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In the Matter of

M/s Mannar & Co. (India) Limited. Plaintiff

VE !"!

M/s Man#an Com$%ters Pri&ate Limited & Ors. Defendants

MEMO IAL on behalf of the PLAI'TI((


I'DE* !TATEME'T ,,,.... I!!"E! ,,.............../ !TATEME'T ,,,,,,,,,,,.....0 !"MMA 1 PLEADI'2!..............................................................................................13 PLEADI'2!,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,. ,,,,,,,,,,,,,..11P A1E ELIE(........................................................................................................34 (O O( O( (ACT!,,,,,,,,,,,,,. P E!E'TED,...,,,,,,,,,,,.,,,,,,,,.. O( O( A"T+O ITIE!,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,. -" I!DICTIO',,,,,,,,,,.,,,,,,,..



)OO5! E(E CA!E! ED:

!" !" EDITION,

DR& !&#& DR& !&#&

'&K& DAS




) %nited !is*+its ,%K) #td& V& Asda Asda #td& / 0012 RP$ 5 3 2) Mil4ent Oft5- Ind+st.ies and Ot5e.s 6& Alle.7an In*&

3) !a+4e and $-& #td& 6& A&H& M--.e #td& / 0582 RP$ 229 :) Gillete %K #td& Eden West #td& / 00:2 RP$ 210 5) $al6in Klein In*& %SA 6& Inte.nati-nal A;;a.el S<ndi*ate 009 PT$ 203 ,$al)& 9) P-ntia* Ma.ina Pte #td 6& $D# H-tels Inte.nati-nal #td& / 0012 FSR 125 1) $-44issi-ne.s -f Inland Re6en+e 6& M+lle. = $-&>s Ma.7a.ine #td& / 00 2 A$ 2 1 8) N&R& D-n7a.e 6& W5i.l;--l $-.;& #td& 009 ,5) S$$ 1 : 0) Ri77i- T-?a**- $-.;-.ati-n #td& 6& NT$ t-?a**- India 2002 ,2:) PT$ :02 ,Del) 0) Ma@i4 #td& 6& D<e / 0112 W#R 55 ,A) ) Stanna.d 6& Rea< / 0912 RP$ 580 2) M*D-nald>s $-.; 6& '-?+.7e.s D.i6e(Inn Resta+.ant ,PT") #td& 001 , ) SA 3) P.e4ie. #+77a7e and !a7s #td& 6& P.e4ie. $-& ,%K) #td& /200 2 FSR :9 :) D+.7aD+tt 6& Na6.atna P5a.4a*e+ti*al #a? AIR 095 S$ 080 5) E& = '& Gall- Wine.< 6& $-ns-.Ai- Del Gall- Ne.- 182 F& S+;;& :51, :99 ,D& $al& 00 ) 9) $-l7ate Pal4-li6e $-4;an< and An.& 6& An*5-. Healt5 and !ea+t< $a.e P6t& #td 2003 ,21) PT$ :18 Del& 1) MBs !iCane.6ala 6& MBs A77a.Dal!iCane.Dala $S,OS) N-&12 -f 200: 8) SVS Oil Mills 6& SVS RaEC+4a. 2002 ,2:) PT$ 330 0) H&K& Mal5-t.a 6& 'as?i. Sin75 2003 ,29) PT$ :88 ,Del) 20) !&N& = $-4;an< 6& Pes5aDa. S-a; and $5e4i*al W-.Cs 2003,29) PT$ 98 ,Del) ,D!)& 2 )*Cs #i4ited 6& ! 2003 ,29) PT$ 2: ,Del) 22) G-<alG.a4-d<-7Sanst5an 6& Set5 !.-t5e.s 2003,21) PT$ :2 ,Del) 23) $ast.-l #i4ited 6& RanEan Sales $-.;-.ati-n 2005,3 ) PT$ 53:,Del&) 2:) S&R& MilC P.-d+*ts P6t& #td& 6& Sa5<ad.i Dai.< 2003,21) PT$ 19 ,!-4) 25) File@ S<ste4s P6t& #td& 6& R-t-4a* Pens , P6t& #td& 200: PT$ ,28) 300 ,Del) 29) Alf.ed D+n5ill #i4ited 6& R&P&S& $5aDla 200:,20) PT$ 30 ,Del) 21) Hind $+tle.< H-+se 6& MaliC !a.tan!5anda. 2003,29) PT$ 3:: ,Del) 28) 'a<a Ra4 !anan 6& Ma5inde.Da.a 2003,29) PT$ :03 ,Del) 20) M+4taA A54ad 6& PaCeeAa $5e4i*als 2003,29) PT$ 591 ,All) 30) R&R& O-4e.?5-< P6t& #td& 6& $-+.t Re*ei6e. Hi75t $-+.t !-4?a< 2003,21) PT$ 580 ,D!),!-4)

3 ) V = S Vin S; A! 6& K+ll+ Valle< Wate. $- 2005,30) PT$,:1) ,Del) 32) E.6enWa.ninC!esl-tenVenn--ts*5a; 6& ' T-Dnend = S-ns ,H+ll) #td& / 0132 A$ 13 33) Taittin7e. SA 6& All?e6 #td / 0032 FSR 9: 3:) DaDna< Da< = $-& #td& 6& $ant-. FitA7e.ald Inte.nati-nal /20002 RP$ 990 35) Ki4?e.le<($la.C #td 6& F-.t Ste.lin7 #td / 0012 FSR 811 39) EDin7 6& !+tte.*+; Ma.7a.ine $-& #td , 0 1) 3: RP$ 232 31) M-.7an(G.a4;ian ;l* 6& T.ainin7 Pe.s-nnel #td / 0022 FSR 291 38) $-.n P.-d+*ts 6& S5an7.ila 30) De $-.d-6a 6 Vi*C $5e4i*al , 05 )98 RP$ 03 at 05( 09,P$) :0) Sei@- 6& P.-6eAende , 899) #R : ) F-.d 6& F-ste. , 012) #R 1 $5 9 :2) O.. EDin7 6& '-5nst-n , 880) 3 $5 D :3: :3) Sa6ille Pe.f+4a.< 6& '+ne , 0: )58 RP$ :1& ::) TaD 6& N-teC , 05 ) 98 RP$ 21 at 213 :5) S5aD Walla*e = $-& #td& 6& S+;e.i-. Ind+st.ies #td& 2003 ,21 PT$ 93,Del)) :9) 'a7an ;.e4 Nat5 6& !5a.ti<a D5--; Ka.<ala<a I#R 01, :1) A4.itd5a.a P5a.4a*< 6& Sat<a De- AIR 093 S$ ::0& :8) R-*5e = $-& 6& G& Manne.s = $-& ,P) #td& AIR 010 S$ 2092, 209: :0) Parle Pro !"t# $% &%P% ' Co& AIR 012 S$ 350 50) Hear#t Cor(% $% )alal Street Co**!n+"at+on Lt . 009 PT$ 29 at 20 ,$al) 5 ) Ra4a*5ande. #a@4ina.a<an Ka.6a 6& 'a7annat5 K5+?*5and Ka.6a 2003 ,29) PT$ 522 ,Mad) ,D!) 52) Dil $-& Inte.nati-nal 6& Mes- P.i6ate #td& 2003 ,29) PT$ 5 5 ,!-4) ,D!) 53) Wint5.-; P.-d+*ts 6& W+;5a.4a 008 PT$ 2 3 ,!-4) 5:) !ansi D5a. !aEaE 6& !aEaE !is*+it P.-d+*ts 200: PT$ ,28) 980 ,IPA!) 55) $-l7ate Pal4-li6e ,India) #td& Vs& Hind+stan #e6e. #td& AIR 000 S$ 3 05 59) !-ttlin7 $-& #td& 6s& $-*a $-la $-4;an< and Ot5e.s, 005,5) S$$ 5:5 51) M& G+.+das = O.s& Vs& Rasa.anEan = O.s& AIR 2009 S$ 3215 58) S5.ide6i = An.& 6s& M+.alid5a. = An.& ,2001) : S$$ 12 & 50) S&M& D<e*5e4 #td& Vs& MBs& $ad?+.< ,India) #td&, AIR 2000 S$ 2 90) Dal;at K+4a. = An.& Vs& P.a5lad Sin75 = O.s&, AIR 003 S$ 219 : ) Del5i 225 $5 02 at 01

