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Boolean Algebra

Developed by George Boole in the 1850s Mathematical

theory of logic.

Aljabar Boolean

Algebra to solve problems in electronic c i r c u i t d e s i g n . ( 1 9 3 8 ) . The behavior of a Digital Circuit can be described in terms of Boolean Algebra. Boolean algebra provides the operations and the rules for working with the set {0, 1}.

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Boolean Algebra is the Logical idea Mathematical representation

Boolean Constants

In Boolean algebra, there are only two constants, true and false

Boolean constant true false Binary digit 1 0 State of a switch On Off Voltage level +5V 0V

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tool that allows logical ideas to be represented in a mathematical way, simplified and analyzed, and then translated into real hardware for impl em ent at ion ( u s i n g l o g i c a l g a t e s ) .

Gate - implementation

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Boolean Variables

Boolean variables are variables that store values that are Boolean c o n s t a n t s .

If A and B are Boolean variables (or expressions) then A AND B is true if and only if both A and B are true. If A and B are Boolean variables (or expressions) then A AND B is false if and only if either A or B is false or theyre both false.

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Boolean Operator OR

If A and B are Boolean variables (or expressions) then A OR B is true if and only if at least one of A and B is true. If A and B are Boolean variables (or expressions) then A OR B is false if and only if both A and B are false.

If A is a Boolean variable (or expression) then NOT A has the opposite value from A. We denote the NOT operation by putting a bar over the variable (or expression) : _ A

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A 0 0 1 1

B 0 1 0 1

AB 0 0 0 1

A 0 0 1 1

B 0 1 0 1

A+B 0 1 1 1

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Boolean Operations

The complement is denoted by a bar (on the slides, we

-0 = 1 and -1 = 0.

A 0 1

_ A 1 0

following values:

1 + 1 = 1,

1 + 0 = 1,

0 + 1 = 1,

0+0=0

following values:

1 1 = 1,

1 0 = 0,

0 1 = 0,

00=0

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AND Operations () 00 = 0 10 = 0 01 = 0 11 = 1 A0 = 0 A1 = A AA = A AA' = 0 Associative Law (AB)C = A(BC) = ABC (A+B)+C = A+(B+C) = A+B+C Distributive Law OR Operations (+) 0+0 = 0 1+0 = 1 0+1 = 1 1+1 = 1 A+0 = A A+1 = 1 A+A = A A+A' = 1 A(B+C) = (AB) + (AC) A+(BC) = (A+B) (A+C) Some Theorems A+(AB) = A A(A+B) = A A(A+B) = AB A+(AB) = A+B A+(AB) = A+B A+(AB) = A+B ABC = (A+B+C) (ABC) = A+B+C

Definition: Let B = {0, 1}. The variable x is

Commutative Law AB = B BA A+B = B+A Precedence A B = (A (A)B AB+C = (A (AB) + C A+B A+BC = A + (B (BC) DeMorgan's Theorem (AB)' = A' + B' (NAND) (A+B)' = A' B' (NOR)

De Morgans theorems

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Question: How many different Boolean functions of degree 1 are

Question: How many different Boolean functions of degree 2 are

there?

there?

Solution: There are four of them, F1, F2, F3, and F4: x 0 1 F1 0 0 F2 0 1 F3 1 0 F4 1 1

x y F1 F2 F3 F4 F5 F6 F7 F8 F9 F10 F11 F12 F13 F14 F15 F16

0 0 0 1 1 0 1 1

0 0 0 0

0 0 0 1

0 0 1 0

0 0 1 1

0 1 0 0

0 1 0 1

0 1 1 0

0 1 1 1

1 0 0 0

1 0 0 1

1 0 1 0

1 0 1 1

1 1 0 0

1 1 0 1

1 1 1 0

1 1 1 1

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Unlike ordinary algebra, for a BE, there are only finitely many possible assignments of values to the variables; so, theoretically, we can make a table, called a truth table, that shows the value of the BE for every possible set of values of the variables. For convenience, use 0 = false 1 = true

If there are N variables, there are 2N

Thus, there are 2N rows in the truth table Fill in the values by counting up from 0 in

binary

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X 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 Y 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 Z 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 (X+Y)Z 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 1

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Example

_ E = AB + ___ (A+C)B

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_ E = AB

A 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 B 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 C 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 _ B 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 _ AB 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0

+

A+C 0 1 0 1 1 1 1 1

___ (A+C)B

___ (A+C) 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 ___ (A+C)B 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 E 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 0

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There is a simple method for deriving a

Boolean expression for a function that is defined by a table. This method is based on minterms. its complement. A minterm of the Boolean variables x1, x2, , xn is a Boolean product y1y2yn, where yi = xi or yi = -xi.

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Example: Give a Boolean expression for the Boolean function

Consider F(x,y,z) again:

x 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1

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y 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1

z 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1

F(x, y, z) 1 1 0 0 1 0 0 0

F(x, y) 0 1 0 0

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Logic Gates

Electronic circuits consist of so-called gates. There are three basic

One Implementation

-x x+y

types of gates:

inverter OR gate

x y x y

f B

xy

AND gate

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f = A B + A B

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Another Implementation

A

Questions

Draw the logic circuit for AB + CD + ABC = Y

f

A

B C D Y

f = A B + A B = (A + B) A + B

)

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Boolean Algebra

Truth Table x 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 y 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 z 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 F 0 1 0 0 1 1 1 1

x 1 1 1 1 0 0

y 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0

z 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0

F 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0

G 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0

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Boolean Function

F = x + yz

Logic Diagram

x y z

0 0

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Gambarlah circuit

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F ( x, y , z ) = x + y + z F ( x, y , z ) = ( x + z ) y

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