................................ 1,700,000 Cost (see also pages 4 and 5)....................................................................... $47.6 billion Motor-vehicle mileage.................................................................................... 1,727 billion Death rate per 100,000,000 vehicle miles ................................................................. 2.68 Registered vehicles in the U.S. ..................................................................... 174,200,00 Licensed drivers in the U.S. ........................................................................ 157,300,000

Accident totals
Fatal Disabling injury Property damage and non-disabling injury Total (rounded)

Number of Accidents 41,400 1,100,000 17,700,000 18,800,000

Drivers (Vehicles) Involved 60,900 1,900,000 31,000,000 33,000,000

Interstate System
Over 43,000 miles of the Interstate System were open to traffic at the end of 1984, and they carried about 350,000,000,000 miles of travel, which represents about 20 per cent of the total travel on all of the nation's roads, according to the Federal Highway Administration. If deaths with this amount of travel had occurred at a rate of 2.7, which was the rate on all of the nation's roads in 1984, compared with a preliminary estimate of about 1.2 for the portion of the Interstate System open to traffic, there would have been approximately 5,200 more deaths during the year than actually occurred. The 1984 rate of 1.2 represents a decrease of 8 percent from the 1983 rate. Based on 1983 data from the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration Fatal Accident Reporting System, Interstate and other limited access routes accounted for about 19 per cent of the fatal accidents in urban areas and only 9 per cent in rural areas, where few such facilities exist. Eighty-three per cent of the fatalities due to accidents on the Interstate System in 1983 were vehicle occupants, of which 45 per cent were in single vehicle accidents and 38 per cent were in multi-vehicle accidents. Only 17 percent of the fatalities on the Interstate were non-occupants.

Type of accident by roadway class


In 1983, principal arterial and collectors accounted for almost one half of the fatal accidents, according to data from the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration 1983 Fatal Accident Reporting System. Collisions with other motor vehicles uniformly comprised the largest proportion of fatal accidents on all roadway classes. Collisions with fixed objects, pedal cycles, railroad trains and animals or other objects were all generally the same on each of the roadway classes. Pedestrians accounted for about 24 per cent of the fatal accidents on urban freeways, about 21 per cent on principal arterials and about 18 per cent on local roads or streets. About 16 per cent of the fatal accidents on the Interstate were collisions with pedestrians, while only 12 per cent of the fatal accidents on collectors were collisions with pedestrians. Fatal noncollision accidents are underrepresented on urban freeways, principal arterials and minor arterials when compared with the other roadway classes. Some of the variations in the percentages of the types of fatal accidents by roadway function class are probably the result of different; roadway environments and the character of the traffic on each roadway class. The table below shows the types of fatal accidents by roadway function class in 1983.

Type of Fatal Accident by Roadway Function Class, 1983


Roadway Function Class All Roads Urban Freeway, Expressway 3.8% 100.0% 38.4 28.0 236 20 01 08 6.8 Principal Arterial 24.9% 100.0% 49.2 207 20.6 19 02 06 8.2 Minor Arterial 20.7% 100.0% 44.5 26.3 17,1 2.4 0.6 0.9 13.6 Local Road Street 18.1% 100.0% 24.4 35.3 17.9 3.2 31 1.0

Type of Accident

Interstate 9.4% 100.0% 37.9 28.8 15.7 04 (4) 10 71

Collector 23.1% 100.0% 34.0 36.4 11.6 22 1,2 1,10 15,1

All Roadways .............. 100.0% Total ........................ 100.0% Collision with Other motor vehicle 38.7 Fixed object. 29.2 Pedestrian 16.9 Pedal cycle 2.2 Railroad train 1.1 Animal, other object 0.9 Non-collision ....................11.0 16.2

Source. Based on U S Department of Transportation National Highway Traffic Safety Administration 1983 Fatal Accident Reporting System data "Less than 0.05 per cent

Type of accident-urban and rural places


Motor-vehicle deaths occur more frequently in rural places, but injuries occur more frequently in urban places. For specific types of accidents, though, the urban rural proportions vary considerably. For deaths, for example, more than one third of all occur in urban places, but more than two thirds of the pedestrian deaths occur in such places; more than four fifths of the non-collision deaths happen in rural areas. Other differences are noted in the table below. Motor-Vehicle Deaths and Injuries by Type of Accident, 1984 Deaths Non-fatal injuries Type of Accident Total Urban Rural Total Urban Rural 740,000 10,000 490,000 1,000 10,000 4,000 200,000

Total 46,200 17,100 29,100 1,700,000 960,000 Collision with Pedestrian 8,200 6,000 2,200 80,000 70,000 Other motor vehicle 20,300 6,500 13,800 1,270.000 780,000 Railroad train 700 300 400 4,000 3,000 Pedal cycle 1,000 600 400 40,000 30,000 Animal, animal-drawn vehicle 100 (?) 100 6,000 2,000 Fixed object 3,200 1,900 10,800 240,000 40,000 Non-collision Source: National Safety Council estimates, based on reports from city and state traffic authorities. ?Less than 5.

Pedal cycle accidents


Since 1940, the number of pedal cycle-motor-vehicle deaths has increased about 33 per cent. The number of pedal cycles in use has increased fourteen fold so that the death rate (number of deaths per 100,000 pedal cycles, in use) is one tenth the rate in 1940. Since 1960, though, there has been little change in this rate. The proportion of deaths occurring to young adults and adults has steadily increased since 1960. Persons 15 years of age and older accounted for almost two thirds of the deaths in 1984 compared to about one fifth in 1960. These changes in the usage and ownership of pedal cycles are reflected in the table below. Pedal cycle Rates and Deaths by Age, 1940-1984 Percent of Deaths by Age Pedal cycles Death Year (millions) Deaths Rate All Ages 0-14 15-24 25 & Over 1940 7.8 750 9.59 100% 48 39 13 1945 9.0 500 5.55 100% 56 22 22 1950 13.8 440 3.18 100% 82 9 9 1955 23.1 410 1.78 100% 71 12 17 1960 28.2 460 1.63 100% 78 9 13 1965 38.8 680 1.75 100% 64 18 18 1970 56.5 780 1.38 100% 66 15 19 1974 90.0 1,000 1.11 100% 47 31 22 1975 95,0 1,000 1.05 100% 49 28 23 1976. 95.0 900 0.94 100% 48 33 19 1977 96.0 1,100 1.15 100% 47 32 21 1978 97.O 1,200 1.24 100% 43 36 21 1979 98.5 1,200 1.22 100% 38 36 26 1980 100.0 1,200 1.20 100% 35 36 29 1981 101.5 1,200 1.18 100% 36 35 29 1982 104.0 1,100 1.18 100% 35 27 38 1983 105.5 1,100 1.04 100% 40 29 31 1984 106.1 1,000 0.94 100% 36 32 32 Source National Center for Health Statistic state traffic authorities and National Safety Council estimates Pedal cycles in use for a given year is the ten-year total (that year and the previous nine years) of domestic production plus imports less exports. Deaths per 100,000 pedal cycles in use. Includes sidewalk pedal cycles

Directional Analysis, Motor-Vehicle Traffic Accidents, 1982-1984


Location and Vehicle Movement Fatal Accidents Total Urban Rural Total All Accidents Urban Rural

Total Accidents Pedestrian Intersection Car - going straight turning right turning left backing All others Non-intersection Car - going straight turning right turning left backing All others Non-traffic Two Motor-Vehicle Intersection Entering at angle Entering same direction both going straight one turn, one straight one stopped all others Entering opposite direction both going straight one turn, one straight all others Non-intersection Opposite dir. both moving Same dir. both moving One car parked One car stopped in traffic One car entering parked position One car leaving parked position One car entering driveway access One car leaving driveway access All others Non-traffic. All Other Collisions Intersection. Other road vehicle, train Fixed object ...

Per Cent Distribution of Accidents 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 19.3% 37.3% 8.8% 2.5% 6.0% 0.8% 2.0 4.8 0.6 0.2 0.5 0.1 0.2 0.5 0.1 0.1 0.1 () () 0.1 0.0 15.8% 15.4 () () 0.3 0.1 1.0% 39.9% 15.2% 10.2 0.5 0.6 0.5 () 0.6 2.7 0.1 24.4% 14.6 4.0 1.1 0.7 28.7% 27.9 () 0.1 0.7 () 2.6% 35.9% 18.1% 12.0 0.6 0.4 0.6 0.1 0.6 3.7 0.1 17.6% 7.4 4.6 1.4 0.5 0.0 1.0 0.9 1.8. 0.2% 15.7% 2.1% 0.5 1.5 7.7% 7.6 0.0 () 0.1 () 0.3% 42.2% 13.1% 8.9 0.3 0.8 0.4 0.0 0.6 2.0 0.1 28.8% 19.4 3.5 1.0 0.8 0.0 1.5 0.7 1.9 0.3% 8.4% 0.5% 0.1 0.4

100.0% 0.5% 0.1% 0.1 () () 0.0 0.0 0.4% 0.4 0.0 0.0 () 0.0

100.0% 0.6% 0.1% 0.1 () () 0.0 0.0 0.5% 0.4 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.0

100.0 0.4% 0.1 0.1 () () 0.0 0.0 0.3 0.3 0.0 0.0 () ()

81.1% 46.1% 23.0 3.1 3.7 7.9 1.0 0.4 6.0 1.0 35.0% 3.0 10.6 .2.2 6.2 0.4 0.5 4.6 5.4 2.1

89.4% 53.1% 26.5 3.7 3.9 9.3 1.2 0.3 7.1 1.1 36.3% 2.0 12.0 2.1 7.2 0.2 0.6 4.9 5.7 1.6

59.2 28.3 14.2 1.7 3.0 4.6 0.6 0.4 3.2 0.6 30.9 5.2 6.9 2.3 3.7 1.0 0.3 3.9 4.5 3.1

1.3 0.8 1.9 0.3% 11.19/0 1.0% 0.3 0.7

5.3% 1.1% 0.2 0.9

5.7% 1.6% 0.3 1.3

4.4 0.5 0.1 0.4

Source Urban and Rural based on reports of state traffic authorities and the Selected Movement table on page 47, top Total National Safety Council estimates based on Urban and Rural reports ( ) Less than 0.05 percent.

Occupant restraints
Safety belts are now available to almost all passenger car occupants. According to National Highway Traffic Safety Administration studies, safety belts are 50 to 65 per cent effective in preventing fatalities and injuries. This means that 12,000 to 16,000 lives could be saved annually if all passenger car occupants used safety belts at all times. As of June 21, 1985, thirteen states have enacted mandatory safety belt use laws. Bills are under consideration in nine states, eighteen states have rejected mandatory seat belt laws in 1985, and three states have postponed consideration until 1986. Fifty states and the District of Columbia have mandatory child safety seat laws. Air bags. If air bags were installed in all passenger cars for driver and right front passenger positions, an estimated 3,000 to 7,000 lives could be saved annually. The full lifesaving potential of air bags will not be realized for ten years after the initial year of installation.

Child restraint effectiveness


The Tennessee Child Passenger Protection Act, mandating the use of child safety seats for children under the age of four, became effective in 1978. According to an analysis by the Tennessee Department of Health and Environment of data from the Tennessee Department of Safety for the years 1978 through 1983, 81 children under the age of four were killed in traffic accidents; only two were in child safety seats at the time of the accident. During this period, as child safety seat usage rose 8 per cent, the number of deaths among children under the age of four declined more than 50 per cent. The analysis found that children under the age of four who were not protected by a child safety seat were I I times more likely to be killed in a motor vehicle accident than children using child safety seats. The analysis also found that children under the age of four traveling with drivers who were not wearing safety belts were more than four times as likely to be left entirely unrestrained as were children traveling with belted drivers. Unrestrained adults are not exposed to the same risk of injury as are unrestrained children. The odds of visible injury or death were twice as high for unrestrained children under the age of four as for unrestrained adults.

Speed
According to the Federal Highway Administration, 56 per cent of the vehicles on the roads in 1984 were exceeding 55 mph, a slight increase over 1983 when 54 per cent of vehicles exceeded 55 mph, but still far below the pre-1974 levels. In 1972, 68 per cent of the vehicles were exceeding 55 mph. The National Safety Council estimates that more than 40,000 lives have been saved since the 55 mph limit was enacted in 1973 at the time of the first oil embargo. From one third to one half of the savings is due to lower and more uniform speeds. The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration estimates that more than 60,000 lives have been saved since 1973. If all states raised the limit to 65 or 70 mph, there would be a 10 to 15 per cent increase in motor-vehicle fatalities annually. If the limit were raised to 65 or 70 mph on the interstate highways only, 600 to 1,000 additional deaths would result each year from motor-vehicle accidents. The results of a poll conducted by R. H. Bruskin Associates, which was published in the February 19, 1985, U S. A. Today, reported that 50.4 per cent of the respondents prefer speeds ranging from 51 mph to 55 mph.

LOS ANGELES CITY FIRE DEPARTMENT DRIVER TRAINING


200 184,027 NUMBER OF RESPONSES BY COMPANY TYPE FOR CALENDAR YEAR 1985

180

170

160 156,861

150

41,022 40

30

22,892

20

10

5,511

2,033

1,783

1,649

913

0
RESCUE ENGINE LIGHT FORCE BATTALION SQUAD CHIEFS 2 PIECE ENGINE SENIOR TRUCK PARAMEDIC ARSON

LOS ANGELES CITY FIRE DEPARTMENT DRIVER TRAINING


28

INCLEMENT WEATHER ACCIDENTS 1983 1985 EMERGENCY NON-EMERGENCY

24

20

16

12

4 0 83 BACKING SOLO 28 HELP EMERGENCY EMERGENCY NON84 85 83 84 85

24 20

16

12

8 4 0 83 84 85 83 84 85 0 83 84 85 0 83 84 85

LOS ANGELES CITY FIRE DEPARTMENT DRIVER TRAINING


280 240

TOTAL RESPONSES HEAVY & LIGHT APPPARATUS 1983 - 1985

200

160 120

80

40

0 83
TOTAL RESPONSES HEAVY APPARATUS

84
TOTAL RESPONSES LIGHT APPARATUS

85

280

240

200

160 IN THOUSANDS 120 IN THOUSANDS 83 84 85

80

40

0 83 84 85

LOS ANGELES CITY FIRE DEPARTMENT DRIVER TRAINING PROGRAM TRAINING AIDS The following is a list of available Driver's Training aids: I. VIDEOS PREVENTATIVE MAINTENANCE A. Brakes B. Engine and Drive Train C. Electrical D. Pumps 16 MM FILM A. Air Brakes B. Automobile Hydroplaning C. Bicycle Safety D. Broken Glass E. Carburetors F. Cooling System G. Distributor H. Emergency Response I. Final Factor J. Fire Code III K. Freeway Tactics L. Gear Shifting M. Night Driving Tactics N. Red Asphalt 0. Space Driving P. Steering R. The Tillerman S. Wheels of Tragedy SLIDES A. Accidents of Your Choice B. Perception of Driving Hazards C. Staging and Apparatus Placement D. Whiplash DRIVER TRAINING HARDWARE A. Rodeo Set-up 1. Heavy Apparatus 2. Light Vehicle B. Reaction Time Equipment WRITTEN MATERIAL A. Division Driver Training Courses B. Grade Sheets

II.

III.

IV.

V.

INDEX DRIVER'S TRAINING MODULES Module #1 Vehicle Code Provisions and Procedures Vehicle Code Sections that Apply to LAFD Drivers LAFD Accident Procedures Basic Theory of Apparatus Drive Train Clutch Clutch-Brake Assembly Transmissions Manual Automatic Drive-Lines Universal Joint Slip Joint Propeller Shaft (Drive Shaft) Rear-End Final Drive Differential Live Axles Shifting Techniques Pre-Test Manual Transmission Automatic Transmission Apparatus Maintenance Basic Apparatus Heavy and Light Apparatus Preventive Maintenance Daily Schedule Weekly Schedule Monthly Schedule Light vehicle Preventive Maintenance Daily Schedule Weekly Schedule Monthly Schedule Bimonthly Schedule Apparatus Characteristics That Can Contribute To Accidents Driving Under Non-Emergency Conditions and Rehousing Apparatus Driving Fire Department Apparatus Under Emergency Conditions Apparatus Spotting and Placement Heavy Apparatus Light Apparatus

Module #2 -

Module #3 -

Module #4 -

Module #5 -

Module #6 -

Module #7 -

Module #8 -

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VEHICLE CODE PROVISIONS AND ACCIDENT PROCEDURES PRETEST QUESTIONS 1. Every authorized emergency vehicle shall be equipped with at least one steady burning red warning lamp visible from at least to the front of the vehicle to be used as provided in this code. a. b. c. 2. 300 ft. 500 ft. 1000 ft.

When driving the hills, an operator shall give audible warning with the horn of the motor vehicle upon approaching any curve where the view is obstructed within a distance of feet along the highway. a. b. c. 200 300 100

3.

No vehicle, except other emergency vehicles, shall follow within feet of an emergency vehicle (responding). a. b. c. 300 200 500

4.

As stated in the vehicle code when emergency vehicles responding with red lights and sirens approach other drivers of motor vehicle shall: a. b. c. d. Stop Pull to right Slow and pull to the right Pull to the right and stop

5.

Vehicles in a business or residence district may not be left on a highway unattended on a grade exceeding _______ % without blocking the wheels. a. b. c. 3 5 2

LOS ANGELES CITY FIRE DEPARTMENT DRIVER'S TRAINING MODULE #1 VEHICLE CODE PROVISIONS AND ACCIDENT PROCEDURES OBJECTIVE: To learn various California Vehicle Code provisions and how they apply to the drivers on the L.A.F.D.; to make members aware of their duties and obligations under the code and assist them in the safe and legal operation of their apparatus, in emergency and non-emergency operations. (1) Manual of operation (2) California Vehicle Code (3) AOTM (4) DMV Exams (1) Lesson Plan (2) Accident Packet (3) Class II Drivers License Exams (4) Truck Drivers Supplement to Vehicle Code

REFERENCES:

TEACHING AIDS:

INTRODUCTION: A tremendous amount of responsibility rests on the shoulders of those members operating emergency apparatus for the Los Angeles Fire Department. The driver carries sole responsibility for the safety of themselves, fellow members, and the public in guiding a 20-ton fire apparatus, an ambulance or a sedan through traffic. Members must respond in every type of weather, traffic, and terrain condition in achieving the goal of a safe and timely arrival at the scene of an incident. In addition to the crew, the apparatus driver must also be conscious of the safety of the civilian motorist. The California Vehicle Code governs the legal operation of emergency vehicles in the state. A working knowledge of this code is necessary for' proper operation, as well as a good knowledge of and conformance to Department requirements by all apparatus drivers.

-2DT-1 6/86 In this lesson we will learn: A. B. C. D. E. Applicable Vehicle Code Sections L.A.F.D. license and certification requirements Exemptions under emergency response Non-exemptions and legal responsibility Accident procedures and case studies of possible situations and incidents.

PRESENTATION: A. What Vehicle Code Sections apply to the L.A.F.D. Driver? The first thing to realize is, that although some exceptions (sections 21055 and 21056) apply to us, they are only enacted under emergency response. No exemptions exist during non-emergency operations, including returning to quarters from an emergency response Following is a complete list by section of applicable California Vehicle Code provisions: (Use the vehicle code book to look up and read through individual sections.) 30 165 2801 2812 4015 4155 9104 12804 17000 17001 17002 17004 20016 21052 21055 21706 21707 21708 21806 21807 22104 22350 22400 22452 22500.1 Legislative Intent Authorized Emergency Vehicle Obedience to Firefighter Closing of Highways Firefighter Vehicle Publicly owned Vehicle Fire Vehicles Driver's Examination Classification Definition Liability of a Public Entity Extent of Liability Authorized Emergency Vehicles Persons Injured on Highways Public Officers and Employees Exemption of Authorized Emergency Vehicles Following Emergency Vehicles Fire Areas Fire Hoses Authorized Emergency Vehicles Effect of Exemption Turning Near Fire stations Basic Speed Law Minimum Speed Law Railroad Crossings Additional Prohibited Stopping, Standing of Parking: Fire Lane

-3DT- 1 6/86 22514 24003 24404 24405 25252 25252.5 25258 25268 25269 27002 27305 27905 35002 B. Fire Hydrants Vehicle with Unlawful Lamps Spot Lamps Maximum Number of Lamps Warning Lamps on Authorized Emergency Vehicles Flashing Headlamps on Authorized Emergency Vehicles Additional Warning Lights on Authorized Emergency Vehicles Use of Flashlight Amber Warning Light Use of Red Warning Light Sirens Firefighting Vehicles Fire Departments Authorized Emergency Vehicles

What are the license requirements to operate L.A.F.D. apparatus and what certificates are required to obtain the necessary license for driving heavy apparatus? As stated in the Manual of operation, all probationary members must possess a valid Class 3 license upon appointment. This is the minimum license required by L.A.F.D. to drive light apparatus. To obtain the necessary Class 2 license and drive heavy apparatus the member must first secure a DL 170 by the following procedure: 1. Successfully complete the classroom modules in the L.A.F.D. Driver's Training Manual. Successfully complete the practical driving portions of the Department's Driver's Training Program consisting of: a. b. The Driving Rodeo The Division Driving Course

2.

After securing the DL 170, approved by the Bureau of Fire Suppression and Rescue, a member must complete the DMV requirements for issuance of a Class 2 license consisting of: 1. 2. The written exam Issuance of the DL-51A (Medical Certificate)

-4DT-1 6/86 C. What are our exemptions when operating heavy apparatus? Only those stated in Vehicle Code Sections, 21055 and 21056. (Look up and read.) D. Are there exemptions when driving non-emergency and what are our legal responsibilities as L.A.F.D. drivers? No there are no exemptions during non-emergency operations. The member is subject to the full extent of all applicable laws, including civil action. The same laws that govern you when driving your civilian vehicle apply when driving apparatus non-emergency; speed, right-of-way parking laws are among those laws that are fully enforceable. E. What constitutes an accident and what is my responsibility if I am involved in an accident as a driver? As defined in the Manual of operation, an accident is: 1. 2. 3. 4. Anytime Department vehicle is involved in an accident with a third party vehicle or private property. Anytime a Department vehicle is involved in an accident with another Department vehicle or Department property. Anytime a Department vehicle strikes an animal, whether domesticated or non-domesticated. Anytime a privately-owned vehicle of a member is involved in an accident during the members tour of duty, when such use is officially authorized.

When involved in an accident as a civilian, our first concern is of the imminent danger of injury or death to the people involved, including ourselves our second concern is usually the financial loss involved. As a Department member, if involved in an accident while on duty, these same concerns occur. our first concern, of course, is still the safety of the people involved; to assist the injured if you are capable; secure a safe area and call for help if you need it. our second concern will no longer be on the potential personal financial loss of the accident; but, instead we must consider the City's liabilities and such questions as whom do I notify? What reports are required? And who makes them out?

-5DT-1 6/86 Relative to these questions, every member shall be familiar with the forms that are included in the accident packet; and, how they are used for various Department involved accidents. The following forms may be utilized in the Department's accident reporting procedures: FORM GENERAL 88 (City of L. A. AUTOMOBILE ACCIDENT REPORT) TO CITY ATTORNEY 1. WHEN - - Anytime a person or property, including domesticated animals, is involved, or when any member sustains injury, due to a vehicular accident, even if no third party is involved. WHEN - - Within 24 hours. Telephone report to the City Attorney, immediately in the event of serious death to a third party. WHO- - By the driver of the vehicle. WHY - - The-City Attorney is the legal representative for the City in any litigation involving the Fire Department and a third party. In the case of the injured member in a two-party accident, the City might need the information for Workman's Compensation or Pension Commission related judgments.

2.

3. 4.

FORM GENERAL 84B (WITNESS CARD) 1. 2. WHEN - - Anytime a Form General 88 is used. WHO - - Any person who is a witness to the accident. If they refuse to sign a witness card and it is felt that they did witness the accident, an effort should be made to try to get their name and address or license number. They can be subpoenaed by the City Attorney.

F-225 (RED LETTERHEAD) 1. WHEN - - For any accident where Fire Department property only is involved and there are no injuries. Also when involved with non-domesticated animals.

-6DT1 6/86 2. WHO - - Made out by the driver of the apparatus and also by the Commanding officer, if at the scene of the accident. WHO - - Additional F-225's may be required by the investigating officer if they feel it is necessary to help tell a more complete story. -Example, tillermen or members riding upon apparatus who witnessed the accident. WHY - - There is no third party damage and no injuries so the Fire Department is the only agency that is interested in the facts. The Fire Department uses the report to help determine if there is any negligence involved and if there is any need for additional training of safety measures. Also, for the possibility of determining the existence of mechanical defects and any necessary follow-up that might be necessary.

3.

4.

F-150 (ACCIDENT REPORT) 1. 2. WHEN - - For all accidents where the Fire Department is involved. WHO - - Made out by an LAFD investigating officer, Who is usually a Battalion Chief from a nearby battalion. WHY - - To provide administration with an unbiased reporting of the facts of the accident by an uninvolved party. WHY - - To determine training needs, mechanical defects, and cause. NOTE: - - LAPD investigation in all accidents involving the Department and a third party. This is to meet the requirements of the California Vehicle Code and City policy.

3.

4. 5.

F-51 (VEHICULAR ACCIDENT PROCEDURE) 1. WHAT - A guide to be used if involved in an accident. Outline form of reports and forms used in each situation.

-7DT-1 6/86 F-80 (STORES REQUISITION) 1. 2. 3. WHEN - - For any accident involving damage to apparatus, no matter how slight. WHO - - Made out by the Commanding Officer. WHY - - If a third party is involved, S&M uses it to help estimate the cost of damage to Fire Department apparatus for the City Attorney. WHY - - If no third party is involved it is used to request repairs to the apparatus. (Give the following situations and have the class answer for participation.) The Engine, while out on fire prevention, backs into the 200 Series Engine and damages the tailboard; but there are no injuries. - - WHAT is required? a. b. c. 2. F-225 by driver F-225 by Commanding officer if at scene F-80 by Commanding officer

4.

1.

The 200 Series Engine runs into the rear of the Engine at a signal, injuring two firefighters slightly and damaging the apparatus. -- WHAT is required? a. b. c. d. Form Gen. 88 by both drivers Form Gen. 84B by civilian witnesses F-150 by LAFD investigating officer F-80 by Commanding officer

3.

A civilian automobile strikes a plug buggy at an intersection with no injuries involved. -WHAT is required? a. b. c. d. e. Form Gen. 38 by driver Form Gen. 84B by civilian witnesses F-150 by LAFD investigating officer F-80 by Commanding officer LAPD investigation

4.

The truck swerves to avoid a civilian auto at an intersection. It misses the auto but rolls over in the street with resulting injuries to a firefighter. - - WHAT reports are required?

-8DT-1 6/86 a. b. c. d. e. 4. Form Gen. 88 by driver Form Gen. 84B by civilian witnesses F-150 by LAFD investigating officer F-80 by Commanding officer LAPD investigation

While shopping for mess in your personal automobile, you strike a dog and injure it. WHAT reports are required? a. b. c. d. Form Gen. 88 by driver Form Gen. 84B by civilian witnesses F-150 by LAFD investigating officer F-80 if damage to automobile

5.

If you had struck a deer in question 5, what reports would have been required: Why? a. b. c. d. F-225 by driver F-225 by Commanding Officer if at scene of accident. F-150 by investigating officer. F-80 if damage to automobile, a deer is a non-domestic animal.

CLOSING: Remember above all that, Section 21055 (exemption of authorized emergency vehicles) does not relieve the driver of a vehicle from the duty to drive with due regard for the safety of all persons using the highway, nor does it protect him from the consequences of an arbitrary exercise of the privileges granted in that section. By using the Vehicle Code as a foundation, the LAFD driver can build a safe and effective driving record that will continue to merit public trust and insure the safe operation of Department apparatus in all situations.

TEST: VEHICLE CODE PROVISIONS 1. Is an LAFD driver liable for civil damages as a result of an accident while responding to an incident even though that incident later proves to be a false alarm? 17004 - No 2. You park your apparatus on a slight hill in front of the market. As you walk away, you turn around just in time to see it roll backwards into a 1984 Rolls Royce Corniche convertible. You didn't think chock blocks were required - Can you be held liable for damages? 22509 - Yes The following three questions are to be answered True or False. 3. Under ordinary driving conditions, City employees must obey provisions of the Vehicle Code. True 4. A City driver cannot be sued if they had the right-of-way when an accident happened. False 5. Emergency vehicles always have the right-of-way. False 6. As stated in the new response criteria the first vehicle responding to an incident in a convoy shall ____________ for all red lights and stop signs. a. b. c. d. (D) 7. The remaining vehicles in a response convoy shall _____ at all red lights and stop signs. a. b. c. d. (C) Also Stop. Slow Down Slow down and proceed with caution. Follow at a reasonable distance. Slow and proceed when safe. Stop - if necessary for safe operation. Proceed through slowly. Stop.

-28. All motor vehicles equipped with air bakes must also be equipped with: a. b. c. Retarders Vacuum gauges Low pressure warning devices

(C)Section 26506 9. When responding through intersections controlled by a traffic officer, drivers shall a. b. c. d. (C) 10. As stated in the new response criteria apparatus shall not-be driven at speeds greater than can be maintained with reasonable safety at any time. True 11. As stated in the new response criteria, the driver of a responding apparatus, when notified through OCD if first company on-scene reporting "nothing showing" shall a. b. c. d. (D) 12. The driver of a heavy utility shall normally respond a. b. c. d. (B) 13. All move-ups shall be ___________ a. b. c. d. (C) Emergency unless otherwise directed. Emergency Non-emergency unless otherwise directed. Non-emergency Non-emergency Non-emergency unless otherwise directed. Emergency Safely Continue through non-emergency. Continue through emergency. Be guided by his own Captain. Continue through non-emergency unless requested otherwise. stop if light is red. stop if light is red and first in convoy. Be guided by officers instructions. Stop at all times.

-314. Drivers of responding Chief officers' sedans when informed of units on-scene reporting "nothing showing" shall a. b. c. d. (D) 15. Continue through emergency. Continue through non-emergency. Continue through as directed by OCD. Continue through as directed by the Chief.

When an Engine Company and a rescue ambulance respond together to an incident who will determine the continued mode of response? a. b. c. d. (D) The Paramedic III Rescue Ambulance members The Captain I The first company on-scene.

16.

As stated in the Manual of operation, apparatus shall be driven with particular emphasis placed on a. b. c. d. (C) Department safety policy Conformance to the Vehicle Code Defensive Driving Safe operation

17.

In all cases, whenever a Department apparatus is damaged in an accident shall be forwarded with other reports. a. b. c. d. (C) F-225 Form Gen. 88 F-80 DL 170

18.

Members receiving a Form SR-1C from the DMV after an accident shall a. b. c. d. (C) Sign and forward to DMV. Notify their insurance company. Forward through channels to Fire-Suppression Adjutant Forward through channels to operations.

-419. While responding an Engineer sees the pike pole fall from his apparatus, he should ________ . a. b. c. d. (B) 20. Stop and retrieve it. Notify the officer in charge. Consider the urgency. Continue emergency unless told otherwise.

True or False. Members are exempt from civil action as a result of an accident that occurs while responding emergency. False

/2063D

BASIC THEORY OF APPARATUS DRIVE TRAIN PRETEST QUESTIONS 1. What is the flexible coupling between two shafts that permits one shaft to drive another at an angle to it ? a. b. c. d. 2. The universal joint The slip joint The propeller shaft The counter shaft

What is the purpose of double-clutching, when a transmission is being shifted from one gear to another ? a. b. c. d. To control the speed of the gears in the transmission. To allow the operator to match the transmission gear speed to the road speed and complete the shift. To maintain positive control of the transmission gears. All of the above.

3.

The automotive clutch operates by spring pressure applied to the clutch disks as they are sandwiched between the flywheel and the pressure plate. a. b. True False

4.

When a clutch is slipped for more than about seconds heat will build up and damage will occur. a. b. C. d. 1-1/2 seconds 10 seconds 15 seconds 20 seconds

5.

Which drive train component provides the means to reverse the direction of power flow? a. b. c. d. The clutch The transmission The propeller shaft The slip joint

6.

Which of the following absorbs most of the shock when the engine applies full power to the rear wheels? a. b. c. d. The universal joints The propeller shaft The rear axles The rear springs

LOS ANGELES CITY FIRE DEPARTMENT DRIVER'S TRAINING MODULE #2 BASIC THEORY OF APPARATUS DRIVE TRAIN OBJECTIVES: To learn and understand the basic theory of automotive drive train components and their principal function. To develop the background necessary to master the technique of driving smoothly. To enable the operator to recognize and identify potential component failure. REFERENCES: Apparatus Operators Training manual Chapter #1 Apparatus Log Books Department Films and Video Tapes TEACHING AIDS: Lesson Plan, Chalkboard and Chalk

Technical Illustrations INTRODUCTION: The intent of this lesson is to stress the basic principals of Automotive theory. Members should be encouraged to study Chapter #1 of the A.O.T.M. paying particular attention to Engine Operation and Power trains. A study of engine operation and power train will take several sessions to digest. Members will gain the knowledge to understand what is actually happening when the clutch pedal is depressed or the shift lever is being moved from one gear to the next etc. Ultimately the operator will become a smoother driver and needless damage to apparatus will be reduced.

-2PRESENTATION: The automotive internal combustion engine delivers its horsepower to the flywheel in the form of torque. As such, a short discussion of the power plant is needed. ENGINE OPERATION -- FOUR-STROKE-CYCLE The actions that take place within the engine cylinder may be divided into four basic parts, which are called strokes (Pg. 3). Intake Stroke The first stroke in the sequence is called the intake stroke. During this stroke, the piston is moving downward-and the intake valve is open. This downward movement of the piston produces a partial vacuum in the cylinder and air rushes into the cylinder past the opened intake valve. The inrushing air passes through the carburetor before it enters the cylinder where it is mixed with gasoline vapor to produce a combustible mixture. Compression Stroke When the piston reaches bottom dead center at the end of the intake stroke and is, therefore, at the bottom of the cylinder, the intake valve closes. This seals the upper end of the cylinder. As the crankshaft continues to rotate, it pushes up through the connecting rod on the piston. The piston is, therefore, pushed upward and compresses the cylinder; this is called the compression stroke and the fuel-air mixture is compressed to a fraction of its original volume. Compressing the mixture in this way makes it still more combustible; the energy in the fuel is concentrated into a smaller space. Power Stroke As the piston reaches top dead center at the end of the compression stroke and therefore has moved to the top of the cylinder, the compressed fuel-air mixture is ignited by an electric spark. The mixture burns so rapidly that it may be said that it explodes and pressures of several hundred pounds to the square inch are developed.

GASOLINE ON DOWNWARD STROKE OF PISTON, INTAKE VALVE OPENS AND ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE FORCES AIR THROUGH CARBURETOR WHERE IT PICKS UP A METERED COMBUSTIBLE CHARGE OF FUEL. THE MIXTURE GOES PAST THE THROTTLE VALVE INTO CYLINDER SPACE VACATED BY THE PISTON

Intake Stroke

DIESEL ON DOWNWARD STROKE OF PISTON, INTAKE VALVE OPENS AND ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE FORCES PURE AIR INTO THE CYLINDER SPACE VACATED BY THE PISTON, THERE BEING NO CARBU. RETOR OR THROTTLE VALVE. CYLINDER FILLS WITH SAME QUANTITY OF AIR, REGARDLESS Of LOAD ON THE ENGINE.

Compression Stroke
ON UPSTROKE Of PISTON. VALVES ARE CLOSED AND MIXTURE IS COMPRESSED, USUALLY FROM 70 TO 125 PSI, DEPENDING ON COMPRESSION RATIO OF ENGINE.

ON UPSTROKE OF PISTON, VALVES ARE CLOSED AND AIR IS COMPRESSED TO APPROXIMATELY 500 PSI.

Power Stroke

Nozzle
HIGH COMPRESSION PRODUCES HIGH TEMPERATURE FOR SPONTANEOUS IGNITION OF FUEL INJECTED NEAR END OF COMPRESSION STROKE. HEAT OF COMBUSTION EXPANDS CYLINDER GASES AGAINST PISTON, RESULTING IN POWER STROKE.

COMPRESSED FUEL-AIR MIXTURE 15 IGNITED BY ELECTRIC SPARK, HEAT OF COMBUSTION CAUSES FORCEFUL EXPANSION OF CYLINDER GASES AGAINST PISTON, RESULTING IN POWER STROKE.

Fuel Injection Pump

Exhaust Stroke
UPSTROKE OF PISTON WITH EXHAUST VALVE OPEN FORCES BURNED GASES OUT, MAKING READY FOR ANOTHER INTAKE STROKE. UPSTROKE OF PISTON WITH EXHAUST VALVE OPEN FORCES BURNED GASES OUT, MAKING READY FOR ANOTHER INTAKE STROKE.

Comparison of sequence of events in diesel and gasoline engines.

-4-

This force, or thrust pushes the piston down and is carried through the connecting rod to the crankpin on the crankshaft. The crankshaft is given a powerful twist; this turning effort, rapidly repeated in the engine, is carried through gears and shafts to the driving wheels of the vehicle. Exhaust Stroke After the fuel-air mixture has burned, it must be cleared from the cylinder. This is done by opening the exhaust valve just as the power stroke is finished and the piston starts back up on the exhaust stroke. The piston forces the burned gases out of the cylinder past the opened exhaust valve. The four strokes (intake, compression, power, and exhaust) are continuously repeated as the engine runs. ENGINE OPERATION -- TWO-STROKE-CYCLE In the 2-stroke-cycle engine, the entire cycle of events (intake, compression, power, and exhaust) takes place in two piston strokes. Every other stroke on this engine is a power stroke; each time the piston moves down it is on the power stroke. Intake, compression, power, and exhaust still take place, but they are completed in just two strokes. In the simple 2-strokes-cycle engines, intake and exhaust ports are cut into the cylinder wall instead of being placed at the top of the combustion chamber as in the 4-stroke-cycle engine. As the piston move down on its power stroke, it first uncovers the exhaust port to let burned gases escape and then uncovers the intake port to allow a new fuel-air mixture to enter the combustion chamber. Then, on the upward stroke, the piston covers both ports and, at the same time, compresses the new mixture in preparation for ignition and another power stroke. in the engine, the Piston is so shaped that the incoming fuel-air mixture is directed upward, thereby sweeping out ahead of it the burned exhaust gases. The carburetor is attached to the inlet into the crankcase through which the fuel-air mixture passes before it enters the cylinder.

-5-

Piston Intake Port Exhaust Port

Inlet

Crankcase

Events in a 2-stroke-cycle internal combustion engine.

Piston at TDC Piston at BDC

Compression ratio is ratio between A and B.

-6The carburetor is attached to the inlet into the crankcase through which the fuel-air mixture passes before it enters the cylinder. The inlet is opened as the piston move upward, but is sealed off as the piston moves downward on the power stroke. The downward moving piston slightly compresses the mixture in the crankcase, thus giving the mixture sufficient pressure to pass rapidly through the intake port as the piston clears this port. In this type of two-cycle engine, oil is mixed with the gasoline to lubricate the bearings and cylinder walls. It might appear that the 2-stroke-cycle engine could produce twice as much horsepower as a 4-stroke-cycle engine of the same size, but this is not the case. As the intake and exhaust ports are open at the same time, a portion of the fresh fuel-air mixture mingles with the burned gases and is carried out the exhaust port. Also, due to the much shorter period the intake port is open (as compared to the period the intake valve in a 4-stroke-cyqle engine is open) a relatively smaller amount of fuel-air mixture is admitted. ENGINE OPERATION - - DIESEL The diesel engine is mechanically similar to the gasoline engine, but is somewhat heavier in construction. Both engine types utilize air, fuel, compression, and ignition. Intake, compression, power and exhaust occur in the same sequence; arrangements of pistons connecting the rods, and crankshafts are similar. Both are internal combustion engines; that is they extract energy from a fuel-air mixture by burning the mixture inside the engine. In principles of operation, the main difference between gasoline and diesel engines (Pg. 3) is the two different methods of introducing the fuel into the cylinder and igniting the fuel-air mixture. Fuel and air are mixed together before they enter the cylinder of a gasoline engine. The mixture is compressed by the upstroke of the piston and is ignited within the cylinder by a spark plug.

-7Air alone enters the cylinder of a diesel engine. The air is compressed by the upstroke of the piston and the diesel fuel is injected into the combustion chamber near the top of the upstroke (compression stroke). The Air becomes greatly heated during compression and the diesel fuel ignites and burns as it is injected into the heated air. No spark plug is used-in the diesel engine; ignition is by contact of the fuel with the heated air, although "glow plugs" are used in some models of diesel engines to assist in starting. Pressure developed by the compression stroke is much greater in the diesel engine, in which pressures as high as 500 p.s.i. are common. For each pound of pressure exerted on the air, there will be a temperature increase of about 20 F. At the top of the compression stroke (when pressure is highest), the temperature in the chamber will be about 1,0000 F. This heat ignites the fuel almost as soon as it is injected into the cylinder, and the piston, actuated by the expansion of burning gases, then moves down on the power stroke. In a gasoline engine, the heat from compression is not enough to ignite the fuel-air mixture and spark plug is therefore necessary. The speed and the power output of diesel engines are controlled by the quantity of fuel injected into the cylinder. This is opposed to the common gasoline engine, which controls speed and power output by limiting the amount of air admitted to the carburetor. The difference is that the diesel engine controls the quantity of fuel, whereas the gasoline engine regulated the quantity of air. In the diesel engine, there is continuous combustion during the entire length of the power stroke, and pressure resulting from combustion remains approximately constant throughout the stroke. In the gasoline engine, however, combustion is completed while the piston is at the upper part of its travel. This means that the volume of the mixture stays about the same during most of the combustion process. When the piston does move down and the volume increases, there is little additional combustion to maintain pressure. Because of these facts, the cycle of the gasoline engine is often referred to as having constant-volume combustion while the diesel cycle is said to have constant-pressure combustion.

-8-

Series 71 Two-Stroke Cycle Detroit Diesel

Series 92 Two-Stroke Cycle Detroit Diesel Showing Blower and Turbo Charger

-9The following limitations must be overcome when a gasoline or diesel engine is used to power apparatus: The engine must be rotating to develop horsepower. It rotates in one direction only. It must be operated within the limits of the effective torque range. The drive train components (also referred to as the power train) allow apparatus to be utilized in a number of capacities. Such as driving, pumping, and aerial ladder operations. The purpose of the power train is to transmit the power of the engine to the drive wheels. Automotive vehicles are designed to have great pulling power, to move at high speeds, to travel in reverse as well as forward, and to operate on rough ground as well as on smooth roads. To meet these widely varying demands, number of components are necessary. In this lesson the basic components of the automotive drive train will be discussed in sequence from the engine's flywheel to the rear wheels as follows: FLYWHEEL CLUTCH CLUTCH-BRAKE ASSEMBLY TRANSMISSIONS MANUAL AUTOMATIC DRIVE-LINES UNIVERSAL JOINT SLIP JOINT PROPELLER SHAFT (DRIVE SHAFT) REAR-END FINAL DRIVE DIFFERENTIAL LIVE AXLES

-10Fly wheel The flywheel stores up energy of rotation when the instantaneous torque on the crankshaft is greater than average, and releases this energy when the torque is less than average. In this way, fluctuations in engine speed are reduced to within very small limits. The size of the flywheel required, therefore, varies with the number of cylinders and the general construction of the engine. With a large number of cylinders and the consequent overlapping of power impulses, there is less need for a flywheel; consequently, the flywheel can be relatively smaller. The flywheel rim carries a ring gear that meshes with the starter driving gear for cranking the engine. The rear face of the flywheel is usually machined and ground, and acts as one of the pressure surfaces for the clutch, becoming part of the clutch assembly. Clutch By means of the clutch, the operator can harness the power of the engine, by connecting or disconnecting the engine from the power train. This is essential for starting the engine, allowing the vehicle to stand motionless while the engine is running, gradual engagement of the engine to the power train, and for allowing gear ratios to be changed to meet varying road conditions. The clutch operates on the principal of friction between the driving members and the driven members. The driving members are the flywheel, the pressure plate and usually an intermediate plate. The driven members are the clutch plates which are attached to the input shaft of the transmission. (Show diagram of clutch assembly on Pages 10 and 11). The pressure plate applies spring pressure to the clutch plates as it squeezes the driving members and the driven members together. As the squeezing of the clutch plates increases so does the friction, as the friction increases so does the heat. When the clutch is fully engaged, the spring pressure is great enough to squeeze, or sandwich the clutch plates between the pressure plate and the flywheel so they rotate together as one without slipping. It is very important that the clutch is not allowed to slip for more than about 1-1/2 seconds. When a clutch is slipped excessively the heat will quickly build up and damage the clutch assembly.