9 ) !+.n #td& 6& R&N& !ane.Eee 058(I #&#&'& 2:1 92) Ele*t.i*it< !-a.d, Gand5ina7a. 6& Ma5es5C+4a. and $-&, A54eda?ad , 005,5)S$$ 5:5,) 93) Ka4al T.adin7 $-& = -t5e.s 6s& Gillette %K #td& 088 PT$ 9:) !iCas5 $5and.a De? 6s ViEa<a Mine.als P6t& #td&F 2005 , ) $HN 582 95) Anta.<a4i Dala?e5e.a 6s !is5n+ $ Dala?e5e.aF 2002 I O#R 53 99) AnDa. Ela5i 6s Vin-d Mis.a And An.& , 005) 90 D#T 152 91) M+lti*5annel India #td 6s& Ka6itala<a P.-d+*ti-ns P6t #td& AIR 000 50& 98) SanEee6 K+4a. = $-& 6s !is5n+ P.asad AIR 000 O.issa 00 90) Ra4de6 F--d P.-d+*ts 6s& A.6ind?5ai Ra4?5ai, ,2009)33 PT$ 28 ,S$)& !TAT"TE! A'D CO'VE'TIO'! T5e T.ade Ma.C A*t 000 T5e T.ade Ma.C and Me.*5andise A*t 058 T.ade .elated as;e*ts -f Intelle*t+al ;.-;e.t< ,TRIPS) T.ade Ma.C #aD< 00: al-n7 Dit5 .e7+lati-ns& 6E)!ITE!



5tt;FBBDDD&le7alse.6i*eindia&*-4Ba.ti*leBl229(T.ade4a.C(Inf.in7e4ent(=(Passin7(Off&5t4l 5tt;FBBDDD&laDis7.eeC&*-4Bt.ade4a.C(laD(india(and(f-.ei7n(?.ands 5tt;FBBDDD&e6an*a.4i*5ael&*-4BMana7e4entB 035BRe4ed<(f-.(T.ade(Ma.C(Inf.in7e4ent( India&5t4l 5tt;FBBDDD&?itlaD&*-4Bt.ade4a.CBinf.in7e&5t4l 5tt;FBBDDD&+si;&*-4B;dfBA.ti*leGT.ade4a.CsB;.i-.+se&;df 5tt;FBBDDD&4-ndaH&*-4BindiaB@B81308BT.ade4a.CBAssi7nin7I#i*ensin7IIPRIInIIndia 5tt;FBBta@7+.+&inBe@*ise(d+t<Beffe*t(4aCin7(.e7ist.ati-n(*e.tifi*ate(a;;li*a?le(.et.-s;e*ti6e( date(?ased(;.in*i;le(dee4ed(eH+i6alen*e(;+?li*(+se.(4a.C(e@tended(e@*ise(laD&5t4l 5tt;FBBDDD&indianCan--n&-.7


T5e ;.esent Plaintiff s+?4its t- t5e E+.isdi*ti-n -f t5is H-n>?le $-+.t f-. final 5ea.in7 -f t5e s+it filed +nde. Se*ti-n 3: -f t5e T.ade4a.C A*t 000 and inte.i4 a;;li*ati-n seeCin7 a te4;-.a.< inE+n*ti-n +nde. 30 R+le = 2 $P$ .ead Dit5 Se*ti-n 5 $P$&

I!!"E! P E!E'TED
I!!"E I: 6+ET+E I'( I'2ME'T7 T+E DE(E'DA'T I! LIA)LE (O T ADEMA 5

I!!"E II: 6+ET+E T+E DE(E'DA'T I! LIA)LE (O PA!!I'2 O(7










& MBs Manna. = $-& ,%K) #i4ited is a $-4;an< in*-.;-.ated in En7land in t5e <ea. 2008& Manna. is in t5e ?+siness -f 4an+fa*t+.in7, 4a.Cetin7 and sale -f *-4;+te.s al-n7 Dit5 -t5e. *-4;+te. a**ess-.ies& It als- desi7ned t5e 4a.C t- 4a.Cet its 7--ds& It 7-t t5e said 4a.C .e7iste.ed in En7land in De*e4?e. 2008& Manna. 7ained i44ense .e;+tati-n and 7--dDill in En7land and als- in -t5e. *-+nt.ies and t5ei. t+.n-6e. in*.eased 4anif-ld -6e. t5e ne@t feD <ea.s& 2& M.& ManCad is a s4all ;la<e. in t5e *-4;+te. 5a.dDa.e ?+siness and is ?ased in P+ne sin*e t5e <ea. 2001& He in*-.;-.ated a $-4;an<, MBs Man*an $-4;+te.s P.i6ate #i4ited ,Man*an) in t5e <ea. 2000 in $5ennai and *-44en*ed 4an+fa*t+.e and sale -f *-4;+te. 5a.dDa.e and a**ess-.ies& Man*an sta.ted +sin7 t5e 4a.C f.-4 2000 and a;;lied f-.

.e7ist.ati-n -f t5e 4a.C in '+ne 20 0& T5e sa4e is ;endin7 Dit5 t5e T.ade Ma.Cs Re7ist.<, $5ennai& 3& Manna., .ealiAin7 t5e ;-tential -f t5e 4a.Cet in India, in*-.;-.ated MBs Manna. = $-& ,India) #i4ited ,Manna. India) Dit5 t5ei. .e7iste.ed -ffi*e in P+ne& It a;;lied f-. .e7ist.ati-n -f t5ei. 4a.C ,Anne@+.e A) in A+7+st 20 .e7ist.ati-n -f t5e sa4e in Fe?.+a.< 20 2& :& W5en a;;.-a*5ed t5e Dist.i*t $-+.t, P+ne, and filed a $i6il S+it seeCin7 inE+n*t-.< .elief a7ainst Man*an f-. t.ade 4a.C inf.in7e4ent and ;assin7 -ff& T5e< als- filed an inte.i4 a;;li*ati-n seeCin7 a te4;-.a.< inE+n*ti-n a7ainst t5e +se -f t5e 4a.C d+.in7 t5e ;enden*< -f t5e s+it& T5e Dist.i*t $-+.t, P+ne, did n-t 7.ant an< ?+t iss+ed a n-ti*e t- Man*an& %;-n .e*ei;t -f t5e n-ti*e, Man*an filed a .e*tifi*ati-n a;;li*ati-n ?ef-.e t5e IPA! in .es;e*t -f t5e 4a.C .e7iste.ed ?< Manna. India and t5e sa4e is ;endin7 ?ef-.e t5e IPA!& 5& S+?seH+entl<, Manna. India filed a $i6il S+it a7ainst t5e Di.e*t-.s -f Man*an in t5e Hi75 $-+.t -f '+di*at+.e at f-. ;assin7 -ff, da4a7es and a**-+nt f-. ;.-fits& Manna. India als- s+?4itted an a;;li*ati-n f-. an -f ad inte.i4 inE+n*ti-n in D5i*5 t5e Hi75 $-+.t iss+ed n-ti*e& 9& Man*an and its Di.e*t-.s ente.ed a;;*e and filed a;;.-;.iate a;;li*ati-ns .aisin7 ;.eli4ina.< -?Ee*ti-ns& T5e< als- filed t5ei. *-+nte. t- t5e a;;li*ati-ns filed ?< Manna. India& 1& T5e Hi75 $-+.t ad4itted all a;;li*ati-ns and fi@ed a date f-. final 5ea.in7 in t5e 4atte., ;e.4ittin7 ?-t5 ;a.ties t- a.7+e -n ;.eli4ina.< iss+es as Dell as -n 4e.its& and t5e T.ade Ma.Cs Re7ist.<, M+4?ai, 7.anted

!"MMA 1 O( PLEADI'2!
I!!"E I: 6+ET+E I'( I'2ME'T7 Re7ist.ati-n -f t.ade4a.C ?ein7 t5e ;.i4a fa*ie e6iden*e -f its 6alidit<, t5e +se -f t5e inf.in7in7 t.ade4a.C ?< Man*an $-& #td& a4-+nts t- inf.in7e4ent as it satisfies all t5e essentials -f Jinf.in7e4ent -f t.ade 4a.CK& T5e +se -f t5e inf.in7in7 t.ade4a.C ?< Man*an $-& #td& 5as a e@*eedin7l< 5i75 ;.-?a?ilit< t- *a+se *-nf+si-n and de*e;ti-n in t5e 4inds -f t5e ;+?li*& T5e t.ade4a.C +sed ?< MBs Manna. = $-& is a 4a.C D5i*5 is a Dell Cn-Dn 4a.C and needs t- ?e ;.-te*ted and sa4e 5as t5e ad6anta7e -f ?ein7 a ;.i-. +se. ?< 6i.t+e -f ?ein7 is ;.i-. in ;-int -f ti4e& T+E DE(E'DA'T I! LIA)LE (O T ADEMA 5


I!!"E II: 6+ET+E


PA!!I'2 O((7

T5e essentials -f laD -f ;assin7 and -t5e. *5a.a*te.isti*s as stated ?< #-.d Di;l-*C in Er$en Warn+, -%.% $% To/nen a.e enti.el< satisfied in t5e ;.esent *ase at 5and& F.-4 t5e ;e.+sal -f t5e fa*ts it ?e*-4es 4anifest t5at t5e defendant ?ein7 -nl< a s4all ;la<e. in t5e *-4;+te. 5a.dDa.e ?+siness +sed de*e;ti6el< si4ila. 4a.C t- t5at -f t5e ;laintiff Dit5 ai4 -f *.eatin7 *-nf+si-n in t5e 4inds -f t5e ?+<e.s& T5e.ef-.e its is 5+4?l< s+?4itted t5e ;.e(.eH+isites t*-nstit+te t5e -ffen*e ;assin7 -ff a.e satisfied&









TEMPO A 1 I'-"'CTIO' A2AI'!T T+E DE(E'DA'T )E ALLO6ED7 T5e -?Ee*t -f inE+n*ti-n is t- ;.-te*t t5e ;laintiff a7ainst inE+.< ?< 6i-lati-n -f 5is .i75t f-. D5i*5 5e *-+ld n-t ?e adeH+atel< *-4;ensated in da4a7es .e*-6e.a?le in t5e a*ti-n& T5e ?asi* ;.in*i;les, i&e& ;.i4a fa*ie *aseL ?alan*e -f *-n6enien*eL and i..e;a.a?le inE+.<, if *-nside.ed in a ;.-;e. ;e.s;e*ti6e in t5e ;.esent fa*ts and *i.*+4stan*es -f t5e *ase dee4s ;.-;e. t- ?e a *ase -f 7.ant -f te4;-.a.< inE+n*ti-n&

I!!"E I: T+E DE(E'DA'T I! LIA)LE (O T ADEMA 5 I'( I'2ME'T. 0a1 Re2+#trat+on of tra e *ar, +# the (r+*a fa"+e e$+ en"e of +t# $al+ +t3% MBs Manna. = $-& ,%K) ltd& ,Manna.) is a *-4;an< D5i*5 Das in*-.;-.ated in En7land in t5e <ea. 2008, and s+?seH+entl< .e7iste.ed t5ei. 4a.C in De*e4?e. 2008& Afte. .ealiAin7 t5e ;-tential in India MBs Manna. = $-& ltd& 7-t in*-.;-.ated in India& It a;;lied f-. .e7ist.ati-n -f t5ei. T.ade4a.C in A+7+st 20 and t5e sa4e Das 7.anted in Fe?.+a.< 20 2, 5en*ef-.t5 Plaintiff is a .e7iste.ed ;.-;.iet-. -f t5e T.ade Ma.C and is entitled t- file a s+it&