-11-

DRIVEN DISCS Front & rear

BEARING & COVER

CLUTCH BRAKE TRANSMISSION INPUT SHAFT

PLATE, intermediate

NIPPLE, zerk

PLATE, pressure

-12-

KNIFE EDGE LEVER INTERMEDIATE PLATE

ADJUSTING RING COVER

DRIVEN DISC ASSY. RELEASE SLEEVE RETAINER

PRESSURE SPRING PIVOT PRESSURE SPRING

PRESSURE PLATE RELEASE BEARING

RELEASE SLEEVE

RETURN SPRING SELF ADJUSTING MECHANISM

-13-

AS-1550 PARTS IDENTIFICATION


D2 D3

F3 D5 D4 F2 G1 A3

H1

H2

G12

G1

B1

B2 F5 F4

A2

A1

A-1 A-2 A-3 B-1 B-2 C-1 C-2 C-3 D-1 D-2 D-3

DISC, driven front PLATE, intermediate DISC, driven rear PLATE, pressure SPRING, return RING, flywheel PIN, name plate PLATE, name RING, adjusting LOCK, adjusting ring BOLT & lock washer assembly

D-4 D-5 D6 F-2 F-3 F-4 F-5 F-6 G-1

LEVER PIN, pivot CLIP, Spring RETAINER, release sleeve SPRING, pressure PIVOT, spring RING, release sleeve RING, snap BEARING & COVER, sub-assembly G-12 NIPPLE, zerk (1/8"-27) H-1 RELEASE SLEEVE sub-assembly H-2 BUSHING, release sleeve

-14The pressure plate is actuated by the clutch pedal, through linkage that is connected to the clutch release bearing. The clutch release bearing is necessary to release the spring pressure from the rotating pressure plate and allow the clutch plates to spin freely-within the clutch assembly. Clutch Brake The purpose of the clutch brake is to stop the rotation of the gears in the road transmission. A clutch brake consists of two stationary members, two fiber discs, and a revolving member. The revolving member is attached to the transmission input shaft (Page 10). Full depression of the clutch pedal brings the clutch release bearing housing into contact with the other members of the clutch brake,, thus, producing a squeezing or clamping effect upon the rotating input shaft of the transmission. This stops the road transmission gears and enables the operator to engage a forward or reverse gear without grinding of the transmission gears. The clutch brake should never be used with the apparatus in motion. This will wear out or damage the clutch brake assembly. The clutch brake is designed to stop only the clutch plates, the input shaft, and the transmission gears. It must only be used at low engine RPM. and with the transmission in the neutral position. REMEMBER ! THE CLUTCH BRAKE IS DESIGNED-TO STOP THE GEARS IN THE TRANSMISSION WHEN THE CLUTCH PEDAL IS FULLY DEPRESSED. If the apparatus is moving with the transmission in gear and the clutch is fully depressed, the clutch brake will try to stop the transmission gears with the weight of the apparatus turning them, it will damage the clutch brake. If the apparatus is moving with the transmission in neutral, and the clutch is fully depressed, the clutch brake will stop the transmission gears and it will be impossible to complete the shift until the clutch is engaged. This will allow the gears to be turned by the engine and the operator will be able to match the gear speed to the road speed and complete the shift.

-15-

DRIVE GEAR 20

DRIVE GEAR 10

DRIVE GEAR 20 DRIVE GEAR 10

DRIVE GEAR TURNS 1 TIME DRIVEN GEAR TURNS 2 TIMES

DRIVE GEAR TURNS 1 TIME DRIVEN GEAR TURNS 1/2 TIMES

AN EXAMPLE OF TORQUE OR TWISTING FORCE, USED TO INCREASE TORQUE, REDUCING SPEED

EXAMPLES OF GEAR RATIOS


29 9 = 3.2 31 7 = 4.4 9 29 34 13 = 2.6 Ratio 3.2 to 1 Ratio 4.4 To 1 Ratio 2.6 to 1

31

13

34

-16SPICER MODEL

-17Manual Transmissions The transmission portion of the drive train, must be capable of transmitting power at a variety of speed and torque requirements. This variation is accomplished by using gears of different sizes through which the power flow is changed in torque and speed. To understand what gears do, a few principals of physics should be reviewed, to bring into focus, the basic operation of gears and torque multiplication (Page 13). Torque is a force which will rotate or twist an object such as a shaft. Gears can be used to increase or decrease the amount of torque. When a small gear drives a larger gear, the result is an increase in torque. Just the opposite occurs when a large gear drives a smaller gear, the torque is reduced. If a gear with ten teeth drives a gear with twenty teeth, the driven gear will turn at one half the speed of the driving gear and produce twice the torque. This principle is applied in series in the automotive transmission (Page 14) Selective type manual transmissions consist of the input shaft, the countershaft (some transmissions have two countershafts), and the main shaft -(also known as the output shaft). The input shaft brings the power into the transmission from the clutch assembly and drives The countershaft. The countershaft has several gears attached to it and they are in constant mesh with the gears that ride on the main shaft. Gear ratios are selected-by the shifting mechanism, as it locks one gear at a time to the main shaft. Automatic Transmissions The automatic transmission is connected to the engine by a fluid coupling or torque converter instead of a clutch assembly. Therefore, no clutch or clutch brake components are required. The automatic transmission allows the operator of the apparatus to make a gear selection of a forward or a reverse speed and the transmission automatically makes all of the up-shifts and downshifts. It is important that the operator of heavy apparatus with an automatic transmission properly control the apparatus by using proper shifting techniques. (refer to classroom module #3 for proper shifting techniques).

-18TORQUE CONVERTER OPERATION/PUMP & TURBINE & STATOR The torque converter serves two primary functions. First, it acts as a fluid coupling to smoothly connect engine power through oil to the transmission gear train. Second, it multiplies the torque, or twisting effort, from the engine when additional performance is desired. The torque converter consists of three basic elements: The pump (driving member), the turbine (driven or output member), and the stator (reaction member). The converter pump cover is bolted to the engine flex-plate which is bolted directly to the engine crankshaft. The converter pump is therefore mechanically connected to the engine and turns at engine speed whenever the engine is operating. When the engine is running and the converter pump is spinning, it acts as a centrifugal pump,, picking up oil at its center and discharging this oil at its rim between the blades. The shape of the converter pump shells and blades causes the oil to leave the pump spinning in a clockwise direction toward the blades of the turbine. As the oil strikes the turbine blades, it imparts a force to the turbine causing it to turn. When the engine is idling and the converter pump is not spinning fast, the force of the oil leaving the pump is not great enough to turn the turbine with any efficiency. This allows the vehicle to stand in gear with the engine idling. As the throttle is opened and the pump speed increases, the force of the oil increases and engine power is more efficiently transmitted to the turbine member and the gear train. The stator is located between the pump and the turbine and is mounted on a one-way or roller clutch which allows it to rotate clockwise but not counter-clockwise. The purpose of the stator is to redirect the oil returning from the turbine and change its direction of rotation back to that of the pump member. The energy of the oil is then used to assist the engine in turning the pump. This increases the force of the oil driving the turbine and, as a result, multiplies the torque, or twisting force. With the engine operating at full throttle, transmission in gear, and the vehicle standing still, the converter is capable of multiplying engine torque by approximately 2.2 to 1.

-19As turbine speed and vehicle speed increases, the direction of the oil leaving the turbine changes. The oil flows against the rear side of the stator vanes in a clock-wise direction. Since the stator is now impeding the smooth flow of the oil, its roller clutch automatically releases and the stator revolves freely on its shaft. Once the stator is no further multiplication the converter. At this merely acting as a fluid becomes inactive, there of engine torque within point, the converter is coupling. Due to the fluid slippage between the pump and turbine, a ratio of 1:1 can never be achieved unless we lock up the two members (turbine-pump), hence the need for a lock-up clutch.

-20GENERAL INFORMATION
ACCESS COVER CONVERTER HOUSING TO FILTER

TRANSMISSION HOUSING

ADAPTER HOUSING REAR COVER BRAKE MOUTING PAD OUTPUT SHAFT

FROM FILTER

FLANGE NUT REAR GOVERNOR PRESSURE

SELECTOR SHAFT OIL PAN NEUTRAL START SWITCH LOCATION

REAR GOVERNOR COVER BREATHER TO COOLER

OIL DRAIN PLUG

TEMPERATURE SENSOR PORT

TRANSMISSION MAIN CASE

NAMEPLATE

REVERSE SIGNAL PORT FROM COOLER

STARTER GEAR FLYWHEEL TORQUE CONVERTER

OIL FILLER TUBE PROVISION

Model HT 750 transmission right front view

-21-

A
1 - Sealring 2 - Sealring 3 - Lockup clutch piston 4 - Lockup clutch plate 5 - Lockup clutch backplate 6 - Ball bearing 7 - Key (2 on current models) 8 - Torque, converter turbine assembly 9 - Lockup clutch hub 10 - Turbine hub 11 - Turbine 12 - Rivet (1 6) 13 - Torque converter stator assembly 14 - Stator thrust washer 15 - Stator cam washer (2) 16 - Stator 17 - Stator cam 18 - Freewheel side washer 19 Rivet, 1/4 x 2-5/8 (10) 20 Stator freewheel roller (10) 21 Stator freewheel roller spring (10) 22 Thrust bearing race 23 Thrust bearing 24 Stator freewheel roller race

25 External snapring 26 Converter pump spacer 27 Bolt, 3/8-24 x 1-1/4 (12) A 28 Lockstrip (6) 29 Bearing retainer (2) (early models) 30 Bearing retainer (current models) 31 Sealring 32 Torque converter pump assembly 33 Torque converter pump 34 Washer (30) 35 Self-locking bolt, 3/8-24 x 1-1/4 (30) B 36 Ball bearing (current models) (split race) 37 Double roll ball bearing (with PTO) 38 Power-takeoff drive gear (with PTO) 39 Converter pump hub gasket (current mode* 40 Converter pump hub gasket (early models) 41 Converter pump hub 42 Hook-type sealring Torque A B lb ft 33-40 41-49 N*m 45-54 56-66

B
1 - Oil pump assembly 2. - Oil seal 3 - Oil pump body 4 - Plug - 3/4 (3) (Non-retarder-Auto motive hsg) 5 - Oil pump drive gear 6 - Driven gear shaft* 7 - Driven gear assembly* 8 - Driven gear 9 - Roller bearing 10 - Pump cover 11 - Flat-head machine screw, 1/4-20 x 5/8 A 12 - Sealring 13 - Bolt, 3/8-16 x 3/4 (2) B 14 - Converter access cover 15 - Converter access cover gasket 16 - Converter housing 17 - Converter housing gasket 18 - Pipe plug, 1/8 (4) C 19 Bolt, 7/16-14 x 1 1/2 (22) D

20 - Lockwasher, 7/16 (22) 21 - Lockwasher, 1/2 (7) 22 - Bolt, 1/2-13 x 2 (7) E 23 - Flat washer (2) 24 - Fillister-head machine screw (2) F Torque A B C D E F lb ft 9-11 26-32 4-5 42-50 67-80 3-4 N*m 12-15 35-43 5-7 57-68 91-108 4-6

Assemblies not equipped with hydraulic input retarder require only one of each; those with retarder require two.

-22-

-23HT 750 Transmission Some apparatus are equipped with an HT 750D ALLISON Automatic Transmission; five (5) forward speeds and one (1),reverse. The ratios are as follows: 1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th Rev A. Torque Converter The converter consists of 3 elements: Pump, stator and turbine. The converter provides maximum torque when load conditions demand. oil for converter charging pressure comes from the sump and is supplied by the transmission oil pump. B. Lockup Clutch The lockup clutch consists of a single clutch plate, back plate and piston located between the converter turbine assembly and the transmission flywheel assembly (or converter drive housing), The lockup clutch plate is splined to the hub of the converter turbine assembly. Then the lockup clutch is applied, the turbine and the converter pump are locked together and rotate as a unit. Engine output is then directed to the transmission gearing at a speed ratio of 1:1; bypassing the torque converter. Lockup occurs in all forward gears, but not in reverse or neutral. C. Planetary Gearing The planetary gear train is made up of four (4) constant mesh, straight spur gear planetary sets. The forward set is arranged for direct drive and is called the splitter planetary. The three rear sets are intermediate- low-, and reverse-range planetaries. By the engagement of the clutches in various combinations, the planetary sets act singly or together to provide four (4) forward speeds and one (1) reverse. D. Clutches The clutches direct the flow of torque through transmission in accordance with gear selected. All clutches are hydraulically applied, spring 7.97 3.19 2.07 1.40 1.00 Direct 5.73

-241 Flywheel ring gear 2 Lockup clutch 3 Torque converter turbine 4 Torque converter stator 5 Torque converter pump 6 Accessory cover 7 Torque converter housing 8 Main charging oil pump 9 Front support and main regulator valve 10 Forward clutch 11 Fourth clutch 12 Third clutch 13 Center sun gear shaft 14 Third clutch piston 15 Center support housing 16 Second clutch piston 17 Main shaft 18 Second clutch 19 Main housing 20 Front planetary carrier 21 Center planetary carrier 22 Rear planetary carrier 23 First clutch 24 Adapter housing 25 Low clutch 26 Low planetary carrier 27 Rear cover 28 Governor drive gear 29 Speedometer drive gear 30 Output shaft 31 Output flange retainer nut 32 Governor driven gear 33 Low planetary sun gear 34 Low clutch piston 35 Low planetary ring gear 36 First clutch piston 37 Rear planetary ring gear 38 Planetary connecting drum 39 Center planetary ring gear 40 Front planetary sun gear 41 Low shift valve body 42 Low trimmer valve body 43 Main control valve body 44 Oil filter 45 Fourth clutch piston 46 Fourth clutch housing 47 Fourth clutch drive hub 48 Cover plate 49 Oil pan 50 Oil transfer plate 51 Converter driven PTO gear 52 Forward clutch hub 53 Pitot tube 54 Forward clutch piston 55 Flywheel

-25-

-26released, and oil cooled. The friction surfaces are sintered bronze against steel. Any wear is automatically compensated. Thus, no adjustment is ever necessary except when rebuilding the transmission. E. Hydraulic System A single, pressurized hydraulic system serves the converter and transmission. Oil for the hydraulic operations, lubrication and cooling comes from the sump and is supplied by the same pump. Although your ALLISON Transmission is rugged in design, certain precautions and procedures must be follows to insure long, trouble-free service. F. Towing or Pushing NOTE: THE ENGINE CANNOT BE STARTED BY TOWING OR PUSHING. BEFORE TOWING OR PUSHING BEYOND A FEW BLOCKS, THE DRIVELINE MUST BE DISCONNECTED. Universal Joints A universal joint is a flexible coupling between two shafts that permits one shaft to drive another at an angle to it. This unit is necessary to provide flexibility in the power train as the vehicle travels over uneven surfaces (Page 22). Slip Joints As the vehicle travels over uneven ground, the distance between the transmission and the rear-end varies. A slip joint provides the necessary telescopic action in the drive line. It consists of a male and a female spline, a grease seal, and a lubrication fitting. The male spline is an integral part of the propeller shaft and the female portion is fixed to the universal joint. Propeller Shaft Also known as Drive shaft, or Drive line. This device carries the torque from the transmission to the rear-end. This shaft may be solid or tubular type. The stress in the shaft varies from zero at the axis to a maximum at the outside. Since the center of the shaft resists only a small portion of the load, hollow shafts are used whenever practicable. A solid shaft is stronger than a hollow shaft of the same diameter, but a hollow shaft is stronger than a solid shaft of the same weight.

-27Most pumping apparatus have the main pump mounted between the transmission and the rear-end, therefore, two drive shafts are required. One between the road transmission and the front of the pump transmission, and one from the rear of the pump transmission to the rear-end. Each have universal joints and a slip joint.

-28PROPELLER SHAFT AND UNIVERSAL JOINTS Flange Yoke


Journal & Bearing Kit Sleeve Yoke Assembly Slip Stub Shaft Tubing Stub Yoke End Yoke

FIGURE 1
Slip Joint Permanent Joint

COMPONENTS
SLIP JOINT

PERMANENT JOINT Kit, Journal & Bearing

Kit, Journal & Bearing


16 15 14

FIGURE 2

TABLE OF NOMENCLATURE Symbol Part Name Symbol Part Name

2 3 4 5 6 7 14 15 16

FLANGE YOKE SLEEVE YOKE ASSEMBLY ENO YOKE JOURNAL ASSEMBLY BEARING ASSEMBLY SNAP RING DUST CAP STEEL WASHER CORK WASHER

27 28 30 40 53 70 82 94

STUB YOKE & TUBE ASSEMBLY STUB YOKE TUBING SLIP STUB SHAFT, Welded Tube MIDSHIP STUB SHAFT, Center Bearing CAP & BOLT ASSEMBLY YOKE SHAFT U-BOLT ASSEMBLY

-29Final Drive Its function is to change the direction of the power that is transmitted by the propeller shaft through 90 degrees to the driving axles. At the same time it provides a gear reduction (Page 24). A final drive consists of a pair of bevel gears. These bevel gears may be spur, spiral, or hypoid spiral. Hypoid Spiral-bevel gears are commonly used because they operate more quietly and the pinion gear drives the ring gear below the center line of the axle thereby lowering the propeller shaft to give more body clearance. The bevel drive pinion is driven by the propeller shaft and the bevel ring gear is attached to the differential case that drives the axles. A common final drive ratio for L.A.F.D. apparatus is, 4.11 to 1, That is approximately four revolutions of the propeller shaft to one revolution of the rearwheels Differential The differential is the unit that allows the axles to turn at different speeds from each other while still pulling the apparatus. As a vehicle is driven around a curve, the outer wheels must travel faster than the inner wheels because they travel further in the same amount of time (Page 25). If one wheel is stopped, the other wheel will rotate twice as fast, if one wheel looses traction such as spinning in mud or braking an axle, the other wheel will not spin at all. This is due to the spider pinion gears in the differential case that drive the axles only if they have resistance on both axles. If one axle is broken, the resistance to that wheel is gone so, that axle will spin freely and the other axle will not spin at all (Page 26).

-30-

SPIRAL BEVEL AND HYPOID GEARS

SPIRAL BEVEL

SPIRAL BEVEL HYPOID

Ring Gear

Differential Case Right Axle Shaft Left Axle Shaft

Drive Pinion Drive Pinion Bearing

-31-

Differential Pinion and Side Gear Operation Side Gears Axle Shafts

Balanced Forces Make Differential Seem Locked

Differential Power Flower While Cornering Fast Rotation


OUTER WHEEL 110% CASE SPPED 100% DIFFERENTIAL CASE SPEED

Slow Rotation

INNER WHEEL 90% CASE SPEED

-33Live Axles A live axle is one that supports part of the weight of the vehicle and also drives the wheels connected to it. The term is applied to the entire assembly, which consists of a housing containing a bevel drive pinion gear, a bevel drive ring gear, a differential, axles and bearings. The term "live axle" is opposed to the term "dead axle". A dead axle is one that carries part of the weight of the vehicle but does not drive the wheels. The live axle assembly is commonly mounted on leaf type springs that run parallel to the frame (Page 23). The leaf springs take up some of the shock load that is produced when the power is applied to the wheels. Most live axles use the Hotchkiss type drive. In this type of drive the open propeller shaft is used with two universal joints and a slip joint. Passenger vehicles such as Emergency sedans, Plug Buggies (rated below 3/4 ton), have Semi-floating drive axles. This means that the wheels are attached directly to the end of the axles, and the stress caused by turning, skidding, and shock are applied directly to the axle itself. Heavy apparatus, ambulances, and pick-up trucks (rated above 3/4 ton), generally have Full floating drive axles. This type of live axle assembly is for heavy duty use. The wheels are not attached directly to the end of the axles, but are attached to a hub. The hub rides on the axle housing through wheel bearings. The stress caused by turning, skidding, and shock are applied directly to the axle housing, which is designed to carry heavy loads. Only the turning effort or torque is applied to the axle therefore the axle can be removed and replaced without removing the wheel.

SHIFTING TECHNIQUES PRETEST QUESTIONS 1. On apparatus with automatic transmissions the engine may be started in any gear as long as you do not have your foot on the accelerator and the maxi-brake is set. A. B. 2. True False

The shifting of gears in heavy apparatus with manual transmissions should always be accomplished using the transmission. ____ method regardless of the type of road A. B. C. D. heel and tow double-clutching speed shift power shift

3.

When is it recommended procedure to coast out of gear? A. B. C. D. Going Down hill Coming to a stop Going around corners Never

4.

The proper procedure for waiting for traffic signal to change is to leave your clutch depressed and transmission in gear? A. B. True False

5.

The automatic transmission used by the LAFD will give better performance, smoother operation, and more longevity if they are operated as if they were a "clutchless" manual shift transmission. A. B. True False

3807R

LOS ANGELES CITY FIRE DEPARTMENT DRIVER'S TRAINING MODULE #3

SHIFTING TECHNIQUES OBJECTIVE:

Manual and Automatic

To learn the proper operation of manual and automatic transmissions used by the LAFD. This Lesson Plan will enable the member to properly select and use the gears suitable for safe, efficient and effective operation of the vehicle without abuse to the apparatus. 1. 2. LAPD Apparatus Operator's Training Manual
(A.O.T.M.)

REFERENCES:

Various LAFD Log Books

INTRODUCTION:

This lesson is not a comprehensive study in the care, use, and maintenance of manual and automatic transmissions but rather a set of guidelines to help us all become more proficient in our shifting abilities to help insure the safe and efficient driving of heavy apparatus. For a more technical discussion on this subject refer to Chapter 4 of the A.O.T.M. This lesson will be divided into two parts; Part I will cover manual transmissions, with Part II covering shifting techniques using automatic transmissions.

PRESENTATION: PART I - MANUAL TRANSMISSIONS When you are driving, strive for smoothness: smoothness in acceleration, in shifting, and in slowing and stopping. Gear shifting is probably the most important of all driving operations. Correct use of the various gears will greatly increase apparatus performance, give longer engine and transmission life, and add to the safety of driving operations. SHIFTING TECHNIQUES: The terms UPSHIFT and DOWNSHIFT are used to describe shifting techniques. UPSHIFT is shifting from a lower gear to a higher gear, giving an increase in road speed, or lowering the engine RPM while maintaining the same road speed. DOWNSHIFT is shifting from a higher

-2DT-3 6/86 gear to a lower gear, to bring the engine back into its operating range after reducing road speed. To shift gears properly, you must be able to coordinate the operation of the accelerator, clutch, and gear-shift stick while maintaining proper road speed and engine RPM. The split between gears refers to the difference between ratios of gears in the transmission, expressed in engine RPM. In other words, split is the number of RPM the engine speed must be decreased, when upshifting, or increased, when downshifting, to properly complete the shifting operation desired. Please refer to 04.11.04 of the A.O.T.M. for a more concise explanation of gear split., Knowing the split between gears takes a great deal of guesswork out of gear shifting, and will often greatly improve a-member's driving performance. How to Upshift: When shifting from a lower to a higher gear do not begin the upshift until your engine speed has reached, the upper or desired RPM range. When this has been accomplished, follow the procedures described herein: 1. Disengage the clutch and move the stick to neutral position. At the same time, ease off the accelerator so that your engine speed will drop. Engage the clutch. When the synchronizing RPM for your next gear is reached, hold the RPM there with the accelerator. Disengage the clutch and move the stick to the next higher gear, still holding the RPM at the proper speed. Engage the clutch, while holding the RPM, and then begin accelerating.

2.

3. 4.

Downshifting Requires Understanding: At the same road speed, the engine must turn considerably faster when in a lower gear than when in a higher gear. You must be alert to the proper minimum and maximum limits of the engine speed when downshifting. Unless RPM is lowered to near its minimum while in the higher gear before the shift, it is likely to be above the maximum RPM after the shift to the lower gear is completed.

-3DT-3 6/86 Never try to downshift to a lower gear when the apparatus is traveling faster than the engine can move the apparatus in that lower gear. For example, if the apparatus can move only 12 miles per hour in second gear never try to shift into second gear when the apparatus is exceeding the 12 miles per hour. This could result in gear stripping, overrewing the engine, a twisted driveshaft, a broken axle, etc. At a given road speed, only certain gears are available. The others cannot be reached due to the limitation of minimum speed and maximum permissible RPM. How to Downshift: When shifting from a higher gear to a lower gear do not begin the downshift until the RPM has lowered to or near the minimum. When this has been accomplished follow the procedures described below: 1. 2. Disengage the clutch and move the stick neutral position. Engage the clutch and raise the engine speed. Hold the RPM there when you have reached the desired engine speed. Disengage the clutch and move the stick to the lower gear, while holding the RPM. Engage the clutch, while holding the RPM at the desired engine speed. Continue to accelerate or decelerate as desired.

3. 4.

RPM: Raise Quickly But Lower Slowly: This is another important point to remember when adjusting the engine speed while the clutch is disengaged and the gears are in neutral. As soon as the accelerator is pushed down, the engine speed raises quickly. When the accelerator is let up, the engine loses speed, but more slowly. It takes two to three times as long for the engine to slow down from the proper maximum RPM to idling speed than it does for it to raise from idling speed to the proper maximum RPM. Therefore, shifting is affected as follows:

-4DT-3 6/86 1. Downshifting can be faster than upshifting, because the RPM can be raised faster for the lower gear than they can be dropped for a higher gear. Double-clutch timing varies according to the length of time it takes the driver to adjust engine speed for the selected gear. Upshifting while going upgrade is difficult, because the apparatus loses its momentum before the RPM can drop low enough to complete the gear change. (Especially in the lower gears)

2.

3.

Terrain Affects Shifting: To keep the RPM within its proper range, when contemplating a shift, consider the immediate terrain and the momentum of the apparatus. When the clutch is disengaged at the start of a gear change, the continuing momentum of the apparatus largely depends on the immediate terrain. 1. 2. 3. Going upgrade, the momentum decreases. Going downgrade, the momentum increases. On a level roadway, the momentum changes very little.

How much the road speed will change during the shift depends on the following: 1. 2. 3. The momentum at the start of the shift. (The greater the momentum, the less noticeable the change.) The steepness of the grade on which the shift is made. (The steeper the grade the more the speed is affected.) The length of time it takes to make the shift. (The longer it takes, the longer the power train is uncoupled and the more the momentum changes.)

You must exercise proper accelerator control to adjust the RPM to match the road speed under these varying road conditions.

-5DT-3 6/86 GENERAL RULES TO FOLLOW: 1. The shifting of gears in heavy apparatus, either up or down, should always be accomplished using the double-clutching technique regardless of the type of transmission (synchromesh included). The term "double-clutching" comes from the fact that, unlike in a passenger car, in a heavy truck the clutch will be depressed two times during each gear shift. The clutch has only two uses. First, it must be slipped to get the apparatus rolling from 0 MPH to the speed at which the engine is at idling RPM. Second, to disconnect the engine from the drive train while shifting gears. Shifting without depressing the clutch, pure and in itself, is not harmful to the apparatus, BUT, your engine RPM must be exact for a smooth shift. Any error will result in gear clash, or, worse yet, chipping or breaking of gear teeth. Using the clutch will give you leeway without the probability of gear damage. (Personnel operating Heavy Apparatus shall use the clutch.) If you are coming to a full stop, do not depress your clutch until the engine is slowed down to idle speed and is on the verge of lugging from brake pressure. By doing so, you take full advantage of engine compression without undue wear to engine, clutch, or running gear. While awaiting the change of the traffic signal, don't leave your clutch depressed and transmission in gear. This puts needless wear on the clutch release (throw-out) bearing. Also, any number of things could happen to cause your foot to come off the clutch. Instead, put the transmission in neutral and release your clutch. If you are on an incline, set your parking brake (use column brake if available) to keep your apparatus stopped. (Do not hold the apparatus by slipping the clutch with the apparatus in gear.)

2.

3.

4.

5.

-6DT-3 6/86 GENERAL RULES TO FOLLOW: (cont'd) 6. Anticipate the light change. Just prior to the green light, fully depress the clutch and select the proper gear to start out. After the light changes you can ease out on the clutch and feather the accelerator. When you feel a slight forward force against your parking brake, release it. Don't coast out of gear. There are times when an evasive maneuver may require power instead of braking. When in neutral, you won't have that power readily available. Coasting out of gear is considered to be out of control and an illegal operation. Additionally, don't coast in gear with the clutch depressed. Especially going down hill. Damage can result due to excessive speed of the clutch disc. In traffic stay in the highest gear that allows the apparatus to keep up with traffic and still have some power in reserve for acceleration. When cruising choose a gear that will cruise the engine at 200 to 300 RPM lower than the ninety percent speed. This reduces engine wear, power losses caused by the fan drive-line, and accessories, noise, and fuel consumption. 10. When ascending or descending a steep grade, shift the transmission to a lower gear. This practice provides adequate driving power, and enables the driver to keep the apparatus under control. When turning corners it is often a better practice to shift to a lower gear to maintain high engine power and apparatus control BEFORE entering the curve or intersection.

7.

8.

9.

11.

-7DT- 3 6/86 PART II - AUTOMATIC TRANSMISSIONS Although the transmissions used by the LAFD are true automatic transmissions they will give much better performance, smoother operation, and more longevity if they are operated as if they were a "clutchless" manual shift transmission. This means the driver should: Manually shift up through the gears when accelerating; keep the transmission in a gear that will maintain the engine within the operating range (the upper end of the operating range on diesel engines); and downshift when decelerating, to make use of engine braking effect and any supplemental braking systems (Jake Brake or retarder). Automatic transmission used by the LAFD are adjusted for optimum full throttle shifts. The light throttle shifts may seem to be harsh or slightly severe. This condition is considered to be normal. If, over a period to time, the shift pattern changes from its seemingly normal operation, immediately contact the Shops for an inspection of the transmission. Primary control of the transmission is exercised by means of a range selector lever or shifting quadrant, adjacent to the driver's position. Select the range which is consistent with traffic and road conditions. Selection of the correct gear range provides better control; it also avoids undue "gear hunting" by the transmission, especially at light or part throttle operation (this occurs when the gear selector is in too high a gear for the conditions encountered.) The following table will serve as a guide in the selection of the particular gear range to be used. This table will describe the function, safety, and efficient operating mode of each lever position. For this example we will use a four speed Allison Transmission. The shifting quadrant located in the cab is divided into six (6) positions and movement of the selector lever determines the gear in which the start will be made and also the highest gear the shift will be made.

-8DT-3 6/86 (R) Use this for backing the vehicle. Reverse has only one gear. Reverse operation also provides the greatest traction advantage. Use this position when you start the engine. If the engine starts in any other position, the neutral start switch is malfunctioning. Use this position when the vehicle will be left unattended while the engine is running, always apply the parking brake. Use this one for all normal driving conditions. The vehicle will start in 1st gear and, as you depress the accelerator, the transmission will up shift to 2nd gear, 3rd gear and 4th gear automatically. As the vehicle slows down, the transmission will downshift to the correct gear automatically. Occasionally the road, load or traffic conditions will make it desirable to restrict the automatic shifting to a lower range. When the conditions improve, return the range selector to the normal driving position. These positions also provide progressively greater engine braking power (the lower the gear range, the greater the braking effect). Same as above, but with added braking power and lower speed. This is low gear. Use this one when pulling through mud, driving up steep grades or when doing slow maneuvering. (It keeps the RPM up for better power steering control.) (Note: The five and six speed units have similar ranges and limitations; consult the log books of the particular apparatus in question.)

(N)

1-4

1-3

1-2 (1)

-9DT-3 6/86 DOWNSHIFTING: The transmission can be downshifted or upshifted even at full throttle, and although there is no speed limitation on upshifting, there is on downshifting. DO NOT DOWNSHIFT WHEN THE VEHICLE IS ABOVE THE MAXIMUM SPEED ATTAINABLE IN THE NEXT LOWER GEAR. Use the service brake to slow the vehicle to an acceptable speed where the transmission may be downshifted safely. It generally smoothes out the down-shift if the throttle is depressed or "advanced" slightly, before moving tile gear selector into the new range. The engine can be very helpful in slowing down the apparatus, especially if it is equipped with a "Jacobs" Brake or a retarder. GENERAL RULES TO FOLLOW: 1. Under no circumstances allow your apparatus to coast in neutral. When coasting in neutral or being towed with the drive shaft connected, the rear wheels become the driving force, therefore causing the planetary gears in the transmission to overdrive. In addition, coasting in neutral does not allow the engine to help slow the apparatus. (This is an illegal operation.) Improper downhill driving can be-devastating to engine parts. When descending, the driver will often downshift to control speed and to avoid excessive use of the brakes. What actually happens is that the load is pushing the vehicle downhill and the governor cannot control engine speed. The wheels are turning the driveshaft and the engine. Drivers should select a lower gear when descending, remain in that gear at all times and use a combination of brakes and gears to prevent over-speeding the engine.

2.

-10DT-3 6/86 3. When starting on severe grades, the engine should be accelerated until the converter is in a stall condition before the foot brake is released. This will allow smooth acceleration eliminating any rollback which could damage driveline components and may cause collision with a vehicle behind the apparatus. For safety to your apparatus you shall be completely stopped before changing from a forward gear to reverse or from reverse to a forward gear. Be conscious of road and engine speed when downshifting.

4.

5.

APPARATUS MAINTENANCE PRETEST QUESTIONS 1. An apparatus pre-check should be done when: a. b. c. d. 2. Only after a fire Every morning Only if you haven't talked to your relief. Every morning and after each incident.

When doing an apparatus pre-check attention must be paid to which of the following: a. b. c. d. e. Obvious underinflated tires Loose wheel lug nuts Cuts and nails in the tires A&C All of the above

3.

Overfilling the engine crankcase with engine oil can cause the following: a. b. c. d. overheating and aeration of the oil Better engine lubrication Reduces engine friction and increases oil pressure Has no harmful or beneficial effect. It does nothing good or bad.

5.

Fluid filters including oil,, transmission, coolant and fuel are changed how often? a. b. c. d. Every 6 months or when necessary. Every 12 months or when necessary. Bimonthly after every F-377 maintenance check. None of the above.

LOS ANGELES CITY FIRE DEPARTMENT DRIVER'S TRAINING MODULE #4 Apparatus Maintenance OBJECTIVES: To teach the basic points of apparatus preventive maintenance and the pre-checking of Department apparatus. 1. 2. 3. REFERENCES: 1. 2. 3. Basic apparatus pre-check. Daily, weekly, monthly, and bimonthly preventive maintenance checks. Oil and filter changes and lubrication schedules. Manual of Operations - volume 3-7/0 Apparatus Operators Training Manual Apparatus log books

TEACHING AIDS:

Lesson plan, chalkboard and chalks, four (4) 12-17 minute video presentations.

INTRODUCTION: The Department cannot over emphasize the importance of preventive maintenance checks on apparatus. Certain basic procedures in daily maintenance pre-checks on all apparatus shall be accomplished at the beginning of each shift or at any time a change of relief occurs. The preventive maintenance check includes a hands on check and basic maintenance procedures to insure proper, safe and efficient use of all Department apparatus. Maintenance procedures are performed periodically based on the pre-described maintenance schedules set forth in Vol. 3-7/0 and Department log books. The Station Commander is ultimately responsible for the condition of apparatus under his command, but each member shares equally in the responsibility of maintaining Department apparatus. PRESENTATION: The preventive maintenance schedules and daily pre-checks of Department apparatus are an integral part of vehicle preventive maintenance. During the daily pre-check potential mechanical problems can be found and corrected, before they become large and expensive repair jobs. Preventive maintenance schedules, if followed, will greatly increase the performance and life of Department apparatus.

-2DT-4 7/86 An apparatus pre-check should be performed each morning at relief, or any other time during the day when a change of relief is required and after each incident when the apparatus or its equipment is used. There are many different methods to pre-check apparatus. The important thing is to have an organized step by step procedure that covers all necessary items. A good apparatus pre-check consists of the following: Start by stepping up into the driver's seat, close the door and adjust the seat so that it is in a comfortable position for driving. Now check the mirrors for proper visibility to the rear. Also, check to see that the seat belts are free and operable. Next check to see that the transmission shifting lever is in neutral and that the clutch, brake, and throttle pedals all work smoothly. On aerial ladder trucks make sure the power take off (PTO) is in the disengaged position. Turn battery switch to correct position Number 1 or "A" battery on odd numbered days of the month and Number 2, or "B" battery, for even numbered days. Switch on all lights, including head and running lights, emergency lights, 4-way flasher, and pick up lights. Get out of the cab and proceed around the apparatus, checking all lights, including brake and back-up lights. For proper operation, you may need assistance to accomplish the last two. Return to the cab, turn off the master switch and the switches not connected to it. Do not leave the switches on for an extended period because of the power drain on the batteries Without the engine running. Also check the radios for correct frequency and operation. Sound the horn and siren to check for proper working order. on aerial ladder trucks check both cab and tiller horns. At this time, turn on the ignition switch and

-3DT- 4 7/86 check the fuel level. Fuel should be kept to the full level whenever possible, because of condensation of moisture inside a partially filled fuel tank. This is especially important in diesel powered apparatus. Water in a diesel engine fuel system can disable the engine. Also check the brake system and air pressure gauge to see that there is sufficient pressure in the system. Turn off the ignition and battery switches. Next, proceed to the engine compartment and check the engine oil "level" and engine coolant level, adding oil or water where necessary. After doing these checks,. proceed around the apparatus checking for equipment that may be missing or lying loose and that equipment mounted on the exterior part of the apparatus is secure and/or in it's proper bracket. Stop at each wheel, check the tires for obvious underinflation, cuts, nails, or tread separations. Also look in front of and behind each wheel to make sure nothing is under the apparatus that could damage it or be damaged by being run over. At the same time, check each wheel for loose lug nuts. Nuts will sometimes work loose, especially after a recent tire change or repair. Also check to see that all compartment and apparatus doors are shut securely and that pre-heater cords on diesel, apparatus are plugged in and maintaining engine coolant temperature above 120 degrees F. As a final check, make sure that all helmets and turnouts hung or stored on the apparatus are not in a position to do damage to the vehicle's finish. Snaps, clasps, and buckles can needlessly chip and scratch the apparatus paint.

-4DT4 7/86 Although this pre-check appears to be a routine matter, it is extremely important and until it is carried out by the operator, the vehicle cannot be considered ready to be driven. Now that a basic apparatus pre-check has been reviewed, a discussion of apparatus maintenance checks will be done. In each apparatus log book, under the service section, there is a list of daily, weekly, and bimonthly (F-377) preventive maintenance checks that are to be performed as a regular part of apparatus maintenance. The following schedules should be reviewed.

HEAVY AND LIGHT APPARATUS PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE Daily Schedule Daily checks shall be conducted by Apparatus operators or members responsible as soon as practicable following relief. 1. Fuel Supply Maintain to capacity. This will prevent condensation in the fuel tank. Maintain to capacity for proper lubrication. Maintain to capacity. (Check for rust.)

2. 3.

Oil Crankcase Water, Radiator Tank and Recovery Brake air reservoir pressure* Tires

4. 5.

Is storage over required minimum? Check for leaks Look for cuts, bruises, proper inflation: Clean out rocks, dirt, etc. Do all lights, including signal devices, operate? (Includes horn, siren, bells, outrigger sounding devices, etc.) Switch changeover switch. Check power to radio. Are wires in place, tight and clean? Look for excessive oil or water leaks. Check belts for wear and tension.

6.

Signal & Lighting System

7. 8. 9.

Electrical Systems Plug and Coil Wires Engine

-6DT-4 7/86 10. Running Gear Look for condition/tightness of bolts, nuts, fittings, shafts, cables, etc. Check for ease of operation. Both positions manual type only. Look for cuts. Check operation of buckles and general condition of belts.

11.

Transfer valve*

12.

Seat Belts

13.

Door seals on Rescue Ambulances

Seals around all doors should be inspected for proper sealing to prevent outside gases from entering the ambulance.

NOTE: Notify the Shops of needed repairs, and be guided by their advise. *Refers to heavy apparatus only.

-7DT-4 7/86 HEAVY & LIGHT APPARATUS PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE Weekly Schedule 1. 2. Air Tanks* Air Conditioning Units Drain condensate.

Check coolant in system through sight glass, located in engine compartment. Operate A/C unit at least once a week for ten minutes. Check pressure by gauge. Check and tighten wheel lugs. Maintain proper level of electrolyte. Take specific gravity reading of electrolyte. Charge if needed. Inspect for proper fluid color and leaks. Inspect reservoir for proper oil level. Inspect reservoir for proper oil level. Inspect under vehicle for leaks, condition (rust or breakage) and for proper mounting.

3.

Tires

4.

Batteries

5. 6. 7. 8.

Water Filter Power Steering Priming Pump* Exhaust System

9.

Springs, suspension and Frame

Inspect springs for broken or missing leafs, clamps U-bolts, shackles, etc. Inspect shocks for proper mounting and condition. Inspect frame rails and frame members for breaks, cracks, bad welds, loose rivets and bent sections. Operate every valve. (Discharge gates, relief, valve governor, transfer

10.

Valves*

-8DT-4 7/86 valve, etc.) with water flowing through the valve and pump operating. 11. Airhorn Pump, Fiamm and Grover (RA's Emergency Sedans)

Keep reservoir full with SAE-30 engine oil (Grover only), and if unit is equipped with oil cups, put two drops of engine oil in each cup. Refer to the specific owner's or Apparatus Manual for instructions. Check blades for wear. Inspect hose for cracks and leaks. Wipers shall not be operated on a dry windshield or with defective blades.

12.

Transmission Fluid

13.

Windshield Wipers

14.

Mechanical Type Parking Brakes (light apparatus) 1. Before starting procedure, check for clearance behind apparatus, should the brake fail. 2. Set brake firmly. 3. Start engine, shift transmission into forward gear. 4. Increase engine RPM by a slight pressure on the accelerator. 5. Repeat procedure in *reverse" position. If the parking brake fails to hold the vehicle, notify S&M and request a brake adjustment in the normal manner.

-9DT-4 7/86 ADDITIONAL WEEKLY SCHEDULE FOR AERIALS 1. 2. Service hydraulic oil reservoir, add oil as needed. Operate aerial: Test operation of outrigger jacks spring locks and aerial. Request repair or service if needed. Inspect rotation pinion and ring gear under turntable for wear and lubrication, lubricate or report as required. Inspect collector rings under turntable for corrosion, brushes for wear and wires for secure connections and good conditions. Inspect hoses, lines, etc., under turntable for chaffing, wear, leaks, etc. Tiller bucket: Inspect hinges, locks and springs for condition, operation and lubrication.

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-10DT- 4 7/86 HEAVY AND LIGHT APPARATUS PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE Monthly Schedule 1. Any joint not equipped with a lubrication fitting; and of a design requiring lubrication, shall be lubricated monthly with a light coat of engine oil. Rescue Ambulances Check transmission fluid for color and odor to determine if change is necessary. A change to a darker color from the usual red color and/or a strong burnt odor may indicate a need for change. Check with Shops. Maintain fluid level to 1/4" below "Add" 'mark on dip stick. Check fluid level with selector lever-in Park (P), park brake set, engine running and vehicle on level surface. Do Not Overfill. The Fire Department has a bimonthly list of checks that are to be accomplished every other month. The Form F-377 is used to document the completion of these checks and to record any problems with any items on the maintenance schedule. These checks consist of the following: 1. AIR CLEANER: (Engine cool and shutdown) Service, clean or replace as recommended. Examine hose ducts, pipe, etc., between air cleaner and carburetor for breaks, wear and secure mounting. AIR COMPRESSOR:* (Engine cool and shutdown) Service air cleaner, inspect for secure mounting and leaks. ALTERNATOR OR GENERATOR: (Engine cool and shutdown) Inspect for secure mounting, loose wire connections and worn or chafed insulation on wiring. Lubricate idler (lower) pulley when so equipped. External rectifiers will be carefully cleaned of dirt, etc., with a dry cloth. BRAKES, AIR:* (Engine shut down) Visually inspect all mechanical components; inspect for worn clevis pins, mission cotter pins or possible road damage to air lines and-brake chambers.