Fa*ts5eet Pa7e (


041 The !#e of the +nfr+n2+n2 Tra e*ar, or the (ro(o#e !#e of the Tra e*ar, a*o!nt# to +nfr+n2e*ent% An inf.in7e4ent a*ti-n is a6aila?le t- t5e .e7iste.ed ;.-;.iet-. -. .e7iste.ed +se., t- enf-.*e 5is e@*l+si6e .i75ts2 in t5e t.ade 4a.C in .elati-n t- t5e 7--ds -. se.6i*es in .es;e*t -f D5i*5 it is .e7iste.ed& Essentials -f Inf.in7e4entF ( T5e taCin7 -f an< essential feat+.e -f t5e 4a.C -f taCin7 t5e D5-le -f t5e 4a.C and t5en 4aCin7 a feD additi-ns and alte.ati-ns D-+ld *-nstit+te inf.in7e4ent& 2( T5e inf.in7e4ent 4+st ?e +sed in t5e * -f t5e t.ade ,i&e&, in a .e7+la. t.ade D5e.ein t5e ;.-;.iet-. -f t5e 4a.C is en7a7ed& 3( T5e +se -f t5e 4a.C 4+st ?e ;.inted -. +s+al .e;.esentati-n -f t5e 4a.C in ad6e.tise4ents, in6-i*es -. ?ills& :( An< -. all -f t5e a?-6e a*ts D-+ld *-nstit+te inf.in7e4ent if t5e sa4e is d-ne in s+*5 a 4anne. as t- sende. t5e -f t5e 4a.C liCel< t- ?e taCen as ?ein7 +sed as a t.ade4a.C& 0+1 L+,el+hoo of "onf!#+on or e"e(t+on% In t5e ;.esent *ase t5e.e is a 7.eate. ;.-?a?ilit< t- *a+se *-nf+si-n ?etDeen t5e 7--ds -f Manna. $-& #td& and Man*an $-& #td& T5e ;5-neti*< ?etDeen t5e tD- t.ade4a.Cs i&e& t5e D-.d JMAN*-K and J4an$OK as Dell 6is+al< ?etDeen t5e tD- i&e& t5e tDs4ile<s ;ainted in <ell-D *-l-. Dit5 a t5+4?s +;, as Dell t5e -6e.all st.+*< -f t5e tD- 4a.Cs,3 *e.tainl< *-nstit+tes essential -f t5e 4a.C& T5is +nd-+?tedl< s+?stantiates t5e *-ntenti-n t5at t5ese tD- 4a.Cs a.e de*e;ti6el< si4ila., satisf<in7 e<e and ea. test, D5i*5 is liCeli5--d t- *a+se *-nf+si-n& A 4a.C is inf.in7ed ?< an-t5e. t.ade. if, e6en Dit5-+t +sin7 t5e D5-le -f it +;-n -. in *-nne*ti-n Dit5 5is 7--ds 5e +ses -ne -. 4-.e -f its essential T5e identifi*ati-n -f an essential feat+.e de;ends ;< -n t5e *-+.t>s -Dn E+d74ent and ;< -n t5e ?+.den -f t5e e6iden*e t5at is ;la*ed ?ef-.e it& A t.ade 4a.C is +nd-+?tedl< a 6is+al de6i*eL ?+t it is
2 3

Se*ti-n 28 -f t5e 000 A*t and s 28 -f t5e 058 A*t& $-.n P.-d+*ts 6& S5an7.ila AIR


Dell esta?lis5ed laD t5at t5e as*e.tain4ent -f an essential feat+.e is n-t t- ?e ?< -*+la. test al-ne& Sin*e D-.ds *an f-.4 ;a.t, -. indeed t5e D5-le, -f a 4a.C, it is i4;-ssi?le t- e@*l+de *-nside.ati-n -f t5e s-+nd -. si7nifi*an*e -f t5-se D-.ds& T5+s it 5as l-n7 ?een a**e;ted t5at, if a D-.d f-.4in7 ;a.t -f a 4a.C 5as *-4e in t.ade t- ?e +sed t- identif< t5e 7--ds -f t5e -Dne. -f t5e 4a.C, it is an inf.in7e4ent -f t5e 4a.C itself t- +se t5at D-.d as t5e 4a.C -. ;a.t -f t5e 4a.C -f an-t5e. t.ade., f-. *-nf+si-n is liCel< t- .es+lt&: T5e S+;.e4e $-+.t in )!r2a )!tt $% Na$ratna Phar*a"e!t+"al La4orator+e#,5 said t5at in an a*ti-n f-. inf.in7e4ent, t5e ;laintiff s5-+ld 4aCe -+t t5at t5at t5e +se -f t5e defendant>s 4a.C is liCel< t- de*ei6e& H-De6e., if t5e< ?etDeen t5e ;laintiffs and t5e defendants 4a.C is *l-se eit5e. 6is+all<, ;5-neti*all< -. -t5e.Dise and t5e *-+.t .ea*5es t5e *-n*l+si-n t5at t5e.e is an i4itati-n, n- f+.t5e. e6iden*e is .eH+i.ed t- esta?lis5 t5at t5e ;laintiff .i75t a.e 6i-lated& In D+.7a D+tt S5a.4a>s *ase9, it Das -?se.6ed t5at M in an a*ti-n f-. inf.in7e4ent, t5e ;laintiff 4+st, n- d-+?t, 4aCe -+t t5at t5e +se -f t5e defendant>s 4a.C is liCel< t- de*ei6e, ?+t D5e.e t5e< ?etDeen t5e ;laintiff>s and t5e defendant>s 4a.C is s- *l-se eit5e. 6is+all<, ;5-neti*all< -. -t5e.Dise and t5e *-+.t .ea*5es t5e *-n*l+si-n t5at t5e.e is an i4itati-n, n- f+.t5e. e6iden*e is .eH+i.ed t- esta?lis5 t5at t5e ;laintiff>s .i75ts a.e 6i-lated& In -t5e. D-.ds, if t5e essential -f t5e t.ade 4a.C -f t5e ;laintiff 5a6e ?een ad-;ted 1 ?< t5e defendant, t5e fa*t t5at t5e 7et(+;, ;a*Cin7 and -t5e. D.itin7 -. 4a.Cs -n t5e 7--ds -. -n t5e ;a*Cets s5-D 4a.Ced diffe.en*es -. indi*ate a diffe.ent t.ade -.i7in D-+ld ?e i44ate.ial& A&era8e $erson o9 im$er9e#t re#o::e#tion: An-t5e. a.ea t-+*5ed ?< t5e S+;.e4e $-+.t in D+.7a D+tt>s *ase t5at t5e t.ade 4a.C a.e .e4e4?e.ed ?< a i4;.essi-ns -. ?< s-4e si7nifi*ant detail ,essential distin7+is5in7) feat+.e n-t ?< an< ;5-t-7.a;5i* 4e4-.< .e*-lle*ti-n -f t5e D5-le& M-.e-6e., 6a.iati-ns in detail 4i75t Dell ?e ass+4ed ?<

De $-.d-6a 6 Vi*C $5e4i*al , 05 )98 RP$ 03 at 05( 09,P$), f-ll-Din7 t5e di*ta in Sei@- 6& P.-6eAende , 899) #R $5 02 at 01L de*isi-ns t- t5e sa4e effe*t 4a< ?e f-+nd in F-.d 6& F-ste. , 012) #R 1 $5 9 L O.. EDin7 6& '-5nst-n , 880) 3 $5 D :3:L Sa6ille Pe.f+4a.< 6& '+ne , 0: )58 RP$ :1& TaD 6& N-teC , 05 ) 98 RP$ 21 at 213L D+.7a D+tt S5a.4a 6& Na6a.atna P5a.4a*< AIR 095 S$ 080 at 000 5 AIR 095 S$ 080 6 AIR 095 S$ 080 7 In $-l7ate Pal4-li6e 6& AEanta 2005,3 ) PT$ 503 t5e Del5i Hi75 $-+.t 5eld t5at t5e *-+.t 4eant Das 4-.e t5an -ne feat+.e and n-t a sin7le feat+.e&