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-11DT-4 7/86 Inspect brakes to determine need for adjustment. For heavy apparatus see Brake Maintenance Section and diagram "A". Wedge type brakes are self adjusting. If it is considered that these brakes need adjustment, notify Shops to have mechanic check running clearance. BRAKE CHAMBERS The operation of all brake chambers is identical: As air enters the unit, it exerts a pressure on the diaphragm; the diaphragm forces the push rod outward, thus rotating the slack adjuster. This rotation forces the brake shoe outward against the brake drum, applying the brakes. Members concerned are to determine the type of brake chambers employed on their apparatus by the following procedures: 1. Measure the outside diameter of the brake chamber. NOTE: Do not include capscrew head projections on rotochambers or bolt clamp projections for clamp type brake chambers as part of measurement. 2. Check measurement from Step 1 against measurement found in chart on page 15 for "overall diameter. Using the figures provided in the chart for the particular type and size chamber employed on your apparatus, fill in information on top of page 15.

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DETERMINING NEED FOR BRAKE ADJUSTMENT: (Every two months) 1. With brakes released, measure the distance from the mounting bracket of the chamber to the center of the clevis pin (A). Have someone fully apply brakes; then re-measure the distance from the mounting bracket of the chamber to the center of the clevis pin (B). NOTE: Measurement in Step 2 will be greater than found in Step 1. 3. Subtract measurement of Step 1 from Step 2 (C).

2.

-12DT-4 7/86 NOTE: This measurement is actual push rod travel and should be entered on the routing lubrication check-off sheet. 4. Compare actual push rod travel measurement with "maximum push rod travel" on chart. NOTE: If push rod travel is the same or greater than the figure given on the chart for "maximum push rod travel," request a brake adjustment by notifying the Shops. Slack adjuster lever should never go beyond 90. 5. NOTE: On apparatus equipped with spring brakes, be sure to check the rig before releasing the rear spring brakes, as push rod travel cannot be checked with spring brakes applied.

-13DT-4 7/86 Brake Chambers, Type Front ________________________________________ Rear ________________________ Tiller Wheels________________________ Request brake adjustment when "maximum push rod travel is: Front Wheels _________________ Rear Wheels________________________ CHAMBER SIZE 9-Clamp Ring Type Drake Chamber Drum Brakes 12-16-20-24-30-36-CHAMBER SIZE OVER-ALL DIAMETER 5-1/4" 5-11/16" 6-3/8 6-3/16" 7-1/4" 8-1/8" 9" PUSH ROD TRAVEL MAXIMUM PUSH ROD TRAVEL 1-1/4" 1-1/4" 1-5/8 1-5/8 1-5/8 1-7/8" 2-1/8"

TYPE

TYPE Clamp Ring Type Brake Chamber with Goodrich

20 30

Minimum 1-5/8" - Maximum 2" Minimum 1-7/3" - Maximum 2-1/4" BRAKE CHAMBER

B A
OUTSIDE DIAMETER

-14DT-4 7/86 SPRING BRAKE DIAGRAM

1. NORMAL DRIVING Air pressure cages spring and holds ready for parking or emergency application.

2. NORMAL SERVICE BRAKE OPERATION Spring brake does not apply with normal service brake application, as air pressure keeps the spring caged.

3. NORMAL SPRING BRAKE OPERATION PARKING BRAKES Application of the dash control valve exhausts air from the spring brake chamber, permitting the spring force to apply the service brake for positive parking. EMERGENCY BRAKES The spring brake can be installed to operate either automatically upon loss or air pressure or by manual application

4. MECHANICAL RELEASE OR MAINTENANCE OPER. ATION Remove release stud assembly from carrying pocket. Insert into pressure plate. Then turn onequarter turn to seat cross pin of release stud into pressure plate receptacle, Turn nut with wrench until spring is fully caged. Release toot is carried in side pocket.

-15DT-4 7/86 4A. BRAKES HYDRAULIC: (Engine shutdown) Light apparatus inspect master cylinder for proper fluid level and leaks. Inspect lines and hose for leaks. Test brakes for need of adjustment. After vehicle has been idle for several minutes, push the brake pedal down as far as it will go. If the pedal travels more than halfway between the released position and the floor, call Shops for an adjustment. Upon completion of the above test for fluid by-passing in master cylinder by applying brake with about 30% of normal pressure for a period of 1-1/2 to 2 minutes. If pedal depresses to floor, request inspection by mechanic. CARBURETOR: (Engine cool and shutdown) (Gas fuel) Inspect for proper choke operation and lube choke cable if needed. Inspect all accessible carburetor linkage for wear, binding and lack of lubrication. Lubricate as needed. Inspect carburetor for loose mounting. COMPRESSION RELEASE ARM, SHAFT AND PINS:* (Diesels) Apply light coating of SAE-30 engine oil. COOLING SYSTEM: (Engine cool and shutdown) Visually examine radiator for white or green corrosive spots and for mud, foreign material, etc., in cooling fins. Using compressed air, blow mud, etc., from engine compartment side of radiator to outside of radiator. Do not strike or damage fins of radiator when blowing through core. Examine all accessible water hoses. Hoses should have a live rubber feel; if dried out or spongy, request replacement. If hose is collapsed (out of shape and flat), request replacement. Inspect radiator cap and cap gasket for proper seating and sealing on radiator fill neck. Light apparatus equipped with coolant recovery systems, maintain coolant level at the "cold full* mark when system is cool and coolant is at ambient temperature. COOLING SYSTEM COOLANT: The condition of cooling system coolant is of utmost importance to the protection of internal engine components. Using the D.C.A. test kit provided and following the enclosed instructions, test a sample of the coolant. Record the test results on the F-377. If the test

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7A.

-16DT-4 7/86 results are not within proper limits, notify the Shops and request that coolant additive be sent to the station location for addition to the apparatus cooling system. If rust, scale, oil film, or other impurities are evident in the coolant, notify the Shops of such condition and be guided by their instructions. 8. CLUTCH ADJUSTMENT: (Engine shutdown) Heavy apparatus, see Diagram "B". Light apparatus equipped with clutch, use hand to test for free travel. Press on clutch pedal with hand (not with foot) and note distance pedal moves before clutch starts to disengage. Distance should be 3/4" to 10 of adjustment is necessary. The clutch free play is determined by using a quarter (25 piece). Refer to diagrams. With motor stopped, move lever "A" forward. Whenever the clearance between "A" and "B" is less than the thickness of a quarter "C", call the Shops for a clutch adjustment. DIAGRAM "B"

CLUTCH SHAFT

B A C

CLUTCH PEDAL ROD

-17DT-4 7/86 9. DIFFERENTIAL: (Engine cool and shutoff) Maintain to level of fill plug on right side of differential housing. DISTRIBUTOR: (Engine cool and shutoff) Clean outside with a dry cloth. If necessary, cloth may be moistened with kerosene. Inspect wires for loose connections, brittleness, poor insulation and oil, liquid, or other damage. Clean ignition coils at this time by same method. Also, inspect coil wires the same as distributor wiring. Examine external bake lite parts for cracks or breaks. DRIVE BELTS:* (Engine cool and shutdown) All belts (fan, alternator, compressor and power steering) shall be checked for wear and tension. If belt tension is loose enough to allow 1/2" or more deflection, measured at point midway between pulleys, call Shops for adjustment. DRIVE LINE: (Engine cool and shutdown) Block one or more wheels fore and aft to prevent vehicle from rolling. Release all brakes. Visually inspect drive line tubes for damage and/or bent shaft or tube. Inspect for looseness by positioning yourself on creeper with shoulders directly under one end of shaft. Take hold of shaft as close to end as possible with both hands and try to move shaft up and down. Repeat same test at other end of shaft. This test will also show loose pinion bearings. On vehicles having more than one shaft, test all shafts. DRY VACUUM TEST:* (Engine running) To determine the condition of the priming pump, fittings, connections and piping joints integral to the pumping system, initiate a dry vacuum test. With all openings closed, engage priming pump. Study suction gauge to determine maximum vacuum developed, which should be as least 20" of mercury. Stop the primer and attempt to hold vacuum in the pump. Check for leaks. ENGINE MOUNTS: (Engine cool and shutdown) Examine engine mounts for looseness and damage to rubber insulators. FUEL PUMP: (Engine cool and shutdown) Examine for signs of loose mounting and examine flexible fuel lines for hard or spongy condition.

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-18DT-4 7/86 A good hose will have a firm but not hard feel to the finger. Check all lines, solid and flexible, for leaks and secure mounting. 16. RADIO: Examine all accessible components for secure mounting. Examine visible wiring for damage and proper anchorage. STARTER: (Engine cool and shutdown) Examine starter for secure mounting, connections, and frayed or bad order all accessible solenoids for proper connections and wire, or insulation STEERING COLUMN: Visually inspect outer housing for cracks or breaks. Test for loose mounting by standing or floor and taking a firm grip with one hand on column at the highest point possible; then push asway from you and then pull toward you. Any movement of column indicates loose mounting and should be reported as needing repair. STEERING GEAR AND CONNECTIONS: (Engine shutdown) Position front wheels straight ahead with all weight of vehicle on tires. Have assistant sit in driver's seat and take hold of wheel and, with short, fast motions, approximately 6" to 8" on wheel, move wheel back and forth. You can determine if looseness exists by looking, at or placing finger on, connections, joints, etc. The following list of steering parts can be tested for excessive play by the above method: Tie rods, drag link, Pitman arm, Pitman arm shaft and nut, and loose steering box to frame mounting. On vehicles equipped with power steering, if play is observed at drag link end where power steering is located, a second test is necessary. Second test is made same as first test with two additional operations: (1) Start engine. (2) Inspect the one connection only where valve is mounted. Report repair needed if play exists in any area listed. Use care to avoid injury to fingers. Aerials: Inspect tiller steering.

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-19DT- 4 7/86 20. STEERING WHEEL: Inspect for breaks or cracks. Test for looseness by standing on floorboard or sitting in seat, take hold of wheel with both hands, one on each side of wheel, pull up and then push down. (Pressure is in same direction with both hands.) Have assistant look for movement of steering wheel up and down on column. Then, with hand in same position on wheel, pull up with one hand; push down with the other hand. Repeat two or three times. (Pressure of hands is in opposite directions.) Have assistant look for movement of steering wheel on column. Report any looseness. TIRES: Measure tread depth at the center of the tire tread with the approved tire tread depth gauge. This is an accurate measuring device calibrated in increments of 1/32. A reading on the gauge where the black line under the number four (4) is visible above the top of the plastic collar would indicate a tread depth of 1/8 or less and should be reported on the F-377 as needing replacement. Other methods of determining tire tread depth should be avoided. (Refer to Tire Replacement Policy and Criteria in the log book "Tire" Section.) TRANSMISSION, MAIN PUMP:* Check oil and maintain to proper level. TRANSMISSION, ROAD: A. MANUAL Check oil and maintain to level of fill plug. B. AUTOMATIC Check fluid and maintain full as required (see log book lubrication guide). Check fluid condition for evidence of fluid or transmission deterioration. The fluid should not exhibit a strong burnt odor, dark color, or suspended debris. The fluid should appear bright red. A comparison to new fluid may be helpful. WHEEL BEARINGS: (Engine shutdown) Place chocks fore and aft of one wheel to prevent vehicle from rolling, then release brakes. Raise one wheel. Position raised wheel so that valve stem is approximately midway between top and bottom of wheel and one of the large stamped openings at the outer diameter of wheel is at its lowest point near the floor. Take a 4 crowbar, place a 2 length of

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-20DT-4 7/86 1-1/2: salvaged hose on bottom part of bar (chisel end) to prevent paint damage and place chisel end in large stamped hole of wheel that is closest to floor. Move top of bar toward top of wheel until slight pressure is produced. Have assistant look a wheel and spindle. Increase pressure slightly at top of bar (work bar up and down at top). While moving bar, be sure to keep lower end (chisel point of bar) firmly in position. This test will show looseness in wheel bearings, spindle pins and wheel mounting. Perform test on all wheels, front and rear. Wheels on side opposite wheels being raised for test must be blocked to prevent vehicle from moving. WORK SAFELY! Note: Do not raise chocked wheel. Engage emergency brake before removing chocks. Light Apparatus Check front and rear wheel bearings. Place blocks fore and aft of one wheel to prevent vehicle from rolling, then release brakes. Raise one wheel. Check bearing play by grasping tire at top and bottom and pulling back and forth, or by using a pry bar under the tire. If movement is excessive, notify Shops. 25. WIRING: Examine all wiring, rods, linkage, piping, and accessories in engine compartment (not specifically mentioned in P.M. sheet) for looseness, wear, interference or need for repair. Current odometer reading. Current engine hour reading. Current pump hour reading.

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-21DT- 4 7/86 REPAIR COMMENTS Page

-22DT- 4 7/86 AIR BRAKE MAINTENANCE The air brake system on Fire Department apparatus requires very little maintenance. The little that is required, however, is essential if malfunction of system components or complete brake failure is to be prevented. The outlined procedures shall be performed on all axles. The following maintenance will be performed at quarters by the Engineer: AIR RESERVOIR TANKS: (Weekly) With air brake system at maximum pressure: open drain cock of primary tank (the primary tank is the first reservoir that the air enters from the compressor) and allow all moisture and foreign material to be blown out; repeat above procedure on all other air tanks. CAUTION: Be sure to close all drain cocks before building up pressure.

NOTE:If excessive oil continually appears in condensation, notify Department Shops. After draining all tanks and with system at maximum pressure, check all drain cocks with soap suds for leaks. AIR COMPRESSOR AIR FILTER UNIT: (every two months) (Clean more often if used in dust or dirt) Air filter units are usually mounted on the rear of the compressor casing or on the outboard side of the compressor. To Service 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Remove filter unit from compressor - two bolts. Disassemble filter unit - remove retaining wire or cover screws, depending on type of filter. Wash all parts in kerosene. Squeeze or shake filter element to remove kerosene. DO NOT BLOW OUT WITH AIR. Add several drops of engine oil to filter and squeeze to distribute evenly. Dry all parts and reassemble. Reattach air filter unit to compressor casing.

-23DT-4 7/86 CAUTION: DO NOT OVERTIGHTEN BOLTS - Proper tightness of bolts can be accomplished by applying the strength of your index finger on a four-inch wrench. A light film of chassis lube on gasket will help hold gasket in place while starting bolts.

NOTE:

All companies concerned should keep on hand two spare filter-to-compressor gaskets. These are to be ordered by requisition. The distance between the centers of the two bolts that secure the filter unit to the compressor should be entered on the requisition. Also included in apparatus maintenance is an apparatus and equipment check record. This form) F-973) is used to record Monday and first of the month checks performed on apparatus and equipment. This schedule should also be reviewed:

-24DT-4 7/86 Form F-973 DEPARTMENT OF FIRE APPARATUS AND EQUIPMENT CHECK RECORD

-25DT- 4 7/86 The Department has also set-up an orderly schedule for apparatus oil changes and lubrication. Oil and filter changes and chassis lubrication shall be done at the following intervals: OIL CHANGES AND LUBRICATION: Apparatus lubrication, oil and oil filter changes shall be made as follows: Heavy Apparatus: (465 cubic inches or over) shall be lubricated and receive an oil change at 2,000 miles or four months, whichever occurs first. The oil filter shall be changed every 12 months. EXCEPTION: RESERVE HEAVY APPARATUS: Lubricate and change oil at 2,000 miles or six months, whichever occurs first. Change oil filter every 12 months. APPARATUS WITH HOUR TIME-LAPSE METERS: Adhere to manufacturer's recommended hours of use for routine lubrication, oil change, and filter change. Light Apparatus: (Under 465 cubic inches) EMERGENCY USE: Shall be lubricated at 2,000 miles or four months, whichever occurs first. The engine oil and filter shall be changed at 3,000 miles of four months, whichever occurs first. These are minimum intervals for lubrication. Extreme weather or hard use may call for shorter intervals between oil and filter changes. A good pre-check and proper preventive maintenance of your apparatus will go a long way towards insuring safe and efficient operation of Department vehicles. These scheduled preventive maintenance checks and early detection of mechanical defects through a thorough pre-check will also contribute towards preventing the large financial loss the Department faces each year as a result of inefficient or improper maintenance.

-26DT- 4 7/86 It is the responsibility of every member who operates Department apparatus to take the time to learn his/her apparatus by studying the log books of apparatus as their assignments. It is also recommended that discussions with Department mechanics about characteristics relative to their assigned apparatus, be done to gain a better overall understanding of their apparatus. For further information on the proper maintenance of Department apparatus, refer to Manual of Operations, Vol. 3-7/0, which covers in detail Department apparatus maintenance procedures. In addition to the preceeding checks, it is the responsibility of the light vehicle operator to schedule the following with the light vehicle shops: 1. 2. Engine Tune-up, every-12,000 miles. Transmission maintenance, every 20,000 miles.

Appointments should be made approximately 500 miles before the actual mileage is recorded on the odometer. The following page lists recommended lubrication fluids and lubricants to be used on light vehicles. Also included is a diagram of lubrication points for light vehicles. These should be reviewed.

-27DT-4 7/86 MAINTENANCE AND LUBRICATION SPECIFICATIONS RECOMMENDED FLUIDS AND LUBRICANTS USAGE POWER STEERING SYSTEM AND PUMP RESERVOIR DIFFERENTIAL BRAKE SYSTEM AND MASTER CYLINDER PROPELLER SHAFT SLIP JOINT HOOD LATCH ASSEMBLE A. PIVOTS AND SPRING ANCHOR B. RELEASE PAWL HOOD AND DOOR HINGES AUTOMATIC TRANSMISSION SHIFT LINKAGE CHASSISLUBRICATION ENGINE OIL FILTER PF 35 ENGINE (GASOLINE) OIL ENGINE OIL ADDITIVE CONSTANT VELOCITY #1052497 UNIVERSAL JOINT AUTOMATIC TRANSMISSION PARKINGBRAKE CABLES FRONT WHEEL BEARINGS DEXRON II AUTOMATIC TRANSMISSION FLUID CHASSIS GREASE WHEEL BEARINGS LUBRICANT FLUID/LUBRICANT DEXRON II 7-14-81

90-140 MULTI GRADE DELCO SUPREME 11 FLUID OR DOT-3 CHASSISGREASE

A. B.

ENGINE OIL CHASSIS GREASE

ENGINE OIL ENGINE OIL CHASSES GREASE MEETING REQUIREMENTS OF GM 6031-M CODE NO. 8024153 15W-40 MULTI GRADE CODE NO. 6700121 GM LUBRICANT PART OR EQUIVALENT

-28DT- 4 7/86

BODY DOOR HINGE PINS, TAILGATE HINGE AND LINKAGE, FOLDING SEAT FUEL DOOR HINGE WINDSHIELD WASHER SOLVENT SOLVENT EQUIVALENT ENGINE COOLANT BASE

ENGINE OIL

GMC OPTIKLEEN WASHER PART #1051515 OR

MIXTURE OF WATER AND HIGH QUALITY ETHYLENE GLYCOL TYPE ANTI-FREEZE

CONFORMING TO GM SPEC 1899-M KEY LOCK CYLINDER WD-40 SPRAY LUBRICANT OR EQUIVALENT

-29DT-4 7/86 LIGHT VEHICLE PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE The preventive maintenance schedules and daily pre-check of Department light vehicles is an integral part of vehicle preventive maintenance. During the scheduled preventive maintenance checks and daily checks, potential mechanical problems can be found and corrected, before they become large and expensive repair jobs. Preventive maintenance schedules if followed, will greatly increase the performance and life of all Department light vehicles. An apparatus pre-check should be performed each morning at relief, or at other times during the day when a change of* relief occurs. Preventive maintenance and daily apparatus pre-checks consist of the following: Start by stepping up into the driver's seat, close the door and adjust the seat so that it is in a comfortable position for driving. Now check the mirrors for proper visibility to the rear and fasten the seat belt. Next, after making sure the transmission is in "Park," start the engine. If the engine is cold, press the accelerator to the floor and slowly release it. This engages the automatic choke. It may be necessary to repeat this procedure. When the engine is running smoothly (about 30 seconds) reduce engine idle). Avoid racing an engine after a cold start. More wear occurs in an engine immediately after a cold start than in 100 miles of travel. If the engine is warm press down the accelerator to 1/3 of its travel and hold. If the engine fails to start and you tried both the warm and cold start procedures, press the accelerator to the floor and hold it there while cranking the engine. This should clear the engine if it is flooded. Do not crank the engine more than 15 seconds at a time or you could damage the starter. Once the engine is running check the instrument warning lights and gauges. OIL PRESSURE INDICATOR LIGHT The oil pressure indicator light will come on to provide a 'bulb check,* when the ignition is turned on, but should go out after the engine is started. If the light fails to come on with ignition turned on, it could indicate a

-30DT-4 7/86 burned out bulb or a blown instrument lamp fuse or defective electric choke heater circuit. Have the appropriate system repaired if light does not come during check. Occasionally, this light may flicker momentarily while the engine is running. Should this occur, CHECK ENGINE OIL LEVEL. If the light comes on continuously, pull over to a safe place and STOP THE ENGINE until the source of trouble can be located and corrected. The source of trouble could be any of the following: 1. 2. 3. Loss of engine oil pressure (check engine oil level) Blown instrument lamp fuse Blown choke heater fuse

NOTICE: Continuing to run the engine with an illuminated oil pressure light can cause serious engine damage or unusually high exhaust system temperature which can result in serious damage to the vehicle. ENGINE COOLANT TEMPERATURE LIGHT The engine coolant temperature light is designed to come on to warn the driver that the engine has overheated and immediate action is required to correct the condition. As a check that the bulb and its circuit are working, the light is also designed to come on during this check. Have it repaired as soon as possible. CAUTION: If the engine temperature light comes on or you have other reason to suspect the engine may be overheating, continued operation of the engine EVEN FOR A SHORT TIME may result in a cooling system rupture and the possibility of personal injury and/or severe vehicle damage. GENERATOR INDICATOR LIGHT The light is designed to come on when the ignition key is in the RUN position, but before the engine is started. After the engine starts, the light should go out and remain out. If the light remains on when the engine is running or during normal or emergency driving call the Shops and report the problem.

-31DT-4 7/86 "CHOKE" LIGHT The light is designed to come on when the ignition is turned on, to provide a "bulb check," but should go out after the engine is started. If the light fails to come on with the ignition turned on, it could indicate a burned out bulb a defective electric choke heater circuit or a blown instrument lamp fuse. If the light comes on during normal operation, the engine should be stopped and the trouble located and corrected. NOTICE: Continuing to run the engine with an illuminated *CHOKE" light can cause unusually high exhaust system temperature which could result in serious damage to the, engine. BRAKE SYSTEM WARNING LIGHT The regular braking system is a dual system designed so that one part will provide some braking action if there is a loss of hydraulic pressure in the other part of the system. The system has a "BRAKE" warning light located in the instrument panel. 1. To serve as a reminder, the "BRAKE" light is designed to stay on when the PARKING BRAKE is not fully released and the ignition key is on. The light is also designed to come on briefly during engine starting so you can check that the bulb is okay. Have the system repaired if the light does not come on during engine starting or when the parking brake is set. This warning light does not do away with the need for brake fluid level being checked regularly.

2.

3.

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If the light comes on and stays on when the engine is running, after the brake pedal has been firmly pushed down.. or comes on momentarily or stays on at any time during operation of the vehicle, it may mean that there is something wrong with part of the brake system. Continued driving without getting necessary repairs could be dangerous.

-32DT-4 7/86 VOLTMETER Each rescue ambulance is equipped with a dual battery system. The voltmeter is the most efficient means of quickly determining the charge level of the battery. It is designed to monitor the voltage of both battery systems and the general condition of the apparatus charging system (alternator). UNDERHOOD BATTERY (FRONT) 1. Depress the upper section of the dual selector switch located at the right of the voltmeter. If no voltage is indicated, turn the ignition switch "ON".

2.

SIDE BATTERIES 1. 2. Depress the lower section of the dual selector switch located at the right of the voltmeter. It is not necessary to turn the ignition switch to the "ON" position when checking the side batteries.

NOTE: CHECK THE VOLTAGE OF BOTH BATTERY SYSTEMS BEFORE STARTING THE ENGINE. CHARGING SYSTEM QUICK CHECK ENGINE MODE IGNITION SWITCH ON ENGINE NOT RUNNING NO ELECTRICAL LOAD SAME CONDITION AS ABOVE BATTERIES ENGINE RUNNING (for 1 min. or more) APPROX. 1000 RPM OK NO ELECTICAL LOAD TENSION SAME CONDITION BELT AS ABOVE VOLTMETER READING CONDITION

12.2 - 12.8

BATTERIES O.K.

BELOW 12

RECHARGE

14 - 14.8

CHARGING SYSTEM

CHECK BELT IF ALTERNATOR BELOW 13.8 O.K., CALL SHOPS FOR REPAIR

-33DT-4 7/86 The above information does not supercede the standard battery maintenance program as recommended in the F-377, but is intended to be followed only as a quick daily check to make sure the charging system is functioning in a normal manner. Keep batteries at full charge at all times, 1.260 or above reading on the hydrometer. Once the instrument warning check has been completed, check the various radios (Fire, RA, H.E.A.R.) for proper channels and operation. After checking the radios, turn on all emergency and non-emergency lights. Get out of the vehicle and make the complete visual inspection. Have an assistant get behind the rig while you depress the brake pedal to check the brake lights. Use the same procedure for turn indicator signals and 4-way flasher. Once this has been completed turn off all lights and engine. Next check under the hood. As previously mentioned, the vehicles have a-dual battery system. The purpose of the dual battery system is designed so that in the event of a battery failure, another system is available for emergency starting. The dual battery system consists of: 1. FRONT BATTERY Located under the engine hood. This battery powers the electrical equipment which comes on the original vehicle (van), including headlights, stop, tail and turn indicator lights, the heater and engine starter. SIDE BATTERY Located in the slide out compartment on the left side of the vehicle. This battery actually consists of two (2) batteries connected in parallel to increase amperage output. These batteries power all the additional electrical equipment, i.e. air conditioner, radios, emergency lights and interior lights. To check the effectiveness of the batteries it is necessary to use a hydrometer. A hydrometer is used to measure specific gravity of the electrolyte in a cell. Never take a reading immediately after water has been added. The following table illustrates a typical range of specific gravity for a cell in various stages of charge, with respect to its ability to crank the engine at 80*F.

2.

-34DT-4 7/86 1.280 Sp.Gr. 1.250 Sp.Gr. 1.220 Sp.Gr. 1.190 Sp.Gr. 1.160 Sp.Gr. 1.130 Sp.Gr. 100% Charged 75% Charged 50% Charged 25% Charged Very little useful capacity Discharged

In reading a hydrometer, the barrel must be held vertically and just the right amount of acid drawn up into the barrel with the bulb fully expanded to lift the float freely so that it touches neither the side, nor the top or bottom stoppers of the barrel.

-35DT-4 7/86 Maintain water level in the batteries to top of holes or above cover plates in each individual cell. Now that a check of the electrical system has been done it is necessary to check the engine oil level. This should be done while the engine is warm, but at least five (5) minutes after the engine is shut down. Oil level should be maintained to capacity as indicated on dip stick. It is just as important not to overfill or have too much oil, as it is to have too little. Both high and low levels can cause aeration, that could lead to serious engine damage. After checking the oil, check the Automatic Transmission level. To check the fluid level, first set the parking brake, then start the engine in "P" (park). With the regular brakes applied, move the shift lever through all the gear ranges, ending in "P". You must check the fluid level with the engine running at slow idle and the vehicle level. Remove the dipstick located in the engine compartment on the passenger's side. Carefully touch the wet end of the dipstick to find out if the fluid is cool, warm or hot. Wipe it clean and push it back in until the cap seats. Pull out the dipstick and read the fluid level.

-36DT-4 7/86 1. If it felt cool (about room temperature) the level should be (1/8 to 3/8") below the "ADD" mark. The dipstick has two dimples below the "ADD" mark to show this range. If it felt warm, the level should be close to the "ADD" mark '(either above or below). If it was too hot to hold, the level should be at the "FULL" mark.

2.

3.

Add just enough DEXTRON II fluid to fill the transmission to the proper level. It takes only one pint to raise the level from *ADD" to "FULL" with a hot transmission. Once the transmission level has been inspected, check the engine coolant level. Do not remove the radiator cap to check the coolant level. Check recovery bottle level and maintain it to capacity. If the level is low it is important to use the proper coolant to prevent damage to cooling system components. After completing the checks under the hood, proceed around the vehicle and check tires for any cuts or nicks. Look for any unusual tread-wear patterns that may indicate improper tire inflation or improper front-end alignment. Finally, inspect the apparatus for any type of body damage. Although these preventive maintenance and daily pre-checks appears to be a routine matter, it is extremely important and until it is carried out by the operator, the vehicle cannot be considered ready to respond to an incident. In each apparatus log book, under the service section, there is a list of daily, weekly, and bimonthly (F-377) preventive maintenance checks that are to be performed as a regular part of apparatus maintenance. The following schedules should be reviewed.

-37DT-4 7/86 LIGHT APPARATUS PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE Daily Schedule Daily checks shall be conducted by the Apparatus operator or member responsible as soon as practicable following relief. 1. 2. 3. Fuel Supply Oil, crankcase Water, radiator and recovery tank Tires Maintain to capacity. Maintain to capacity. Maintain to capacity. (Check for rust).

4.

Look for cuts, bruises, proper inflation: Clean out rocks, dirt, etc. Do all lights, including signal devices, operate? (Includes horn and siren)

5.

Signal and Lighting system Electrical system Voltmeter and Emer gency Battery Switch Engine

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7.

Look for excessive oil or water leaks. Check belts for wear and tension and for loose bolts or fittings.

-38DT4 7/86 LIGHT APPARATUS PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE Weekly Schedule 1. Batteries Maintain proper level of electrolyte. Take specific gravity reading of electrolyte. Charge if needed. Inspect reservoir for proper oil level. Maintain reservoir to proper level. Refer to the specific owner's or Apparatus Manual for instructions.

2. 3. 4.

Power steering Brake Fluid Transmission fluid

5.

Air horn pump, Fiam and Grover (RA's and Emergency Sedans)

Keep reservoir full with SAE-30 engine oil (Grover only), and if unit is equipped with oil cups, put two drops of engine oil in each cup. Check blades for wear. Inspect hose for cracks and leaks. Wipers shall not be operated on a dry windshiled or with defective blades. Check windshield washer fluid and fill as necessary. Check pressure by gauge. Check and tighten wheel lugs. Inspect under vehicle for leaks, condition (rust or breakage) and for proper mounting.

6.

Windshield wipers

7. 8.

Tires Exhaust system

9.

Springs, suspension and frame

Inspect springs for broken or missing leafs, clamps, U-bolts, shackles, etc. Inspect shocks for proper mounting and condition. Inspect frame rails and frame

-39DT- 4 7/86 members for breaks, cracks, bad welds, loose rivets and bent sections. 10. Mechanical type parking brakes (light apparatus) 1. 2. 3. 4 5. Before starting procedure check for clearance in front, and behind apparatus, should the brake fail. Set brake firmly. Start engine, shift transmission into forward gear. Increase engine RPM made by a slight pressure on the accelerator . Repeat procedure in " reverse" position.

If the parking brake fails to hold the vehicle, notify S&M and request a brake adjustment in the normal manner.

-40DT- 4 7/86 LIGHT APPARATUS PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE Monthly Schedule 1. Any joint not equipped with a lubrication fitting; and of a design requiring lubrication, shall be lubricated monthly with a light coat of engine oil. Rescue Ambulances Check transmission fluid for color and odor to determine if change is necessary. A change to a darker color from the usual red color and/or a strong burnt odor may indicate a need for change. Check with Shops. Maintain fluid level to 1/4" below "Add" mark on a dip stick. Check fluid level with selector lever in Park (P), park brake set, engine running and vehicle on level surface. Do Not Overfill.

2.

-41DT- 4 7/86 LIGHT VEHICLE PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE Bimonthly Schedule 1. AIR CLEANER: (Engine cool and shutdown) Service, clean or replace as recommended. Examine hose, ducts, pipe, etc., between air cleaner and carburetor for breaks, wear and secure mounting. ALTERNATOR OR GENERATOR: (Engine cool and shutdown) Inspect for secure mounting, loose wire connections and worn or chafed insulation on wiring. Lubricate idler (lower) pulley when so equipped. External rectifiers will be carefully cleaned of dirt, etc., with a dry cloth. BRAKES, HYDRAULIC: (Engine shutdown) Light apparatus inspect master cylinder for proper fluid level and leaks. Inspect lines and hose for leaks. Test brakes for need of adjustment. After vehicle has been idle for several minutes, push the brake pedal down as far as it will go. if the pedal travels more than halfway between the released position and the floor, call Shops for an adjustment. Upon completion of the above, test for fluid by-passing in master cylinder by applying brake with about 30% of normal pressure for a period of 1-1/2 to 2 minutes. If pedal depresses to floor, request inspection by mechanic. Also check brake pads and shoes for wear. Record lining still available. (Refer to Diagram)

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-42DT- 4 7/86 LIGHT VEHICLE VEHICLE BRAKE LINING WEAR INSPECTION PROCEDURES Since the front wheels must be removed for brake lining inspection, inform OCD and request permission to be placed in the out-of-service status to perform this inspection. NOTE: Do not park Rescue Ambulance in a position that will block other companies. Procedure - Front Disc Brakes 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Park on level concrete surface only. Set parking brake firmly. Set transmission gear selector in park position. Chock front and rear of one rear wheel. Locate screw jack beneath vehicle at front of lower control arm approximately six inches away from ball joint. Turn jack handle clockwise to raise jack enough to touch the control arm. Note: Do not raise vehicle at this time. Loosen all lug nuts by turning lug wrench counter clockwise (one complete turn only). Raise jack until wheel clears the ground and rotates freely. Unscrew all lugnuts and-remove wheel from hub. Inspect tire thread and side walls for any abnormal wear, cracks and bulges. Check air pressure and correct as necessary. Locate the brake caliper housing assembly and check both ends of the outer brake pad by looking in at each end of the brake pad to check the lining thickness. To check the lining thickness on the inner shoe, look down through the inspection hole in top of the caliper housing (Figures 5-17 and 5-18). When the lining is worn to approximately 3/32" thick or slightly thicker than the steel section of the brake pad, notify the Shops for scheduling of brake pad replacement.

6. 7. 8.

9.

-43DT- 4 7/86 10. Check both sides of rotor for excessive scoring. Light scoring of the rotor surfaces not exceeding .015" in depth is allowable. Heavy scoring and or deep cracks must be reported to the Shops immediately. Repeat above steps on other front wheel. Note: If station is equipped with a garage-type floor jack, jacking the vehicle by placing the floor jack in the center of the vehicle between the lower control arms is acceptable. After jacking, place car stands under the frame for safety. After brake pad inspection install wheel on hub and replace wheel nuts with cone shaped end toward wheel. Tighten each lug nut seating wheel firmly on hub (clockwise). Lower vehicle, then fully tighten wheel lug nuts in a crisscross pattern. After driving approximately 200 miles, retorque lug nuts to 100 ft. lbs. No further tightening will be necessary until next brake inspection or wheel change.

11.

12.

13. 14.

NOTE: OEM (original equipment manufacturer)-type brake pads come equipped with a wear indicator spring clip attached to the inboard pad. When lining wears down as far as the spring clip, the clip rubbing against the rotor will cause a loud noise to be emitted from the area indicating lining is worn and must be replaced. (See Figure 5-19) Procedure - Rear Brake Lining Inspection 1. 2. 3. Chock block front and rear of one front wheel. Set gear shift selector lever in park with parking brake applied. Locate screw jack under axle between the spring U-bolts. Raise vehicle approximately four inches, or high enough for a person to slide under, and observe the brake backing plate. Do not get under vehicle unless a car stand is placed under the raised axle. If a floor jack is available, place floor jack under differential housing and raise jack to desired height. Place car stands (2) under axle housing before making brake lining inspection.

-44DT- 4 7/86 4. See Figure 5-20, and with a small blade-type screw driver, locate and pry inspection tab off brake backing plate. Do not discard tab as it must be snapped back into place after brake lining inspection. Using a flashlight or drop light, look through inspection slot and note thickness of brake lining (Figure 5-21). When lining is worn down to approximately 5/32" or the thickness of the steel shoe, the lining must be replaced. After inspection replace all inspection tabs. Before lowering vehicle, inspect both tires for excessive wear or damage.

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6.

7. 8.

-45DT- 4 7/86 LIGHT VEHICLE BRAKE INSPECTION DIAGRAM

-46DT- 4 7/86 BRAKE INSPECTION REAR BRAKE SHOE DIAGRAM

-47DT-4 7/86 4. CARBURETOR: (Engine cool and shutdown) (Gas fuel) Inspect for proper choke operation and lube choke with engine on. Inspect all accessible carburetor linkage for wear, binding and lack of lubrication. Lubricate as needed. Inspect carburetor for loose mounting. COOLING SYSTEM: (Engine cool and shutdown) Visually examine radiator for white or green corrosive spots and for mud, foreign material, etc., in cooling fins. Using compressed air, blow mud, etc., from engine compartment side of radiator to outside of radiator. Do not strike or damage fins of radiator when blowing through core. Examine all accessible water hoses. Hoses should have a live rubber feel; if dried out, cracked, hard or stiff, request replacement. If spongy, real soft, request replacement. If hose is collapsed (out of shape and flat), request replacement. Inspect radiator cap and cap gasket for proper seating and sealing on radiator fill neck. Light apparatus equipped with coolant recovery systems, maintain coolant level at the "Cold full" mark when system is cool and coolant is at ambient temperature. DIFFERENTIAL (Engine cool and shutoff) Maintain to level of fill plug on right side of differential housing. DISTRIBUTOR: (Engine cool and shutoff) Clean outside with a dry cloth. If necessary, cloth may be moistened with kerosene. Inspect wires for loose connections, brittleness, poor insulation and oil, liquid or other damage. Clean ignition coils at this time using the same method. Also, inspect coil wires in the same manner as distributor wiring. Examine external brake lite parts for cracks or breaks. DRIVE LINE: (Engine cool and shutdown) Block one or more wheels fore and aft to prevent vehicle from rolling. Release all brakes. Visually inspect drive line tubes for damage and/or bent shaft or tube. Inspect for looseness by positioning yourself on creeper with shoulders directly under one end of shaft. Take hold of shaft as close to end as possible with both hands and try to move shaft up and down. Repeat same test at other end of shaft. This test will also show loose pinion bearings.

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8.

-48DT- 4 7/86 9. ENGINE MOUNTS: (Engine cool and shutdown) 'Examine engine mounts for looseness and damage to rubber insulators. FUEL PUMP: (Engine cool and shutdown) Examine -for signs of loose mounting and examine flexible fuel lines for hard or spongy condition. A good hose will have a firm but not hard feel to the finger. Check all lines, solid and flexible, for leaks and secure mounting. RADIO: Examine all accessible components for secure mounting. Examine visible wiring for damage and proper anchorage. STARTER: (Engine cool and shutdown) Examine starter for secure mounting, secure connections and frayed or damaged wiring. Examine all accessible solenoids for proper mounting, loose connections and wire or insulation damage. STEERING COLUMN: Visually inspect outer housing for cracks or breaks. Test for loose mounting by standing on running board or floor and taking a firm grip with one hand on column at the highest point possible; then push away from you and then pull toward you. Any movement of column indicates loose mounting and should be reported as needed for repair. STEERING GEAR AND CONNECTIONS: (Engine shutdown) Position front wheels straight ahead with all weight of vehicle on tires. Have assistant sit in driver's seat and take hold of wheel, and with short, fast motions, approximately six to eight inches on wheel, move wheel back and forth. You can determine if looseness exists by looking at or placing finger on connections, joints, etc. The following list of steering parts can be tested for excessive play by above method: Tierods, drag link, Pitman arm, Pitman arm shaft and nut and loose steering box to frame mounting. On vehicles equipped with power steering, if play is observed at drag link end where the power steering valve is located, a second test is necessary. Second test is made in the same manner as first test, with two additional operations: (1) Start engine. (2) Inspect the one connection only where valve is mounted. Report repair needed if play exists in any area listed. Use care to avoid injury to fingers.

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-49DT- 4 7/86 15. STEERING WHEEL: Inspect for breaks or cracks. Test for looseness by standing on floorboard or sitting in seat, take hold of wheel with both hands one on each side of wheel, pull up and then push down. (Pressure is in same direction with both hands.) Have assistant look for movement of steering-wheel up and down on column. Then with hands in same position on wheel, pull up with one hand, push down with the other hand. Repeat two or three times. (Pressure of hand area in opposite directions.) Have assistant look for movement of steering wheel on column. Report any looseness. TIRES: Measure tread depth at the center of the tire tread with the approved tire thread depth gauge. This is an accurate measuring device calibrated in increments of thirty-seconds (1/32's) of an inch. A reading on the gauge where the black line under the number four (4) is visible above the top of the plastic collar would indicate a tread depth of 1/8" or less and be reported on the F-377 as needing replacement. Other methods to determine tire tread depth should be avoided. (Refer to Tire Replacement Policy and Criteria in the log book "Tire" section.) TRANSMISSION ROAD - AUTOMATIC: Check fluid and maintain full as required (see log book lubrication guide). Check fluid-condition for evidence of fluid or transmission deterioration. The fluid should not exhibit a strong burnt odor, dark color, or suspended debris. The fluid should appear bright red. A comparison to new fluid may be helpful. WHEEL BEARINGS: (Engine shutdown) Grasp the tire at the top and bottom. Push with one hand and pull with the other to check for excessive play. Light Apparatus front and rear wheel bearings. Place chock blocks fore and aft of one wheel to prevent vehicle from rolling, then release brakes. Raise one wheel. Check bearing play by grasping tire at top and bottom and pulling back and forth, or by using a pry bar under tire. If movement is excessive, notify Shops. Note: Do not raise chocked wheel. Engage emergency brake before removing chocks.

16.

17.

18.

-50DT- 4 7/86 19. WIRING: Examine all wiring, rods, linkage, piping, accessories in engine compartment (not specifically mentioned on P.M. sheet) for looseness, wear, interference or need for repair. Current odometer reading: The Department has set-up an orderly schedule for apparatus oil changes and lubrication. Oil and filter changes and chassis lubrication shall be done at the following intervals: .32 OIL CHANGES AND LUBRICATION: Apparatus lubrication, oil and oil filter changes shall be made as follows: Heavy Apparatus: (465 cubic inches or over) shall be lubricated and receive an oil change at 2,000 miles or four months, whichever occurs first. the oil filter shall be changed every 12 months. EXCEPTION: RESERVE HEAVY APPARATUS: Lubricate and change oil at 2,000 miles or six months, whichever occurs first. Change oil filter every 12 months. APPARATUS WITH HOUR TIME-LAPSE METERS: Adhere to manufacturer's recommended hours of use for routine lubrication, oil change, and filter change. Light Apparatus: (Under 465 cubic inches)

20.

EMERGENCY USE: Shall be lubricated at 2,000 miles or four months, whichever occurs first. The engine oil and filter shall be changed at 3,000 miles or four months, whichever occurs first and a can of engine oil additive should be added. These are minimum intervals for lubrication. Extreme weather or hard use may call for shorter intervals between oil and filter changes.

-51DT- 4 7/86 In addition to the preceding checks, it is the responsibility of the light vehicle operator to schedule the following with the light vehicle shops: 1. 2. Engine Tune-up, every 12,000 miles. Transmission maintenance, every 20,000 miles.

Appointments should be made approximately 500 miles before the actual mileage is recorded on the odometer. The following page lists recommended lubrication fluids and lubricants to be used on light vehicles. Also included is a diagram of lubrication points for light vehicles. These should be reviewed.

-52DT-4 7/86 SPECIFICATIONS RECOMMENDED FLUIDS AND LUBRICANTS USAGE


POWER STEERING SYSTEM AND PUMP RESERVOIR GMC FORD DIFFERENTIAL BRAKE SYSTEM AND MASTER CYLINDER PROPELLER SHAFT SLIP JOINT HOOD LATCH ASSEMBLE A. PIVOTS AND SPRING ANCHOR B. RELEASE PAWL HOOD AND DOOR HINGES AUTOMATIC TRANSMISSION SHIFT LINKAGE CHASSIS LUBRICATION

FLUID/LUBRICANT
DEXRON II

90-140 MULTI GRADE DELCO SUPREME 11 FLUID OR DOT-3 CHASIS

A. ENGINE OIL B. CHASSIS GREASE ENGINE OIL ENGINE OIL

CHASSIS GREASE MEETING REQUIREMENTS OF GM 6031-M CODE NO. 8024153 15W-40 MULTI GRADE CODE NO. 6700121 GM LUBRICANT PART #1052497 OR EQUIVALENT DEXRON II AUTOMATIC TRANSMISSION FLUID

ENGINE OIL FILTER PF 35 ENGINE (GASOLINE) OIL ENGINE OIL ADDITIVE CONSTANT VELOCITY UNIVERSAL JOINT AUTOMATIC TRANSMISSION GMC FORD PARKING BRAKE CABLES FRONT WHEEL BEARINGS BODY DOOR HINGE PINS, TAILGATE HINGE AND LINKAGE, FOLDING SEAT FUEL DOOR HINGE

CHASSIS GREASE WHEEL BEARINGS LUBRICANT ENGINE OIL

-53DT-4 7/86 WINDSHIELD WASHER SOLVENT GMC OPTIKLEEN WASHER SOLVENT PART # 1051515 OR EQUIVALENT MIXTURE OF WATER AND HIGH QUALITY ETHYLENE GLYCOL BASE TYPE ANTI-FREEZE CONFORMING TO GM SPEC 1899-M WD-40 SPRAY LUBRICANT OR EQUIVALENT

ENGINE COOLANT

KEY LOCK CYLINDER

APPARATUS CHARACTERISTICS THAT CAN CONTRIBUTE TO ACCIDENTS PRETEST QUESTIONS 1. Heavy and light vehicle hard braking will cause the brakes to heat up. The worst consequence of this is A. B. C. D. 2. Skidding Brake Lag Brake Fade Brake Fanning

The average overall width of a L.A.F.D. triple is approximately A. B. C. D. 6 feet 6 inches 7 feet 8 feet 10 feet

3.

What type brake system is most commonly used on L.A.F.D. heavy apparatus? A. B. C. D. Hydraulic Mechanical Hydro-Mechanical Air

4.

Which factor listed below is the most important in determining the turning radius of a vehicle? A. B. C. D. Length of Wheelbase Length of Vehicle Condition of Power Steering Unit Condition of Steering Gear

5.

The average weight of a modern aerial ladder truck is approximately ________ A. B. C. D. 10 tons 15 tons 20 tons 24 tons

LOS ANGELES CITY FIRE DEPARTMENT DRIVER'S TRAINING MODULE #5 Apparatus characteristics which can contribute to accidents. OBJECTIVE: To learn and discuss some of the characteristics of the Apparatus used by the Los Angeles City Fire Department that may contribute to accidents. This lesson plan will help to identify specific characteristics in certain types of vehicles as well as hazardous characteristics found in all emergency vehicles.

REFERENCES:

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Apparatus Log Books Accident Lesson Plans Safety Bulletins Los Angeles City Fire Department Apparatus operators Training Manual Department of Motor Vehicles Commercial Drivers Supplement

INTRODUCTION:

While driving an emergency vehicle,, driver's must be aware of certain apparatus characteristics that can contribute to accidents. Being familiar with these characteristics can greatly reduce the chance of being involved in a preventable accident. The knowledge gained in this lesson plan will help us all become better defensive drivers due to a greater awareness of the apparatus we operate.

PRESENTATION:

The physical characteristics of the apparatus used by the Los Angeles City Fire Department are constantly changing. Heavy apparatus currently being purchased are taller and wider. Cabs are enclosed, brakes are disc, and the engines deliver higher horsepower. Additionally, Rescue ambulances are taller to facilitate members working inside. This reduces outside overhead clearance. These are but a few of the apparatus characteristics that enhance the Department's emergency capabilities. These characteristics may work for or against the driver depending on their vehicle awareness. This module will discuss some or the many apparatus characteristics that as drivers we should be aware of and consider in our day-to-day driving.

-2DT- 5 7/86 SCENARIO: You are the 200-series engineer on a task force that is "moving up" to another companies quarters. Your company pulls up 'in front of the move-up quarters and you position your apparatus to back into quarters, you observe all safety procedures including placing a member on the tailboard. As you back into quarters, you are watching the rear and are careful to clear-the front doors with your ladders and tailboard. Suddenly, there is a loud "crunch". You turn to look at the member on the tailboard - he turns to look at you and you both look up to see that your wagon battery has been crushed while gouging a deep groove in the overhead roll-up door. Could this accident have been prevented? Prior to backing into any facility all clearances must be checked including left and right sides, overhead and ground clearances. The driver of this apparatus now realizes the importance of knowing all of the characteristics of his apparatus in advance to avoid accidents. I. MECHANICAL CHARACTERISTICS A. Brakes The vehicle operator must be familiar with stopping distances of their vehicles at different-speeds and varying road conditions. The following variables effect brake performance and stopping ability. 1. Brake Fade Improper use or excessive braking will cause the brakes to heat up. "Brake fade" is one of the worst consequences of heat due to excessive, braking. As heat builds up, the lining on the brake shoes begin to melt. As it melts, it turns to liquid that lubricates the space between the shoes and the drum causing the brake drums to glaze. This same heat will cause the drums to expand causing the brake shoes to travel farther to reach the brake drum. It will be necessary to increase pedal pressure in order to stop or slow the vehicle.

-3DT- 5 7/86 2. Drum Brakes VS. Disc Brakes Modern day emergency vehicles may have drum brakes, disc brakes or a combination of both systems. Drum brakes are much more susceptible to brake fade due to the fact that most of the total drum surface is in contact with the brake shoes at any one time. Pads on a disc brake system make contact with a small percent of the disc surface, therefore allowing a major percent of the disc to be cooler. Disc brake systems actually become more efficient as they get hot and expand, making better contact with the pads. 3. Brake Lag Most heavy vehicles use air brakes rather than hydraulic or mechanical brakes. In an air brake system, compressed air furnishes the force that applies the brakes. Depressing the brake pedal opens a valve that releases compressed air from a tank. The pressurized air reaches the rakes through the air lines and forces the brake shoes against the brake drum (or-brake pads against the disc). Depending on the type of vehicle, it will take between 1/4 to 1 second for the air to reach the brakes after you press the foot pedal. This lag means you have to start braking a little earlier than would be required in a vehicle with hydraulic or mechanical brakes. B. Tires Tires and their condition play an important role in how any vehicle handles. 1. Inflation Proper tire inflation cannot be over emphasized. Improperly inflated tires reduce performance and greatly increase the chance of an accident. Steering, braking and cornering are all affected by over or under inflated tires. Tire pressure should be checked when the tires are cold and maintained at recommended pressures.

-4DT-5 7/86 2. Tread Tread patterns, are developed to give traction and cornering ability in rain, dirt and other surface variables. Tread patterns remove foreign matter (water, etc.) between the rubber and the road. Proper tread depth reduces the chance of hydroplanning in wet conditions and increased traction in dry conditions, therefore correct tread depth must be maintained in accordance with L.A.F.D. specifics. II. BLIND SPOTS Every vehicle has its own blind spots. The good driver knows where they are and how to compensate accordingly. Identifying blind spots in each type of apparatus is important (i.e., enclosed cabs create a number of "extra" blind spots from the vertical posts, roof etc..). The use of convex mirrors greatly reduces the blind area on most apparatus. It is important to know the limitations of your mirrors (see illustrations I through IV). Blind spots not covered by mirrors can sometimes be covered by the use of other members on the ground or other locations on the apparatus. A. Mirror Placement - Although we use mirrors to help us see otherwise blind spots. The mirror itself creates a blind spot. This is critical for all driving but especially for emergency responses in intersections. Captain Placement - The Captain in the passenger seat creates a movable blind spot. Passengers may assist by sitting back in their seat and communicate with the driver to reduce area of blind spot. Light Glare - Interior or exterior light glare can create blind spots. Reflection from the sun may cause glare especially on convex windshield areas. Dash or panel lights at night may cause interior glare creating multiple blind spots.

B.

C.

ILLUSTRATION I

CRITICAL AREAS ALWAYS BLIND

ILLUSTRATION I I

BLIND SPOTS-MIRROR PLACEMENT

BLIND

ILLUSTRATION III

WITH FLAT MIRRORS ONLY

BLIND

BLIND

OK
8

OK
3

BLIND

ILLUSTRATION IV

WITH BUBBLE MIRRORS ONLY

NO. 1

RESCUE AMBULANCE CRITICAL AREAS-ALWAYS BLIND


LOW BLIND SPOT DUE TO MIRROR POST

LOW BLIND SPOT DUE TO MIRROR

BLIND

BLIND

BLIND

NO. 2

RESCUE AMBULANCE BLIND SPOTS-MIRROR PLACEMENT

LOW BLIND SPOT DUE TO MIRROR

BLIND WITHOUT REARVIEW MIRROR

NO. 3

RESCUE AMBULANCE WITH FLAT MIRRORS ONLY

BLIND 2

BLIND

3.5

BLIND

NO. 4

RESCUE AMBULANCE WITH BUBBLE MIRRORS ONLY

IN REALITY THIS AREA IS SEEN BY DRIVER

4 FT

4 FT

BLIND

BLIND

15 FT

14 FT

3.5

BLIND

-5DT-5 7/86 III. STEERING All drivers must be aware of the steering limitations of the vehicle being driven. The transition from standard automobile driven to work in the morning to a longer wheelbase fire a apparatus requires an adjustment in steering judgment. Likewise an adjustment is needed when driving different fire apparatus. Wheelbases and turning radiuses will vary between different types and makes of apparatus. Vehicle operators must be familiar with the location of the back wheels. Remember, the rear wheels will cut a tighter arc or path than the front wheels. Modern integral steering components make steering easier with less free play and more accuracy. Power steering also makes driving safer and more comfortable. However, the driver must be aware that power will be lost if the engine stalls, is turned off, or if a power steering belt or hose is broken. IV. APPARATUS CONFIGURATION Discuss the following apparatus and equipment characteristics. Draw on students knowledge and input. Discuss and give examples of actual incidents or problems encountered. Weigh t/Height/Width/Length Weight Height Width Widest point of "older" apparatus was running board and or bumper - - on newer apparatus the widest point continues from bumper to top of cab. Apparatus are now taller due to increased running clearance, and larger rim diameters. Average height of a triple is 10 feet. Average height of a truck is 10 feet, 6 inches. Average weight of a triple is 16 tons. Weight has increased due to 500 gallon tanks. Average weight of a truck is 24 tons.

-6DT-5 7/86 New and old apparatus are approximately equal width although with the mirrors newer apparatus are wider (Ward La France is a prime example). Plumbing and equipment may increase overall Width (keystone valve, discharge gates, ground ladder overhand, etc). Average width of newer trucks and triples is 9 feet, 9 inches. Although the wheelbase and turning radius of newer apparatus may be shorter, overall length may be longer. Average length of a triple is 27 feet. Average length of a truck is 52 feet. Excessive rear overhang on older trucks (approx. 15 feet from tiller wheel). Excessive front overhand on some triples as much as 7 feet, 4 inches from front wheel hub. Varying amounts of overhang, height and weight for some specialized equipment (squirts, snorkels, etc).

Enclosed Cabs V. Reduced overhead visibility. Increased number of "blind spots" due to vertical posts. Reduced ability to communicate with members. Reduced night time visibility due to instrument and exterior light glare. Captain unable to stand up to check for obstructions . Lowered perception of actual road speed. Van type rescue ambulances create their own blind spots.

EQUIPMENT CHARACTERISTICS Overhead clearance of warning devices. Improper adjustment of emergency lights rendering them ineffective. Location and position of siren on apparatus effects its audibility. Mirrors added width to apparatus

-7DT-5 7/86 VI. Improper adjustment of mirrors. Improperly replaced tools or equipment may cause hazards involving the entire apparatus. Equipment, fittings, and valves may be the wides part of the apparatus. Self collision on early model trucks (fender to frame).

INCREASED HORSEPOWER Modern fire apparatus are now equipped with more powerful engines of approximately 445 horsepower. This "extra power" enables the driver to respond more efficiently. However, this same power if not used properly, may create some unsafe situations. Accelerate to greater speeds in less time. Approaching intersections at greater speed. Losing control of the vehicle due to unsafe surface street speeds or road conditions.

Traveling faster than usual saves only a few seconds while increasing the chance of an accident. Rather than driving to an incident at-an excessive speed, it is better to know your first in district and know the shortest and safest route from your location to the incident.

DRIVING UNDER NON-EMERGENCY CONDITIONS AND REHOUSING APPARATUS PRETEST QUESTIONS

1.

Safe driving can be broken down into three basic categories. These categories are: a. b. c. d. Foresight, attitude, and safe vehicle Alertness, good judgment, safe vehicle Safe vehicle, good physical condition of driver, attitude. Attitude, good judgment, foresight.

2.

When driving in the fog, tests show that an object will appear to be closer then it actually is during clear visibility. a. b. True False

3.

When a rain first begins, accidents increase dramatically. Extremely slick road conditions usually last for approximately________ to _________ after the rain begins. a. b. c. d. 10 to 15 min. 30 to 45 min. 1 hour to 2 hours 3 hours to 4 hours

4.

If brakes are unevenly water-soaked (one side takes on water but the other remains dry) when applied, the brakes will pull the vehicle violently to: a. b. c. The wet side The dry side Either side, brakes-will pull evenly.

5.

The type of driver that demands the right-of-way, parks his vehicle illegally and makes turns from an improper lane would be described as: a. b. c. d. Egotist Show-off over-emotional Well adjusted

LOS ANGELES CITY FIRE DEPARTMENT DRIVER'S TRAINING MODULE #6

Driving Under Non-Emergency Conditions and Rehousing Apparatus OBJECTIVES: To teach the basic skills required to drive Fire Department apparatus safely during non-emergency conditions. To teach members the basic principles of collision avoidance and vehicle malfunction as it pertains to vehicle accidents. To review Department policy pertaining to backing and rehousing of Department vehicles. REFERENCES Apparatus operators Training Manual (Chapters 3 and 4) California Vehicle Code Sportsman Like Driving - 4th Edition Emergency Ambulance Driving Lesson Plan, chalkboard, and chalk. The purpose of this Module is to teach basic driving skills and to reemphasize the responsibility of each member to operate Department vehicles in a courteous and safe manner. All Los Angeles City Fire Department personnel are required to drive Department vehicles under non-emergency conditions. Under the most routine of circumstances, we must use caution and be skilled in the art of defensive driving. The Department constantly stresses the importance of defensive driving techniques. We are all aware of the dangers of driving under emergency conditions and this awareness must extend into our routine driving activities.

TEACHING AIDS: INTRODUCTION:

-1DT-6 7/86 PRESENTATION: I. DRIVER ATTITUDE Modern traffic situations dictate that Fire Department apparatus drivers possess both driving skill and proper attitude in order to drive safely and professionally. Of the two, attitude is the most important component. Safe driving can be broken down into three basic categories, with good attitude making up 60 percent of safe driving practices. Safe Vehicle Good physical condition of driver Good attitude

Records show that some drivers who possess exceptional skill are repeatedly involved in accidents. Other drivers, although less adept, have good safety records, a result of a proper attitude when driving. Ability, combined with training, develops the proper skills. Driving skills, combined with a good attitude, make for good driving performance. Thus, attitude is the basic element that influences all other aspects of driving. The professional driver who gets behind the wheel demonstrates the following characteristics: Good courtesy Acceptance of responsibility Consideration for others, including vehicle occupants Good judgment Alertness Foresight Good attitude toward other highway users and traffic laws.

Studies show that in 80 to 90 percent of all vehicle accidents, emotional disturbance is a contributing cause. Safe driving must be a habit that won't vary with your emotions!

-2DT-6 7/86 II. PSYCHOLOGICAL FACTORS AFFECTING DRIVING Studies made by the Department of Transportation and by commercial concerns operating large fleets of trucks and cars, show that some drivers suffer emotional or other disturbances that make them accident-prone. on a fleet of vehicles, it was shown that a small group of accident-prone drivers proved responsible for most of the accidents. Any person may be temporarily accident-prone due to some temporary condition. Some people are generally unfit to drive because habitually wrong attitudes or emotional weaknesses make them poor risks as drivers. Some of these factors are: A. Individual Differences No two persons behave in exactly the same way. Each person develops a special combination of abilities, habits, and attitudes, depending on their background. How can you avoid the mental twists or psychological weak spots that produce driver behavior that causes most accidents? How can you develop a drivers behavior that is mature, professional and shows good judgment? B. Egotist Has psychological make-up of a child. Type of driver who considers nothing but their own interests and immediate desires. May be recognized by such characteristics as: Demanding right-of-way Parking vehicle illegally Cutting in to fast after passing a car Making turns from an improper lane

-3DT-6 7/86 C. Show-off Like the egotist, the show-off discloses that they have never quite grown up. The show-off is competitive and boastful, often suffering from a sense of inferiority which is covered up by trying to appear superior. The show-off is a poor risk driver because of driving practices like the following: Driving too fast for conditions Driving more recklessly the larger their audience Boasts of vehicle's speed, power and own skill Boasting of the time it takes to get to a location Passing red lights and stop signs with an air of bravado Passing cars at risky places and talking about their luck

D. Over-Emotional The uncontrolled or over-emotional driver is another sign of immaturity. Most adults learn to control their emotions and remain calm under stress. Some persons never develop the maturity to overcome this psychological weakness to become a good driver. They take the slightest criticism as a personal offense. Unimportant trifles seem big to them. Persons with stunted emotional development show driving characteristics as follows: Lack presence of mind in emergencies Get overly nervous in unusual situations Lose their temper and,, consequently, their judgment Show impatience in traffic jams Express anger by driving recklessly Easily distracted from the main business of driving Talks loud, or uses profanity

-4DT-6 7/86 E. Focus Fixation This term refers to the strong tendency to steer in the direction to which your attention is focused. The muscles of your body tend to adjust toward the goal of your attention. The person who can not control their attention and constantly turns their head toward distractions will unconsciously steer in that direction. Situations that threaten to distract the uncontrolled attention of drivers may be: III. Scene of an accident Novel things in route A member of the opposite sex, in or out of the car A back-seat driver Radio messages Sharp light reflections

PSYCHOLOGICAL MAKE-UP OF A TOP-NOTCH DRIVER The professional driver not only has the motor skills to safely operate a vehicle, but balance and self-control. This driver has good social attitudes, good adjustment and maturity. These characteristics show up in the following areas: A. Acceptance of Responsibility The driver that shows a strong acceptance of responsibility demonstrates fairness and a desire for consideration. It means that the driver senses the traffic situation, not merely from their personal point of view, but from the point of view of the other driver. Their good attitude and sound actions reflect their mental and emotional maturity. Sound driver instruction helps produce this kind of driver.

-5DT- 6 7/86 B. Good Judgment Good judgment is not the mysterious "Gift" that some people possess. It comes from a good background of sound training. A background of driver education, sound training, and experience in well supervised practice driving sessions build both skill and sound attitudes that develop good judgment. The following examples characterize a driver with good judgment: Constantly sizing up the traffic situation Has traffic imagination and insight Makes decisions and reactions to help avoid potential problems.

C. Controlled Attention Any member operating a vehicle must control their attention to the act of driving. The member must "drive ahead" considering everything that is happening in their whole field of vision that could possible affect the driving picture: Has good "attention span" Drives well ahead Provides an adequate space cushion Does not let distractions affect their driving performance. Sees the total traffic pattern

Control, whether of emotions, attitudes, or attention, is a distinguishing characteristic of the person who is psychologically mature.

-6DT-6 7/86 D. Foresight The best drivers develop a high degree of traffic imagination and foresight. They think ahead, keep control and avoid trouble by recognizing trouble-in-the-making. These drivers have the ability to recognize situations of potential danger and use traffic imagination and foresight to avoid a possible accident. E. Alertness The good driver is continuously alert while driving, and is continuously vigilant as to what is happening. They do not allow them to daydream or loss attentiveness. Keeping alert involves more than just keeping awake. It means being vigilant concerning all factors in the driving situation. F. Other Factors The mechanical operations of driving a fire apparatus or light vehicle have been improved, better manual and automatic transmissions, better brakes, improved steering, etc. The mechanical operations of driving are not difficult for most members to learn. However, there are at least five important factors, other than mechanical skills, that make expert driving a challenge: The power and limitations of the vehicle The physical features of roads and streets The behavior of other highway users Changing light and weather conditions The make-up of the driver

-7DT-6 7/86 Automotive engineering may make operating a vehicle easier, and improved safety and warning devices may help lessen the hazards of operating a vehicle. But, in spite of all such improvements, first-rate driving will always demand a proper attitude. The mental make-up of a driver is often more important than their skill. IV. PHYSIOLOGICAL FACTORS AFFECTING DRIVING A. General Physical Condition A person in good physical condition will give a better driving performance than those in poor physical condition. A physical problem as minor as a headache or personal worry can greatly reduce a person's ability to drive. Alertness may be lessened, judgment dulled, and reaction time slowed down. Like the other aspects of our job, it is important to be in the best physical condition possible for safe driving performance. B. Age As a person grows old, psychological changes occur that effect driving performance. Some of these deficiencies are: eyesight or hearing losses, high blood pressure, temporary lapse of attention, and stiffness of movement. As you grow older your reaction time becomes slower and your resistance and recovery rate from glare is much slower. In order to compensate for these psychological changes, older drivers must use extra caution when driving at night or when inclement weather reduces visibility. The older driver must also reduce speed when operating a vehicle to compensate for their slower reaction time.

-8DT-6 7-86 There are great individual differences in the physical and mental effects of aging. With some persons, interference may begin to show in their 50's, with others, not even in their late 60's. The older driver has certain advantages which may compensate for these physiological changes. Some of these are: Experience Judgment Sense of responsibility Tendency toward caution

But the chief compensations for the lowered driving efficiency and reduced safety of the older driver are lowered speeds, greater caution, and constant attention to traffic conditions. C. Fatigue Serious fatigue can make a driver incompetent. Drivers struggling against fatigue will have a loss of judgment, slower reaction time, less resistance to glare, and a significant reduction in driving efficiency. D. Eye Sight Every driver should know just how efficient each major aspect of their sense of vision is. The greatest danger lies in those weaknesses which are unknown to the driver. For safe and efficient driving, your eyes must give clear, quick, accurate pictures of traffic situations. A study by the American Optometry Association showed that 30% of thirty-year old drivers had visual problems, as do 48% of the forty-year old drivers and 71% of fifty-year old drivers.

-9DT-6 7/86 You can see the tremendous importance of good clear vision and how it relates to your driving performance. The following are important aspects of good vision: 1. Visual acuity - the ability to see details clearly. 2. Peripheral vision - the entire area which you can see to both sides while looking straight ahead. 3. Color perception - the ability or inability to distinguish colors. One person in twenty has some difficulty in distinguishing certain colors. Defective color vision is about 5 times as frequent in men as women. 4. Depth perception - refers to a persons ability to judge the distance between you and an object which you see. 5. Eye fatigue - continuous use of your eyes for long periods of time puts a strain on the muscles and results in eye fatigue. Such fatigue can cause poor driving due to reduced ability to judge distance, field of vision, and attention span. E. Perception time is the time from sighting a situation to the time that you recognize the situation. As an average, it is considered that perception time is approximately 3/4 of a second. F. Reaction time - is the time a situation arises to the time the driver identifies the hazard, predicts its influence, decides on an action, and begins executing that action. This is considered REACTION TIME.

-10DT-6 7/86 For the alert driver, reaction time is about 3/4 of a second. G. The Smith System - The Smith System was developed to help drivers properly use their eyes while driving. This system has a 5-step formula to (1) create a space cushion wherever you driver, and (2) acquire and maintain visibility all around you. (See Drivers Training Article #12) These 5 rules are as follows 1. Aim high in steering a. Center yourself well in lane b. Appropriate lane choice c. Safe path on turns (a chance to analyze traffic ahead) 2. Get the "Big" picture a. See delays well in advance b. Make smooth stops and turns 3. Keep your eyes moving a. Dispose of hazards promptly b. Check sides and rear c. Check before starting at light (controlled intersection) (prevent over relaxing or concentrating) (central cones) - focus of clear vision peripheral (fringe - lights, movement, contrast, shape, sizes) 4. Leave yourself on "out a. b. c. d. Keep a stopping/swerve space Prevent tailgating Safe speed near intersections Safe speed next to curb parked lane (adjustments "Don't let your vehicle get ahead of your eyes")

-11DT-6 7/86 5. Make sure they see you a. Tap horn when in doubt b. Avoid blind spot c. Make sure signal is heeded IV. CORRECT POSITIONING AND SIGNALING A. Correct Positioning The perceptual driver will ensure that there is enough room between their vehicle and all other traffic around so that they can avoid anything that may occur. Members should always strive to maintain an empty space around their vehicle. It is also very important to have an escape route, somewhere to go when things go wrong. The professional driver should always strive to keep as many options open as possible for their vehicle. Rarely, while moving, should a good driver be caught with traffic close in front, behind, or alongside. When a critical situation arises, the driver who provided an escape route can usually avoid or reduce the severity of a collision. An example of an insufficient forward escape route might be the instance of being stopped in a line of traffic and then receiving an emergency call. If you pulled so far forward that you cannot turn out of the traffic, you are essentially trapped. A good rule of thumb to help determine how far away to stop from the vehicle in front of you, is to be able to see the rear tires of the car in front. It is also very important not to drive in someones blind spot. Typical blind spots include the right rear side of most sedan type vehicles, the rear of trucks and tractor-trailer apparatus, and low sides of most high cab vehicles.

-12DT-6 7/86 B. Proper Signaling Correct signaling is an important part of driving. Every driver has the responsibility of making sure all driving actions can be interpreted easily. Department drivers need to signal their intentions clearly when slowing or turning, or to position the vehicles so that it can telegraph their intentions. The timing of signals is very important. They must be given soon enough to be observed and acted upon. When operating an aerial ladder truck the communication teamwork between the apparatus operator and member tillering is critical. Correct signaling and position of the apparatus place an important role in operating the vehicle safely. C. Transition from Emergency to Non-emergency When directed to "discontinue" or "continue non-emergency" to an incident, it is important to make a smooth transition. This transition requires timing , proper positioning of the apparatus, and correct signaling. The following guidelines will ensure a smooth transition while causing the least confusion to other motorists. 1. Continuing non-emergency - When directed to "continue non-emergency", maintain your emergency response until conditions. permit a safe and proper transition. obviously, when responding into oncoming traffic or approaching an intersection, it is not the time to make this transition. The transition must be completed in the safest and most inconspicuous manner possible.

-13DT-6 7/86 When making the transition from emergency to non-emergency continue non-emergency using the safest and most direct route. It is not necessary to turn off from your predetermined response route. This practice adds to response time and may confuse other motorists and drivers of emergency vehicles following the lead apparatus. 2. Return by Radio - When directed to "discontinue" an emergency response, the transition shall be made in a safe and inconspicuous manner. Continue responding emergency while preparing to turn at the next intersection. You may turn either right or left; however, a series of right turns is usually safer and easier than a series of left turns. Turn off emergency lights and siren after completing the turn and clearing the intersection. If an intersection is not within a reasonable distance, a mid-block shut-down may be appropriate. The key to a safe transition is the location and position of apparatus and proper signaling to warn unsuspecting motorist of the change. D. Use of Horn Many Fire Department members consider the air horn an effective device in warning motorists of responding apparatus. It is also a useful tool in warning pedestrians or other motorist of impending danger. A light tap on the horn to warn an unsuspecting pedestrian or motorist is preferable to a hard stop, which might invite a rear-end collision. V. TOTAL STOPPING DISTANCE Total stopping distance is determined by three factors: vehicle braking, perception time, and reaction time.

-14DT-6 7/86 These three conditions depend on several factors, such as: type and condition of vehicle, street surface conditions, driver's physical and mental limitations, and speed, of the vehicle. Once the brakes are applied, the vehicle will require time and distance to stop. The energy needed to slow a vehicle is significant and increases tremendously as speeds increase. A 30,000 pound fire apparatus traveling at 45 miles per hour produces a force of 61,000 pounds. For example, when reaction time and stopping distance are combined, a heavy two-axle vehicle traveling 60 m.p.h. will take approximately 436 feet to stop. Because of these factors, members driving heavy apparatus should be concerned about emergency stops of apparatus traveling over 30 miles per hour. VI. FOLLOWING DISTANCES In order to drive safely, a driver must leave an adequate distance between their vehicle and that of the vehicle ahead. What is adequate distance? To determine adequate spacing between you and the vehicle in front of you two factors are considered: reaction time and stopping time. When determining following distance it is only necessary to allow enough room to stop within the same distance as the vehicle in front, minus their reaction time. The general rule used for this calculation is three vehicle lengths for every 10 miles per hour for heavy apparatus and two vehicle lengths for light apparatus. A system for determining safe following distance is the three-second rule. Most defensive driving courses teach the two-second rule for determining following distance for passenger cars. But, due to the size and weight of todays fire apparatus and rescue ambulances (i.e., truck 24 tons, engine - 16 tons and rescue 6000

-15DT-6 7/86 lbs.) additional stopping time and distance is required. By using the three second rule the driver allows the rear bumper of the vehicle in front to pass a stationary object and then counts off three seconds. If the front of your vehicle passes the object before three seconds, you are driving TO CLOSE. VII. PASSING SAFELY Passing is a common maneuver, yet one of the most dangerous. A driver executing a pass has several factors that must be considered before attempting to pass another vehicle. The following factors affect the ability of a driver to pass safely: 1. Visibility - Weather - Curves - Hills - Sunken grade - Intersections Road Information - Signs - Road markings - Road configurations Vehicle Characteristics - Ability to accelerate - Steering ability - Braking ability

2.

3.

Being passed is an art in itself which requires good judgment and courtesy. Do not become judgmental or upset with passing drivers. Such emotions can lead to increased tension level and adversely affect your driving performance. The following precautions should be followed when being passed:

-16DT-6 7/86 Be aware of all traffic around you. If the other driver attempts an unsafe pass, it is your obligation to help all vehicles avoid a collision. Remain at a constant speed when being passed or slow down if necessary. Never speed up when being passed.

Passing is a dangerous maneuver if not performed properly. It is important for the driver to evaluate all of the conditions before attempting to pass another vehicle. VIII. ADVERSE CONDITIONS Any member who is responsible for driving Fire Department apparatus will soon find themselves driving in adverse conditions. Adverse conditions can range from simply driving at dusk to driving in a freezing rain. Many motorists shy away from such adverse conditions and refuse to drive in them. As emergency vehicle operators we do not have that luxury. With experience, the driver can look upon adverse conditions as a challenge. This challenge comes in taking on adverse driving conditions and driving safely within them. A. Vehicle condition The condition of Department apparatus is always important but becomes critical when operating under adverse weather conditions. 1. Brakes - Vehicle brakes must be in good operating condition and kept as dry a possible. Some drivers feel they can stop faster by pumping the brakes when operating on a slick road surface. By using this technique a driver might actually be inviting trouble. By using the pumping action, the driver may not be able to sense when the brakes are locking up, thus becoming more likely to skid the tires. When this occurs the driver spends alternating moments of braking

-17DT-6 7/86 inefficiently by skidding and then moments of coasting. Such practice can increase stopping distances significantly. Wheel lockup is also more likely when pumping the brakes, especially disc brakes, on slick roads because the brakes do not release immediately when the pedal is released. By immediately pushing the brake pedal back down the driver can actually induce brake lockup. 2. Tires - Tires play an extremely important role in how the vehicle handles. Tires designed for the highway have a tread designed to give cornering ability and traction when encountering rain, snow, dirt, and other road surface variables. The main purpose for the tread pattern is to remove foreign matter such as water from under the ribs. The greater the tread depth the less likely the vehicle is to hydroplane. Some Department apparatus are equipped with radial ply tires. This tire has a more pliable sidewall which flexes more easily and has the benefit of "belts" to stabilize the tread. Thus traction is increased. Tires used by Department apparatus are designed for load carry capability. They are not designed for high speed driving. Proper tire inflation is critical to vehicle performance. An under inflated tire will produce more squirm and tends to roll under the vehicle as it reacts, to centrifugal force. The under inflated tire will cause the tire to cup in the middle, thereby increasing tire wear and making the tire more likely to hydroplane. Under inflated rear dual tires may also come in contact with each other, causing significant

-18DT-6 7/86 heat build-up that may cause tires to ignite. 3. Windshield - It is imperative that the windshield be kept as clean as possible at all times but especially in adverse weather conditions. Any vision problems encountered during adverse conditions will be magnified by a dirty windshield. In open as well as closed cab apparatus the inside surface of the windshield must also receive frequent attention. A film can build up on the-inside windshield surface and reduce night visibility. The windshield wipers should always be in good repair. Windshield wipers should be inspected weekly for wear as specified in the service section of Department apparatus log books. B. Driving at night Although night driving may seem routine to many drivers, night driving under any weather condition is more dangerous. While only 30% of all accidents happen at night, 47% of all fatal accidents occur at night. Since visual factors are reduced at night, even good drivers tend to discontinue the use of their proper seeing habits and begin to stare straight ahead. While most drivers only look in the field of vision illuminated by their headlights, good drivers will look beyond their lights for the shapes not yet illuminated. By looking ahead, you may be able to see hazards much earlier. Obviously, you should avoid looking at the headlights of the oncoming traffic. Instead, you should look at the white line painted along the side of most roads, often called the fog line.

-19DT-6 7/86 Lights can be used on the high beam position to facilitate night vision, but they must be dimmed at least 500 feet ahead of an approaching vehicle and 300 feet behind a vehicle you are following. Additionally, use of your bright lights will actually mask sight of your emergency lights if responding emergency. C. Twilight Driving Driving in twilight is actually more dangerous then night driving. Almost one-third of all motor vehicle accidents occur between hours of 4 p.m. and 8 p.m. Twilight is that condition which occurs twice a day. First thing in the morning and when the sun sets at nightfall. It is during the evening twilight that it is most dangerous to drive, since the light is continuously diminishing. When driving in the twilight use your sun visor to aid in shielding your eyes from the sun's brilliance. Do not wear sunglasses during sunset. Since visibility is reduced during twilight, the driver must slow down and allow extra time for recognition and reaction to hazards. Department members must exercise proper visual habits and be especially watchful for pedestrians during the twilight periods. D. Fog Fog is an interesting phenomenon that greatly reduces visibility one of the most frightening affects of fog is the distortion it causes in depth perception. Tests have shown that an object at 15 yards will appear to be 30 yards away in fog. This affect increases as the distance increases.

-20DT-6 7/86 When the eyes have nothing to look at, they tend to focus at a very short distance (usually about ten feet). So, just like any other adverse driving condition, you must slow down. However, you must also be careful that the slowing process does not occur to rapidly to avoid being rear-ended. In fog, headlights should be used but only on low beams. The brilliance of high beams creates a glare that increases light but actually reduces depth of field. In fog, tiny water droplets will build-up on the windshield. This build-up of moisture can easily go unnoticed because of the poor quality of contrast present in fog. This build-up will further reduce visibility, so windshield wipers, along with the defroster on the inside, should be used. The road itself can be very difficult to see in fog. By keeping your eye on the fog line to the right of the road, you can keep yourself lined up with the road. It will also help you maintain your lane and reduce the fear of crossing over the center divider. E. Rain (Impaired Traction) Rain is probably the most common condition a driver faces that impairs traction. Because it is so common, many motorists don't give it the respect they should. It takes twice as long to stop on a wet street as it does to stop on a dry one. A driver needs to be extremely careful right after a rain starts, especially if there has been a long, dry spell prior to the rain. It is interesting to note that when a rain first begins, accidents increase dramatically during the first half-hour. Extremely slick conditions usually last for approximately one-half to three-quarters of an

-21DT-6 7/86 hour after the rain begins and then tapers off to a point where the wet street is only twice as slick as it would be if it were dry. This is due to the fact that within this period, the rain has had time to wash off any accumulation of dirt, fine rubber dust, and oil form the road surface. Standing water can also present several problems for the driver. A vehicle entering water that is standing on the road will suddenly decelerate since the water acts as a large brake. This resistance can, of course, force the vehicle into a path other than that which is intended by the driver. If both front tires hit a large puddle at the same time, the affect will be that the vehicle will be forced off the crown of the road or the bank of the curve. If the tires on only one side of the vehicle enter deep water, the vehicle will be pulled in that direction, since that side will suddenly have more resistance. Such rapid or uneven deceleration can cause partial loss of control of the apparatus and if driving a rescue ambulance it can also throw Paramedics sitting or kneeling in the vehicle off balance, potentially causing further injury to the patient or to the Paramedics themselves. Standing water can also affect the brakes. As the water is entered some of it will find its way into the brake drums wetting both the drums and the brake shoes. Wet brakes will dramatically extend the distance it takes to slow a vehicle. Even worse, if the brakes become unevenly water-soaked (one side takes on water but the other remains dry) when applied, the brakes will pull violently to the dry side, possibly setting up a skid.

-22DT-6 7/86 This condition can be avoided by the driver knowing the streets in the district and preplanning non-emergency driving to avoid these areas of standing water or enter them slowly. Once you have left the puddle, lightly apply pressure to the brake pedal to see if the brakes work and if they pull evenly. If there is a problem caused by water on the shoes, it can be quickly cleared by driving for a block or two with the left foot slightly depressing the brake pedal. The pressure should be just enough to make the shoes contact the drums or disc. Heat generated will quickly evaporate the water.

FRICTION

DRY

RAIN

RAIN DRY STOPPED TIME

Rainy weather can also create visual problems not associated with the windshield. Mirrors cause problems since they are not wiped dry by a blade. Water beading up on the mirrors will distort any image that is seen. For this reason, always double check your mirrors before taking any action. Occasionally, wipe the mirrors, and always try to dry them when you must back the vehicle.

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DT-6 11/07

During rainy weather it becomes difficult for drivers to tell their position on the road, since it is hard to see lane markings on the street. Additionally, at night, lights are reflected from the wet pavement, adversely affecting night vision and distorting the appearance of the road. Certainly driving in adverse conditions requires Department drivers to be at their peak performance. The keys to performing safely under adverse driving conditions are SLOW DOWN, use proper visual habits and stay relaxed behind the wheel. IX. BACKING APPARATUS A. Backing Safety Although backing doesn't seem difficult for most drivers, it often results in an avoidable accident. Nationwide, with rescue ambulances alone, backing accidents account for 85 percent of all single-vehicle collisions. Although backing accidents seldom result in serious personal injury, such accidents do account for a great deal of expensive repairs and "down time" of Department apparatus. The dangers of backing can be minimized by using caution, understanding a few basic principles and following approved Department policy on backing procedures. Because of its hazards, the driver of light or heavy apparatus should avoid backing when possible. It is often safer to drive around the block than to back the vehicle. The major contributing factor to backing accidents is the lack of good visibility.

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DT-6 11/07

Certainly an important technique of backing is the use of mirrors. Mirror usage allows the driver to monitor both sides and still keep their eye on the front of the vehicle. Using mirrors on any vehicle requires some getting used to. Mirrors, at their best, are limited in their visibility and can distort images. Some apparatus are equipped with convex or "fish-eye" mirrors to widen the field of vision. The convex mirrors distort depth perception and should not be used for actual backing. As a driver, your best aid in backing heavy apparatus is your safety spotter(s). Non-emergency backing should never take place without the assistance of this vitally important person(s). The professional driver realizes they have nothing to prove by backing rapidly or without the aid of a spotter. Backing is hazardous, and as drivers, members should minimize the risks involved when backing Department apparatus. B. Analyze Backing and Rehousing Procedure Station Commanders shall periodically review their procedure for rehousing apparatus from a safety standpoint and make certain all members understand and follow Department approved procedures. DEVELOP GENERAL RULES 1. Ideally, one member shall be positioned in each traffic lane. 2. One member shall be positioned as a safety spotter in the most advantageous position (on or off side) outside of the apparatus hazard zone. Hazard zone is defined as the area 15 feet behind the apparatus and 3 feet to each side of the apparatus while the apparatus is moving backwards. 3. Pedestrian traffic shall be checked from both directions.

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4. Apparatus should not be moved until it is safe to do so. Note overhead obstructions, traffic and your blind spots. ALWAYS have someone as a safety spotter. All warning lights shall be activated. If backing at night, backup and/or pickup lights should be used to illuminate the area. 5. All members stay alert. Backing apparatus into quarters, especially at night, is a dangerous situation. 6. If an alarm is received while backing into quarters, back apparatus off of the street and start the new response from quarters. Stopping the backing operation in the street to respond to another incident is confusing to the apparatus operators, traffic control personnel and particularly to civilian motorists. 7. Station Commanders shall control all phases of the operation, in accordance with Department policy. Have firm backing procedures and utilize them. Most backing accidents are caused by inadequate communications or a breakdown of established procedures. C. Backing Heavy Apparatus As previously explained, backing presents many hazards and therefore, should be an option of last resort. However, should the need arise, the following guidelines shall be adhered to when backing heavy apparatus: A safety officer, normally the Company Commander - shall control overall backing operations and be in a position to monitor movement of the apparatus, and assure that no department member or civilian is placed at risk during backing operations. The Apparatus Driver shall check for clearance on both sides, as well as vertical clearance. When safe to do so and after receiving the all clear from safety personnel, back apparatus in a slow controlled manner. Other available members shall perform the duties of "traffic control."

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A Safety spotter - shall normally be positioned opposite of the Safety Officer and outside the apparatus hazard zone. In this position, the safety personnel are ready to immediately signal the driver to stop, should any condition present itself as being unsafe. A double, closed fist with crossed arms, forming an x, shall be given to cause the driver to immediately stop the apparatus. The standard bell signals shall be used as follows if apparatus is equipped with tether for the safety spotter: 1 bell ..STOP 2 bells ..FORWARD 3 bells ..REVERSE

Use of Tether is optional, its use should be considered based on the overall safety of the operation.
Traffic Control - In adherence to the California Vehicle Code, Section 2801 and Department policy, a helmet shall be worn at all times when directing traffic. Begin by standing clear of traffic, yet facing it. Do not turn your back on traffic at any time. Wait for a break in traffic before stepping out into the street. As you proceed into the street, give clear and concise signals to stop traffic. This can be accomplished by extending both arms toward traffic with hands in an upright position, palms facing traffic. Ideally, one member should be positioned in each lane to be stopped. If at night, use Department approved traffic director flashlights. Motion flashlight up and down, not side to side. A side-to-side motion misdirects motorists into thinking you want them to pass to the side of the apparatus. This could produce a potentially dangerous situation. Release traffic only after apparatus is completely clear from blocked lanes and it is safe to do so.

DT-6 11/07 - 27 -

D.

Rehousing Heavy Apparatus Upon arriving at quarters, pull the apparatus to the side of the street with all emergency lights on. The Captain shall exit the rig and consider the following: - Has house security been maintained? - Are apparatus doors fully open and secure? - Is apparatus floor clear? - Is the area clear of pedestrians? - Are there any overhead obstructions? The Captain oversees entire operation as other members perform duties previously stated in "backing heavy apparatus." Each station shall establish a specific rehousing procedure that is uniform on all shifts and approved by the Battalion Commanders.

E.

Backing and Rehousing of Ambulances When positioning a rescue ambulance, always attempt to position vehicle in such a manner that will allow for" forward egress. If backing is necessary, the following procedures and guidelines shall be observed. The driver shall have the Paramedic/Attendant stand behind the vehicle and guide the vehicle back using verbal and/or visual signals to warn the driver of hazards that might not be seen and to indicate the most desirable direction of travel. If it is not practical for Paramedic/Attendant to assist, the driver shall:

1. Have other fire department personnel, or perhaps a police officer that is on-scene assist with the procedure.
2. If no emergency personnel are on scene, request the assistance of an adult citizen to help with the procedure.

-28DT-6 11/07

3. If no one is immediately available to assist the driver in backing the vehicle, the driver shall get out of the vehicle, check the back of the vehicle and the area to be used for the procedure. a. In this situation the vehicle should only be moved if the vehicle or its occupants are in immediate danger or it is absolutely safe to do so. The driver shall check all mirrors for any obstructions and at the same time establish eye contact with Paramedic/ Attendant positioned to the right rear of the apparatus. Keep foot on brake while shifting to reverse to prevent any lunging of apparatus. Continually watch mirrors, keeping eye contact with attendant, move apparatus slowly and smoothly, checking all-sides as well as vertical clearance. If any condition is unsafe - STOP and WAIT - until safe to proceed with your backing maneuver. F. Backing and Rehousing of Suburbans and/or light vehicles with passenger: When positioning a Suburban and/or light vehicle, always attempt to position vehicle in such a manner that will allow for" forward egress. If backing is necessary, the following procedures and guidelines shall be observed. The driver shall have the passenger stand behind the vehicle and guide the vehicle back using verbal and/or visual signals to warn the driver of hazards that might not be seen and to indicate the most desirable direction of travel. If it is not practical for the passenger to assist, the driver shall: 1. Have other fire department personnel, or perhaps a police officer that is on scene assist with the procedure. 2. If no emergency personnel are on scene, request the assistance of an adult citizen to help with the procedure.