*+st-4e.s t- 5a6e ?een int.-d+*ed ?< t5e -Dne.s -f t5e t.ade4a.C f-. .eas-ns -f s+*5 -Dne.s& Consideration o9 Essentia: (eat%res;Mar<s not to =e $:a#e !ide => !ide F In tdistin7+is5 ?etDeen t5e tD- 4a.Cs -. t- ?e a?le t- *-n*l+de t5at -ne 4a.C is de*e;ti6el< si4ila. t- an-t5e., t5e ?.-ad and essential -f t5e tD- 4a.Cs a.e t- ?e *-nside.ed& T5e< s5-+ld n-t ?e ;la*ed side ?< side t- find -+t if t5e.e a.e an< in t5e desi7n and if s-, D5et5e. t5e< a.e -f s+*5 *5a.a*te. as t- ;.e6ent -ne desi7n f.-4 ?ein7 4istaCen f-. t5e -t5e.& It D-+ld ?e en-+75 if t5e i4;+7ned 4a.C ?ea.s s+*5 an -6e.all< t- t5e .e7iste.ed 4a.C t5at it D-+ld ?e liCel< t- 4islead e ;e.s-n +s+all< dealin7 Dit5 -ne t- a**e;t t5e -t5e. if -ffe.ed t- 5i4 In Ta/ $% Note,8 T5e *-+.t stated D5e.e t5e ;laintiffs 5ad s+?stit+ted t5e e<es -f a *at Dit5 4-t-. la4;s D5i*5 D5en *-;ied Das 5eld t- ?e a *ase -f inf.in7e4ent& In Sha/ Walla"e ' Co% Lt % $% S!(er+or In !#tr+e# Lt %5 6?o:e mar< not #o$ied =%t simi:arit>: T5e *-+.t said t5at in an a*ti-n -f f-. inf.in7e4ent, t5e ;laintiff d-es n-t 5a6e t- ;.-6e t5e D5-le -f t5e 5is t.ade4a.C 5as ?een *-;ied& T5e ;laintiff *an als- s+**eed if it s5-Ds t5at t5e 4a.C +sed ?< t5e defendant is si4ila. t- t5e 4a.C -f t5e ;laintiff, as it D-+ld ?e .e4e4?e.ed ?< ;e.s-ns ;-ssessed -f an a6e.a7e 4e4-.< Dit5 its +s+al i4;e.fe*ti-ns t5at its essential -. t5e distin7+is5in7 -. essential feat+.e 5as ?een *-;ied& 0 In Hear#t Cor(% $% )alal Street Co**!n+"at+on Lt .11 'ot mere resem=:an#e =%t 'ear esem=:an#e: T5e *-+.t stated t5at t- s+**eed t5e ;laintiff D-+ld 5a6e t- esta?lis5 at least ;.i4a fa*ie t5at t5e defendants 4a.C Das de*e;ti6el< si4ila.& T5e -f< ne*essa.< t- ?e de*e;ti6e Das n-t t- ?e 4eas+.ed in te.4s -f an< -?Ee*ti6e standa.d& As fa. as< Das *-n*e.ned D5at Das .eH+i.ed Das n-t 4e.e .ese4?lan*e ?+t a Jnea. .ese4?lan*eKN-. *l-se<&
8 9

, 05 ) 98 RP$ 21 2003 ,21 PT$ 93,Del)) 10 T5e *-+.t .elied -n t5e *ase -f 'a7an ;.e4 Nat5 6& !5a.ti<a D5--; Ka.<ala<a I#R 01, ) del5i 225 D5e.ein an inE+n*ti-n a7ainst t5e +se -f n+4e.als 555 in6-l6in7 Kast+.e A7a.?attii 555 a7ainst t5e ;.e6i-+sl< +sed t.ade 4a.C Anand Da.?a. A7a.?ati 555&

009 PT$ 29 at 20 ,$al)


Li<e:i?ood o9 Con9%sion 'ot A#t%a: Con9%sion: T5e ne@t in7.edient Das t5e liCeli5--d -f de*e;ti-n -. *a+sin7 *-nf+si-n& In -t5e. D-.ds, t5e stat+te did n-t .eH+i.e a*t+al de*e;ti-n -. *-nf+si-n -n D5i*5 an a*ti-n f-. inf.in7e4ent *-+ld ?e f-+nded and liCeli5--d -f *-nf+si-n Das s+ffi*ient&

A&era8e Person o9 Im$er9e#t 4a.C D-+ld de*ei6e -. n-t& In Parle Pro !"t# $% &%P% ' Co& 3

e#o::e#tion and 'at%re o9 2oods: '+d7e, R+4a Pal

.e4a.Ced t5at in *ases D5e.e t5e.e is *l-se .ese4?lan*e, t5e enH+i.< D-+ld ?e D5et5e. t5e

Mista<in8 One 6ra$$er 9or Anot?er: In t5e Pa.le< *ase De find t5at t5e ;a*Cets De.e ;.a*ti*all< -f t5e sa4e siAeL t5e desi7n -n ?-t5, t5-+75 n-t identi*al, ?-.e s+*5 *l-se .ese4?lan*e t5at -ne *-+ld easil< ?e 4istaCen f-. t5e -t5e.& T5e essential -f ?-t5 Das t5at t5e.e Das a 7i.l Dit5 -ne a.4 .aised and *a..<in7 s-4et5in7 in t5e -t5e. Dit5 a *-D -. *-Ds nea. 5e. and 5ens -. *5i*Cen in t5e f-.e7.-+nd& In t5e ?a*C7.-+nd t5e.e Das a fa.4 5-+se Dit5 a fen*e& T5e D-.ds JGl+*- !is*+itsK -n -ne and JGl+*-se !is*+itsK -n t5e -t5e. -**+;ied a ;.-4inent ;la*e at t5e t-; Dit5 a 7--d deal -f< ?etDeen t5e tDD.itin7s& An<-ne, in -+. -;ini-n, D5- 5ad a l--C at -ne -f t5e ;a*Cets -n a da< 4a< easil< 4istaCe t5e -t5e. if s5-Dn -n an-t5e. da< as ?ein7 t5e sa4e a.ti*le D5i*5 5e 5ad seen ?ef-.e& If -ne Das n-t *a.ef+l en-+75 t- n-te t5e ;e*+lia. -f t5e D.a;;e. -n t5e ;laintiff>s 7--ds, 5e 4i75t easil< 4istaCe t5e defendants D.a;;e. f-. t5e ;laintiff>s if s5-Dn t- 5i4 s-4e ti4e afte. 5e 5ad seen t5e ;laintiff>s& Afte. all an -.dina.< ;+.*5ase. Das n-t 7ifted Dit5 t5e ;-De.s -f -?se.6ati-n -f a S5e.l-*C H-l4esO T5e *-+.t 5eld t5at t5e defendants D.a;;e. Das de*e;ti6el< si4ila. t- t5e ;laintiff> .e7iste.ed t.ade4a.C& If ?.-ad and essential feat+.e -f a .e7iste.ed 4a.C a.e +sed it *-nstit+tes inf.in7e4ent, n-t5in7 4-.e t5an is .eH+i.ed t- ?e ;.-6ed& One -f t5e 4-st i4;-.tant *5allen7es f-. ?+sinesses t-da< is t- .e4ain ;.-fita?le in a 7l-?al e*-n-4<& Wit5 neD -;;-.t+nities *-4e a7e(-ld .isCs -f 5-D ?est t- ;.-te*t IPR D5ilst 4aCin7 t5e 4-st -f t5e e@istin7 ?.and .e;+tati-n and 7--d Dill&