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3. If no one is immediately available to assist the driver in backing the vehicle, the driver shall get out of the vehicle, check the back of the vehicle and the area to be used for the procedure. a. In this situation the vehicle should only be moved if the vehicle or its occupants are in immediate danger or it is absolutely safe to do so. The driver shall check all mirrors for any obstructions and at the same time establish eye contact with the passenger positioned to the right rear of the apparatus. Keep foot on brake while shifting to reverse to prevent any lunging of apparatus. Continually watch mirrors, keeping eye contact with attendant, move apparatus slowly and smoothly, checking all-sides as well as vertical clearance. If any condition is unsafe - STOP and WAIT - until safe to proceed with your backing maneuver. X. COLLISION AVOIDANCE Statistics point out that one in four drivers will be involved in a major vehicle accident sometime in their lives. Although formal driver training on how to handle apparatus and collision avoidance can go a long way towards preventing accidents, Department members may still be involved in a collision. Collisions can happen to anyone, even those drivers with the best visual habits and safest driving records. Accidents dont have to be the fault of Department members; sometimes they cannot be avoided. However, an accidents severity can almost always be lessened if the driver does one thing. The member operating the apparatus must continue to drive the vehicle until it comes to a complete stop. A good driver will be able to differentiate between those situations they might be able to avoid and those that cant be avoided entirely. In either case, the driver will continue to drive the vehicle in order to lessen damage and injury.

-29DT-6 7/86 Accidents are not planned, they just happen. But, members can plan how to avoid accidents by identifying escape routes, and to some degree, practicing collision avoidance. The time an accident is developing is a poor time to start action planning. Get into the practice of looking for escape routes for different types of conflicts while driving. On occasion, take time to look at other vehicles on the road and ask yourself, "What could I do to avoid a collision if the vehicle stopped at the intersection suddenly pulled out in front of me?" Such questions should incorporate as many different situations as possible, with a wide variety of surrounding conditions. When a collision is unavoidable, drivers can often choose at what angle they are going to hit. By exercising this choice, damage and injury can be greatly reduced. A head-on collision must be avoided if at all possible. Through proper action, most collisions can be avoided. There are three things a driver can do to avoid a collision: A. Braking - of the three alternatives, braking is probably the most commonly employed since it is instinctive. In braking the vehicle, operators must keep in mind that braking requires a great deal of time and distance to stop a fire apparatus or rescue ambulance. If the brakes are locked up, the distance increases dramatically. If the brakes are applied to hard, you must rapidly release the pedal and then instantly reapply it but to a lesser degree. Such reaction, unless practiced, is nearly impossible. The important point is that you must have distance available to you for braking. If required distance is unavailable, another alternative must be implemented.

-30DT-6 7/86 B. Acceleration - the time may come when, after you have already entered an intersection, you observe someone who is going to collide with you and your only choice will be to accelerate, out running the collision. In such situations, all the driver has to do is recognize the problem in time, step down on the accelerator, and steer. However, at slow speeds, in light vehicles (i.e., sedans, plug buggies, etc.) to some degree, the driver must temper this action to avoid applying too much torque to the rear tires, causing them to spin. Of course, acceleration is not as viable an alternative for heavy apparatus as it is for light vehicles. C. Steering out of the way - there are many situations where steering out of the way is the only alternative to avoid an accident, but it is seldom thought of since braking is so instinctive. Additionally, most drivers do not realize how far they can "bend" a vehicle with great efficiency, that is, to move it laterally the distance needed in the least amount of space. This maneuver has to be executed properly. Most drivers have a fear that in doing so the vehicle will flip over. This is rarely the case, since almost every vehicle will start to slide (losing traction with its rear tires) before it will roll over. Faced with a head-on collision, a glancing blow would certainly be preferable. Collision avoidance training requires a properly set-up course and the direct supervision of a qualified advanced driving instructor. However, a discussion of the techniques involved follows:

-31DT- 6 7/86 For most drivers initially attempting such a maneuver, it would seem logical that it would require heavy braking. As you learned in the module dealing with vehicle dynamics, heavy braking is actually detrimental to turning. Conversely, there are some drivers who advocate acceleration as the answer to the problem of collision avoidance. They feel that not only must the vehicle be turned out of the way, but in order to do it more quickly, the vehicle should increase its speed. Once again, if you recall what happens to traction as a vehicle accelerates, you can understand that acceleration is not efficient either. Almost every potential collision situation requires deceleration, even if nothing more than to buy you more time. In a collision avoidance maneuver, where steering is going to be involved, any deceleration is tempered with the understanding of the effects of the resulting loss of traction. Only in rare cases will you want to quickly stab the brake hard, steer, and release the brake to avoid a collision. In most cases, speed should be reduced by the driver removing his foot from the accelerator and then steering. Another key point: drivers will usually steer where they are looking. Instead of looking at the obstacle they are trying to avoid, drivers should be looking at their intended path. During this action, drivers should look to the far outside of their path. This is because, when turned, the vehicle will track in a tighter radius with the rear tires than with the front. If the driver only looks at or just past the obstacle, it is likely that the front of the apparatus will clear the obstacle while the rear of the vehicle will strike it.

-32DT- 6 7/86 A rapid collision avoidance maneuver cannot be done efficiently if the driver has to move his hands on the wheel. For this reason, it is recommended that the hands be properly placed at the nine and three positions before the maneuver is attempted. Most drivers will have a tendency to whip the wheel, turning it faster than the vehicle can respond. This might cause enough over-response so that the vehicle strikes the obstacle to be avoided. If the obstacle is cleared and the counter-steering lags or is excessive, the vehicle can either spin out or fishtail. As you can see there are ways of preplanning escape routes or having contingency plans that can help you to either avoid collisions or reduce property loss and injury. Certainly anything you can do to lessen its severity is better for the Department and all parties, no matter who is at fault. XI. VEHICLE MALFUNCTION Even the best-maintained apparatus can malfunction. Statistics show it cost the Los Angeles City Fire Department over 1million dollars in parts and 2 million dollars in labor to maintain its vehicle fleet in top condition for the year 1985. Although statistics show very few accidents were contributed to poor vehicle maintenance, maintenance of Department apparatus plays an important role in accident prevention. While potential accidents can be avoided by proper maintenance there are occasionally malfunctions that occur to even the best maintained vehicle.

-33DT- 6 7/86 A. Tire Blowout - There was a time when one of the chief fears of a driver was a tire blowout. However, tire blowouts are not as likely to happen with the tires of today. Still, there is a remote possibility of a tire failure, so you must be prepared for its occurrence. A blowout, as opposed to a simple flat tire, occurs when the tire is damaged to such an extent that it instantly deflates, often disintegrating in the process. A flat tire loses air over a period of a few seconds or longer. For that reason, the effects of a flat tire on handling are not nearly as dramatic as with a blowout. During a blowout, occasional adverse handling characteristics can result in a wreck. When the event involves a front tire, the vehicle will have a tendency to pull to the side of the blowout. This will often cause the driver to whip the steering wheel in the opposite direction and overcorrect in the process. On the other hand, a blowout of a rear tire may cause the vehicle to sway back and forth, making it difficult for the driver to keep control through steering. In either situation, you should grasp the wheel firmly and attempt to steer only enough to maintain your lane position. Continuing to look and steer where you want the vehicle to go will help you to maintain your vehicle in the proper lane. Another natural tendency for a driver experiencing either a front or rear blowout is to hit the brakes. This reaction can place the driver in serious jeopardy. Heavy braking will increase the

-34DT- 6 7/86 negative handling effects of the blowout, causing the vehicle to react even more violently. Even getting off the accelerator too quickly can have this effect. The proper reaction is to ease off the accelerator slowly, monitoring your action's affect on steering as you do so. Once speed has been reduced to the point where steering can be maintained without much difficulty, you can then slowly begin braking, .still monitoring its effects on steering. Once braking begins, you should signal your intentions and move to a suitable place at the side of the road. B. Brake Failure - The most commonly thought of mechanical malfunction is brake failure. Although brake failure does not occur often (especially with today's brakes), it is seen often enough on television and in the movies to cause concern with drivers. If brake failure is encountered, the driver will instinctively try the brake again several times. If pumping the brakes does not work, the driver must immediately get the transmission shifted into a lower gear so the engine's compression can be used to help slow the vehicle. The parking brake should also be applied since it is engaged mechanically, instead of through the hydraulic system of the conventional brakes. Keep in mind that the parking brake is not nearly as efficient as the fully operational conventional brakes and that its pressure is harder to control. Since the parking brake only activates one shoe on each rear drum, stopping distances will be much longer than normal. Additionally, application of the parking brake may cause the rear wheels to skid, so you must continue to steer.

-35DT- 6 7/86 If speed must be lost at a faster rate or if brake failure occurs while going down a hill, the driver must consider sideswiping something in an attempt to slough off speed. otherwise, the driver will be out of control if the vehicle is allowed to continue without brakes. Parked cars, guard rail, shrubbery, even a dirt hillside can drain the vehicle of momentum. C. Steering Failure - This is almost always the result of an engine stall on a vehicle equipped with power steering. Steering failure may also result from hydraulic fluid loss in the power steering system. In either case, the vehicle still can be steered. It will just require more physical exertion since the driver must overcome the failure of the hydraulic system. When steering is applied rapidly in one direction and then the other, the hydraulics may not be able to keep up on a poorly maintained system. This rare occurrence results in a momentary locking of the steering wheel, followed immediately by continued action. The moment when the steering stops may be sufficient to keep the vehicle from completing the maneuver the driver is attempting, causing the vehicle to strike the object that they were attempting to avoid. If such a characteristic is encountered, slower steering input may be required until the steering system can be properly serviced. Although experienced only rarely, in the event of a total steering loss the driver can only slow the vehicle. It is important to avoid using the brake, or at least to apply it slowly, because if one

-36DT- 6 7/86 side grabs more than the other it cannot be compensated for by steering and may force the vehicle into oncoming traffic. In almost all steering failures, the driver will have control of at least one of the front wheels. D. Accelerator Sticking - Such a condition can become extremely frightening. With the Department's newer light vehicles, the obvious solution (turning off the ignition) cannot be applied since it will also lock the steering wheel, usually in a shallow turn. Even if the ignition switch isn't on the column, turning off the ignition may result in much harder steering if the steering is hydraulically assisted. If the vehicle has power-assisted brakes, they will also become much harder to use if the ignition is turned off. If the brakes are pumped once or twice, such action will deplete the brake power reservoir, and braking effort will certainly increase. The best action for most vehicles with stuck accelerators is to shift the transmission into neutral and get the vehicle off the road and stopped as quickly as possible. Understand thoroughly that once the resistance of the drive train is released by the transmission the engine will rev up quickly to a very high number of RPMs. If the engine breaks before the vehicle is fully stopped, the resulting loss of hydraulic assistance will create the problems you're trying to avoid.

DRIVING FIRE DEPARTMENT APPARATUS UNDER EMERGENCY CONDITIONS PRETEST QUESTIONS 1. The largest single factor in stopping a vehicle is: A. B. C. D. 2. Reaction Time Perception Time Braking Time Vehicle Speed

If vehicle speed is doubled, perception-reaction time is doubled and braking distance is: A. B. C. D. Doubled Tripled Quadrupled Not affected

3.

Passing other vehicles during an emergency response should be done when possible on the: A. B. C. D. Left Right Doesn't matter Whatever lane is convenient

4.

Most emergency response related accidents occur: A. B. C. D. While pulling out of quarters Arriving at an incident At intersections Mid-block

5.

When driving heavy apparatus on wet roads, you should leave approximately how many vehicle lengths, per 10 miles per hour, between your apparatus and vehicles in front of you? A B C D 1 2 1/2 4

3807R

LOS ANGELES CITY FIRE DEPARTMENT DRIVER'S TRAINING MODULE #7 Driving Fire Department Apparatus Under Emergency Conditions OBJECTIVES: To teach the basic skills needed to safely drive Fire Department apparatus during emergency responses under varying road conditions. A.O.T.M.-- Chapters 3 and 4 Lesson Plan It is the responsibility of all members to operate Fire Department apparatus in a safe and prudent manner. The Driver must realize that the safety of Fire Department members, civilian drivers, and the people at the incident may hinge on the safe operation of Department. apparatus We cannot perform our duty as public servants if we are unable to get to the location of an emergency in a safe manner Preparation for an emergency response begins long before the receipt of an alarm. Your knowledge and readiness of your apparatus, basic driving skills and familiarity of your district (streets, hydrants, target hazards, etc.) must be known to operate Department apparatus safely during an emergency response. After receiving an alarm and ascertaining the location and best route to the incident, climb into the driver's seat, fasten and start the engine. Check your dash gauges and turn on emergency, head and running lights. Check to see that everyone is seated and buckled in safely. If operating an aerial ladder truck make sure you receive proper signals from 'the tillerman before moving apparatus. As you proceed out of quarters, check for vehicle and pedestrian traffic. When it is clear, or traffic has yielded, then proceed on your response.

REFERENCES: TEACHING AIDS: INTRODUCTION:

PRESENTATION:

-2DT- 7 6/86 As you are responding, never drive "over your head" or faster than you can safely operate the vehicle. Remember, speed is the largest single factor in total stopping distance. If you double your speed, perception-reaction distance is doubled and braking distance will be about four times as great. The following chart gives some examples: PERCEPTION REACTION TIME 17 FT. 33 FT. 66 FT. TOTAL STOPPING DISTANCE 47 FT. 148 FT . 532 FT.

SPEED 15 MPH 30 MPH 60 MPH

BRAKING DISTANCE 30 FT. 115 FT. 466 FT.

Some of our Fire Department apparatus weigh in excess of 20 tons. That weight works against us when trying to stop even under the best road conditions. Remember, the time involved in getting to an incident is seldom shortened during the actual response. Time is saved by getting to your apparatus quickly and knowing your district without having to go to the map to check response routes or incident location. As a driver, it is important that you know your first alarm district, streets, intersections, and the driving habits of the civilians who drive them. Study your intersections as if you were pre-fire planning each of them. Be thoroughly familiar with blind and uncontrolled intersections, traffic patterns, and the general attitude of the driving public. Learn how other drivers react to emergency apparatus during a response. Remember, when driving in an unfamiliar district or with different apparatus, use extra caution to help compensate for those additional unknown factors. There is no substitute for experience and knowledge of your first-in district. Take time to learn your district and consistently practice good defensive driving skills.

-3DT-7 6/86 The position of apparatus on the road is very important when driving emergency. When responding, the emergency vehicle should be driven as close to the center of the roadway as possible. This will ensure that: 1. 2. 3. 4. Traffic is more visible to the driver The apparatus will be seen more easily by driver's of oncoming traffic. There will be additional room for maneuvering in heavy traffic and at intersections. Emergency apparatus will be more visible as to initiate oncoming drivers to pull over.

LEAVE YOURSELF AN "OUT" The NUMBER ONE RULE OF EMERGENCY DRIVING is to leave yourself an out" at all times. This will allow you to avoid an impending accident. If you get into trouble while moving at any speed (over 5 MPH), it is unlikely the brakes can stop you quickly enough to avoid a collision. The answer is avoidance thorough maneuvering. This requires an "out" a place to maneuver to or in. Have one! When approaching an intersection, a good driver should be prepared to Stop. Department policy states that the first apparatus in a convoy shall stop at all red lights and stop signs. The remaining apparatus shall slow down and when safe, proceed through the intersection with caution. Policy also states that single-unit companies shall stop at all red lights and stop signs and when safe, proceed. With this in mind, your foot should be removed from the throttle at an intersection and placed over the brake pedal, positioning even if the signal is green. By your foot in this manner, you are prepared for the unexpected. Also, by watching well ahead, you can anticipate a green light turning red If it is green, common sense dictates it will soon change to red. You can also take note of the Walk Don't Walk pedestrian signal. If it is flashing red, you can anticipate a signal change. By utilizing these simple items, you can better anticipate having to stop and/or control your apparatus. This makes your stops smoother and also saves wear and tear on apparatus and passengers that result from sudden or inconsistent braking.

-4DT-7 6/86 When responding as a Task Force, visibility of your apparatus can be increased if an "Off-Set Formation" is used. This formation consists of the truck traveling as close to the center of the road as possible, the engine on the left or right side of the truck, and the 200-series engine behind the engine on the opposite side of the truck. This results in better visibility of Fire Department apparatus to oncoming traffic, as well as providing Department driver's increased visibility of traffic conditions ahead. The "Off-Set Formation" also reduces the danger of apparatus colliding with one another in a sudden stop" situation. When passing other vehicles, pass on the left if possible. This may mean crossing the double yellow lines into oncoming traffic lanes. Be alert of vehicles entering from side streets or driveways. If the street you are responding on has a center divider and all lanes are blocked, or if a vehicle in the left turn lane has committed to a turn, it may be advantageous to pass on the right. Reduce your speed to a minimum and make certain that all other drivers you are passing are aware that you are passing by them on the left/right side. When discussing emergency driving the limitations of siren audibility must be addressed. Sirens on Department apparatus are directional, with greater intensity straight ahead as compared to either side or the rear of apparatus. Tall buildings, hills, winding roads, blind intersections or heavy brush will reduce siren audibility by as much as two-thirds. Because of noise levels in the cab area, open or closed, and the use of noise suppressing ear protectors by some members operating Fire Department apparatus, personnel may not always hear the warning devices of other responding apparatus. Remember that other emergency vehicles must be responding from other routes and directions. This dictates that drivers must use extra caution at commonly used intersections.

-5DT-7 6/86 Historically, most department accidents involving emergency apparatus occur in intersections. To increase siren audibility to assist clearing traffic use the full fluctuating high-low tones to keep the siren at its maximum volume range. Don't ride the siren button, as it will produce a high constant sound which reduces the sirens effectiveness. Many Fire Department members consider the air horn an effective audible device in warning motorists of responding apparatus. in using the air horn as a warning device, it must be remembered that the air horn is not a legal emergency vehicle audible device and should not be used to the exclusion of the siren. Many of our response related accidents occur at intersections. Most of these happen as we are entering the intersection on a red light and the other vehicle has the green. Fire Department policy dictates that we shall stop at any intersection where the traffic control signal is red, at all stop signs, and at any blind intersection where vision is obstructed or impaired. We may proceed only when cross traffic is clear and it is safe to continue. Anytime you enter an intersection and cross traffic is yielding to you, consider every open lane a potential hazard. This is especially true of lanes blocked from view by a truck or bus. Also, don't overlook left hand turn lanes or "gutter lanes". Approach these open lanes with caution and be prepared to stop to avoid collision. There may be a driver not yielding the right-of-way or in a position where his view of-emergency apparatus is obstructed. When driving apparatus on a one-way street, drive as close to the left as possible. Driving in this manner should cause other vehicles to pull to the right and stop. In some instances, drivers will sometimes pull to the nearest curb, requiring the apparatus driver to pass on the right. If this happens pass with extreme caution. Driving around curves can also be a dangerous situation. When a vehicle rounds a curve, centrifugal force tends to thrust it outward. For this reason, it is more advantageous to round a curve at a constant speed or to be accelerating out of the turn rather than braking. By doing this the rear wheels will oppose the centrifugal forces pushing the vehicle to the outside of the curve and provide a controlled and safer turn.

-6DT-7 6/86 In terrain with rolling hills or dips, avoid crossing over the center line. Oncoming vehicles may not be seen until it is too late to avoid a collision. If you are responding in an area with steep hills, sound your horn repeatedly as you near the top. This will warn drivers on the other side of the crest of your approach. AS you near the location of your incident "slow down" This simple, basic maneuver assists the driver, the officer, and other members of the crew in several ways: A. B. An address can more easily be spotted if you slow down. It makes it easier to locate hydrants, and gives the Company Commander a chance to "size-up" the incident and select the best "spot" for the apparatus. It gives each individual crew member time for a personal "size-up" of the incident and what needs to be done.

C.

As you approach the incident, make sure your head lights are on "low-beam". This keeps you from blinding other drivers approaching from the opposite direction and firefighters working in front of the apparatus. Any discussion about apparatus driving must include a few words about driving under wet road conditions. When driving in rain, fog, or other inclement weather conditions, the key to a safe response is to slow down, according to the severity of weather conditions. Visibility can sometimes be impaired and traction of apparatus tires can be poor on wet, oily roadways, especially if rain has just started to fall. A good driver must recognize these dangers and adjust the driving and speed accordingly. When following other vehicles on wet roadways, keep at least two vehicle lengths distance for every ten miles per hour of speed between your apparatus and vehicles in front of you. Also, consider the possibility of wet brake pads and linings. You may have to dry them by lightly pressing the brake pedal for a few seconds during normal driving.

-7DT-7 6/86 A conscientious driver is also aware that different road compounds influence stopping distances. A wet concrete roadway will require approximately 35% to 40% more stopping distance than dry concrete roads. Asphalt also presents special problems, when it is wet. Asphalt, when first laid down, is oiled and then rolled. This oil eventually rises to the surface, when wet it combines with the water on the road surface. This combination makes the roadway extremely slick and extra caution must also be exercised when driving on this type of wet pavement. Remember, that no matter what compound is used, the combination of dirt, fine rubber dust, oil dropped by thousands of vehicles and finely divided water particles of fog or rain make any roadway slick as ice until enough rain has fallen to wash it off. Once a good, hard rain has cleaned it off, traction will improve, becomes somewhat better, but any roadway is still dangerous when it is wet. 'When driving in fog, reduce apparatus speed. Never assume that the road ahead is clear. Keep your headlights on low-beam. If high-beams are used, the light is reflected back at the driver, making visibility even worse. Also, avoid sudden stops and lane changes. When stopping, tapping the brake pedal a few times will warn other drivers behind you that you are slowing down or stopping. Remember, being a good driver, on any roadway, is a matter of good attitude and judgment. A safe vehicle and good physical condition of the driver will also play an important part in safe driving but driver attitude is the key. State laws have given us the right-of-way when driving emergency under most circumstances but a good driver never demands it. The good driver also drives defensively and keeps himself aware of changing conditions. The good driver is also aware that, at times, motorists and pedestrians may not see or hear apparatus. For this reason, motorists and pedestrians don't always yield the right-of-way. Lastly, a good driver keeps the apparatus under control at all times and never takes anything for granted. in the fire service, an accident caused by irresponsible driving has many repercussions. Lives and property that could have been saved, may be lost. Firefighters, innocent bystanders, and other

-8DT-7 6-86 drivers may be injured or even killed. The individual driver and the Fire Department may be held responsible for unsafe operation of Fire Department vehicles. Lawsuits and/or criminal prosecution could result as the result of your negligence. Remember, drive safely and as smooth as possible. It shows you care.

(3807R)

APPARATUS SPOTTING AND PLACEMENT PRETEST QUESTIONS 1. On freeway incidents the proper way to spot a triple for protection of personnel is; a. b. c. d. 2. partially blocking a lane fully blocking a lane out of the traffic lane completely on shoulder either b or c

Prime consideration should be given to ________ when spotting an aerial ladder at an apartment house fire. a. b. c. d. trapped occupants hydrant location use of ladder pipe type of companies responding

3.

Before leaving quarters or while responding it is important for a Captain to confirm the location of _______ with the Engineer. a. b. c. d. his radio the pump the truck the hydrants

4.

In relation to soft footing, unsupported parking structures, and bridges, remember that an average triple apparatus weighs approximately: a. b. c. d. 20,000 lbs. 8 tons 20 tons 65,000 lbs.

5.

Important factors to consider when spotting and placing your apparatus are: a. b. c. d. Is the crew safe? Is the apparatus safe? Can I operate effectively? All of the above.

LOS ANGELES CITY FIRE DEPARTMENT DRIVER'S TRAINING MODULE #8 APPARATUS SPOTTING AND PLACEMENT OBJECTIVE: TO LEARN how to position department apparatus in various situations to afford maximum protection to both personnel and equipment. TO LEARN how proper spotting and placement can lead to safe and effective emergency and non-emergency operations. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 1. 2. Manual of Operation (3/1-60.01 & 4/3-20.22) Brush Fire Operations Guide Training Bulletins AOTM (Chapters 4,10, and 22) Haz Mat/First Responder High Rise operations Lesson Plan Chalk Board and Diagrams

REFERENCES:

TEACHING AIDS:

INTRODUCTION:

Proper spotting and placement of apparatus is the joint responsibility of all drivers, engineers apparatus operators, tillerman, and officers. At the scene of an emergency a proper spot assures a fire company of easy access, a safe working area, and helps to contribute to an effective overall operation. In non-emergency situations proper placement of apparatus can contribute to the protection of private property as well as the protection of the apparatus itself. In this module we will discuss heavy apparatus: a. b. Truck Triple

As well as the following light apparatus: a. b. Sedan/Pick-up Rescue Ambulance

-2DT-8 6-86 We will also discuss proper spotting and placement of apparatus in specific emergency situations: a. b. c. d. e. f. g. h. i. j. k. Structure Fires Hi-Rise Freeway Incidents Earthquakes Haz Mat Brush Fires LNG/LPG Auto Fires Traffic Accident Exposure Fires Rescue Incidents

As well as non-emergency situations a. b. Fire Prevention Shopping/Hydrant Testing

OVERVIEW - EMERGENCY OPERATIONS The driver of any department apparatus has a tremendous amount of responsibility for the safety of the entire crew. From the moment the alarm is received and the apparatus leaves quarters until the rig is safely rehoused, the apparatus driver must keep the safety of the crew foremost in their mind. SCENARIO: Two triples arrive at a gasoline tanker fire at the same time. One apparatus approaches from upwind and spots uphill on level ground. The other apparatus approaches and spots downwind in a low area. IS THERE A POTENTIAL FOR DISASTER HERE? Imagine a river of 5000 gallons of burning gasoline flowing at you your crew, and your apparatus.

-3DT-8 6-86 Although there is no substitute for experience, as the driver of an apparatus in emergency situations you can build an effective foundation for your operations from these basic guidelines; 1. 2. 3. Is my crew safe? Is the apparatus safe? Can I operate effectively? (hose lines/aerial, etc.)

EMERGENCY OPERATIONS Proper spotting of apparatus begins with the receipt of the alarm. Location of hydrants, access points and approach routes, building types, contents, and occupancy type are just some of the factors to be considered. The captain and the apparatus driver both share the responsibility for the positioning of the apparatus at the scene of an emergency. Both must work together enroute to properly position and place the apparatus. The Captain must communicate with the driver while responding and make them aware of any information he has learned by listening to the radio. i.e.: a. b. c. d. e. type of incident location of fire or exposures type of occupancy or contents life hazards specific directions or assignments that have been given by O.C.D. or the I. C.

All of the above are important factors in determining the proper placement of apparatus. TRUCK COMPANY EMERGENCY OPERATIONS - GENERAL An aerial ladder truck is roughly twice the length of a triple apparatus. Obviously this presents unique problems when parking or repositioning. 'In addition to length, the ability to use and gain access to the equipment carried on the truck often depends on correct spotting and placement. (aerial ladder, removal of ladders from rear bays, etc.).

-4DT-8 6-86 As an Apparatus operator responds they should be considering factors such as; a. b. c. What type of building? Is it multi-story? Is there a potential life hazard?

Factors such as these will determine if the apparatus will be directly involved in the incident. Knowledge of the district and pre-fire planning is the key. The use of the aerial ladder is a prime consideration in the placement of the truck. An apparatus operator should also consider using the truck to block oncoming traffic if needed. Remember that with the advent of "light forces" even though you may not utilize the truck in the initial "engine" phase of the operation you should spot your truck for the use of the next arriving companies. Don't forget to consider that weather may be a factor in your aerial operations. High winds can endanger personnel and limit operations. Hot weather may soften asphalt and negate the use of ground jacks. Rain may also soften the ground and contribute to unsafe footing. Finally if the truck or its' equipment is not to be used it is best to spot away from the incident to provide room for additional companies and provide protection to the apparatus itself. ENGINE COMPANY OPERATIONS - GENERAL The engineer on a triple apparatus, like the A/O on a truck company, should try and position their rig for optimum use of equipment. (hose lines, heavy streams, etc.) They too must communicate with the captain while responding so that they may spot the apparatus upon arrival on scene in a position that will benefit and not hinder the specific and/or overall operations.

-5DT-8 6-86 Water source and supply (hydrants/mains) are important factors in helping an engineer determine the means of approach and final apparatus placement at an emergency. when a captain notes the location of a hydrant or has specific directions for approach that information should be related to the engineer before leaving quarters or while the company is enroute to the incident. An engineer should also consider the type of incident, occupancy, etc. before putting the apparatus into position. LIGHT APPARATUS - GENERAL Drivers of light apparatus - i.e. B/Cs adjutants -should attempt to position their vehicles at an emergency so as not to hinder the operation. At the scene of a fire a B/C can effectively operate from a position somewhat remote from the fire itself provided they have a clear overall view of the incident. (i.e. sedan parked across the street in a driveway) Drivers of light vehicles should take care to not block hydrants or the path of approaching heavy apparatus. If warranted they can use their vehicles to assist in blocking traffic for the safety of personnel or the protection of hose lines. The driver of a light apparatus should attempt to position the vehicle in such a manner that it will not be blocked into position by arriving units. The dr 4 ver of a rescue ambulance should position the ambulance so as not to place it in jeopardy due to passing traffic or apparatus. The ambulance driver may be guided on approach by other personnel already on scene but should keep in mind that they are ultimately responsible for the positioning of the ambulance. SPOTTING AND PLACEMENT OF APPARATUS AT EMERGENCIES - SPECIFICS This section includes Truck, Triple, R.A., and Sedan

-6DT-8 6-86 STRUCTURE FIRES As a driver ask yourself: What type of fire is it? Are companies already on scene? Has the captain been given specific locations or assignments by the I. C.?

Additional factors to consider are; Will my apparatus or its' equipment be used? Do I need a water supply? Should I spot to block traffic? Pump operators - Should I give up" the hydrant or position to lay reverse? How are the other companies responding and should I vary my approach? Am I blocking the ladder bay of the truck? Is my aerial ladder truck blocking the hydrant? Am I blocking the street needlessly?

Dwellings Alleys are usually a bad spot. Consider pulling the aerial ladder truck well past the fire or stop short. Triple - line up the transverse beds with your access (walks, driveways). Truck - Don't block the street -A Triple may have to lay past you to a hydrant.

Commercials Watch for falling walls*/debris. A small fire may later become a large fire later - don't spot too close (radiant heat). Consider spotting with panel on "off side. Consider pulling a triple past access or angling the rig to make "railroading" a 2-1/2" attack line easier. For maximum GPM flow a corner hydrant will usually be connected to a larger main than a mid-block. All drivers, especially those of aerial ladder trucks, should watch for overhead obstructions (wires/overhangs). See page 6A

-6A* Note - Un-reinforced masonry (pre 1933) can collapse without warning and fall a horizontal distance equal to or greater than the vertical height of the original structure.

-7DT-8 6-86 Consider positioning the pump to lay additional lines. Be ready to spot for exposures. Stay well back from plate glass windows They may "blow out with resulting loss to apparatus from radiant heat. Don't rush in too early and get blocked in by approaching apparatus in a spot that may limit your companies operations. Truck Companies - consider positioning for use of the ladder pipe at a later time during the fire. An aerial ladder may be spotted to exposures when they can be utilized to gain access to fire building.

Apartment Houses HI-RISE Use Building Inventory to locate standpipe inlets. With fire showing park rigs well back and away from the "fire" side of the building if possible (falling glass/debris) (200 ft. minimum). Diagonal parking facing out in Base -Don't crowd too close together (side compartment access). Engineers on standpipes may be forced to improvise to protect themselves and their rig (salvage cover/ladders). Captain should communicate to his driver any special instructions that they have received over the radio during the response (i.e. means of approach, location of base, etc.). Aerial Ladders - consider spot to corner of building for rescue and/or roof access. Aerial Ladders - consider spotting truck outside of the engine on a narrow street. Aerial Ladder - utilize available personnel to assist when spotting a closed cab apparatus. AerialLadder - an in-line spot with the aerial ladder to the side is a safe operation within proper limitations. Triple- spot to fire escape on center hallway (lines aloft). With nothing showing spot as if there is or will be an actual fire.

-8DT-8 6-86 Adjutants should place sedans well away from the building when positioning the command post. Remember that an aerial ladder may still be utilized for rescue and/or access when a high rise is the earlier non-sealed type building or if the building objective is within reach of the aerial.

FREEWAY INCIDENTS EARTHQUAKE MODE HAZ MAT INCIDENTS Approach slowly and stay well back. Remember that your apparatus may be used to limit entry of incoming companies as part of the perimeter. Spot apparatus upwind and uphill. If second in respond to staging or contact on scene units for incoming instructions regarding best approach. Be ready to reposition apparatus (wind shift). Spot for a quick exit. Consider use of apparatus P.A. system (directional). Take your time. Make sure that your "safe" area is truly safe. Be aware that streets may be "softer" or impassable. Park well away from multi-story buildings (falling walls/debris/aftershocks). Position rig to facilitate a quick exit. Be aware of danger from leaking natural gas. Avoid overpasses/underpasses. Consider sources of secondary water supply. Never "partially" block a lane. Either all the way in" the lane or all the way "out" of the lane. Angle the apparatus to protect your personnel. Check for slopes or inclines - watch for flowing flammable liquids. Get on and off the freeway as quickly as possible (auto fires/rescues). Consider pulling lines off side away from traffic if possible. Utilize traffic cones if necessary for safety. CHP may assist in routing traffic around incident

-9DT-8 6/86 BRUSH FIRES/HILL TERRAIN Your apparatus may be a source of ignition. Don't tie the rig up - have it pointed out and ready for a quick exit. Utilize terrain if overrun by fire (cut bank). Watch for: a. saddles b. chimneys c. draws d. canyons Try and stay with your rig as the driver. Aerial Ladder Trucks - Is it best to let the triple go ahead or park your rig? Aerial Ladder Trucks - Watch for "self-collision or high centering. Remember that approaching traffic may not be able to see your parked apparatus due to blind curves or hilly terrain. Stay mobile, watch movement of fire. A closed cab may be your safe refuge. In smoky conditions after spotting consider leaving the engine running to avoid stalling and leave the lights on for higher visibility. Remember that your apparatus may be your only way out. When spotting off road - Remember that water from your pumping operations may soften the ground under your apparatus and cause your rig to get stuck. Utilize protection lines. Don't block roads during relay operations.

LEAKING NATURAL GAS Consider wind direction. Position triple to utilize hoselines if needed. Consider spotting across street away from building to protect personnel and apparatus in the event of an explosion. Don't block access to the utility shut off (if in street).

-10DT-8 6-86 AUTO FIRES Consider wind direction on approach. Don't spot directly behind involved auto. Don't position apparatus in low spot. You may need a water supply with certain autos (VW, etc.). Consider blocking the entire street to protect personnel. Angle rig to facilitate taking hose to objective. Is the auto in a structure? Campers and RVs may have on board propane. Be aware of problems associated with specific types (i.e. Pontiac Fiero, Chevy Corvette, etc.).

TRAFFIC ACCIDENTS/PHYSICAL RESCUES Aerial Ladder Truck is-often the best for blocking the street to protect personnel. Always spot triples so that hose lines may be used (wash down/trapped occupants). Aerial Ladder Trucks should be close enough to facilitate bringing in equipment (jaws, porta-power) but not so close as to block access (H - U. S/R. A. s) Try and leave room for H.U. if needed. Watch out for low spots and fuel spills. Don't spot apparatus where a "rubber-necker may hit it while watching the incident. R. A. s - if first in spot to block traffic and protect yourself and watch for spilled fuel. R. A.s - position for quick exit if possible. Utilize traffic cones. Develop safe standard operating procedures for specialized rescue incidents (i.e. litter basket river rescue, cliff rescue, etc.). R. A.s - Spot to protect personnel if possible.

EXPOSURE FIRES -

Triples - spot so wagon battery may be used if needed (water curtain). Spot apparatus so hose lines and aerial ladders may be used - even if there is no fire on initial arrival. Be ready to reposition if given another assignment.

-11DT-8 6-86 RESCUE INCIDENTS (R.A.S) When practical, consider use of driveways to get ambulance off street and out of traffic. It may be better to block the entire lane rather than part of the lane if there is a gap the traffic will try and get through. At large scale incidents be directed by the I. C. or O.C.D regarding means of approach and placement of the ambulance. Don't position the ambulance too close at fire incidents it may get blocked in by additional companies or hose lines. Watch out for fuel leaks on traffic incidents. Be aware of doors that may open into traffic. Leave room for patient loading area for safety. Utilize personnel (attendant/firefighters) to assist when backing or repositioning.

NON-EMERGENCY OPERATIONS The situations that are most often encountered during non-emergency operations are; a. b. c. d. fire prevention shopping drills move-ups

During these situations and at other times such as hydrant testing or returning from emergency operations remember: Observe all vehicle code provisions including parking restrictions. Don't park apparatus in private parking lots (markets, etc.). Avoid backing whenever possible. Don't let your apparatus become blocked in by private vehicles. Be aware you are in the public eye at all times. Don't let apparatus get blocked in while parked Park for ease of exit upon receipt of emergency response Try and have someone with the rig that can move it at all times Don't park on blind curves, narrow streets, or near intersections Don't leave rigs unattended (security of, apparatus and equipment)

-12DT-8 6-86 Stay away from driveways and parking lot entrances and exits Watch for overhead obstructions when parking (low tree limbs, etc.) Stay off parking structures - be aware of apparatus weight (Triple = 20 + tons)

CLOSING THINGS TO WATCH OUT FOR SUMMARY There is no substitute for experience. The driver is responsible for the position of the apparatus but the captain shares in that responsibility and can assist in proper apparatus placement. Proper spotting is a team effort between all members. Remember the foundation for correct spotting (safety of personnel/safety of apparatus/efficiency of operations) Every situation is different and even though it is impossible to discuss every one, use the information in this lesson plan to assist you in your daily operations. OPEN DISCUSSION (actual experience/good and bad spots) Radiant heat Unstable ground/weight limits Limited visibility (night, blind curves) Overhead, obstructions Escalation of incident Being "blocked" in Hose lines Apparatus position in different stations Newer rigs are longer/wider Railroad tracks Supported structures

LOS ANGELES CITY FIRE DEPARTMENT DRIVER'S TRAINING MODULE # 9 PART I

TILLERING
To t e a c h b a s i c s k i l l s needed to s a f e l y t i l l e r A e r i a l Ladder Trucks d u r i n g emergency and non-emergency d r i v i n g . A.O.T.M., e x p e r i e n c e and recommendations from Truck Companies throughout t h e C i t y . There a r e t w o types of A e r i a l Ladder Trucks: Rear mount a e r i a l s and t r a c t o r drawn a e r i a l s . The Los Anqeles C i t y F i r e Department employs t r a c t o r drawn A e r i a l Ladder Trucks. These t r u c k s have a s t e e r i n g a x l e a t - t h e r e a r end of t h e t r a i l e r : t h i s is r e f e r r e d t o a s t h e " t i l l e r " axle. ( T h e word " t i l l e r " is commonly u s e d i n r e f e r e n c e to t h e l e v e r t h a t t u r n s t h e rudder o f a boat f r o m s i d e t o s i d e . I m a g i n i n g t h e way a b o a t r e s o o n d s t o t h e movement o f a r u d d e r , w i l l h e l ~ y o u v i s u a l i z e t h e r e s p o n s e o f t h e t r a i l e r when t h e t i l l e r 'wheels are t u r n e d . The b e r s o n t h a t s t e e r s t h e t i l l e r is c a l l e d a T i l l e r m a n and t h e seat p r o v i d e d from which t o steer is c a l l e d t h e t i l l e r s e a t or " t i l l e r b u c k e t . " The Los A n g e l e s C i t y F i r e D e p a r t m e n t p r e f e r s tractor drawn A e r i a l Ladder Trucks f o r s e v e r a l reasons:
1.

OBJECTIVE:

REFERENCES: INTRODUCTION :

Maneuverability on narrow streets. This allows f o r s a f e r emergency and non-emergency driving. Greater s t a b i l i t y in turns a t higher speeds. Greater s t a b i l i t y during a e r i a l operations c a n be g a i n e d b y j a c k k n i f i n g t h e t r u c k . The T i l l e r m a n c a n a s s i s t t h e A p p a r a t u s O o e r a t o r i n " s ~ o t t i n q "t h e t r u c k a n d o b s e r v i n g f o r overhead obstructions. The p r e s e n c e o f a T i l l e r m a n w r o v i d e s a n increased s a f e t y margin during backing operations.

2.
3.

4.

5.

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D r i v e r ' s T r a i n i n g M o d u l e #9 L e s s o n P l a n Part I - Tillering Page 2

PRESENTATION:

S a f e a n d D r o p e r t i l l e r i n g is n o t j u s t a matter o f climbing i n t o t h e t i l l e r bucket and s t e e r i n q t h e trailer. T h e c o n c e n t o f t i l l e r i n g i s i n some w a y s t h e opposite of d r i v i n g a vehicle. For examole, when a d r i v e r w a n t s t o t u r n h i s / h e r v e h i c l e , t h e s t e e r i n g w h e e l m u s t be t u r n e d i n t h a t d i r e c t i o n . However, when a t r a c t o r d r a w n A e r i a l L a d d e r T r u c k makes a t u r n , and t h e T i l l e r m a n d e t e r m i n e s t h e need to t u r n t h e t i l l e r wheels, he/she w i l l t u r n t h e s t e e r i n g w h e e l i n t h e opposite d i r e c t i o n o f the turn. This w i l l cause t h e t r a i l e r to swing away from t h e t u r n . You w i l l b e t t e r u n d e r s t a n d t h e o r i n c i p l e o f t i l l e r i n g when y o u b e g i n h a n d s - o n trainina.

S t e e r i n a c o r r e c t l y and i n a t i m e l y manner depends o n a T i l l e r m a n ' s a b i l i t y to react g r o o e r l v to t h e movement o f t h e t r u c k . Because t h e Tillerman sits h i g h e r t h a n t h e A p p a r a t u s O p e r a t o r , h e / s h e is a b l e t o see t h e r o a d f u r t h e r a h e a d . This provides the o p p o r t u n i t y t o see t r a f f i c p a t t e r n s d e v e l o p , a n d p r e p a r e f o r a n y d i r e c t i o n t h e t r u c k m i q h t move. Keepinq vour e y e s a t least one-half block ahead o f vou a v o i d b e i n q t a k e n by the truck, w i l l h e l ~ s u r p r i s e a n d r e a c t i n g l a t e to a d e c i s i o n made by the Apparatus Operator. Do n o t p r e - p o s i t i o n t h e t r a i l e r f o r a t u r n w i t h o u t d i r e c t v e r b a l communication with the Apparatus Operator: ( T n i s c a n b e a c c o m o l i s h e d by t h e u s e o f t h e 800 m e q a h e r t z h e a d s e t s p r o v i d e d o n a l l aoparatus.) Pre-positioning the trailer can cause a n a c c i d e n t bv moving t h e t r u c k o u t o f an i n - l i n e p o s i t i o n u n n e c e s s a r i l y and p o s s i b l y i n t h e wrong direction necessitating a severe correction. A d d i t i o n a l l y , t h i s mav c a u s e t h e A p p a r a t u s O p e r a t o r to d i v e r t a t t e n t i o n from t h e r o a d a h e a d to t h e movement o f t h e t r a i l e r .

Driver's Training Module Part I - Tillering Page 3

#9

Lesson Plan

Oversteering 'Oversteerinq" means allowing the trailer to move well nast an "in-line" position after a turn is completed (Figure 1). To avoid this, it is important to begin straightening the tiller wheels before the truck has completed the turn.
FIGURE 1

TWO WAY INTO TWO WAY

Some Tillermen find it helpful to count the number of (steering wheel) turns made one way and reverse that number in the other direction as the Apparatus Operator completes a maneuver. Choose a method that works best for you and remain consistent. This will keep mistakes to a minimum. Overtillering Overtillering occurs when Tillernen turn the steering wheel unnecessarily. New Tillermen often overtiller because they are not familiar with how the trailer tracks behind the tractor. Additiona l l y i t takss time for a Tillerman and an Apparatus Operator to develop a comfortable interaction. An experienced Apparatus Operator will drive a truck in a manner that limits the need for Tillermen to steer. Likewisel experienced Tillermen will not steer unnecessarily. As you become familiar with the driving habits of an Apparatus Operator you will be able to correctly judge when and how much to steer.

D r i v e r ' s T r a i n i n g Module $9 L e s s o n P l a n Part I - Tillerinq Page 4

OVERHANG Overhang is t h e o o r t i o n o f t h e t r a i l e r t h a t e x t e n d s from t h e c e n t e r o f t h e t i l l e r w h e e l s ( ~ i v o t p o i n t ) t o t h e r e a r of t h e t r a i l e r ( F i g u r e 2 ) . The rear end w i l l swing on t h e p i v o t as t h e truck t u r n s . I t is i m p o r t a n t t o allow e n o u g h room f o r t h e o v e r h a n g t o c l e a r a t u r n o n both sides of the t r a i l e r . On a 1 9 8 8 S e a q r a v e t h e o v e r h a n g i s a p o r o x i m a t e l y 12 feet. On a 1 9 6 2 S e a q r a v e i t i s a p p r o x i m a t e l y 15 feet. H o w e v e r , t h e most s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n a 1 9 6 2 a n d 1 9 8 8 S e a q r a v e is t h e v i s u a l On a 1 9 8 8 perception from the tiller seat. Seagrave the Tillerman sits a t t h e end of the t r a i l e r making i t e a s y to j u d g e rear e n d clearance. On a 1 9 6 2 S e a g r a v e t h e T i l l e r m a n s i t s n i n e feet f o r w a r d from t h e r e a r o f t h e t r a i l e r making rear e n d c l e a r a n c e more d i f f i c u l t to judge. T h i s n i n e feet must always be c o n s i d e r e d when n e g o t i a t i n g a n y t u r n .

FIGURE 2

D r i v e r ' s T r a i n i n g Module #9 L e s s o n P l a n Part I - Tillerinq Page 5

Blind -

S p ots

There are c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i n an A e r i a l Ladder Truck d e s i g n t h a t c r e a t e b l i n d s p o t s from t h e Tillerman's vantage point. The area n e x t to and before t h e t i l l e r wheels are t h e forward b l i n d spots; and t h e a r e a d i r e c t l y behind t h e Tillerman, t h a t cannot be seen i n his/her rear mirrors a r e t h e r e a r b l i n d s p o t s ( F i g u r e 3 ) . The d i m e n s i o n s o f t h e s e b l i n d areas v a r y dependi n g uDon t h e y e a r a n d d e s i q n o f e a c h t r u c k .

FIGURE 3

D r i v e r ' s T r a i n i n q M o d u l e #9 L e s s o n P l a n Part I - Tillering Page 6

Backing

When p r e p a r i n g t o b a c k t h e t r u c k , t h e A p p a r a t u s Ooerator w i l l signal the Tillerman with three beeps from t h e s i g n a l b u t t o n i n t h e cab. Before answering back, make s u r e t h e a r e a behind and on b o t h sides o f t h e t r u c k a r e c l e a r . I f i t is s a f e to begin backing, s i g n a l t h e Apparatus Operator w i t h t h r e e beeps from e i t h e r t h e b u t t o n on t h e s t e e r i n g c o l u m n or o n t h e f l o o r . Place both hands a t t h e bottom of t h e s t e e r i n g w h e e l ~ a l m su p . Turn y o u r u p p e r body t o t h e r e a r and p u s h t h e s t e e r i n q w h e e l i n t h e d i r e c t i o n you w o u l d l i k e t h e t r a i l e r t o move. "Feed" t h e s t e e r i n g wheel l e f t or r i g h t t h r o u g h your hands, as needed. The hand o v e r hand method is n o t recommended a s t h i s c a n c a u s e a n i n e x p e r i e n c e d member t o become c o n f u s e d . D o n o t cross vour hands: D o n o t a l l o w v o u r h a n d s t o move t o . t h e t o p of t h e s t e e r i n q wheel:
NOTE:

Turning t h e s t e e r i n g wheel from t h e t o p , w h i l e backinq w i l l c a u s e t h e t r a i l e r to move i n t h e o p p o s i t e d i r e c t i o n t h a n i f pushed from t h e bottom:

I f t h e t r a i l e r b e g i n s t o move i n a d i r e c t i o n o t h e r t h a n what is i n t e n d e d and t h e r e is a n y d o u b t as t o y o u r a b i l i t y t o make t h e c o r r e c t i o n , immediately s i g n a l t h e Apparatus Operator to s t o p (one beep). I n a d d i t i o n , you c a n v e r b a l l y communicate w i t h t h e Apparatus Operator v i a t h e 8 0 0 Mhz h e a d s e t s i f y o u r c o m o a n y s t a n d a r d o p e r a t i n g p r o c e d u r e i s t o wear t h e h e a d s e t s w h i l e backinq.

Driver's Training Module # 9 Lesson .Plan , Part I - Tillering Page 7

Radio Headsets The 800 Mhz headsets allow all members to verbally communicate with one another. Communication is especially helpful between the Apparatus Operator and Tillerman. The Apparatus .Operator can constantly appraise the Tillerman of his intentions during emergency and non-emergency responses. The 800 Mhz headsets are an effective tool when used properly. However, the Tillerman should resist the temptation to initiate instructions to the Apparatus Operator, "Don't be a backseat driver:" This can be very distracting. If you see a potential problem the Apparatus Operator may have overlooked; give prooer warning, as should the other members of the truck. The idea being to assist the Apparatus Operator in the safe operation of the truck, not to drive the truck for him/her.

NOTE:

The 800 Mhz headsets should not be used in lieu of the tiller signal button for the following reasons:

Communicating over the radio headsets can be impeded by high radio activity. The Tillerman's headset microphone may be turned off. The Apparatus Operator may not be wearing his headset or it may be turned off. During an emergency response the sirens of following apparatus may be picked up by the Tillerman's "Mic" preventing the Apparatus Operator from hearing anything he/she says. The signal button is a standard means of communication that all members are trained to use and respond to. The recognized method of signaling is as follows: a. b. c. One beep, stop immediately Two beeps, move forward Three beeps, reverse

D r i v e r ' s T r a i n i n g Module #9 L e s s o n P l a n Part I - Tillering Page 8

NOTE:

A l l s i g n a l s s h a l l b e r e p e a t e d bv t h e person receiving t h e s i g n a l to l e t t h e s e n d e r know i t was r e c e i v e d a n d u n d e r stood

Before A Response
Most T r u c k C o m p a n i e s a s s i g n a F i r e f i g h t e r t o tiller on a rotational basis. I f you a r e a s s i g n e d t o t i l l e r you s h o u l d e s t a b l i s h a n d u s e a r o u t i n e e v e r y time y o u r e l i e v e a n o t h e r T i l l e r m a n . This w i l l h e l p you a v o i d o v e r l o o k i n g a n y i m p o r t a n t checks. Your r o u t i n e s h o u l d i n c l u d e t h e f o l l o w i n g :

Place your gear on t h e truck. Check t h e d i r e c t i o n t h e t i l l e r w h e e l s a r e pointed. Climb up i n t o t h e t i l l e r s e a t , a d j u s t t h e seat and m i r r o r s .

Check your s e a t b e l t a n d h e a d s e t . Take complete i n v e n t o r y o f t h e t r u c k . I n s u r e t h a t a l l equipment is s e c u r e d . Make f a c e t o f a c e r e l i e f . T h i s allows f o r t h e exchange of important information.

NOTE:

I f you are t i l l e r i n g a r e s e r v e t r u c k with the old s t y l e " f l i p tiller bucket" t h e f o l l o w i n g c h e c k s m u s t b e made:

The b u c k e t locks a r e l o c k e d , a n d a l a d d e r s t r a p s e c u r e s t h e b u c k e t as a d d i t i o n a l safety. The s t e e r i n g p o s t and s t e e r i n g w h e e l a r e properly seated. On t h e f i r s t d a y o f t i l l e r i n g a r e s e r v e t r u c k be c e r t a i n t h a t t h e l a d d e r p i p e assembly f i t s s e c u r e l y on t h e rungs o f t h e A e r i a l Ladder.

D r i v e r ' s T r a i n i n g Module # 9 L e ~ s o nPlan Part I - Tillering Page 9

When t h e Alarm Sounds B e f o r e c l i m b i n g i n t o t h e t i l l e r bucket f o r a r e s p o n s e , a T i l l e r m a n s h o u l d v i s u a l l y check both s i d e s of t h e t r u c k , and t h e r e a r e n d ; t h i s w i l l i n s u r e a l l compartments a r e c l o s e d , a l l equipment and l a d d e r s a r e s e c u r e d , and t h e p a t h of t r a v e l i s c l e a r . Check t h e pointed. straight, begins t o d i r e c t i o n t h e t i l l e r wheels a r e If t h e y a r e i n a p o s i t i o n o t h e r t h a n remember t o compensate a s t h e t r u c k move f o r w a r d .

Climb up i n t o t h e s e a t , check vour m i r r o r s , and f a s t e n your s e a t b e l t .


P u t your

h e a d s e t and helmet on.

A f t e r r e c e i v i n g a s i g n a l from t h e Apparatus O p e r a t o r t o s t a r t t h e t r u c k (one b e e p ) , push and hold t h e s i g n a l b u t t o n ( e i t h e r on t h e f l o o r o r on t h e s t e e r i n g column) u n t i l t h e truck s t a r t s . A f t e r t h e t r u c k s t a r t s , p l a c e both hands on t h e s t e e r i n g wheel. The n i n e and t h r e e o ' c l o c k p o s i t i o n s a r e recommended. The Apparatus O p e r a t o r w i l l s i g n a l w i t h two beeps t o i n d i c a t e t h e t r u c k i s about t o move forward. Check t o s e e t h a t t h e F i r e f i g h t e r s i n t h e jump s e a t s a r e s e a t e d . Be ready t o answer back w i t h two beeps i n d i c a t i n g t h a t you and t h e t r u c k a r e ready t o p r o c e e d .
A s t h e t r u c k moves p a s t t h e a p p a r a t u s d o o r s ,

t h e T i l l e r m a n should k e e ~ the t r a i l e r centered. A f t e r t h e t r u c k moves i n t o t h e s t r e e t , s t e e r only a s necessary. Otherwise k e e ~ the t r a i l e r i n - l i n e with t h e t r a c t o r a t a l l t i m e s .

..

Driver's Training Module # 9 Lesson Plan Part I1 - Tillerinq Page 1 0

Considerations on Apparatus Placement A Tillerman's considerations will vary depending on the type of incident to which the Truck Company responds. For instance, when arriving at a structure fire in a single family dwelling, ground ladders will be needed; therefore the ladder bay must remain clear. The Tillerman should consider swinging the trailer from the in-line position creating an angle that prevents the ladder bay from being blocked by other apparatus, while leaving the street clear, if possible. All ground ladders must remain accessible during an emergency incident' When your C o m ~ a n yarrives on-scene a t . a fire in an a ~ a r t m e n tor large commercial building, the Aerial Ladder may be used to access the roof. The truck will usually remain in an "in-line" position unless the Apparatus Operator determines otherwise. In any case, communicate with the Apparatus Operator and follow his/her direction. He/she may need help maneuvering the truck into ~osition. At another incident, it may be necessary to jackknife the truck. This may require simply holding the tiller steering wheel straight while the Apparatus Operator backs the truck into position.

NOTE:

During an emergency it is important for the Tillerman to stay seated until the truck comes to a complete stop and the Apparatus Operator signals with one beep. This will prevent a delay in repositioning the apparatus, if there is a need.

Driver's Training Module # 9 Lesson Plan Part I1 - Tillering Page 11

PART I1

- TRAINING

NEW TILLERMAN

Traininq is the shared resoonsibility of the student as well as the instructor. The member designated to instruct a orosoective Tillerman should be exper ienced. An effective instructor must have a thorough knowledge of tillering and must also understand and oractice safe drivinq procedures. The C a ~ t a i nand Apparatus Operator will contribute to the instruction by ensuring completeness of information and proper training practices are beinq used. Before any trainin9 is given, the members of the Truck Company should confer on what will be taught. It is imoortant that all agree on the context of the instruction so that no contradictorv information is given. It is equally important that this training not be rushed. Some Firefighters will grasp the principles of tillering quickly and will have very little trouble with the application. Others will take a longer time to develop their skill and confidence. Allowing Firefighters to tiller before they are oroperly trained is unnecessary, and may negatively impact on the safety of the Truck Company. The public will be affected as well. The Certification Process -------------The followinq steps shall be a minimum requirement for certifying a Tille,rman: The trainee should first be required to observe an experienced member tiller. He/she shall sit as an observer while securely attached (with a safety strap) to the side of the tiller bucket.

Driver's Training Module # 9 Lesson Plan Part I1 - Tillering Page 12

The trainee shall sit as an observer through a minimum of three non-emergency tillering sessions. These sessions should be long enough to insure that the trainee is exposed to a variety of driving situations. Weekend Tillering Drills should be setup to allow the trainee to tiller in an empty parking lot. NOTE: An effective method of tiller training would be the use of the Driver Training Course outlined in the Driver's Training Manual (Figure 4).

Only when the Captain feels that the member has progressed sufficiently will he/she be allowed to proceed bevond this step. The trainee should then be allowed to tiller on the street non-emergency with an instructor observing. The instructor shall be securely attached (with a safety strap) to the side of the tiller bucket and shall be in a position to signal the Apparatus Operator with one beep, if the trainee gets into trouble. The instructor will observe from the tiller bucket until the Captain, Apparatus Operator, instructor, and trainee feel comfortable with his/her progress. The trainee will then be allowed to tiller alone non-emergency only. There are many opportunities to tiller non-emergency (i.e., returning from responses, fire prevention, to and from drills, etc. 1 . Only after substantial exposure to tillering nonemergency should a trainee be allowed to tiller emergency. The member is now eligible for certification. This information should be noted i n the member 's Personal Record Book by his/her Company Commander. NOTE: It is extremely important that the Apparatus O ~ e r a t o r always drive with the Tillerman in mind. When a new Tillerman is tillering particular attention should be given to reducing speed until the Apparatus Operator becomes confident with that person's skills.

D r i v e r ' s T r a i n i n g Module # 9 L e s s o n P l a n P a r t I1 - T i l l e r i n g Page 13

FIGURE 4

GENERAL DESIGN OF FIELD TEST COURSE

Lolo
Ill

Driver's Training Module # 9 Lesson Plan Part I1 - Tillering Page 1 4

CONCLUSION:

The Tillerman's assignment carries a great deal of responsibility. As we have seen, much more is involved than simply climbing into the seat and turning the steering wheel. Tillering is a skill that develops with time and proper training. The truck Captain must insure that all Firefighters assigned to hislher crew are properly trained to safely perform the duties o f a Tillerman. The Apparatus Operator and experienced Firefighters will assist in this training. It is important that each prospective Tillerman's individual abilities be considered as the criteria for progressing through the steps outlined in "the certification process." This module was developed to provide standardized training for all members. It is not intended to limit comprehensive training programs currently employed by various stations throuqhout the City. This material is designed to assist Captains in the certification of their members. It must be noted that the information in this training module does not address the emergency incident responsibilities of a Tillerman. Training in this area depends on the individual preference of Truck Company officers and the standard operating procedures of the Los Angeles Fire Department.

DOC. 991021/21

COMMERCIAL PRE-TRIP VEHICLE INSPECTION

The pre-trip inspection is a knowledge test t o see if the driver understands which features and equipment on the test vehicle should be inspected before operating the vehicle. This test shall be conducted in accordance with the California Commercial Driver Handbook. Before the pre-trip test, the examiner will check the brake lights, emergency flashers, turn signals, horn, and splash guards (if required). During the pre-trip test, the driver must show that the vehicle is safe t o drive. The driver may have t o walk around the vehicle and point t o or touch each item and explain t o the examiner what is being checked and why. The driver will not have t o crawl under the hood or under the vehicle. The driver may only use the inspection guide, found in the handbook as a memory aid when taking the pre-trip test. The memory aid cannot include instructions on how t o perform the pre-trip inspection. If the driver is unsatisfactory in passing the pre-trip inspection test, the skills test and road test will be cancelled.

TRUCK VEHICLE (FIRE ENGINE)


Study the following vehicle parts for the type of vehicle the driver will be using during the CDL skills test. The driver should be able t o identify each part and tell the examiner what they are looking for or inspecting.

Enaine Compartment (engine off 1


LeaksIHoses Look for puddles on the ground. Look for dripping fluid on underside of engine and transmission. Inspect hoses for condition and leaks. Oil Level Indicate where dipstick is located. See that the oil level is within the safe operating range.

\)

Coolant Level Inspect reservoir sight glass or (If engine is not hot), remove radiator cap and check for visible coolant level. Power Steering Fluid Indicate where power steering fluid dipstick is located. Check for adequate power steering fluid level. 'Level must be above refill mark. Engine Compartment Belts Check the following belts for snugness (up t o % inch play at center of belt), cracks, or frays. - power steering belt. - water pump belt. - alternator belt. - air compressor belt. NOTE: If any of the components listed above are not belt driven, the driver must: - tell the examiner which component(s) islare not belt driven - make sure component(s) islare operating properly, islare not damaged or leaking, and islare mounted securely.

External Inspection Steering


Steering BoxIHoses Check that the steering box is securely mounted and not leaking. Check for power steering fluid leaks or damage to power steering hoses. Steering Linkage See that connecting links, arms, and rods from the steering box t o the wheel are not worn or cracked. Check that joints and sockets are not worn or loose and that there are no missing nuts, or bolts.

Suspension
SpringsIAir Look for missing, shifted, cracked, or broken leaf springs. Air ride suspension should be checked for damage and leaks.

Mounts Look for cracked or broken spring hangers, missing or damaged bushings, and broken, loose, missing bolts, U-bolts, or other axle mounting parts. Shock Absorbers See that shock absorbers are secure and that there are no leaks. Note: Be prepared t o perform the same suspension component inspection on every axle.

Brakes
Slack Adjusters Look for broken, loose, or missing parts. The angle between the push rod and adjustor arm should be a little over 90 degrees when the brakes are released, and less than 90 degrees when the brakes are applied. When pulled by hand, the brake rod should not move more than one inch (with the brakes released). Brake Chambers See that brake chambers are not leaking, cracked, dented, and are mounted securely. Brake HosesILines Look for cracked, worn, or leaking hoses, lines, and couplings. Drum BrakeILinings Check for cracks, dents, or holes. Also check for loose or missing bolts. Brake linings (where visible) should not be dangerously thin. Note: Be prepared t o perform the same brake component inspection on every axle.

Wheels
Rims Check for damaged or bent rims. Rims cannot have welding repairs.

Tires The following items must be inspected on every tire: - Tread depth: Check for minimum tread depth (4132 of steering axle tires, 2 / 3 2 on all other tires). - Tire condition: Check that the tread is evenly worn and look for cuts or other damage t o tread or sidewalls. Also, make sure that valve caps and stems are not missing, broken, or damaged. - Tire inflation: Check for proper inflation by using a tire gauge. Hub Oil SealsIAxle Seals See that hub oillgrease seals and axle seals are not leaking and, if wheel has a sight glass, oil level is adequate. Wheel Fasteners Check that all wheel fasteners are present, free of cracks and distortions, and show no signs of looseness such as rust trails or shiny threads. Make sure all bolt holes are not cracked or distorted.

Side of Vehicle
Door(s)/Mirror(s) Check that the door(s) islare not damaged and open and close properly from the outside. Hinges should be secure with seals intact. Check that the mirror(s) and mirror brackets are not damaged and are mounted securely with no loose fittings. Fuel Tank Check that the tank(s) islare secure, the cap(s) islare tight, and that there are no leaks from the tank(s) or lines. BatteryIBox Wherever located, see that the battery(ies) islare secure, connections are tight, and cell caps are present. Battery connections should not show signs of excessive corrosion. Battery box and cover or door must be secure. Drive Shaft See that drive shaft is not bent or cracked. Couplings should be secure and free of foreign objects.

Exhaust System Check system for damage and signs of leaks such as rust or carbon soot. System should be connected tightly and mounted securely. Frame Look for cracks, broken welds, holes, or other damage t o the longitudinal frame members, cross members, box, and floor. Splash Guards If equipped, check that splash guards or mud flaps are not damaged and are mounted securely.

Cab Check / Enaine Start


ClutchIGearshift Depress clutch. Place gearshift lever in neutral (or park, for automatic transmissions). Start engine, then release clutch slowly. Oil Pressure Gauge Make sure oil pressure gauge is working. Check that pressure gauge shows increasing or normal oil pressure or that the warning light goes off. If equipped, oil temperature gauge should begin a gradual rise t o the normal operating range. Temperature Gauge Make sure the temperature gauge is working. Temperature should begin to climb t o the normal operating range or temperature light should be off. AmmeterIVoltmeter Check that gauges show alternator and/or generator is charging or that warning light is off. Mirrors and Windshield Mirrors should be clean and adjusted properly from the inside. Windshield should be clean with no illegal stickers, no obstructions, or damage t o the glass.

Emergency Equipment Check for spare electrical fuses. (If vehicle is not equipped with electrical fuses, the driver must mention this t o the examiner). Check for three red reflective triangles. Check for properly charged and rated fore extinguisher. Steering Play Non-power steering: Check for excessive play by turning steering wheel back and forth. Play should not exceed 1 0 degrees (or about t w o inches on a 20-inch wheel). Power steering: With the engine running, check for excessive play by turning the steering wheel back and forth. Play should not exceed 1 0 degrees (or about t w o inches on a 20-inch wheel) before front wheels begin t o move. WipersIWashers Check that wiper arms and blades are secure, not damaged, and operate smoothly. If equipped, windshield washer must operate correctly. Lighting Indicators Test that dash indicators work when corresponding lights are turned on: - left turn signal. - right turn signal. - 4-way emergency flashers. - high beam headlight. LightsIReflectors Check that all external lights and reflective equipment are clean and functional. Light and reflector checks include: - clearance lights (red on rear, amber elsewhere). - headlights (high and low beam). - taillights. - turn signals. - 4-way flashers. - brake lights. - red reflectors (on rear) and amber reflectors (elsewhere). Horn Check that air horn and/or electric horn work.

HeaterIDefroster Test that the heater and defroster work. Safety Belt Check that the safety belt is securely mounted, adjusts, and latches properly. Parking Brake Check Fasten seat belt. Demonstrate that the parkingtemergency brake either brings the vehicle t o a stop or holds the vehicle in place by: - allowing the vehicle t o move forward slowly and apply the parking brake. or - setting the parkinglemergency brake and trying t o move the vehicle. Air Brake Check (for air brake equipped vehicles only) Failure to oerform an air brake check will result in an automatic failure of the pre-trio test. (Driver must verbalize and demonstrate the air brake test)
* : *

Check air compressor governor cut-in pressure With the engine idling, reduce the air tank pressure sufficient t o cause the air compressor to cut-in (the gauge pressure will begin t o rise). The air compressor must cut-in no lower than 85 psi. Check air compressor governor cut-out pressure Run the engine at a fast idle. The air governor will cause the compressor to cut-out at 130 psitmax. (Normal acceptable cut-out range is from 110 to 120 psi). The air pressure shown by the gauge(s) will stop rising. Test air leakage rate With a fully-charged system (typically 125 psi), turn off the engine, release all brakes and then apply full steady pressure t o the brake pedal (brake on) and hold (for one full minute). After the initial pressure drop, the air pressure should not fall more than: - 3 psi in one minute for single vehicles, or - 4 psi in one minute for combination vehicles. Test low pressure warning signal With the engine off, low pressure warning device must activate between 55 and 75 psi.

Hydraulic Brake Check Pump the brake pedal three times, then apply firm pressure t o the pedal and hold for five seconds. Pedal should not move.

COMMERCIAL PRE-TRIP VEHICLE INSPECTION

The pre-trip inspection is a knowledge test t o see if the driver understands which features and equipment on the test vehicle should be inspected before operating the vehicle. This test shall be conducted in accordance with the California Commercial Driver Handbook. Before the pre-trip test, the examiner will check the brake lights, emergency flashers, turn signals, horn, and splash guards (if required). During the pre-trip test, the driver must show that the vehicle is safe t o drive. The driver may have t o walk around the vehicle and point t o or touch each item and have explain t o the examiner what is being checked and why. The driver will t o crawl under the hood or under the vehicle. The driver may only use the inspection guide, found in the handbook as a memory aid when taking the pre-trip test. The memory aid cannot include instructions on how t o perform the pre-trip inspection. If thedriver is unsatisfactory in passing the pre-trip inspection test, the skills test and road test will be cancelled.
. .

PASSENGER TRANSPORT VEHICLE (BUS)


Study the following vehicle parts for the type of vehicle the driver will be using during the CDL skills test. The driver should be able to identify each part and tell the examiner what they are looking for or inspecting.

Enqine Compartment (enqine off)


LeaksIHoses Look for puddles on the ground. Look for dripping fluid on underside of engine and transmission. Inspect hoses for condition and leaks. Oil Level Indicate where dipstick is located. See that the oil level is within the safe operating range.

Coolant Level Inspect reservoir sight glass or (If engine is not hot), remove radiator cap and check for visible coolant level. Power Steering Fluid Indicate where power steering fluid dipstick is located. Check for adequate power steering fluid level. Level must be above refill mark. Engine Compartment Belts Check the following belts for snugness (up t o % inch play at center of belt), cracks, or frays. - power steering belt. - water pump belt. - alternator belt. - air compressor belt. NOTE: If any of the components listed above are not belt driven, the driver must: - tell the examiner which component(s) islare not belt driven - make sure component(s) islare operating properly, islare not damaged or leaking, and islare mounted securely.

Passenger Compartment
Passenger EntryILift Check that entry doors operate smoothly from the inside. Check that handrails are secure and, if equipped, that the step light is working. Check that the entry steps are clear, with the treads not loose or worn excessively. Emergency Exits Make sure that all emergency exits are undamaged, operate smoothly, and close securely from the inside. Check that any emergency exit warning devices are working. Passenger Seating Look for broken seat frames and check that seat frames are firmly attached to the floor. Check that seat cushions are attached securely t o the seat frames.

Check the entrylexit doors are not damaged and operate smoothly from the outside. Hinges should be secure with seals intact. Make sure that the passenger exit mirrors and all external mirrors and mirror brackets are not damaged and are mounted securely with no loose fittings.

External Inspection
Side of Vehicle
LevelIAir Leaks See that the vehicle is sitting level (front to rear), and if air-equipped, check for audible air leaks from the suspension system. Fuel Tank(s) See that fuel tank(s) are secure with no leaks from the tank(s) or lines. Compartments Check that baggage, and all other exterior compartment doors are not damaged, operate properly, and latch securely. BatteryIBox Wherever located, see that the battery(ies), islare secure, connections are tight, and cell caps are present. Battery connections should not show signs of excessive corrosion. Check that battery box and cover or door is not damaged and is secure.

Wheels
Rims Check for damaged or bent rims. Rims cannot have welding repairs. Tires The following items must be inspected on every tire: - Tread death: Check for minimum tread depth (4132 on steering axle tires, 2/32 on all other tires). - Tire Condition: Check that tread is evenly worn and look for cuts or other damage t o tread or sidewalls. Also, make sure that valve caps and stems are not missing, broken, or damaged. - Tire Inflation: Check for proper inflation by using a tire gauge.

Wheel Fasteners Check that all wheel fasteners are present, free of cracks and distortions, and show no signs of looseness such as rust trails or shiny threads. Make sure all bolt holes are not cracked or distorted.

Cab Check 1 Enaine Start


ClutchIGearshift Depress clutch. Place gearshift lever in neutral (or park, for automatic transmissions). Start engine, then release clutch slowly. Oil Pressure Gauge Make sure oil pressure gauge is working. Check that pressure gauge shows increasing or normal oil pressure or that the warning light goes off. If equipped, oil temperature gauge should begin a gradual rise t o the normal operating range. Temperature Gauge Make sure the temperature gauge is working. Temperature should begin t o climb t o the normal operating range or temperature light should be off. AmmeterIVoltmeter Check that gauges show alternator and/or generator is charging or that warning light is off. Mirrors and Windshield Mirrors should be clean and adjusted properly from the inside. Windshield should be clean with no illegal stickers, no obstructions, or damage t o the glass. Emergency Equipment Check for spare electrical fuses. (If vehicle is not equipped with electrical fuses, the driver must mention this to the examiner). Check for three red reflective triangles. Check for properly charged and rated fore extinguisher.

Steering Play Non-power steering: Check for excessive play by turning steering wheel back and forth. Play should not exceed 1 0 degrees (or about t w o inches on a 20-inch wheel). Power steering: With the engine running, check for excessive play by turning the steering wheel back and forth. Play should not exceed 1 0 degrees (or about t w o inches on a 20-inch wheel) before front wheels begin t o move. WipersIWashers Check that wiper arms and blades are secure, not damaged, and operate smoothly. If equipped, windshield washer must operate correctly. Lighting Indicators Test that dash indicators work when corresponding lights are turned on: - left turn signal. - right turn signal. - 4-way emergency flashers. - high beam headlight. LightsIReflectors Check that all external lights and reflective equipment are clean and functional. Light and reflector checks include: - clearance lights (red on rear, amber elsewhere). - headlights (high and low beam). - taillights. - turn signals. - 4-way flashers. - brake lights. - red reflectors (on rear) and amber reflectors (elsewhere). Horn Check that air horn and/or electric horn work. HeaterIDefroster Test that the heater and defroster work. Safety Belt Check that the safety belt is securely mounted, adjusts, and latches properly.

Parking Brake Check Fasten seat belt. Demonstrate that the parkinglemergency brake either brings the vehicle t o a stop or holds the vehicle in place by: - allowing the vehicle t o move forward slowly and apply the parking brake. or - setting the parkinglemergency brake and trying to move the vehicle. Air Brake Check (for air brake equipped vehicles only) Failure t o oerform an air brake check will result in an automatic failure of the pre-trio test. (Driver must verbalize and demonstrate the air brake test) Check air compressor governor cut-in pressure With the engine idling, reduce the air tank pressure sufficient t o cause the air compressor t o cut-in (the gauge pressure will begin t o rise). The air compressor must cut-in no lower than 85 psi. Check air compressor governor cut-out pressure Run the engine at a fast idle. The air governor will cause the compressor t o cut-out at 1 3 0 psilmax. (Normal acceptable cut-out range is from 1 1 0 t o 1 2 0 psi). The air pressure shown by the gauge(s) will stop rising. Test air leakage rate With a fully-charged system (typically 125 psi), turn off the engine, release all brakes and then apply full steady pressure t o the brake pedal (brake on) and hold (for one full minute). After the initial pressure drop, the air pressure should not fall more than: - 3 psi in one minute for single vehicles, or - 4 psi in one minute for combination vehicles. Test low pressure warning signal With the engine off, low pressure warning device must activate between 55 and 75 psi. Hydraulic Brake Check Pump the brake pedal three times, then apply firm pressure t o the pedal and hold for five seconds. Pedal should not move.

COMMERCIAL VEHICLE SKILLS TEST


All commercial drivers will perform the following Forward Stop / Straight-line backing Backing into a Fire Station Parallel parking Measured right turn
~ Q Uskill

exercises:

The examiner will score the number of times the driver touches or crosses over an portion of the vehicle. Each time the driver breaks exercise boundary line with the plain of the boundary line, an error will be scored. The examiner will also score the number of times the driver stops and changes direction (performs a pull-up) during the exercise. Errors will be explained t o the driver prior t o the exercise.

Exercises
Forward Stop 1 Straight Line Backing The driver will be asked t o drive forward between t w o rows of cones and bring the vehicle to a complete stop as close as the driver can t o the exercise boundary marked by a line or set of cones without going beyond the line or cones. The driver will be asked t o back the vehicle in a straight line between t w o rows of cones without touching or crossing over the exercise boundary. Backing into a Fire Station The driver will be asked to sight-side back the vehicle into a fire station, and bring the rear of the vehicle as close as possible t o the rear of the station without going beyond the exercise boundary marked by a line or row of cones. Parallel Park The driver will be asked t o park in a parallel parking space that is on the driver's right. The driver is to drive past the parking space and back into it bringing the rear of the vehicle as close as possible to the rear of the space without crossing side or rear boundaries marked by cones. The driver is to attempt to get the vehicle (or trailer, if combination vehicle) completely into the space. Right Turn The driver will be asked to drive forward and make a right turn around a marker. The rear wheel should come as close to the marker as possible without touching it.

NOTE: Failure t o oerform anv maneuver as instructed mav result in an automatic UNSATISFACTORY.

CDL SKILL TEST

Forward Stop 1 Straight Line Backing

T ,1; <a>
2 foot line

100 feet

-^

12 feet

I I

I I

Marks every 10 feet to 'assistwith measuring vehicle length

Forward Stop: The examiner will instruct the driver t o proceed through the alley without going over the boundary lines or hitting a cone, and stop with the front bumper as close as possible t o the line at the end of the alley without going past it. The driver may stop only once. Once the driver has stopped, do not pull ahead. The driver is not t o lean out of the window or open the door. When the driver has completed the skill, set the parking brake. Straight Line Backing: The examiner will instruct the driver to proceed straight forward until told to stop. The driver will then be instructed t o back down the alley. The vehicle is to be kept within the 12 foot lane outlined by the cones. Do not touch any cone, or break the boundary line of the cones. Stop once the rear bumper of the vehicle has cleared the last set of cones at the end of the alley. When the driver has completed the skill, set the parking brake.

CDL SKILL TEST

Backing into a Fire Station

70 feet minimum

20 feet

1
B

2 foot line

Backing into a Fire Station: The examiner will instruct the driver t o proceed past the entrance to the fire station and position the vehicle on the left side of the (70 ft. reference cone), stop, then back up into the station. Keep the vehicle within the fire station boundary outlined by the cones. Do not touch any cone, or break the boundary line of the cones. The driver is t o try t o get as close as possible to the back of the station without going past the marker. When the driver has completed the skill, set the parking brake.

CDL SKILL TEST

Parallel Parking

-1

Vehicle length plus 10 feet

-1

Parallel Parking: The examiner will instruct the driver t o proceed by the parallel parking space, stop, then back into it. Position the vehicle (for Class A, only the trailer) completely into the space without hitting a cone or going over the boundary lines. When the driver has completed the skill, set the parking brake.

CDL SKILL TEST

Measured Right Turn

k 40 feet Maximum

Measured Right Turn: The examiner will instruct the driver t o proceed slowly forward and make a right turn around the inside cone (reference cone). The driver is t o bring the rear wheels of the vehicle (or trailer) as close as possible t o the base of the cone without hitting it. After completing the turn, set the parking brake.

COMMERCIAL VEHICLE DRIVE TEST


The driver will perform over a test route that has a variety of traffic situations. A t all times during the test, the driver must drive in a safe and responsible manner. During the drive test, the examiner will be scoring the driver on specific driving maneuvers as well as the driver's general driving behavior. The driver will follow the directions of the examiner. Directions will be given t o the driver well in advance of the required maneuver. The driver will not be asked t o drive in an unsafe manner.

Driving Performance Evaluation


Turns
Preparing to make a turn: Check traffic in all directions. Use turn signals and safely get into the lane needed for the turn.
.
>

Approaching the turn: Use turn signals t o warn others of the intended turn. Slow down smoothly, change gears as needed t o maintain power, but do not coast unsafely. Unsafe coasting occurs when the vehicle is out of gear for more than the length of the vehicle.

If required to stop prior to the turn Come t o a smooth stop without skidding. Come to a complete stop behind the stop line, crosswalk, or stop sign. If stopping behind another vehicle, stop where the driver can see the rear tires on the vehicle ahead (safe gap). Keep the front wheels aimed straight ahead.
When ready to turn Check traffic in all directions. Keep both hands on the steering wheel during the turn. Do not change gears during the turn. Keep checking the mirror to make sure the vehicle does not hit anything on the inside of the turn. Vehicle should not move into oncoming traffic. Vehicle should finish turn in the correct lane.

After the turn Make sure t o turn the signal off. Accelerate smoothly up t o the speed of traffic.

Intersections
Approaching an intersection Check traffic thoroughly in all directions. Decelerate gently. Brake smoothly and, if necessary, change gears. If necessary, come t o a complete stop behind any stop sign, signal, crosswalk, or stop line maintaining a safe gap behind any vehicle in front. The vehicle must not roll forward or backward. Driving through an intersection Check traffic thoroughly in all directions. Decelerate and yield t o any pedestrians and/or traffic in the intersection. Do not change lanes or shift gears while proceeding through the intersection. Keep both hands on the wheel. Once through the intersection
.

Continue checking traffic. Accelerate smoothly and change gears as necessary.

Urban / Rural Driving


Normal driving During this portion of the test, the driver will be expected t o make regular traffic checks and maintain a safe following distance. The vehicle should be centered in the proper lane and the driver should keep up with the flow of traffic but not exceed the posted speed limit. During the multiple lane portion of the urbanlrural section, the driver will be asked t o change lanes to the left, and then back t o the right. The driver should make the necessary traffic checks first, then use proper signals and smoothly change lanes when it is safe t o do so.

Freeway Driving
Entering the freeway Check traffic. Use proper signals. Merge smoothly into the proper lane.

Once on the freeway Maintain proper lane position, distance, and speed. Continue t o check traffic thoroughly in all directions. Changing lanes Make necessary traffic checks. Use proper signals. Change lanes smoothly when it is safe t o do so. Exiting the freeway Make necessary traffic checks. Use proper signals. Decelerate smoothly in the exit lane. Once on the exit ramp, the driver must continue t o decelerate within the lane markings and maintain adequate following distance.

Stop / Start
For this maneuver, the driver will be asked t o pull the vehicle over t o the side of the road and stop as if t o get out and check something on the vehicle. The driver must check traffic thoroughly in all directions and move t o the far right lane or shoulder of the road. Prepare to stop Check traffic. Turn on the right turn signal. Decelerate smoothly, brake evenly, and change gears as necessary. Once stopped Vehicle must be parallel t o the curb or shoulder of the road and safely out of the traffic flow. Vehicle should not be blocking driveways, fire hydrants, intersections, signs, etc. Cancel turn signal. Activate 4-way emergency flashers. Apply parking brake. Move the gear shift to neutral or park. Take feet off of the brake and clutch pedals.

Resume driving Check traffic and mirrors thoroughly in all directions. Turn off 4-way flashers. Turn on left turn signal. When traffic permits, release the parking brake and pull straight forward. Do not turn the wheel before the vehicle begins to move. Check traffic from all directions, especially t o the left. Steer and accelerate smoothly into the proper lane when safe t o do so. Once the vehicle is back into the flow of traffic, cancel the left turn signal.

Curve
Approaching a curve Check traffic thoroughly in all directions. Before entering the curve, reduce speed so further braking or shifting is not required in the curve. Keep vehicle in the lane. Continue checking traffic in all directions.

Upgrade
Approaching the upgrade Select the proper gear t o maintain speed and n o t l u g the engine. Check traffic thoroughly in all directions and move t o the far right lane if traveling too slowly for the flow of traffic.

Downgrade
Starting down the grade Downshift as needed to help control engine speed and test brakes by gently applying the foot brake to ensure they are functioning properly. As the vehicle moves down the grade, continue checking traffic in all directions, stay t o the far right lane if the vehicle is moving too slowly for traffic. Increase following distance and observe the following downhill braking procedures: - Select a "safe" speed, one that is not too fast for the weight of the vehicle, length, and steepness of the grade, weather, and road conditions. - Once a safe speed has been reached, apply the brake hard enough to feel a definite slowdown. - When speed has been reduced to 5 mph below the safe speed, release the brakes. - Once speed has increased to the safe speed, repeat the procedure.

When operating any commercial vehicle, do not ride the clutch, race the engine, change gears, or coast while driving down a grade.

Railroad Crossing
Prior to reaching the crossing (All Commercial Drivers) Decelerate, brake smoothly, and shift gears as necessary. Look and listen for the presence of trains. Check traffic in all directions. Do not stop, change gears, or change lanes while any part of the vehicle is in the crossing. Prior to reaching the crossing (Drivers of a bus, school bus, or vehicle displaying placards) As the vehicle approaches a railroad crossing, activate the 4-way flashers. Stop the vehicle within 50 feet but not less than 15 feet from the nearest rail. Listen and look in both directions along the track for an approaching train and for signals indicating the approach of a train. If operating a bus, the driver may also be required t o open the window and door prior t o crossing tracks. Keep hands on the steering wheel as the vehicle crosses the tracks. Do not stop, change gears, or change lanes while any part of the vehicle is in the crossing. 4-way flashers should be turned off after the vehicle crosses the tracks.

Bridge / Overpass / Sign


After driving under an overpass, the driver may be asked t o tell the examiner what the posted clearance or height of the underpass was. After going over a bridge, the driver may be asked t o tell the examiner the posted weight limit of the bridge.

Conditions of the Evaluation Drive Test


During the driving test, the driver must: Wear seat belt. Obey all traffic signs, signals, and laws. Complete the test without an accident, or moving violation.

Driver Performance
The driver will be scored on overall performance in the following general driving behavior categories: Clutch Usage (for manual transmission) Always use the clutch to shift Double-clutch if the vehicle is equipped with a non-synchronized transmission. + Do not rev or lug the engine. + Do not ride the clutch t o control speed, coast with the clutch depressed, or "pop" the clutch.

+ +

Gear Usage (for manual transmission) + Do not grind or clash gears. + Select gear that does not rev or lug the engine. + Do not shift in turns and/or intersections. Brake Usage Do not ride or pump brakes. + Do not brake harshly. Brake smoothly using steady pressure.

Lane Usage + Do not drive the vehicle over curbs, sidewalks, or lane markings. + Stop behind stop lines, crosswalks, or stop signs. Complete a turn in the proper lane on a multiple lane road. + Finish a right turn in the right lane. + Move t o or remain in the far right lane unless the lane is blocked.

DRIVER TRAINING ARTICLES Table of Contents No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Date 5-86 5-86 6-86 6-86 5-86 7-86 5-86 7-86 6-86 5-86 5-86 5-86 Title Lessons Learned Foot Braking Procedures Apparatus Inventory & Traffic Accidents Stale Green Light Skid Recovery and Hydroplanning California Traffic National Motor-Vehicle Fatalities Southland School Children on Vacation Mopeds Air Brake Emergency Systems Fuel Conservation/Driving Procedures Smith System, Defensive Driving

LOS ANGELES FIRE DEPARTMENT DRIVER TRAINING ARTICLE #1 DEFENSIVE DRIVING LESSONS LEARNED JAKE BRAKE OPERATION A 1984 Seagrave Triple, driven by an acting-Engineer, was approaching a freeway transition ramp requiring a reduction in speed from 55 MPH to 25 MPH. The Jake Brake was in the "on" position to assist in slowing the apparatus, the driver attempted to "downshift" from 6th to 5th gear. Believing to be in 5th gear, the driver released the clutch pedal. Unfortunately, the shift had been missed and the transmission was in neutral. With neither the throttle nor the clutch depressed, the Jake Brake engaged causing RPM's to drop; stalling the engine. Power steering was lost. Due to inexperience and freeway noise, the driver was slow to recognize the problem. Fortunately, control of the apparatus, was regained in time to avoid an accident. Lesson: the Jake Brake Operation and effect is dependent on a number of variables. It is mandatory that all drivers understand the apparatus they are assigned to; this includes relief apparatus when working overtime, or in an "acting" position. Information from apparatus log books, the AOTM and Manual of Operations should be reviewed as necessary. REDUCED SPEED - ON GUARD! The Department routinely experiences accidents which occur during the rehousing of apparatus. Recently an engine hit the station house apparatus door resulting in damage both to the door and right rear tailboard of the engine. In another accident, an engine backed into the 200 series pump causing damage to both apparatus. In both cases a safety member was present on the tailboard and the rate of speed was less than 5 MPH. Lesson: In these and other situations the reduced speed of the apparatus caused the members to relax their attentiveness to safety considerations. Remember the perception/reaction time remains constant and is independent from changes in apparatus speed. MAY, 1986

ARTICLE #1 - 2BLIND SPOTS -EXPOSED!.

MAY, 1986

An Apparatus Operator driving a 1974 Seagrave Aerial Truck desired to make a lane change from the number 1 to the number 2 lane. After checking the right rear view mirror, verifying that the number 2 lane was clear, the A/0 activated the right turn indicator and began to move into the number 2 lane at a rate of speed of about 15 MPH. The tillerman had his attention focused to the rear of the truck using hand signals to reaffirm the lane change to approaching traffic. The Captain, in checking the adjacent lane (#2) noticed a vehicle directly to the truck's right. The Captain altered the A/0 to the auto's presence-but not in time to prevent contact. A blind spot existed on the right side of the truck of sufficient size to conceal an automobile, was determined to be the cause of this accident. Lesson: The driver must know his apparatus and the visual limitations of apparatus mirrors. The view of the driver from his position is affected by a number of factors (physical size, mirror position, placement of equipment, etc.). An easy, quick method to learn mirror limitations is the following: 1. 2. 3. 4. Place yourself in the driver's seat and adjust the mirrors as appropriate. Have a second member station himself in various locations relative to the apparatus. Establish the precise location of the existing blind spots Develop a positive action to address each blind spot".