R+4a Pal, ' H+-ted t5e S+;.e4e $-+.t f.-4 t5e *ase -f A4.itd5a.a P5a.4a*< 6& Sat<a De- AIR 093 S$ ::0& Rel<in7 -n t5e Pian-tist $-& #td& , 009) 23 RF$ 11:, R-*5e = $-& 6& G& Manne.s = $-& ,P) #td& AIR 010 S$ 2092, 209: D5e.ein it Das 5eld t5at it 4+st ?e seen D5et5e. t5e.e Das an -6e.all< ?etDeen t5e tD- na4es in .es;e*t -f t5e sa4e des*.i;ti-n -f t5e 7--ds, ?-t5 6is+all< as Dell as ;5-neti*all<& 13 AIR 012 S$ 350


If t5e -ffendin7 t.ade 4a.C -f t5e defendant is al4-st identi*al t- t5at -f t5e ;laintiff and ?-t5 ;a.ties a.e dealin7 in t5e sa4e ;.-d+*t, 4in-. dissi4ila.ities in t5e 4a.Cs +sed ?< defendant a.e -f n- *-nseH+en*e& : W5ile *-nside.in7 t5e H+esti-n -f<, t5e -6e.all<, i&e, t5e ?.-ad and essential 4+st ?e l--Ced int- and<, if an<, ?etDeen t5e *-n*e.ned tD- 4a.Cs *ann-t ?e a defense&

A *.iti*al *-4; -f t5e

*-n*e.ned tD- na4es 4i75t dis*l-se s-4e ;-ints -f diffe.en*e, ?+t an +nDa.< ;+.*5ase. -f a6e.a7e intelli7en*e and i4;e.fe*t .e*-lle*ti-n D-+ld ?e de*ei6ed ?< t5e -6e.all< -f t5e tD- na4es -. 4a.Cs 5a6in7 .e7a.d t- t5e nat+.e -f 7--ds 5e Das l--Cin7 f-., Dit5 a s-4eD5at 6a7+e .e*-lle*ti-n t5at 5e 5ad ;+.*5ased a si4ila. -n a ;.e6i-+s -**asi-n Dit5 a si4ila. na4e& T5+s, t5e si4ila.ities De.e i4;-.tant in *-4;a.in7 t5e 4a.C and dissi4ila.ities De.e t- ?e i7n-.ed& 9 In Corn Pro !"t# $% Shan2r+la 1 it Das 5eld JGl+6ita si4ila. t- Gl+*-6itaK and A*r+t hara $% Sat3a )eo 8L #aCs54and5a.a Das *-nside.ed si4ila. t- A4.itd5a.aL In Che*o an T*%156 $5e4-dan Das 5eld t- ?e si4ila. t- $5e4id+s, t5e 4a.Cs 5a6in7 t5e sa4e ?alan*e and s5a;e Dit5 6is+al and ;5-neti*<& 0++1 Well 7no/n Mar, MBs Manna. = $-& ,%K) #i4ited ,Manna.) is a $-4;an< in6-l6ed in J4a.Cetin7K al-n7 Dit5 4an+fa*t+.in7 and sale -f *-4;+te.s& T5e fa*t t5at -+. $-4;an< Manna. is alsin6-l6ed in 4a.Cetin7 -f its ;.-d+*ts s+77ests t5at it als- ;.-4-tes its ;.-d+*ts t5.-+75 ad6e.tise4ents and -t5e. 4et5-ds 5en*e 5a6e 7ained a .e;+tati-n and 7--dDill, D5i*5 in( t+.n 5as in*.eased t5ei. t+.n-6e.&20 Stat+s -f a Dell Cn-Dn T.ade 4a.C *an ?e a6ailed ?< a $-4;an< D5en t5.-+75 4a.Cetin7 and*5isin7 t5e 7--dDill -f t5e 4a.C *an ?e t+.ned int- Dealt5 and ;.-fit&2 P.-4-ti-nal a*ti6ities +nde.taCen ?< t5e ;.-;.iet-. -f t5e t.ade4a.C a.e 4-st i4;-.tant f-. 6estin7 -f an< t<;es -f .i75ts in a 7i6en t.ade4a.C&

14 15

Ra4a*5ande. #a@4ina.a<an Ka.6a 6& 'a7annat5 K5+?*5and Ka.6a 2003 ,29) PT$ 522 ,Mad) ,D!) Dil $-& Inte.nati-nal 6& Mes- P.i6ate #td& 2003 ,29) PT$ 5 5 ,!-4) ,D!) 16 A4.itd5a.a P5a.4a*< 6& Sat<a De-, AIR 093 S$ ::0 17 AIR 090 S$ :2 at :1 18 AIR 093 S$ ::0 19 , 095) RP$ 35 & 20 Fa*ts5eet Pa.a 21 #aD -f t.ade 4a.Cs in India ?< As5Dani K.& !ansalL Pa7e 210


T5e 4-.e t5e ;.-4-ti-n and 4-.e t5e n+4?e. -f *-+nt.ies -f .e7ist.ati-n, t5e 4-.e is t5e liCeli5--d -f ?ein7 a Dell Cn-Dn t.ade4a.C& 22 T5e $-4;an<>s t.ade4a.C enE-<s t5e stat+s -f Dell(Cn-Dn 4a.C& T5e 4ain t5.+st -f a s;e*ial ;.-te*ti-n t- Dell Cn-Dn t.ade 4a.Cs is t7i6e ;.-te*ti-n e6en if s+*5 t.ade 4a.Cs 5a6e n-t ?een +sed in t5e *-+nt.< D5e.e ;.-te*ti-n is *lai4ed& T5e 4et5-d e4;l-<ed in s Dell(Cn-Dn 4a.C e6en if F( T5e t.ade 4a.C 5as n-t ?een +sed in India2: T5e t.ade 4a.C 5as n-t ?een .e7iste.ed in india25 T5e a;;li*ati-n f-. .e7ist.ati-n 5as n-t ?een filed in India29 T5e t.ade is n-t Dell Cn-Dn -. 5as n-t ?een .e7iste.ed -. an a;;li*ati-n f-. .e7ist.ati-n 5as n-t ?een 4ade in an< -t5e. *-+nt.<& 21 T5e t.ade is n-t Dell Cn-Dn in India t- ;+?li* at la.7e&28 ,0) is t5at it ;e.4its a t.ade 4a.C t- ?e desi7nated a Dell Cn-Dn t.ade 4a.C Dit5-+t t5e +se -. .e7ist.ati-n in India& 23 A t.ade 4a.C 4a< ?e a

It is t- ?e t5at all fa*t-.s stated a?-6e, if ;.esent *-nt.i?+te t- esta?lis5 t5at t5e t.ade 4a.C is Dell Cn-Dn& T5e a?-6e stated fi6e t5in7s a.e 4-st *-44-nl< *-nside.ed ?< t5e *-+.ts f-. dete.4inin7 t5is H+esti-ns& T5e laD di.e*ts t5e< *ann-t ?e .eH+i.ed as *-nditi-ns ne*essa.< f-. ?ein7 a Dell(Cn-Dn t.ade 4a.C& !+t t5e ;.esen*e -f an< -f t5e ite4s 4enti-ned 4a.C&20 T5e t.ade4a.C s5all ?e a Dell(Cn-Dn t.ade4a.C if it satisfies .eH+i.e4ents listed in se*ti-n ,9) t- se*ti-n
22 23

,0),i) t- ,6) D-+ld 5el; t5e t.ade4a.C t5at Pas 4+*5 t5e 4enti-ned fi6e

ite4s a.e ;-ssessed, 4-.e liCel< it is t5at, t5e 4a.C D-+ld ?e 5eld t- ?e a Dell(Cn-Dn


I?id& T5e *-n*e;t -f t.ans(? .e;+tati-n de6el-;ed ?< Indian *-+.ts Das als- -n t5e sa4e lines and t5e.ef-.e ,t5e.e is linCa7e ?etDeen t5e tD- D5i*5 is n-D *-4in7 t- f-.e afte. t5e *-44en*e4ent -f t5e 000 A*t -n 5&0&2003 24 Se*ti-n ,0)i 25 Se*ti-n ,0)ii 26 Se*ti-n ,0)iii 27 Se*ti-n ,0)i6 28 Se*ti-n ,0)6 29 T5at *-+;led Dit5 t5e Cn-Dled7e -. .e*-7niti-n in t5e .ele6ant se*ti-n -f ;e-;le&


Fa*t-.s ne*essa.< f-. a Dell(Cn-Dn t.ade 4a.C Kn-Dled7e -. .e*-7niti-n -f t5e t.ade4a.C in t5e .ele6ant se*ti-n -f t5e ;+?li*&30 %se -f t5e t.ade4a.CPt5e d+.ati-n, e@tent ad6e.tisin7 -. ;+?li*it<((t5e d+.ati-n, e@tent and 7e-7.a;5i*al a.ea&3 P.-4-ti-n -f t5e t.ade4a.C, in*l+din7 ad6e.tisin7 -. ;+?li*it<((t5e d+.ati-n, e@tent and 7e-7.a;5i*al a.ea&32 A 4a.C 4a< ?e*-4e fa4-+s -. Dell(Cn-Dn al4-st -6e.ni75t t5.-+75 4-de.n ad6e.tisin7 and ad6an*ed te*5n-l-7<& In t5-se instan*es D5e.e t5e 4a.C 5as n-t ?een +sed in t5e l-*al E+.isdi*ti-n, Js;ill -6e. ad6e.tisin7K in t5e f-.4 -f tele6isi-n e@;-s+.e, *i.*+lati-n -f inte.nati-nal 4a7aAines, t.a6el statisti*s -f ;e-;le D5- a.e ;.-?a?l< e@;-sed t- t5e 4a.C, and e@5i?iti-ns t- t5e t.ade and ;+?li* at inte.nati-nal t.ade fai.s, Dill ?e -f i4;-.tan*e& Ad6e.tisin7 *an e@;and t5e .e;+tati-n -f fa4-+s -. Dell(Cn-Dn 4a.C n-t -nl< Dit5in ?+t ?e<-nd t5e< in D5i*5 t5e 7--ds -. se.6i*es a.e a*t+all< s-ld ?+t als- f-. dissi4ila. 7--ds -. se.6i*es in additi-n t- 7--ds -. se.6i*es -n D5i*5 t5e a.C is +sed& T5e 4aE-. 6indi*ati-ns -f t5e .i75ts -f an< Dell Cn-Dn t.ade 4a.Cs a.e Fi.stl< t- -;;-se t5e .e7ist.ati-n -f a si4ila. -. -ffendin7 4a.C& T5e .e4-6al -. .e*tifi*ati-n -f .e7iste. in .elati-n t- s+*5 a 4a.C & T5e .i75t t- .est.ain t5.-+75 inf.in7e4ent -. ;assin7 -ff a*ti-ns s+*5 4a.C

0+++ 1Intent to tra e !(on the re(!tat+on of a /ell8,no/n tra e*ar, 43 a o(t+n2 a #+*+lar *ar,% Intent t- t.ade +;-n t5e .e;+tati-n -f a Dell(Cn-Dn t.ade4a.C ?< ad-;tin7 a si4ila. 4a.C is te.4ed as ?ad fait5 -. ;.edat-.< intent& !ad fait5 e@its D5en t5e ;e.s-n D5- .e7iste.s -. +ses t5e *-nfli*tin7 4a.C CneD -f t5e Dell(Cn-Dn 4a.C and ;.es+4a?l< intended t- ;.-fit f.-4 t5e ;-ssi?le *-nf+si-n ?etDeen t5at 4a.C and t5e -ne 5e 5as .e7iste.ed -. +sed& 33D5e.e6e.
30 31

Se*ti-n Se*ti-n 32 Se*ti-n 33 G&H&$&

,9) ,i) -f t5e T.ade Ma.C A*t 000& ,9) ,ii) -f t5e T.ade Ma.C A*t 000& ,9) ,iii) -f t5e T.ade Ma.C A*t 000&


t5e intent -f t5e defendant t- .ide t5e .e;+tati-n , 7--dDill -. ad6e.tise4ent and ;+?li*it< -f t5e Plaintiff is e6ident, it is a *ase -f ?ad fait5& If t5e.e is a< ?etDeen t5e Dell(Cn-Dn t.ade 4a.C and t5e 4a.C -f t5e defendant and t5e defendant CneD -. *lea.l< 4+st 5a6e Cn-Dn -f t5e Dell(Cn-Dn t.ade 4a.C, ?ad intent s5-+ld ?e infe..ed&