For the Apparatus driver there should be no such thing as a blind spot. SPOTTING AWARENESS: A number of traffic accidents have occurred as a direct result of the improper spotting of apparatus at incidents. Your first priority as a driver is the safe control of your apparatus. Often a driver's attention is diverted from the responsibility for proper spotting to other demands of the incident (i.e., visible loom-up, casualties of a traffic accident, civilian directions, etc.). Proper apparatus placement will very depending on the specific factors of each incident. However, the prerequisite for all incidents is SAFETY! The safety conscious driver will place apparatus in a manner that will contribute to the mitigation of the incident. Additional information concerning proper apparatus placement is contained in Module #8 of the Driver's Training Manual.

ARTICLE #1 - 3IMPORTANCE OF PRE-CHECK

MAY, 1986

Two incidents recently occurred that reaffirmed the importance of the apparatus pre-check. In the first instance, an Engineer was confused about the operation of the "Jake Brake". The "Jake Brake was in the on" position but was not being activated when the clutch and throttle pedal were released. After considerable time was spent unsuccessfully trying to locate the problem the Engineer called the mechanic. Solution: It was discovered that the pump panel throttle was slightly engaged thus rendering the "Jake Brake" inoperative. In the other case, a Rescue Ambulance leaving quarters on the first response after relief was damaged when it struck the apparatus doors of the engine house. Cause: the front wheels of the RA were out of line. The wheel position resulted when the RA was maneuvered for rehousing. Care was not taken to ensure that the front wheels were in-line. Lesson: In both of the above cases, a proper pre-check by the members reporting for duty could have prevented costly repairs. Refer to AOTM chapter 3, Appendix A and Module #4 of the Driver's Training Manual for a guide to apparatus pre-check. DRIVING WITHOUT STEERING The accident cited above emphasizes the importance of "Defensive Driving". This responsibility does not rest solely with the driver. Accidents affect all of Us. As passengers, we must accept responsibility for the role we can play in preventing accidents. The passenger has a unique perspective of the traffic environment. Passengers may see things that the driver may be unaware of. Following is a list of considerations the passenger should keep in mind: 1. Communicate with the driver. If you see something let the driver know! Assume that your view point is unique. Assist the driver with positive directions. For example, on lane changes, tell the driver when it is clear; don't make the driver guess as to what your silence indicates. Be confident as a passenger. If you have safety concerns discuss them with the driver. Often drivers are unaware that their driving habits cause passengers to feel uncomfortable.

2.

3.

ARTICLE #1 -4-

MAY, 1986

4.

When supervising a driver, express your priorities. (i.e., safety, public relations, courtesy, etc.) make the driver's job easier. Assist the driver: give directions in advance, operate siren and radio, know the destination, encourage driver/passenger communication, be alert to the traffic environment, coordinate the response of other apparatus, minimize, distractions, ask the driver how you can help. Assist the driver as the safety person when backing or positioning apparatus. Ensure that the driver is aware of potential hazards.

5.

This list is not inclusive. Drivers will welcome any assistance you, as a passenger, can offer.

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LOS ANGELES CITY FIRE DEPARTMENT DRIVER TRAINING

ARTICLE #2 FOOT BRAKING PROCEDURES SUMMARY:

MAY, 1986

The light vehicle repair section, Supply and Maintenance Division, reports that some light vehicles have required pad replacement on front brakes after only 5000 miles. The short life span of brake pads is caused by extremely hard braking or left foot braking when the accelerator pedal is still depressed. A considerable saving could be realized if drivers would use greater care in their braking methods. Whenever possible a driver should place his left foot on the floorboard to stabilize his position behind the steering wheel so as to be better able to control the vehicle during evasive action. RECOMMENDATION: All normal braking should be accomplished with the driver's right foot. FINDINGS: There are five major reasons that left foot braking should not be practiced during emergency vehicle operation. 1. A driver is best braced when his left foot is placed against the left floorboard of the car and his right foot is positioned over the accelerator pedal. The three point suspension tends to stabilize the driver's position behind the steering wheel and helps him retain control during sudden vehicle movements that occur during an evasive action, mechanical failure, or actual impact with another object. In an emergency stop, often the "left foot braker" finds himself with both accelerator and brake pedal depressed. Not only is the engine trying to keep the car moving, but vacuum boost is reduced and more pedal pressure is required to operate the brakes. Maximum deceleration is acquired through impending skids. Rolling friction allows the driver to maintain some directional control of his vehicle. For most drivers, braking just short of a locked wheel skid is best achieved with the right foot.

2.

3.

ARTICLE #2 -2-

MAY 1986

4.

A "left foot braker" has a tendency to allow his left foot to rest on the brake pedal, actually pushing it down. It is unlikely that he will keep his foot poised over the pedal without touching it for any length of time. Even a slight pressure can cause brakes to rub and become heated. The operator may find himself with inadequate brakes when he needs them most. The constant rubbing of brake shoes and pads may result in rapid destruction of disc brake rotors, brake drums, pads and shoes.

5.

On most vehicles, vacuum boost begins operation when 10 to 15 pounds of pressure is applied to the actuating shaft of the booster. Because of the mechanical advantage provided by the brake pedal, vacuum may begin applying the brakes with a very small amount of foot pressure and resultant pedal movement. During tests it was noted that from 30 to 60 ounces of foot pressure and less than 1/8 inch pedal movement would initiate braking action. A well worn size 10 left shoe may weigh as much as 25 ounces, requiring very little additional pressure to activate the brakes. REFERENCES: Captain R.W. Dreher, Equipment Engineering Section, Supply and Maintenance Division Sergeant Bill Smith, L.A.P.D., Driver Training Unit, Tactics Training Section, Training Division Engineer Chris Baker, Equipment Engineering Section, Supply and Maintenance Division

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LOS ANGELES CITY FIRE DEPARTMENT DRIVER TRAINING ARTICLE #3 APPARATUS INVENTORY AND TRAFFIC ACCIDENTS The Department operates a total of 903 apparatus of the following types: Triple Combination Engine Aerial Ladder Truck Ambulance Snorkel or Squirt Lightwater Apparatus Fuel Tanker Airport-Crash Protection Standby Salvage Chemical Foam High Expansion Foam Hazardous Materials Squad Mobile Lab Communications Van Helicopter Tenders Tractor Tenders Emergency Lighting Food Service Helicopter -200 -61 -71 -4 4 -2 Heavy Utility Vans, Service Truck Display Equipment -2 Boat Buses Pickup Truck, Stakebodies -5 -4 -9 February, 1986

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-9 -9 -1 -2

-19 -4

Emergency Sedans Non-Emergency Squads Construction Equipment Emergency Air Tractor Transports Miscellaneous

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-4 -3 -1 -2 -2 -2 -4

-167 -8 -1 -3 -87

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LOS ANGELES CITY FIRE DEPARTMENT DRIVER TRAINING ARTICLE #4 STALE GREEN LIGHT What is a stale green light and how can you tell if it's a stale green light ahead? A stale green light is a light that's been green long enough to be ready to pop yellow and then quickly red. Knowing far enough in advance of the impending change allows you to respond in a smooth, timely, and safe manner. How can you tell, as you approach a light-controlled intersection, if the green light is stale? There are a number of indications: 1) you notice when the light first went green and you were some distance back (elapsed time); the pedestrian signal changes from WALK (solid white) to DON'T WALK (flashing orange) -- pedestrians walking at, say 2-1/2 to 3-1/2 mph take 10 times as long to clear the intersection as cars going 25 to 35 so pedestrians are stopped earlier in the phasing; notice the speed of traffic moving through the intersection ahead -- if traffic is moving at a high uniform rate of speed, their light is a stale green; notice the spacing of traffic moving through the intersection ahead -- traffic at a fresh green light tends to be closely bunched, bumper to bumper; notice whether traffic waiting out the red light is building up -- there will be more as the red light gets more stale (even pedestrians), i.e., their stale red is your stale green; notice whether traffic is able to turn left (except where there is a left turn arrow) as this usually occurs well into the stale green light -- and on into the yellow and occasionally the fresh red signal. APRIL, 1986

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The combination of these indications, especially #1, tells you when you have a stale green light.

LOS ANGELES CITY FIRE DEPARTMENT DRIVER TRAINING ARTICLE #4 STALE GREEN LIGHT What is a stale green light and how can you tell if it's a stale green light ahead? A stale green light is a light that's been green long enough to be ready to pop yellow and then quickly red. Knowing far enough in advance of the impending change allows you to respond in a smooth, timely, and safe manner. How can you tell, as you approach a light-controlled intersection, if the green light is stale? There are a number of indications: 1) you notice when the light first went green and you were some distance back (elapsed time); the pedestrian signal changes from WALK (solid white) to DON'T WALK (flashing orange) -- pedestrians walking at, say 2-1/2 to 3-1/2 mph take 10 times as long to clear the intersection as cars going 25 to 35 so pedestrians are stopped earlier in the phasing; notice the speed of traffic moving through the intersection ahead -- if traffic is moving at a high uniform rate of speed, their light is a stale green; notice the spacing of traffic moving through the intersection ahead -- traffic at a fresh green light tends to be closely bunched, bumper to bumper; notice whether traffic waiting out the red light is building up -- there will be more as the red light gets more stale (even pedestrians), i.e., their stale red is your stale green; notice whether traffic is able to turn left (except where there is a left turn arrow) as this usually occurs well into the stale green light -- and on into the yellow and occasionally the fresh red signal. APRIL, 1986

2)

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The combination of these indications, especially #1, tells you when you have a stale green light.

- 2STALE RED LIGHTS (too) Especially now that while we continue to suffer the expensive consequences of high-cost fuel, it's appropriate to use not only the stale green light but also the stale red light. As we approach a red traffic light we should modify our approach speed in order to plan our arrival at the intersection when the light will have changed back to green. Charging up to an intersection doesn't change the light in our (fuel-efficient) favor. It only advertises our lack of planning and professionalism. You can't change the timing of the lights but you can change just when you'll arrive at the intersection. And freeing yourself from over-concentrating on lights allows you to drive more relaxed and use the free time for safety checks. YELLOW - What Does It Mean? It means that the red will show next. You may not enter an intersection when the light is red; you may enter when it's yellow. That's what yellow does - - it gives cross traffic a chance to clear the intersection. It say's "caution." For far too many drivers, AMBER means "SCAMPER!" And if they don't make it, speeding up just to "make it through" is hardly exercising caution. Sweaty palms, and a pounding hear - - or a police officer's ticket only changes their behavior for a while. Not so the pro. He knows about the point of no return. He knows it's not safe unless he can "roll through", that is, make it safely without increasing his present speed and while covering the brakes AND checking cross traffic.

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LOS ANGELES CITY FIRE DEPARTMENT DRIVER TRAINING ARTICLE #5 SKID RECOVERY Skidding is "a major factor in one out of every four serious accidents. It is responsible for almost 12,000 deaths and 425,000 injuries annually; yet most drivers do not realize what causes skids or how to handle them when they occur. Most people face their first emergency skid with no prior training or experience. Although there is no absolute way to handle a particular skid, there are certain rules and techniques that can be applied to help recover from a skid. The five basic rules are: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Do not use the brake until steering control has been reestablished. Do not use power. D-Clutch on stick shift cars. Countersteer; that is, turn the front wheels in the direction the rear wheels are skidding. Once steering control has been reestablished a light brake will assist slowing. MAY 1986

Something can be done about skidding, but when the occasion arises, it must be done quickly. The driver who hesitates when he should countersteer, or doesn't turn his wheel far enough in countersteering, has probably lost control of this car. If he hasn't regained control of the car before it spins 15-25 degrees from the center, he probably will be unable to keep it from spinning completely around. A skid recovery is not a substitute for defensive driving. This method could be called "remedial driving". Skid recovery will seldom have to be used if the rules of defensive driving are followed; but if a skid situation does occur, drivers who have learned skid recovery will have a much better chance of avoiding an accident. HYDROPLANING In heavy rain or slush your front wheels leave the road. They actually climb up on a tough film of water and your car hydroplanes. At less than 30 m.p.h. (if you carry 24 pounds pressure in passenger car tires), your front tires begin to lose contact with the pavement. At around 50 m.p.h., they're lifted up on a tough film of water and only the outer ribs are touching.

ARTICLE #5 -2-

MAY 1986

At about 55 m.p.h., your front tires lose all contact. Hydroplaning may begin when you can hear your wheels splashing in one-fifth inch of water or more. Warning clues: You see clear reflections of other cars and poles, or you notice raindrop "dimples" appearing in the road. The Department does not recommend changing air pressure in tires due to inclemate weather. The over inflation of tires has proved effective in very light vehicles in very heavy rains, but no data is available on Heavy Apparatus. Most new tires have deep tread grooves through which water pressure can escape. Most new treads are about eleven-sixteenths inch deep. Measure yours; if the mid-treads are worn 80 percent or to about one-eighth inch - either buy new tires or get off the road until the hard rain stops. Protect yourself by driving in the "tire wipes" left by cars or trucks ahead. On busy turnpikes, at 50-55 m.p.h., these usually leave a fairly wide track where little water remains. Don't tailgate. Even in heavy rain, such wipes remain for several hundred feet. Don't make the common mistake of thinking a warm, dry road is skid proof. This has cost thousands of lives. A-dry road can be as slippery as ice. Here's the sequence. You see a car or truck stalled ahead. In panic, you slam on your brakes. A skid begins. Suddenly you think the skid is over. But just then your car seems to get its second wind. It tears off in a scary new slide, may even seem to skid faster. (on a downgrade it probably does.) In the first moment of slide, your tires get hot, suddenly lay down a long slick trail of molten rubber. You're greasing your own trail to destruction. The tires ride on this just as a stick of solder suddenly slides easily in its own melt. Next time you skid, remember: Your best friends are four free-rolling wheels. They have enormous side force to help straighten your car. Don't lock them up with brakes and don't accelerate. REFERENCES: National Safety Council, Accident Facts Sergeant Bill Smith, L.A.P.D., Driver Training Unit, Tactics Training Section, Training Division Captain R.W. Dreher Equipment Engineering Unit, Supply and Maintenance Division

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LOS ANGELES CITY FIRE DEPARTMENT DRIVER TRAINING ARTICLE #6 CALIFORNIA TRAFFIC SAFETY WEEK MAY 18 24, 1986 California Traffic Safety Week is planned as an annual event to generate public awareness of the major impact traffic accidents have on our society. In addition to the emotional trauma resulting from lives lost and injuries suffered, societal costs (including costs for emergency services, productivity losses, legal fees and court costs, government assistance. etc.) amount to more than 2.7 billion annually in California. These personal injuries and the resulting costs can be significantly reduced if all roadway users would act responsibly by obeying traffic laws, and using protective clothing and equipment. Barbara Bania Chairperson Local Events Coordinating Committee (916) 445-9734 The purpose of the California Traffic Safety Week is to concentrate throughout the State to help improve traffic accident problems through educating drivers in the techniques of driving defensively to avoid accidents before they happen. Traffic Safety begins with "ME." It emphasizes the community responsibility aspect of a driver's responsibility once behind the wheel of a motor vehicle. The driver has a responsibility not only to himself, but to others on the streets and highways around him to avoid accidents by driving constantly to avoid dangerous situations. Traffic safety should be a major concern to employers because traffic accidents occurring both on and off the job are a major cause of fatalities and injuries among members of the work force. Statistics of the National Safety Council show that 4,200 motor vehicle work related deaths took place in 1984. These figures show that it is obvious that training in safe driving is an integral and essential. part of any effective company safety program. Traffic accidents don't simply affect workers alone. They are a danger to everyone in the community. We prevent accidents by creating better drivers and we create better drivers by teaching accident-avoidance techniques. Traffic accidents are the leading cause of accidental death in the United States. They claimed more than 46,200 lives in 1984. As of December, 1984, approximately 2,400,000, persons in the United States have died since the first recorded motor vehicle death. July 1, 1986

-2Cost to the national economy resulting from deaths, injuries and property damage due to traffic accidents was over $47.6 billion for 1984, the highest in history. Driver error is still the major cause of traffic accidents and accounts for approximately 72% of all traffic accidents. Driver training instructors are encouraged to conduct a driver's training program for members of their respective organizations, to help reduce these unnecessary deaths and injuries to our nation's drivers. REFERENCE: L. A. Chapter, National Safety Council

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LOS ANGELES CITY FIRE DEPARTMENT DRIVER TRAINING ARTICLE #7 NATIONAL ACCIDENT FATALITY TOLL 1984 ALL ACCIDENTS Motor-vehicle Public non-motor-vehicle Home Work 91,500 45,800 18,000 21,000 11,300 1983 91,500 44,400 19,500 20,500 11,300 CHANGE 0% +3% -8% +2% 0% July 1, 1986

Note: The motor-vehicle totals include some deaths also included in work and home. The duplication amounted to about 4,400 in 1984 and 4,200 in 1983. All figures are National Safety Council estimates. HERE ARE THE FACTS, 1984 DEATHS...................................................................................................................... 45,800 INJURIES ............................................................................................................... 1,600,000 (disabling beyond day of accident) COSTS ........................................................................................................ $45,100,000,000 TRAVEL ................................................................................................... 1,708,000,000,000 (miles) RATE............................................................................................................................... 2.68 (deaths per 100,000,000 miles of travel MV REGISTRATION........................................................................................... 174,200,000 POPULATION .................................................................................................... 236,108,000

-2Motor-vehicle deaths increased 3 per cent in 1984 over 1983. The 1984 total is estimated at 45,800, compared with 44,400 in 1983. The 1972 total of 56,728 is the highest total on record. In the previous years, the annual changes were: 1983, -3 percent; 1982, 11 per cent; 1981, -3 percent; 1980, - I per cent; 1979, +2 per cent; 1978, +6 percent; 1977, +5 per cent; 1976, +3 per cent; 1975, - 1 per cent; and 1974, - 17 per cent. During 1984, deaths were higher than the previous year's totals in 10 of the 12 months. The largest percentage increase was 9 per cent in June. The month recording the highest number of fatalities during 1984 was August with 4,430; the lowest number, 2,930" occurred in February. TRAVEL,VEHICLES, DRIVERS Travel in 1984 increased for the fourth year in a row. Preliminary reports indicate that there were about 1.71 trillion miles of travel, 3 per cent more than in 1983 and 32 percent more than 1974. The number of motor vehicles and drivers increased to record levels in 1984. Vehicles totaled about 174.2 million, a net increase of 2.4 million over the 1983 total. Drivers in 1984 totaled about 154.3 million, a net increase of approximately 1.5 million over the 1983 total. Since a number of people for-various reasons stop driving each year, the actual number of new drivers probably exceeds 1.5 million. DEATH RATES The mileage death rate in 1984 is indicated to be 2.68 (deaths per 100 million vehicle miles of travel). This rate is a decrease of less than one-half of 1 per cent from the 1983 rate of 2.69. INJURIES Injuries causing disability beyond the day of the accident are estimated at about 1.6 million for 1984. Less serious injuries probably equaled twice this number. This total is the best estimate of the year's experience, but since it is not an actual tally of disabiling injury cases, it should not be compared with estimated totals for earlier years. FACTORSAFFECTING MOTOR-VEHICLE DEATHS In past years, we have pointed out-that the combined impact of many factors determines the annual result. Some factors add to the fatality total and other factors help to decrease the total. Factors, such as exposure (increased vehicle travel, more vehicles and drivers), higher average speeds, and more lightweight cars all add to the fatality total. On the other hand, factors mentioned as operating to offset the "increase" influences have included: vehicle safety features, limited access highways, engineering

improvements on older highways, driver education, defensive driving courses, commercial driver training, safety belts and shoulder harnesses, better enforcement, emergency medical services, and many others. In recent years, most of the bulge in the age profile of the population due to the post-World War II "baby boom" has moved out of the teenage years and into the 25-44-year age group. Because the population death rate for the older group is about 60 per cent of the rate for the 15-24 year olds, the aging of the "baby boom" population means an automatic decrease in motor-vehicle deaths. In 1984, however, the "increase" factor's seemed to have outnumbered the "decrease influences. The large growth rate in the nation's economy, the best since 1951, also may have indirectly contributed to the higher fatality total. MOTOR-VEHICLE DEATHS BY TYPE OF ACCIDENT, AND CHANGES, 1974-1984 ACCIDENT TYPES Total Pedestrian Two-vehicle Railroad Pedal cycle Noncollision Fixed object Animal, other 1984 TOTAL 45,800 8,100 20,400 700 1,000 12,300 3,200 100 Percentage Change Numerical Change 1983-1984 1974-1984 1983-1984 1974-1984 + 3% + 4% + 6% + 17% - 9% 0% - 3% 0% - 1% -5% + 4% - 42% 0% - 4% + 3% 0% +1,400 + 300 +11200 + 100 - 100 0 - 100 0 -600 -400 +700 -500 0 -500 +100 0

DEATHS BY AGE GROUPS, AND CHANGES, 1974-1984 AGE GROUP Total 0-4 5-14 15-24 25-44 45-64 65-74 75 1984 TOTAL 45,800 1,300 2,200 14,500 14,600 7,000 3,000 3,200 Percentage Change Numerical Change 1983-1994 1974-1984 1983-1984 1974-1984 + 3% 0% - 4% + 1% + 2% + 4% + 11% + 14% 1% 13% 33% 9% + 24% - 15% - 3% + 23% +1,400 0 - 100 + 200 + 300 + 300 + 300 + 400 - 600 - 200 -1,100 -1,400 +2,800 -1,200 - 100 + 600

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LOS ANGELES CITY FIRE DEPARTMENT DRIVER TRAINING ARTICLE #8 SOUTHLAND SCHOOL CHILDREN ON VACATION MOTORISTS URGED TO BE ALERT July 1, 1986

Southland students are on vacation and classroom activities are now replaced by unsupervised summer activities. An overview of child safety by motorists will reveal the need for caution when children use crosswalks without supervision, walk in roadways where no sidewalks exist; also, bike riders and skateboarders are out in full force during the summer months. Drivers are urged to set proper examples by obeying all laws and adopting a safety code of defensive driving which allows for mistakes of others. THINK "BIKE" Schools are on vacation. Bikes are everywhere. Think "bike." Expert cyclists to appear anytime, from any direction. "SECOND CAR" KILLS Too many children become casualties from the "second car -motorists in the inside lane that fail to stop for children that pass in front of a car already stopped. CHILDREN DART INTO STREET Schools are on vacation. Children often dart out into the street between parked cars. Especially during the summer months, be alert to children in the street. SKATEBOARDS OUT IN FORCE Skateboarders are out in full force during vacation. Unfortunately, some use the streets as a playground. DISABILING INJURIES FOR 1984 Disabling motor vehicle accident injuries in 1984 for the nation numbered about 1,700,000, an increase of 100,000 over the previous year. Approximately 46,200 died in traffic, an increase of 1,600 deaths over the previous year. HOME ACCIDENTS DECREASE 1983 and 1984 are the two lowest recorded home accident death totals in 52 years. Both 1983 and 1984 had a total of 20,000 home accident deaths. 1948 recorded the highest number of home accident deaths with a total of over 35,000 deaths.

-2NATIONS TOTAL ACCIDENTS INCREASE The nation's accidental death total was 92,000, an increase of 500 deaths or 1% over the 1983 total of 91,500. The increase in motor vehicle deaths was partially offset by decreases in public and work. Despite an increase in deaths, the death rate per 100,000 population for all accidental deaths was 39.0, down less than one half percent from 1983 and the lowest rate on record.- The motor vehicle mileage death rate was 2.681 down slightly from 1983 and also the lowest on record. WORK ACCIDENTS DECREASE 1984 had a total of 11,500 work accidents. In 1977 which was the last year the Department printed statistics on work related accidents, the total was 12,900. Work accidents in 1977 compared to 1984 have decreased by 1,400. ACCIDENT FOURTH CAUSE OF DEATH Accidents rank fourth among the causes of death in the nation, exceeded only by heart disease, cancer, and stroke., ACCIDENTS HIT YOUNG Accidents in the nation are the leading cause of death among both sexes one to 38 years of age. Source: L. A. Chapter, National Safety Council

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LOS ANGELES CITY FIRE DEPARTMENT DRIVER TRAINING ARTICLE #9 MOPEDS Definition - A "Motorized bicycle" or moped is any two-wheeled or three-wheeled device with an automatic transmission and a motor which produces less than two gross brake horsepower and does not propel the device in excess of 30 miles per hour on level ground. This makes the moped driver a potential hazard on city streets and highways. Operators License and Registration - All motorized bicycles must be registered through the Department of motor vehicles. No person shall drive a motor vehicle (including a motorized bicycle) upon a highway unless they hold a driver's license. A class 4 license may be issued to a person between the ages of 15-1/2 and 18 solely for the purpose of driving a motorized bicycle, provided that person has completed driver education and training courses; passed the written exam for the Class 3 drivers license; and passed all requirements of the Class 4 driver's license exam. Obtaining a Class 4 license under this provision for the purpose of driving a moped-only, does not entitle the holder drive a class 3 motor vehicle or any other two-wheeled cycle Any person 15 years and six months or older may operate a motorized bicycle if they have possession of a valid instruction permit, and if they have successfully completed approved courses in automobile driver education and driver training. Any person 17 years and six months or older may operate a motorized bicycle if they are in possession of a valid instruction permit without having completed driver education and driver training courses. An operator with only an instruction permit may not drive a motorized bicycle during hours of darkness, or carry any passenger except a licensed or qualified instructor. JULY, 1986

-2Driver Responsibility - Every person driving a motorized bicycle upon a roadway has all the rights and is subject to all the duties applicable to the driver of a vehicle. Moped drivers are urged to practice riding in low-density traffic areas before returning onto main roads, and when riding, to wear light colored clothing and a helmet. It is unlawful to carry a passenger on a motorized bicycle except on a seat fastened to the rear of the driver. In addition to this requirement the passenger is required to utilize footrests while the vehicle is in motion. Federal safety standards require proper horn, mirror, head and tail lights, a brake light and adequate brakes and muffler. Owners are advised to familiarize themselves with their city and county bicycle laws. Moped dealers may offer helpful advice. Coverage Required - Every driver of, and owner of, a motorized bicycle shall, at all times, maintain in force a form of financial responsibility that fulfills minimum public liability and property damage coverage requirements cited in the code (16020 V.C.). REFERENCES: Dennis Rowe, Traffic Safety Specialist Automobile Club of Southern California Phone No. (213) 741-4480 Moped Guide to California Vehicle Code Laws Automobile Club of Southern California Public Safety Department, 1985 Sgt. Harry Douglass, Patrol Division Los Angeles County Sheriff's Department Officer Al Marson, Traffic Safety Los Angeles Police Department

LOS ANGELES CITY FIRE DEPARTMENT DRIVER TRAINING ARTICLE #10 AIR BRAKE EMERGENCY SYSTEMS It is believed that there has been some confusion between the emergency brake system on our older vehicles with that of the hill-holder column brake on our later models equipped with the spring or maxi-brake systems. We will try to explain to you the different types of emergency stopping systems used in our fleet. EMERGENCY BRAKE SYSTEMS ON VEHICLES MANUFACTURED PRIOR TO 1967 Most of these were installed by the shop to comply with Chapter 3,.Article 1 of the-California Vehicle Code. It states, in part, that every vehicle using compressed air for applying the service brakes shall be equipped with an emergency stopping system capable of stopping the vehicle in the event of failure in the service brake air system. This system does not apply the brake automatically, it must be applied by the operator through a steering column mounted control valve. It consists of: (1) (2) (3) a separate air tank with a one-way check valve (Sec. 26507) a gauge indicating the air pressure in this tank (Sec. 26505) a hand valve mounted on the steering column to apply and release the emergency brake (Sec. 26508) brake chambers with dual diaphragms mounted. piggyback onto the existing chambers on the rear axle only (Sec 26508) MAY, 1986

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This brake is not to be used for parking or in absence of operator. Nevertheless, it is convenient to use this control when starting on a hill for smoother clutch engagement and takeoffs, this is not referred to as a hill-holder, but can be used as one. SPRING BRAKES - APPARATUS MANUFACTURED AFTER 1967 The spring brakes on subsequent models have three basic functions:

ARTICLE #10 -21.

MAY, 1986

To eliminate run-away trucks if they are left unattended and the air in the system leaks below effective holding pressure. It is the emergency means of stopping a truck when service air system failure occurs. (Springs actuate the brakes) The spring action may be used for parking or as a hill-holder.

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In case of service brake air system failure, the springs apply brakes automatically when brake air pressure is reduced to approximately 60 p.s.i. or less. Since spring action is applying brakes the stopping distance is greater. A dual control valve is mounted on the dash and can be actuated by the operator so that air can be exhausted and the spring brake applied for parking. on newer versions, the control valve is mounted on the center console. The other control knob is to apply air pressure against the spring to release the brakes, after it applies automatically, because of a service air system failure. This is a "dead man" control and must be held in while moving vehicles to safety. The air pressure is supplied by the emergency release tank which is isolated from the service air system by a one-way check valve. STEERING COLUMN BRAKE OR HILL-HOLDER Most of our Heavy Apparatus have this brake control. It is not used for emergency stopping when the apparatus is equipped with the spring brake system (apparatus manufactured after 1967). The hand valve actuates the service brakes only. It may apply the rear or both front and rear brakes. on trucks, it applies the tractor rear or tiller only. Operators are cautioned that this control is not to be used for parking in the absence of the operator at the controls. FMVSS 121 BRAKES Our 1977 Seagrave trucks and 1976 Ward LaFrance triples are equipped with a FMVSS 121 System, required by the National Highway Transportation Safety Administration. It is a dual or split air system, one system operates the front service brakes while the other system operates the rear and tiller service brakes. This system is a little more complicated but does not require a separate or isolated air tank to release the emergency stopping system. The front brake reservoir acts as an isolated release tank for the rear axle spring brakes.

ARTICLE #10 -3-

MAY, 1986

The red hand in the air gauges indicates the pressure in the front brake system while the green hand indicates the pressure in the rear and tiller brake system. All of our Heavy Apparatus emergency stopping systems conform to State and Federal Codes, consequently they should not be changed by modifications, conversions or making connections to any part of this air circuit. The shops recommend inserting in the log book for a weekly check the following procedure for making a quick check to determine if the spring brake is in proper working order. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Check for clearance and chock the wheels. Pressure above 70 p.s.i. engine stopped. Release spring brake (park button). Turn Bat. and Ign. switch on. Make foot brake applications until low pressure indicator comes on. Continue foot brake application. Watch parking bra control, it should apply at 60 p.s.i. or lower. Start engine and carefully slip the clutch at idle against brakes, they should hold. Operate emergency release, brakes should release. If brakes do not apply or release, call the Shop. Continue to run engine and bring system pressure up normal.

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NOTE:. Can be-done in conjunction with air tank drain. The systems described may not conform exactly with your apparatus, we have many makes and models and each has a different hookup but, basically, they are similar. REFERENCES: State of California Vehicle Code, Chapter 3 Engineer Chris Baker, Equipment Engineering Section, Supply a maintenance Division Sergeant Bill Smith, L.A.P.D., Driver Training Unit, Tactics Training Section, Training Division

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LOS ANGELES CITY FIRE DEPARTMENT DRIVER TRAINING ARTICLE #11 FUEL CONSERVATION/DRIVING PROCEDURES INTRODUCTION: Controlled tests have demonstrated that fuel conservation of at least 10 percent is possible through proper vehicle operation, use, maintenance, and trip planning. Good driving habits can be developed and should be put into practice by all members. A large trucking company recently conducted a controlled experiment to determine what effect driving habits might have on fuel economy. Results from the test indicated a 17.4 percent improvement in fuel economy could be achieved through a combination of training, speed control, and rewards for utilizing proper driving habits. This report went on to say that drivers make or break a fuel conservation program. Training and positive reinforcement are the keys to fuel efficient driving. VEHICLE OPERATION - NON-EMERGENCY: Proper driving technique is the most important factor in fuel conservation. Following are some fuel saving tips: 1. Abide by the maximum speed limit of 55 miles per hour. Most automobiles get about 18 percent better mileage on the highway at 50 miles per hour (mph) than at 65 mph. The average vehicle on the road today gets its best fuel economy at approximately 45 mph. In tests conducted at a Nevada test site, it was found that by increasing speed from 40 to 70 mph, fuel economy dropped by 25 percent. Avoid prolonged idling. If the delay is more than one minute, turn off the engine. The recommended time for warming up an engine is 30 seconds to one minute. Use a light foot when accelerating from a stop or but of turns. Tests have proven that Jack Rabbit" starts and fast "get aways" can burn over 50 percent more gasoline than normal acceleration. Be extremely observant and drive defensively. This allows you to plan ahead and avoid needless braking and re-acceleration which is one of the greatest wastes in city driving. Maintain a steady speed. On the highway, varying speed only 5 mph can reduce economy by as much as 10 percent. MAY, 1986

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ARTICLE # 11 -2VEHICLE OPERATION - EMERGENCY: 1.

MAY, 1986

At emergency incidents, apparatus engines should not be allowed to idle for prolonged periods of time. As soon as it is practical, apparatus should be legally parked and warning lights should be shut off to eliminate the electrical drain on the batteries. Maximize the use of individual apparatus pumping capacity. Shut down engines of apparatus engaged in manifolding operations where the pump is not needed. Use hydrant pressure rather than running the engines on the pumps whenever practical.

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VEHICLE MAINTENANCE: Proper maintenance is a sure and easy way to improve fuel mileage. Special attention should be given to the following areas: 1. Keep all tires inflated to the recommended tire pressure. For every two pounds under recommended pressure, you lose about one percent in fuel economy. Tire pressure should be checked when the tires are cold. Keep the engine in a well-tuned condition by performing necessary maintenance when required. An out-of-tune engine can drop mileage by a minimum of 10 percent, and will greatly increase the amount of pollution the vehicle produces. Keep track of fuel consumption, this is an excellent way of monitoring vehicle condition.

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TRIP PLANNING: Planning ahead can eliminate needless driving. Consider the following where possible. 1. Consolidate short trips. Avoid as many cold starts as possible - warm oil makes for much better gas mileage. Use the telephone whenever possible instead of making a trip. A check should be made with neighboring stations before making trips to common destination such as Supply and Maintenance or Headquarters.

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ARTICLE #11 -33.

MAY, 1986

Leave for your destination a little early. Avoid trying to make up time on the road. Always think about fuel economy while you drive. Use a car pool when possible.

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CONCLUSION: During the previous fuel shortages the cooperation and loyalty of members were responsible for the Fire Department being recognized as the leader in fuel conservation for all city departments. During present times of tight budget restraints fuel conservation is still important. As a driver of either a light vehicle or heavy apparatus, the success of a fuel conservation program is up to you. Remember ............... The most important fuel saver of all is driver attitude

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LOS ANGELES CITY FIRE DEPARTMENT DRIVER TRAINING ARTICLE #12 MAY, 1986

SMITH SYSTEM, DEFENSIVE DRIVING

In his own words, Smith speaks of a simple driving system based on a few logical rules. He said he developed, tested, and perfected his rules into a truly basic approach to the problem (accidents). 1. 2. Space for the car Visibility for the driver

He developed a 5-step formula to (1) create a space cushion wherever he drives, and (2) acquire and maintain visibility all around. His philosophy is that any driver using his 5-step formula should be able to drive 5-10 years (50,000 miles) without having to skid his tires, or swerve to avoid an accident (because he was caught unaware). Correct seeing habits give the driver advanced warning on traffic problems so he has time to avoid them. Smith believes that driving takes eye-mind coordination, not just hands and feet. It is not a basic driving course (for beginners). He works at making good drivers better. Smith concurs with many accident studies that accidents aren't caused by bad drivers only, but usually by good drivers not doing a good enough job all the time, i.e., making small costly/deadly errors. Smith developed his 5-step system in conjunction with John H. Cummings and Dr. Reuel A. Sherman. He calls this 5-step formula "A Positive Approach to Defensive Driving" and claims that it will work if you commit the 5 rules to HABIT, not memory. What are the five rules? 1. Aim high in steering A. B. C. Center yourself well in lane Appropriate lane choice Safe path on turns (a chance to analyze traffic ahead)

2.

Get the "Big" picture A. B. See delays well in advance Make smooth stops and turns

ARTICLE #12 -23. Keep your eyes moving A. B. C.

MAY, 1986

Dispose of hazards promptly Check sides and rear Check before starting at light (controlled intersection) (prevents over relaxing/concentrating) .(central cones) - focus of clear vision peripheral (fringe lights, movement, contrast, shape, sizes)

4.

Leave yourself an "Out" A. B. C. D. Keep a stopping/swerve space Prevent tailgating Safe speed near intersections Safe speed next to curb parked lane (adjustment "don't let your vehicle get ahead of your eyes")

5.

Make sure they see you A. B. C. Tap horn when in doubt Avoid blind spot Make sure signal is heeded

In a series of posters Smith cryptically described the 5 steps as: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Aim high in steering find a path well ahead. Get the big picture stay back -- see it all. Keep your eyes moving scan -- don't stare. Leave yourself an out be prepared -expect the unexpected. make sure they see you don't gamble - use your horn, signals and lights.

DEFENSIVE DRIVING (Based on the "Smith System") I'd like to share with you a driving system that can help you to drive 50,000 accident-free miles. It's based on "space-cushion driving" - - a positive approach to defensive driving developed by Harold Smith.

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MAY, 1986

Smith says that any driver using his "five keys" won't be caught UNAWARE and have to slam on the brakes or swerve to avoid an accident. What are these "five keys"? Lets let Smith show you himself. Show film -- only up to point where Smith talks about. going up onto freeway. A workable teaching tool is to "drop" a metal film container onto some hard surface at that point in the film where the white car pulls out from in front of the tractor trailer. This occurs during the 4th key - - "leave yourself an out". After stopping the film at the point mentioned above, you continue: "I called it defensive driving' so now let me define the film. What did you see that you don't agree with?" - -You should get comments on: The lane change in the intersection; excessive use of the horn; unsignaled curb pullaway and lane changes; he doesn't keep both hands on the wheel; he looks at his passenger/camera (and not at traffic) too often and for too long; he didn't yield to a young bicyclist in the PED XING; he waited too long at the green light; etc. Let's look at your concerns one at a time - - remembering that in each case Smith is trying to make a point. 1. In-intersection lane change. The law (California Vehicle Code) says: A. You can't drive left of center - - in approaching traffic's lane - - when approaching within 100 feet of, or when crossing, an intersection (CVC 21752C). His intersection lane change wasn't in oncoming traffic's lanes. You can't move left or right (lane change) or turn to the left or right until/unless you signal (CVC 22107). This section states further ... in the event any other vehicle may be affected by the movement." His lane change didn't involve other vehicles (close enough to be affected). You can't lane change unless the maneuver can be completed with reasonable safety (CVC 21658/22107).

B.

C.

ARTICLE #12 -4-

MAY, 1986

This violation is commonly titled "Without Due Caution". I must admit that an intersection is not always the best place to do a lane change. But suppose your lane was blocked ahead (at the far side of the intersection) - - by construction; by an accident; by someone stopped waiting to parallel park etc.? Would common sense and a concern for safety tell you to stay in your lane, to block traffic, to wait it out - - right out there in the intersection? Aren't traffic laws -including all their technicalities - - meant to enhance safety, traffic flow and responsible behavior? 2. Excessive use of the horn. Back in New York, they stand up and cheer (for) his use of the horn. California law (CVC 27001) requires the use of an "audible warning when reasonably necessary to insure safe operation." otherwise horn use is forbidden. But please remember why Smith is telling you to "tap, toot, or blast: the horn. He is trying to make a point, that is, communicate! Isn't' it really better that the bicyclist ahead or the car backing out of a driveway/inching out of an alley KNOWS you are coming by? Really better than "hoping or trying to make excuses" afterward? Unsigned curb pullaway or lane changes. Theoretically, it is a good practice to signal each lane change, curb pullaway and left or right turn. But if the practice becomes merely a mechanical habit without any mental input, watch out! There are already too many drivers who only signal and don't check for safety. A signal indicates your intention to change lanes or directions, but do you intend to change if it can't be made at all or if it would cause an accident? Smith says "let your mind precede your muscle." Here are two examples. A. It's 2 a.m. and you're on the Golden State Freeway (Intersection 5) in Fresno County: Who are you signaling to when you leave the freeway? Smith himself was in a training session in Los Angeles a van. They were riding next to curb-parked cars and about 12-15 vehicle lengths from an intersection when Smith's driver signaled for a lane change to the left. There was nobody ahead or behind so he didn't HAVE to signal. In fact, an oncoming car which was approaching the intersection misinterpreted the unnecessary signal. This oncoming driver, believing the truck was going to turn left, executed a left turn -at tortoise speed -right in front Smith's driver. Smith's driver turned

3.

B.

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MAY, 1986

sharply left and Smith remembers looking down at the oncoming car creeping through its turn while Smith's driver avoided a collision he had initiated with a poor -and unnecessary - signal. There were a few expletives for that driver who,, in signaling, let his muscle replace his mind. 4. Keeping both hands on the-wheel. Yes it's a better practice to keep both hands on the wheel than to gesticulate. You can't always do it though - - sometimes change the heater/defroster controls (air conditioning); you roll up a window; you adjust the radio; you might just have to catch a sneeze. You the driver, are responsible for keeping your vehicle under control. Occasionally, you may see a driver who, because of an injury, has one arm in a cast or has lost either an arm or functional use of an arm. There is little doubt that these drivers are aware-of-and-compensating-for their handicap. I suggest they are less dangerous than the over-relaxed driver with one arm draped over the top of the passenger seat and their steering arm's wrist limply drooped over the wheel (illustrate this). When your two hands are on the steering wheel, have them at the 9 and 3 o'clock positions (or at least the 10 and 2). This way either hand has a fuller range of motion and the side-to-side spread of your hand helps stabilize your upper torso. 5. He looks at his passenger/camera. Yes he does. This was of our first criticism until one of our safety consultants was a driver in a training film. When he saw the film, he was surprised at how often - - and how long - - he was looking at the camera. I guess it's a human failing and partly because the driver realized he is won camera". What's important is to keep track of everything that's happening all around. To do this, you look away from "up ahead" to check your mirrors or your instruments or to do a left-right-left visual check at intersections. He didn't yield the young bicyclist astride his bike in the PED XING. Whew! This is a rough one. In a conversation, Smith said that this was the best of the expensive "takes of that sequence. He said further that the kid wouldn't go away and so they let it stay in the film.

6.

ARTICLE #12 -67.

MAY, 1986

Smith waited too long after the light changed green. Let's put that into a broader perspective. The tempo of modern life is fast, the pressures are great. When we drive we tend to think and act "Red means STOP; green means GO; Amber means SCAMPER." Red is mandatory and means you must stop. Green is permissive and means you may go, but only if it is safe. Yellow - - or amber - - is cautionary and means be prepared to slow or stop. I think that drivers "speeding up to 'make it'" at a yellow light aren't really showing caution. Back to Smith. He's trying to make a point by waiting. And the point is this: You want a space cushion all 'round at all times. You start with it -- you don't wait for it to develop halfway down the block. An expert driver -- unlike a merely experienced driver -works at structuring an ongoing space cushion in his driving environment.

Let's look at Smith's 5 keys and see how they work. 1. The first key is "Aim High in Steering". "Aiming high" means looking where you are going and going to be! This sounds obvious. Well, sad to say, it isn't. Take, for example, walking. Do any of you actually look at your feet while walking? Of course you don't. Where are you looking? (Minor pause) That's right, up ahead so many steps - where you are going to be. Well it's the same while driving, only more so! With driving: You are moving at faster speeds; you cover a greater distance sooner; pedestrian, bicyclists and other vehicles are in potential conflict with you from many directions; and, any error in judgment has more serious consequences. Yes "faster", "sooner" "conflicts" and "consequences"; when you are driving, you need to "aim high". To aim high, look at least 5 seconds ahead -- 5 seconds down the road -- at any speed. This gives you a 5-second start, a 5-second jump in everything that's developing. This 5 seconds ahead is your immediate path of travel. Surely if you had a 5 second warning, you wouldn't be getting caught unaware. You wouldn't end up after an accident saying: "I never saw him until it was too late." Aiming high also includes long range planning (and seeing) ahead. More than just your immediate path of travel, you need a 10+-second intended path of travel ahead. You need to project your path way down the road -10 seconds at 35 MPH is only 1/10 a mile.

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MAY, 1986

Aiming high 5 seconds ahead helps you to center yourself well in your lane, to plan your lane changes early and to drive around curves and corners smoothly and confidently. Aiming high, 10 seconds ahead, helps you to anticipate those conflicts which could interrupt your smoothness and compromise your safety. Let's look at some differences between the expert and the "merely experienced" driver. The merely experienced driver is satisfied with yesterday's "get by" skills in a rather forgiving environment. Has he really "been driving 30 years without an accident" or has he been driving one year 30 times? It's the mile AHEAD that counts! He is driving in a world of surprises and being caught unaware of hazards developing ahead and around him. The expert, on the other hand, aims high and looks FOR what is developing ahead. He doesn't get involved in or overwhelmed by hazards. His vehicle never gets ahead of his eyes. His driving does not consist of avoiding driving errors; rather his driving consists of demonstrating competence, confidence, control and courtesy. To borrow a phrase from the ecologists; his driving is part of the solution, not of the problem. One thing the aim-high expert sees ahead in traffic is the stale green light. The what? The stale green light a green light that's been green long enough to be ready to pop yellow and then quickly red. He sees: 2. That the light he saw change to green is still green (elapsed time). That the pedestrian control signal is already flashing DON'T WALK or WAIT. That traffic crossing the intersection ahead is no longer closely bunched but is already spacing itself out. That left-turning traffic is starting its turn. And finally that cross traffic is now stacking up.

The second key is Get the BIG Picture. What is the Big Picture" and where do you get it from? Smith describes its bigness as "sidewalk to sidewalk wide and a block deep." Those are its physical dimensions. On city streets this is part of your 5-second immediate path of travel. It's not only deep, it's wide.

ARTICLE #12 -8-

MAY, 1986

The Big Picture is not only physical, it's psychological. You can describe it as: "What is making everybody tick?" An example of this is the TGIF driver. When he came to work Tuesday morning, he had slept overnight and eaten breakfast - - he was rested and refreshed; he was on time; he knew it was more important to get to work than to take a chance on a ticket or an accident trying to make up time in traffic; etc. However, when he goes home-on Friday afternoon, he's a horse of a different color. He's got nothing planned but he races through traffic just to beat the rush. Physically, he's tired and hungry and may have already had a few drinks. Mentally,, he considers all the work is behind him - - doesn't driving take concentration, attention, judgment? He's on auto pilot because held done this for years. He could get YOU. 3. The third key is "Keep Your Eyes Moving." It's through our eyes that we get most of our information, they help us to eye-dentify traffic clues. Our eyes - - like our ears - - are both active and passive. Take your ears: They passively "hear: every sound loud enough and close enough to reach us. Some background noises are so natural we hardly know they are there till they show up on a tape recording. From all of diverse inputs we screen out certain sounds while we select out other sounds. These we actively listen to or for. How are our eyes active and passive? Our eyes passively register all the color, motion, contrast, etc., that comes to us - - we "see everything that consistently passes before us. But from the thousands of visual impressions we recognize and remember best those that we actively looked at. Keeping our eyes moving means using our eye actively to search. We've got to scan the Bog Picture area all around us to search out clues. We search and scan because while our fringe vision tells us there is a forest, it's our focus vision that zeros in on individual trees (individual clues). Keeping our eyes moving means checking the mirrors. We want to see who is back there and what is he doing - - is he turning, falling back, or may be entering our blind spot areas. We ought to check our mirrors as often as every five seconds - - this way we know on a continuous basis how our space cushion is doing. We might want or need to lane change at any time and, remembering the film, we'll only NEED to signal if there is someone there.

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MAY, 1986

Another part of Keep Your Eyes Moving is physical activity and health. In checking our mirrors, we should turn our head fully and look directly at the mirrors. This way others can see us checking and we can see part of the blind spot areas. Most new cars with their many labor-saving devices require little physical exertion so we should use every opportunity to stay active in our driving. Physical movement helps combat highway hypnosis too. By keeping your eyes moving, you avoid the dangerous concentration on one part of the traffic environment to the exclusion of everything else. Smith says "Don't become fascinated by hazards, dispose of them by changing speed or lanes, by communicating, etc. Keep your eyes moving remember, it's not polite to stare! 4. The fourth key is "Leave Yourself an Out." What's an " out"? Smith says it's somewhere to go and something to do if another driver does something wrong. Don't let your safety depend on his not doing the right thing. Besides anticipation, it requires that you be able to act in time and make the right response. This is not an "escape artist" ability. It's staying out of trouble rather then trying to get out once you are past the point of no return (you're already involved). Most drivers drive themselves - - car and all - - right into trouble. It's overdriving your eye-lead-time and your control. It's the result of overconfidence, when we should be doing something like the Accident Prevention Formula. That's a 3-step process when you see a hazard -you should perform it as automatically as the knee-jerk reflex. The three steps? 1. 2. Get off the gas (you can't maintain or increase speed). Cover the brakes (brake lights come on to communicate and; if you NEED to brake, you squeeze not slam on brakes). Check your mirrors you may need to communicate and/or take some other course of action).

3.

One important aspect of leaving yourself an out is tailgating. CVC Section 21703 calls it "following too closely". Well then, what's too close? I'll tell you one thing, that old one-car-length-for-every-10 MPH doesn't work. Why doesn't it? Because there is no such thing as a car length -- it varies from the short motorcycles and mini compact Honda at 12+ feet to the Cadillac at 19+ feet and campers, house cars and vehicles

ARTICLE #12 - 10-

MAY, 1986

pulling trailers. Because few people are capable of judging distances accurately, even at 5 MPH increments. Because the "1 per 101 fails to compensate for either the increased stopping distances as speeds increase or for degraded conditions of the driver, the roadway or the vehicle. Because the "1 per 10" doesn't relate to the basic Speed Law. And finally because, when we switch over to metrics, 1 car length per 16.09 kilometers per hour just isn't a handy reference number. If the one-vehicle-length-per-10 MPH formula isn't appropriate, what is? The 2-second rule is called the timed interval. The 2-second what? The rule that says you should always maintain at least a 2-second distance. Here's how it works. When the rear bumper of the vehicle ahead passes some reference point like a parked car: tree, post or sign; shadow or overpass"; mark or object on the pavement; etc., you start counting "one thousand and one, one thousand and two, etc." If your car's front bumper crosses that mark or object then your too close and could get into trouble. Get the Big Picture is the core of defensive driving, positively expressed. It's a picture of what perfect driving looks like in the immediate traffic environment. You compare what SHOULD be happening in the mix of people, cars, road and weather with what IS happening. You anticipate hazards because you know what trouble-in-the making looks like. For example, you know that tailgating is both dangerous and poor driving in spite of how often so many drivers get away with it. Get the Big Picture also means to learn to "read" and fit into the tempo of traffic. Absolute speed is less of an accident-causing factor than speed-differing from-the-mean, i.e., too fast or too slow for traffic as a whole. Get the Big Picture is using your perceptual skills. Perception is more than seeing - - which all drivers do. Perception is recognizing the MEANING in what you see. It's a lot more than the obvious - - "watch out for the ball rolling out into the street". An example is the driver ahead who is doing a poor job (he lacks both confidence and competence). You had better monitor his freeway on-ramp and merge behavior because he just might dead stop and set you up for an accident.

ARTICL12

DIVISION DRIVER TRAINING COURSE Driving Evaluation Information Sheet To insure uniformity of this driving evaluation, all members shall read these instructions prior to commencing the drive. APPARATUS: Know the features of your apparatus to include date and name of manufacturer, engine type and displacement, transmission specifications and differential type and gearing. INSPECTION: You will be required to make a standard apparatus pre-check, and display your knowledge of the proper procedures in pre-checking apparatus, as well as general information pertaining to the apparatus and its equipment. THE TEST: The rater is primarily interested in seeing you demonstrate good, safe driving practices. Drive the apparatus as if you were on a non-emergency move-up. Observe all traffic regulations as well as Los Angeles City Fire Department policies and procedures throughout the drive. While safety and care of apparatus are vital considerations, you should not unnecessarily waste time by being overly cautious. You should be familiar with the course, nevertheless, the rater will indicate the route during your drive. If you do not understand his directions, you may ask him to repeat them. The rater may take notes on a check list during the drive. This is not intended to be a distraction and should not deter from your driving performance. Do not use the horn excessively during the drive, as it is annoying to the people in the neighborhood. However, it should be used for safety purposes when necessary. If backing into stall is required, use LAFD backing procedures. There will be someone available to ride the tailboard for this operation. NOTE: Your performance will be evaluated from the time the rater indicates to begin pre-check. You will be disqualified for abuse of the apparatus or for failure to safely control the apparatus. IF YOU HAVE ANY QUESTIONS ABOUT THE TEST, ASK THE RATER -BEFORE THE TEST BEGINS. ONCE THE TEST BEGINS, YOU MAY ASK THE RATER TO REPEAT HIS DIRECTIONS ONLY.

DIVISION DRIVING COURSE INSTRUCTION SHEET Rater shall observe driving performance of member and score members performance by marking appropriate boxes in each section of score sheet. Member has a possible score of 100 points with a point break down as follows: Outstanding - 91-100 driving methods well above average. Excellent - 81-90 driving methods better than average. Satisfactory - 70-80 driving methods meets all Department standards. Poor - 60-69 Driver needs remedial training in these areas. More important than the members overall score is the need to identify areas where member is deficient and requires remedial training. Scores below 70 will require members to schedule remedial training in those specific areas with their Battalion Driving instructor. A space at the bottom of the score sheet is provided for rater's comments. The rater shall comment on the driver's overall driving performance in this section.

GENERAL DESIGN OF FIELD TEST COURSE

250

STRAIGHT LINE

ALLEY DOCK

40

50

SERPENTINE 34 START

DIVISION DRIVING COURSE SCORE SHEET Pre-check & Cab Operation Overall pre-check Seat adjustment Adjust or check mirrors Fasten seatbelt Passenger seatbelt Starting Engine Check/place transmission in neutral Depress clutch Gauge check after starting Does not race engine Take off Does not roll forward or backward Proper clutch handling proper starting gear parking brake released Steering and Turns Both hands on wheels Proper speed in turns Uses proper turn signals Does not make unsafe shifts while turning Turns into proper lane Turns from proper lane Road Operation Maintains proper control Smooth handling Proper gear selection Smooth shifting Maintains proper speed for conditions Does not lug or over speed engine Does not coast out of gear Does not sit in gear w/clutch depressed Poor Satis Exec Out

-2-

Braking Smooth stops Does not make rolling stops Stops in front of crosswalks Allows room behind other vehicles Backing Does not use excessive maneuvering Uses both side mirrors Backs at safe speed Uses another member for backing assistance TOTAL Comments:

Poor

Satis

Exec

Out

DIVISION 1 Driving Course

DIVISION I DRIVERS TRAINING COURSE REPORT TO THE NAVAL RESERVE CENTER PARKING LOT IN ORDER TO BEGIN THE DRIVING PORTION OF THE DRIVER'S TRAINING PROGRAM. WHILE AT THE NAVAL RESERVE CENTER PARKING LOT, YOU WILL BE ASKED TO CONDUCT YOUR PRE-CHECK AND BE ALLOWED TO DISPLAY YOUR KNOWLEDGE OF THE APPARATUS YOU WILL BE DRIVING.

WHEN YOU ARE COMPLETED, THE RATER WILL GO OVER THE COURSE WITH YOU. IF YOU DO NOT UNDERSTAND THE DIRECTIONS YOU MAY ASK THE RATERTO REPEAT THEM.

YOU WILL BE ASKED TO TURN RIGHT ONTO STADIUM WAY. CONTINUE ON STADIUM WAY ACROSS ACADEMY ROAD TO THE END OF THE CULDESAC, TURN AROUND, GO BACK OUT TO ACADEMY ROAD AND TURN RIGHT. PROCEED WEST ON ACADEMY ROAD UP AND OVER THE CREST OF THE HILL TO MORTON AVENUE TURN LEFT. JUST BEFORE ECHO PARK AVENUE TURN LEFT ONTO PARMER AVENUE. CONTINUE TO SCOTT AVENUE TURN LEFT AND PROCEED TO STADIUM WAY, TURN LEFT. FOLLOW STADIUM WAY BACK TO ACADEMY ROAD. THIS TIME TURN RIGHT. FOLLOW ACADEMY ROAD AROUND AND PAST THE DODGER STADIUM PARKING ACCESS, AND PAST THE POLICE ACADEMY. AS YOU DESCENT THE GRADE OF ACADEMY ROAD, PARK ROAD WILL APPEAR ON THE LEFT, TURN LEFT HERE. A SHORT WAY UP THE ROAD PARK ROAD FORKS. STAY RIGHT ON THE FORK UNTIL THE ROAD TEE'S TURN LEFT. FOLLOW PARK ROAD AS IT WINDS THROUGH THE PARK ALL THE WAY TO STADIUM WAY TURN LEFT. CONTINUE ON STADIUM WAY BACK TO ACADEMY ROAD, MAKE A RIGHT TURN THEN AN IMMEDIATE LEFT TO STAY ON STADIUM WAY. FOLLOW STADIUM WAY BACK TO THE PARKING LOT WHERE YOU BEGAN. PARK THE APPARATUS AS IF YOU WERE LEAVING IT IN QUARTERS. THIS WILL CONCLUDE THIS PORTION OF THE EXAM.

DIVISION 2 Driving Course

DIVISION II DRIVERS TRAINING COURSE REPORT TO BERTH 57 IN ORDER TO BEGIN THE DRIVING PORTION OF THE DRIVERS TRAINING PROGRAM. WHILE AT BERTH 57, YOU WILL BE ASKED TO CONDUCT YOUR PRE-CHECK AND BE ALLOWED TO DISPLAY YOUR KNOWLEDGE OF YOUR APPARATUS.

WHEN YOUR PRE-CHECK IS FINISHED, THE RATER WILL REVIEW THE COURSE WITH YOU. IT WILL TAKE APPROXIMATELY 15 MINUTES TO COMPLETE. IF YOU DO NOT UNDERSTAND THE DIRECTIONS, YOU MAY ASK THE RATER TO REPEAT THEM.

THE DRIVING PORTION WILL NOW BEGIN. YOU WILL BE ASKED TO TURN LEFT ON 22ND STREET AND CONTI14UE WEST TO GAFFEY STREET, WHICH IS THE SECOND STREET AFTER PACIFIC AVENUE. TURN LEFT ON GAFFEY STREET, PROCEED ON GAFFEY STREET UNTIL YOU REACH 37TH STREET. TURN LEFT ON 37TH STREET DOWN THE HILL TO PACIFIC AVENUE, TURN LEFT. PROCEED DOWN PACIFIC AVENUE AND TURN LEFT AT 26TH STREET. CONTINUE ON 26TH STREET UNTIL YOU REACH CABRILLO AVENUE, TURN RIGHT, PROCEED TO 22ND STREET AND AGAIN TURN RIGHT. CONTINUE DOWN 22ND STREET RETURNING TO THE STARTING SITE. BACK THE APPARATUS INTO THE DESIGNATED SPOT AND LEAVE IT READY TO GO, JUST AS YOU WOULD LEAVE IT IN QUARTERS. THIS CONCLUDES THIS PORTION OF THE PROGRAM.

DIVISION III DRIVERS TRAINING COURSE REPORT TO FIRE STATION 88 IN ORDER TO BEGIN THE DRIVING PORTION OF THE DRIVERS TRAINING PROGRAM. WHILE AT FIRE STATION 88, YOU WILL BE ASKED TO CONDUCT YOUR PRE-CHECK AND BE ALLOWED TO DISPLAY YOUR KNOWLEDGE OF THE APPARATUS YOU WILL BE DRIVING.

WHEN YOU ARE COMPLETED, THE RATER WILL GO OVER THE COURSE WITH YOU. IF YOU DO NOT UNDERSTAND THE DIRECTIONS, YOU MAY ASK THE RATER TO REPEAT THEM.

YOU WILL BE ASKED TO TURN RIGHT ONTO SEPULVEDA BOULEVARD HEADING SOUTH. CONTINUE SOUTH TO FLUME STREET, WHICH IS THE FIRST STREET SOUTH OF THE 405, SAN DIEGO FREEWAY UNDERPASS, i .e TURN RIGHT. AT SHERMAN OAKS AVENUE, MAKE A RIGHT THEN AN IMMEDIATE LEFT ONTO VALLEY VISTA AND PROCEED WEST. AT HASKELL AVENUE, THE ROAD VEERS TO THE LEFT AND CHANGES NAMES TO WOODVALE. CONTINUE UP THE GRADE TILL THE ROAD TEE'S AT VALLEY MEADOW ROAD, THEN TURN RIGHT CONTINUING UP THE HILL. VALLEY MEADOW TEE'S INTO ROYAL OAK ROAD, TUR14 RIGHT AND GO DOWN THE GRADE, ONE BLOCK TO ROYAL OAK PLACE TURN LEFT. PROCEED TO THE END OF THE CULDESAC AND TURN AROU14D AND RETRACE YOUR ROUTE BACK TO ROYAL OAK ROAD, TURN RIGHT AND STAY ON ROYAL OAK ROAD DOWN THE HILL TO SEPULVEDA BOULEVARD, TURN LEFT AND PROCEED NORTH TO FIRE STATION 88'S QUARTERS. TURN INTO SIDE YARD AND PARK THE APPARATUS AS IF YOU WERE LEAVING IT IN QUARTERS. THIS WILL CONCLUDE THIS PORTION OF THE EXAM.

LOS ANGELES CITY FIRE DEPARTMENT DRIVERS TRAINING PROGRAM DRIVER TRAINING RODEOS

The Driver Training Rodeos are specifically designed to evaluate the driving skills of members while driving through a set of stationary obstacles.

Fire suppression and EMS personnel will participate in the light vehicle rodeo. The modified light vehicle rodeo is specifically designed to evaluate members driving performance when operating a rescue ambulance, and identify problem areas inherent when driving this type of vehicle.

The heavy apparatus rodeo will be driven by fire suppression personnel below the rank of Captain. This rodeo will encompass both forward and backing exercises to evaluate members driving skills when operating heavy apparatus.

Each driver will be given a numerical score based on his/her performance during the Driving Rodeos. Members with a below average score in specific areas will be given a prescription for improvement, designed to assist the Battalion Driver Training Instructor and Company Commander in upgrading the members driving performance.

2200D

DRIVER'S TRAINING PROGRAM DRIVING RODEO - HEAVY APPARATUS INTRODUCTION: The rodeo portion of the Driver's Training Program is designed to measure the driver's skill in maneuvering apparatus through a standardized group of obstacles. Each member will demonstrate their skills in various driving evolutions, i.e., braking, steering and stopping. Members will also be required to demonstrate their knowledge of apparatus limitations inherent to their assigned apparatus and the proper use of apparatus mirrors. PURPOSE: The purpose of the driving rodeo is to evaluate and upgrade the driving performance of Department members by the following:

To increase member's awareness of the driving characteristics and limitations Of Department apparatus.

Reduce the number of avoidable accidents by producing a positive attitude with regards to operating Department vehicles.

Increase the skill and proficiency level of all Department drivers. Increase the awareness of the importance of good defensive driving skills.

-2REQUIRED EQUIPMENT: Prior to scheduling rodeo for your Station/Battalion, the Division Driving Coordinator must be contacted in regards to the availability of the rodeo equipment. The following is a list of rodeo equipment required to conduct the heavy apparatus rodeo per Division. ITEM 24" Cones 12" Cones 8" Cones Ball W/holders Flags Barricade Flash Cards 1 through 3 Flash Cards 1 through 4 Equipment Box Instruction Sheet 100' Tape Measure NUMBER 22 73 10 41 8 3 1 1 1 1 1

Name Score RODEO SCORE-TOTALS SERPENTINE OFFSET ALLEY -FORWARD OFFSET ALLEY -REVERSE STRAIGHT LINE LANE PARALLEL PARKING SERPENTINE Struck curbs Struck cones TOTAL POINTS LOST MERIT POINTS GAINED NET SCORE OFFSET ALLEY FORWARD Balls center section Balls other than center Flags Realignment TOTAL POINTS LOST MERIT POINTS GAINED NET SCORE OFFSET ALLEY REVERSE Balls center section Balls other than center Flags Realignment TOTAL POINTS LOST MERIT POINTS GAINED NET SCORE STRAIGHT LINE LANE Balls struck TOTAL POINTS LOST MERIT POINTS GAINED NET SCORE 50 points STALL PARKING LEFT STALL PARKING RIGHT DIMINISHING ALLEY OVERALL ABILITY TOTAL SCORE PARALLEL PARKING Struck forward barricade Struck rear barricade Struck curb Distance from curb Distance from centering Extra realignment TOTAL POINTS LOST MERIT POINTS GAINED NET SCORE STALL PARKING Struck rear barricade Struck left marker Struck right marker Struck curb Distance penalty, rear Distance penalty, side TOTAL POINTS LOST MERIT POINTS GAINED NET SCORE (50 points)

(50 points)

(50 points)

(50 points)

DIMINISHING ALLEY (50 points) Balls struck TOTAL POINTS LOST MERIT POINTS GAINED NET SCORE

0FFSETALLEY FORWARD - 50 points possible The contestant will drive the apparatus forward between the marks through and clear of the alley without hitting any penalty markers if possible. Stopping will be permitted, but realignment by changing from forward to reverse- or vice versa will bring a penalty marker, if a contestant so desires, he may realign with only a penalty of 10 points plus the penalty for striking the marker. Twenty points will be assessed for marks struck in the central part of alley and 10 points for other marks down the alley. Thirty points will be lost for striking the center flags. The contestant will also be judged for overall ability, efficiency, aptitude and smoothness of operation: possible loss of 5 points.
FLAG

50

REVERSE - 50 points possible Upon a given signal, the contestant will proceed back through the alley in reverse direction. The same set of rules and penalties will apply as in the forward offset alley.

L + 6

The contestant will also be judged for overall ability, efficiency, aptitude and smoothness of operation: possible loss of 5 points.
BALLS 3 10 8 BALLS 10

10

PARALLEL PARKING 50 Points Possible

40 8 6

FLAG BARRICADE

L + 8

CURB

The contestant will drive the truck forward and spot for backing, then will proceed to back into area outlined by barricades. He will then be permitted to pull ahead or back up. Striking either barricade brings a lost of 20 points. Loss of 20 points for striking the curb with the tire. Measuring from center of farthest fender from curb loss of one point per inch from over 18 to 24", two points per inch from over 24 to 30", three points off per inch from over 30 to 36" and 40 points off if over 36" from the curb. Loss of 10 points for truck not being properly centered, 12 variation permitted. After measurement the contestant will proceed to remove the apparatus from the parking area with a maximum of two pull a heads and two back up motions without penalty. The contestant will also be judged for overall ability, efficiency, aptitude and smoothness of operation: possible loss of 5 points.

-5-

SERPENTINE C0URSE 50 points possible

CURB

25 50 CONES L + 8

CURB

The contestant must negotiate this problem in a continuous motion in each direction to avoid penalty. Failure to keep within the boundaries will be a loss of this event, or a no score (0). Realignment by change of direction, forward to reverse or vice versa will bring a penalty of 15 points, or 10 points after striking a penalty marker. Twenty points will be assessed for striking a course fixture. The contestant will first back the apparatus through the course and then proceed forward through same. The contestant will also be judged for overall ability, efficiency, aptitude and smoothness of operation: possible loss of 5 points.

-6-

STALL PARKING 50 points possible


BARRICADE FLAGS BOUNDRY MAKER 60

9 4

CURB

The member will approach the stall and prepare to back into the stall without passing over the curbs of the course or striking the rear barricade or side boundary markers. All points for this event will be lost if the curbs are struck or crossed at any time. A penalty of 20 points will be assessed for each realignment of the apparatus, except upon striking a side boundary marker, the contestant will be stopped and required to realign with a penalty of 30 points. The apparatus will be stopped within 18" of the rear barricade and properly centered within the side boundary markers. Striking rear barricade: loss of 30 points. For each inch short of the free 18" area: 2 points off per each inch or fraction thereof. There will be a 6" variation permitted for centering the apparatus and a penalty of 4 points per inch or fraction thereof off center out of the free zone. The member will also be judged for overall ability, efficiency, aptitude and smoothness of operation: possible loss of 5 points.

-7-

C U L-D E-S A 50 points possible

The member will drive the apparatus into the simulated cul-de-sac street. The object of this event is to complete a three point turn inside the cul-de-sac and exit in the reverse direction. A penalty of 10 points will be assessed for striking a side boundary. Twenty points will be assessed for making the change of direction in more than 3 points. The member will also be judged for overall ability, efficiency, aptitude and smoothness of operation: possible loss of 5 points.

-8-

DIMINISHING CLEARANCE ALLEY 50 points possible

9 6

The member will drive his apparatus forward, through and clear of the alley without striking any of the penalty markers. Upon a given signal from the judges, the contestant will also be judged for overall ability, efficiency, aptitude and smoothness of operation: possible loss of 5 points.

100

25

8 2 -9-

LANE CHANGE 50 points possible

JUDGE

10

25 30 mph

50

40

50

30

50

The member will drive the apparatus into the first lane at the constant speed of 25-30 mph. A judge stationed to the side of the lane and holds up flash cards telling the driver which lane to take. The judge may change the lane required any time the vehicle is still between the lane of markers. Five points will be subtracted each time a course marker is hit. Ten points will be subtracted for failure to maintain a semi-constant speed. Twenty-five points will be subtracted any time the driver stops the vehicle. Twenty-five points will be subtracted for failure to take the lane.

-10-

LOS ANGELES CITY FIRE DEPARTMENT DRIVER'S TRAINING PROGRAM DRIVING RODEO - CLASS I INTRODUCTION The Class I rodeo portion of the Driver's Training Program is designed to measure the driver's skill in maneuvering Class I apparatus through a standard group of obstacles. Every Class I license holder will demonstrate their skills in various driving evolutions, i.e., braking, steering and stopping. Members will also demonstrate their knowledge of apparatus limitations inherent to the apparatus that require a Class I license. PURPOSE The purpose of the Class I driving rodeo is to evaluate and upgrade the driving performance of Department members by the following: To increase member's awareness of the restrictions of a Class I license, driving characteristics and limitations of Department apparatus. Reduce the number of avoidable accidents by producing a positive attitude with regards to operating Department vehicles. Increase the skill and proficiency level of all Class I Department drivers. Increase the awareness of the importance of good defensive driving skills.

JD002

CLASS I DRIVING RODEO

The Class I Driving Rodeo is designed to be set-up in any large area, approximately 2501 x 180'. This area should be surfaced with heavy material to support the weight of Class I vehicles. The course is designed in this configuration to facilitate space but if space is confined then other configurations are acceptable. Before starting the course,, perform a pre-check of the apparatus and be prepared to display your knowledge of the apparatus and Class I license requirements. The course is designed similar to the Class II Heavy Apparatus rodeo with some modifications. The apparatus will be parked in the starting position to facilitate the drive. At the instructors command proceed forward and perform the serpentine. SERPENTINE C0URSE

50 points possible The contestant must negotiate this problem in a continuous -motion in each direction to avoid penalty. Failure to keep within the boundaries will be a loss of this event, or a no score (0). Realignment by change of direction, forward to reverse or vice versa will bring a penalty of 15 points, or 10 points after striking a penalty marker. Twenty points will be assessed for striking a course fixture. The contestant will first back the apparatus through the course and then proceed forward through same. The contestant will also be judged for overall ability, efficiency, aptitude and smoothness of operation: possible loss of 5 points. After the serpentine course proceed to the right turn maneuver. The contestant will use the tire as a curb and must keep the trailer tire as close to the curb as possible without rubbing it. The driver must make a smooth continuous motion throughout the turn. This maneuver is for familiarity only. No points will be awarded. 0FFSET ALLEY

50 points possible FORWARD The contestant will drive the apparatus forward between the marks through and clear of the alley without hitting any penalty

-2makers if possible. Stopping will be permitted, but realignment by changing from forward to reverse or vise versa will bring a penalty marker, if a contestant so desires, they may realign with only a penalty of 10 points plus the penalty for striking the marker. Twenty points will be assessed for marks struck in the central part of alley and 10 points for other marks down the alley. Thirty points will be lost for striking the center flags. The contestant will also be judged for overall ability, efficiency, aptitude and smoothness of operation: possible loss of 5 points. REVERSE (50 points possible) Upon a given signal, the contestant will proceed back through the alley in reverse direction. The same set of rules and penalties will apply as in the forward offset alley. The contestant will also be judged for overall ability, efficiency, aptitude and smoothness of operation: possible loss of 5 points. The contestant will then proceed through the alley and make the left turn at the tire. The same policy will exist as for the previous right turn maneuver. STRAIGHT LINE LANE 50 points possible Straighten the apparatus and maneuver through the straight line course. The driver will proceed forward, through and clear of the penalty markers. The judge will also grade on overall ability, efficiency, aptitude and smoothness of operation: possible loss of 5 points. Proceed around to the next event, that is parallel parking. PARALLEL PARKING 50 points possible

The contestant will drive the truck forward and spot for backing, then will proceed to back into area outlined by barricades. They will then be permitted to pull ahead or back up. Striking either barricade brings a lost of 20 points. Loss of 20 points for striking the curb with the tire. Measuring from center of farthest fender from curb loss of one point per inch from over 18" to 24", two points per inch from over 24" to 30", three points off per inch from over 30" to 36" and 40 points off if over 36" from the curb. Loss of 10 points for truck not being properly centered, 12 variation permitted. After

-3measurement the contestant will proceed to remove the apparatus from the parking area with a maximum of two pull a heads and two back up motions without penalty. The contestant will also be judged for overall ability, efficiency, aptitude and smoothness of operation: possible loss of 5 points. After leaving the parallel parking stall, proceed to the two, stall parking spaces. The first will be done backing from the left side, The second backing from the right side. STALL PARKING 50 points possible LEFT: The member will approach the stall and prepare to back into the stall without passing over the curbs of the course or striking the rear barricade or side boundary markers. All points for this event will be lost if the curbs are struck or crossed at any time. A penalty of 20 points will be assessed for each realignment of the apparatus, except upon striking a side boundary marker, the contestant will be stopped and required to realign with a penalty of 30 points. The apparatus will be stopped within 18" of the rear barricade and properly centered within the side boundary markers. Striking rear barricade: loss of 30 points. For each inch short of the free 18" area: 2 points off per each inch or fraction thereof. There will be a 611 variation permitted for centering the apparatus and a penalty of 4 points per inch or fraction thereof off center out of the free zone. The member will also be judged for overall ability, efficiency, aptitude and smoothness of operation: possible loss of 5 points. RIGHT: After the second stall parking maneuver is complete, proceed left around to the diminishing clearance alley. DIMINISHING CLEARANCE ALLEY 50 points possible The applicant will drive his apparatus forward, through and clear of the alley without striking any of the penalty markers. Upon a given signal from the judges, the contestant will also be judged for overall ability, efficiency, aptitude and smoothness of operation: possible loss of 5 points. Pull forward past the diminishing clearance alley to the finish line. The grader may take time to review any areas of strengths or weaknesses with the driver.

DRIVER'S TRAINING PROGRAM DRIVING RODEO - LIGHT APPARATUS INTRODUCTION: The rodeo portion of the Driver's Training program is designed to measure the driver's skill in maneuvering light apparatus through a standardized group of obstacles. Each member will demonstrate their skills in various driving evolutions i.e., braking, steering, backing and stopping. Members will also be required to demonstrate their knowledge of apparatus limitations inherent to their assigned apparatus and the proper use of vehicle mirrors.

PURPOSE: The purpose of the light apparatus rodeo is to evaluate and upgrade the driving performance of Department members by the following: To increase members awareness of the driving characteristics and limitations of light apparatus. Reduce the number of avoidable accidents by producing a positive attitude with regards to operating Department vehicles. Increase the skill and proficiency level of all Department drivers. Increase the awareness of the importance of good defensive driving skills.

REQUIRED EQUIPMENT: Prior to scheduling rodeo for your Station/Battalion, the Division Driving Coordinator must be contacted in regards to the availability of the rodeo equipment. The following is a list of rodeo equipment required to conduct the heavy apparatus rodeo per Division.

ITEM 24" Cones 12" Cones 8" Cones Ball w/holders Flags Barricade Flash Cards 1 through 3 Flash Cards 1 through 4 Equipment Box Instruction Sheet 100' Tape Measure

NUMBER 25 60 10 41 8 3 1 1 1 1 1

-2-

Name Score RODEO SCORE-TOTALS SERPENTINE OFFSET ALLEY -FORWARD OFFSET ALLEY -REVERSE STRAIGHT LINE LANE PARALLEL PARKING SERPENTINE Struck curbs Struck cones TOTAL POINTS LOST MERIT POINTS GAINED NET SCORE OFFSET ALLEY FORWARD Balls center section Balls other than center Flags Realignment TOTAL POINTS LOST MERIT POINTS GAINED NET SCORE OFFSET ALLEY REVERSE Balls center section Balls other than center Flags Realignment TOTAL POINTS LOST MERIT POINTS GAINED NET SCORE STRAIGHT LINE LANE Balls struck TOTAL POINTS LOST MERIT POINTS GAINED NET SCORE 50 points STALL PARKING LEFT STALL PARKING RIGHT DIMINISHING ALLEY OVERALL ABILITY TOTAL SCORE PARALLEL PARKING Struck forward barricade Struck rear barricade Struck curb Distance from curb Distance from centering Extra realignment TOTAL POINTS LOST MERIT POINTS GAINED NET SCORE STALL PARKING Struck rear barricade Struck left marker Struck right marker Struck curb Distance penalty, rear Distance penalty, side TOTAL POINTS LOST MERIT POINTS GAINED NET SCORE (50 points)

(50 points)

(50 points)

(50 points)

DIMINISHING ALLEY (50 points) Balls struck TOTAL POINTS LOST MERIT POINTS GAINED NET SCORE

STRAIGHT LINE DRIVING 50 points possible FORWARD AND BACKWARD The member will proceed through the course in one continuous motion forward, and on the return in one continuous motion in reverse. Each unauthorized stop will bring a penalty of 10 points. Each penalty marker struck brings a penalty of 5 points. No score will be given if the apparatus straddles the markers or negotiates them with the wrong set of wheels. on the forward leg the right set of wheels will pass between the markers and on the backward or return leg the left wheel will be used for the scoring. The contestant will also be judged for overall ability, efficiency, aptitude and smoothness of operation: possible loss of 5 points.

15

60

6 6 + 10

-4-

0 N T H E N 0 S E ST 0 P 50 points possible

FLAGS BARRICADE

The contestant will attempt to stop-the apparatus, placing the front bumper within 6" of the line or barricade in an one stopping move. Movement of the apparatus after the initial stop will bring a no score (0), striking the barricade brings a no score (0). Final placement of the apparatus measuring from the closest point (center of bumper) to the barricade and using the following chart will determine the score:

0 6 6 9 9 12 12 15 15 18 Over 18

50 points 45 points 40 points 35 points 30 points No score (0)

The contestant will also be judged for overall ability, efficiency, aptitude and smoothness of operation: possible loss of 5 points.

-5-

SERPENTINE COURSE 50 points possible

CURB

25 50 CONES L + 6

CURB

The contestant must negotiate this problem in a continuous motion in each direction to avoid penalty. Failure to keep within the boundaries will be a loss of this event, or a no score (0). Realignment by change of direction, forward to reverse or vice versa will bring a penalty of 15 points, or 10 points after striking a penalty marker. Twenty points will be assessed for striking a course fixture. The contestant will first back the apparatus through the course and then proceed forward through same. The contestant will also be judged for overall ability, efficiency, aptitude and smoothness of operation: possible loss of 5 points.

-6-

STALLPARKING 50 points possible

BARRICADE FLAGS BOUNDRY MAKER 20 + 40

6 4 25

CURB

The member will approach the stall and prepare to back into the stall without passing over the curbs of the course or striking the rear barricade or side boundary markers. All points for this event will be lost if the curbs are struck or crossed at any time. A penalty of 20 points will be assessed for each realignment of the apparatus, except upon striking a side boundary marker, the contestant will be stopped and required to realign with a penalty of 30 points. The apparatus will be stopped within 18" of the rear barricade and properly centered within the side boundary markers. Striking rear barricade: loss of 30 points. For each inch short of the free 18" area: 2 points off per each inch or fraction thereof. There will be a 6" variation permitted for centering the apparatus and a penalty of 4 points per inch or fraction thereof off center out of the free zone. The member will also be judged for overall ability, efficiency, aptitude and smoothness of operation: possible loss of 5 points.

-7-

0FFSETALLEY FORWARD - 50 points possible The contestant will drive the apparatus forward between the marks through and clear of the alley without hitting any penalty markers if possible. Stopping will be permitted, but realignment by changing from forward to reverse- or vice versa will bring a penalty marker, if a contestant so desires, he may realign with only a penalty of 10 points plus the penalty for striking the marker. Twenty points will be assessed for marks struck in the central part of alley and 10 points for other marks down the alley. Thirty points will be lost for striking the center flags. The contestant will also be judged for overall ability, efficiency, aptitude and smoothness of operation: possible loss of 5 points. REVERSE - 50 points possible Upon a given signal, the contestant will proceed back through the alley in reverse direction. The same set of rules and penalties will apply as in the forward offset alley. The contestant will also be judged for overall ability, efficiency, aptitude and smoothness of operation: possible loss of 5 points.
BALLS 3 8 6 8 BALLS 10

50

30 POINTS FLAG

8 6 L + 6

10

-8-

DIMINISHING CLEARANCE ALLEY 50 points possible

9 6

The member will drive his apparatus forward, through and clear of the alley without striking any of the penalty markers. Upon a given signal from the judges, the contestant will also be judged for overall ability, efficiency, aptitude and smoothness of operation: possible loss of 5 points.

100

25

7 9 -9-

PARALLEL PARKING 50 Points Possible

40 6 6

FLAG BARRICADE

L + 6

CURB

The contestant will drive the truck forward and spot for backing, then will proceed to back into area outlined by barricades. He will then be permitted to pull ahead or back up. Striking either barricade brings a lost of 20 points. Loss of 20 points for striking the curb with the tire. Measuring from center of farthest fender from curb loss of one point per inch from over 18 to 24", two points per inch from over 24" to 30", three points off per inch from over 30 to 36" and 40 points off if over 36 from the curb. Loss of 10 points for truck not being properly centered, 12" variation permitted. After measurement the contestant will proceed to remove the apparatus from the parking area with a maximum of two pull a heads and two back up motions without penalty. The contestant will also be judged for overall ability, efficiency, aptitude and smoothness of operation: possible loss of 5 points.

-10-

LANE CHANGE 50 points possible

JUDGE

10

25 30 mph

40

30

40

20

40

The member will drive the apparatus into the first lane at the constant speed of 25-30 mph. A judge stationed to the side of the lane and holds up flash cards telling the driver which lane to take. The judge may change the lane required any time the vehicle is still between the lane of markers. Five points will be subtracted each time a course marker is hit. Ten points will be subtracted for failure to maintain a semi-constant speed. Twenty-five points will be subtracted any time the driver stops the vehicle. Twenty-five points will be subtracted for failure to take the lane.

-11-

LOS ANGELES CITY FIRE DEPARTMENT DRIVERS TRAINING PROGRAM DIVISION DRIVER TRAINING COORDINATOR Information Guide INTRODUCTION: As the Division Driver Training Coordinator, your primary responsibility will be the proper implementation of the L.A.F.D. Driver Training Program. You will provide liaison between field personnel within your Division and the In-Service Training Section in the areas of driver training. As the Division Driver Training Coordinator, you are responsible for the scheduling of the annual Driver's Training Program, coordinating new-member driving evaluations, and the remedial driver training of Department personnel. These activities will be coordinated through your Battalion Driver Training Instructors. In addition to scheduling driving evaluations, you will distribute examination material and rodeo equipment to your representative battalions and gather program results at the completion of each battalion Driver Training Program. I. ANNUAL TRAINING AND EVALUATION A. Instructions: 1. Coordinate implementation of the annual Driver Training program within your Division. Organize the battalions and stations within your Division for scheduling of the annual program. Contact the Division Commander on your platoon to determine when the annual Driver Training Program within your Division (i.e. June, July, etc.) is scheduled. Hold annual meeting with battalion Driver Training Instructors, to provide program overview and guidance.

2.

3.

4.

-25. Contact each Battalion Commander to confirm scheduled test period and confirm the name and assignment of the Battalion Drivers Training Instructor. Contact the Battalion Driver Training Instructor and ensure the scheduling of companies within his battalion for testing as follows: a) b) 7. Written Exam - 1st day of segment. Practice - 2nd and 3rd day of segment.

6.

Forward program overview to Driver Training Officer, In-Service Training Section, upon completion of the annual program as follows: a) b) c) d) Number of members tested by Battalion. Average score in written, drive and rodeos by Battalion. Number of members requiring remedial training by Battalion. General comments and information.

II.

NEW MEMBER EVALUATION A. Instructions 1 Periodically contact the Battalion Driver Training Instructors for the names of new members who need testing for their initial issuance of their Class II License. Compile a master list of new members requiring evaluation. Organize the list by battalion and station, and distribute to appropriate Battalion Driving Instructors. Schedule new-member testing allowing enough lead-time for instruction by Company Commander and Battalion Driver Training Instructor. Coordinate new members test schedule with Battalion Driver Training Instructor and Battalion Commander. When possible new members shall be scheduled with other companies conducting their annual Driver Training Program.

2. 3.

4.

5.

LOS ANGELES CITY FIRE DEPARTMENT DRIVERS TRAINING PROGRAM BATTALION DRIVER TRAINING INSTRUCTOR Information Guide INTRODUCTION: As the Battalion Driver Training Instructor, you will be responsible for the training, evaluation, and implementation of the Driver Training Program within your battalion, i.e. annual program, remedial training and new member training. These activities will be coordinated with the Station Commander, Battalion Commander, and the Division Driver Training coordinator. In addition to the training and evaluation of members within your battalion, you are responsible for the organization and distribution of testing materials. Battalion Driver Training Instructors will evaluate the driving proficiency of the members within their Battalion and assist Company Commanders with Driver Training instruction. At the conclusion of the annual Driver Training Program, Battalion Driver Training Instructors shall forward an overview of their respective Battalion Driver Training Program to the Division Driver Training coordinator. I. ANNUAL TRAINING AND EVALUATIONS 1. Coordinate implementation of the annual Drivers Training Program within your battalion. Contact Division Driver Training Coordinator to determine projected time of annual program in your battalion. Attend annual meeting with Division Driver Training Coordinator, to discuss implementation of the annual Drivers Training Program. Contact stations within your battalion and schedule appropriate dates for Phase I and Phase II of the Driver Training Program. Confirm test dates with Battalion Commander and company status with O.C.D.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6. 7.

Obtain test materials from Division Driver Training Coordinator. Distribute materials to battalion prior to phase I and phase II of program (i.e. written test, map of division driving course, etc.) Evaluate members performance on Division driving course. Coordinate Driving Rodeo with designated companies assisting in the evaluation this portion of the program. Collect exam results and, if necessary, compile a list of members needing remedial training and forward to Division Driving Coordinator. Distribute exam results (written/drive/ rodeo) to Station Commanders for review with members. Provide guidance and training for members requiring remedial training. Forward program overview to Division Driving Coordinator upon completion of annual program as follows: a. b. c. d. e. Number of members tested. List of members absent requiring rescheduling. Average score in written, drive, and rodeo. of battalion members. List of members requiring remedial training. General comments and information.

8. 9.

10.

11.

12. 13.

II.

NEW-MEMBER TRAINING AND EVALUATION A. Instructions 1. Identify all members requiring training or evaluating through your Battalion Commander. Coordinate with Battalion Commander the issuance of DMV Learners permit. Assist in the guidance and training of new members for their initial issuance of a Class II License.

2.

3.

-3-

4.

Forward list of members needing remedial training to Division Driver Training Coordinator. Forward results to Station Commanders for certification of new members. Coordinate through the Battalion Commander the original issuance of Class I or Class II Licenses.

5.

6.

III.

REMEDIAL TRAINING AND EVALUATION A. Instructions 1. Upon completion of annual Driver Training Program, determine appropriate members needing remedial training and forward to Division Driver Training Coordinator. Assist Station Commanders in training members in specific areas needing improvement. Contact Division Driver Training Coordinator and arrange for remedial testing. Confirm dates of next remedial evaluation with Division Driver Training Coordinator, and notify Battalion Commander. Remedial members will normally be scheduled for evaluation with the next battalion to be evaluated.

2.

3.

4.

DRVNGCOR