Infe.en*e is

eas< D5en t5e defendant 5ad t5e f.eed-4 t- *5--se f.-4 a 6a.iet< -f -t5e. 4a.Cs ?+t 5a;;ens t- *5--se a 4a.C *-nf+sin7l< si4ila. t- t5e ;laintiff>s Dell(Cn-Dn t.ade4a.C& M-.e -ften t5e ;-siti-n is t5at t5e defendant ?e*-4es aDa.e -f a Dell(Cn-Dn 4a.C in an-t5e. *-+nt.< and sla6is5l< *-;ies t5at 4a.C f-. +se -n identi*al -. si4ila. ;.-d+*ts in t5e defendant>s 5-4e *-+nt.< D5e.e t5e Dell(Cn-Dn 4a.C 5as n- +se -. .e;+tati-n& In %SA in Pe.s-n>s 4a.C *ase ad-;ted -n *l-t5in7 t5e 'a;anese ;laintiff Das n-t 7i6en .elief as t5e 4a.C Das n-t *-;ied Dit5 intent t- t.ade -n its .e;+tati-n, as t5e.e Das n- .e;+tati-n -f t5e ;laintiff in %SA& !+t t5e E+d74ent 5as ?een *.iti*iAed& T5e eH+ita?le a;;.-a*5 D-+ld need t- ;.-te*t t5e -.i7inat-. -f t5e t.ade 4a.C ?el-n7in7 t- 'a;an f.-4 t5e i4itat-. in %SA ?+t it *-nfli*ts Dit5< and inde;enden*e -f t.ade 4a.C ;.in*i;lesK& In India it a;;ea.s t5at t5e.e s5-+ld ?e s-4e t.i*Cle d-Dn -. s;ill -6e. .e;+tati-n, Cn-Dn as t.ans? .e;+tati-n, ?ef-.e s+*5 an i4itati-n -f t5e 4a.C 4a< ?e 5eld t- ?e in ?ad fait5& 0+$1 Pr+or U#e It is 5+4?l< s+?4itted t5at t5e.e is n- dis;+te and n-ne Dit5 t5e le7al ;.-;-siti-n t5at as ?etDeen t5e tD- ;a.ties, D5- ;.-;-sed t- +se a ;a.ti*+la. t.ade4a.C, t5e ;e.s-n D5- desi7ns t5e 4a.C Dill 7et ;.efe.en*e -6e. t5e -t5e. and in *ase -f -ne ;a.t<& In ?etDeen tD- ;a.ties, D5- is ;.i-. in ;-int -f ti4e Dill 5a6e t5e ad6anta7e -6e. t5e -t5e.& Prior %se in Ot?er Co%ntr> Deemed !%99i#ient: In W+nthro( Pro !"t# $% W!(har*a35 #a?, t5e a;;ellant(;laintiffs De.e .e7iste.ed ;.-;.iet-.s -f t.ade4a.C f.-4 t5e <ea. 082 f-. anal7esi* d.+7s& T5e t.ade4a.C Das in +se f.-4 059 in -t5e. *-+nt.ies& T5e defendant a;;lied f-. .e7ist.ati-n -f PANADO# f-. anal7esi*s in India in 01 and sta.ted +sin7 t5e 4a.C& T5e a;;li*ati-n Das a?and-ned as t5e as t5e defendants De.e inf-.4ed t5at PANADO# is al.ead< .e7iste.ed ?< -t5e. ;a.t<& T5e +se -f t5e D-.d ins;ite -f t5e Cn-Dled7e *ann-t ?e te.4ed as an 5-nest +se, ?+t t5e defendants *lai4ed -Dne.s5i; -f t.ade

Ree?-C *ase in Pe.+, Ten I*5i *ase in 'a;an, *ases -f Passin7 -ff ?ased -n t.ans? .e;+tati-n in India in $5a;te. 2: t5-+75 n-t de*ided -n d-*t.ine -f ?ad fait5& 35 008 PT$ 2 3 ,!-4)


4a.C f.-4 059 and ;.esent +se in 08 *-+nt.ies and t5ei. entitle4ent t- -?tain inE+n*ti-n a7ainst defendants& T5e *-+.t said t5at if t5e defendant>s +se -f PANADO# f.-4 012 is ?-na fide and 5-nest t5en inE+n*ti-n *ann-t ?e iss+ed a7ainst t5e4& T5e *-+.t 5eld t5at t5e +se -f t5e t.ade 4a.C ?< defendants Das n-t ?-na fide and 5-nest, s- t5e< a.e n-t entitled t?enefit -f se*ti-n 33& In t5is *ase a7ain t5e *-+.t dis;la<ed t5e attit+de -f inte.nati-naliAin7 t5e t.ade 4a.Cs and t5e< inte.nati-naliAed t5e *-n*e;t -f t5e ;.i-. +se in se*ti-n 33 a**e;tin7 t5e ;laintiff>s +se -f t5e t.ade 4a.C in -t5e. *-+nt.ies f.-4 059& Prior "se !%99i#ient to De9eat O$$osition: In -an#+ )har -a9a9 $% -a9a9 -+#"!+t Pro !"t# 3: t5e .e7ist.ati-n -f M!A'A'> ,D-.d ;e. se) in .es;e*t -f ?+s*+its ,n-t f-. ani4als) f-. sale in P+nEa?, Ha.<ana, RaEast5an, %P, HP and '=K Das all-Ded ?e*a+se t5e a;;li*ant Das f-+nd t- 5a6e *-n*ei6ed and ad-;ted i4;+7ned t.ade 4a.C ?-na fide in 08 and Das ;.i-. +se. -f t5e i4;+7ned 4a.C& T5e said D-.d ?ein7 a s+.na4e -f all its ;a.tne.s, t5e -;;-siti-n ?< t5e +se.s -f t5e M!aEaE> t.ade 4a.C in .es;e*t -f ?is*+its and *-nfe*ti-na.< 7--ds 5a6in7 6al+a?le 7--dDill and .e;+tati-n in 4a.Cet, Das .eEe*ted&

I!!"E II : T+E DE(E'DA'T I! LIA)LE (O T+E O((E'CE O( PA!!I'2 O((. Passin7 Off is a .i75t t5at ;.-te*ts t5e 7--dDill in a ?+siness -. t5e Da< in D5i*5 a ?+siness ;a*Ca7es, 4a.Cets and sells its ;.-d+*ts -. se.6i*es& It is a *-44-n laD .i75t and n-t

200: PT$ ,28) 980 ,IPA!),


7-6e.ned ?< an< A*t -f Pa.lia4ent ?+t 5as de6el-;ed t5.-+75 *ase laD sin*e 9 8 and *an ?e +sed t- st-; s-4e-ne else ?enefitin7 f.-4 an-t5e. t.ade.Qs ?+siness .e;+tati-n ,in*l+din7 t5e +na+t5-.iAed i4itati-n -f na4es and t5e Q7et +;Q -. Rl--C and feelR -f 7--ds -. se.6i*es and +sed in *-nE+n*ti-n Dit5 t.ade4a.C inf.in7e4ent a*ti-ns -. t- ;.-te*t t5-se 4a.Cs t5at a.e n-t *a;a?le -f ;.-te*ti-n as .e7iste.ed t.ade4a.Cs& T5e.e a.e +s+all< .eH+i.e4ents needed t- esta?lis5 a ;assin7 -ff *lai4& 2ood@i:: P It is t5e ?enefit -f t5e 7--d na4e, .e;+tati-n and *-nne*ti-n -f a ?+siness& It is t5e att.a*ti6e f-.*e t5at ?.in7s in *+st-4& It is t5e -ne t5in7 t5at distin7+is5es an esta?lis5ed ?+siness f.-4 a neD ?+siness& It is ;e.tinent t- n-te t5at MBs Manna. = $-& ,%K) #i4ited Das in t5e ?+siness -f 4an+fa*t+.in7, 4a.Cetin7 and sale -f *-4;+te.s al-n7 Dit5 -t5e. *-4;+te. a**ess-.ies, and Das in*-.;-.ated in 2008& It 7-t t5e said t.ade4a.C .e7iste.ed in De*e4?e. 2008& Manna. 5ad 7ained i44ense .e;+tati-n and 7--dDill in En7land and als- in -t5e. *-+nt.ies and t5ei. t+.n-6e. in*.eased 4anif-ld -6e. t5e ne@t feD <ea.s& T5e< 5ad de6el-;ed an inte.nati-nal .e;+tati-n& T5e< De.e a 4+ltinati-nal -.7aniAati-n and enE-<ed 7--dDill in 4an< *-+nt.ies& As Manna. als- 4a.Ceted t5ei. ;.-d+*ts, it 4eant t5at t5e< ad6e.tised t5ei. ;.-d+*ts t5e.ef-.e a l-7i*al Infe.en*e t5at *an ?e d.aDn is t5at ;e-;le De.e 4ade aDa.e -f t5ei. ?.and t5.-+75 ;.-4-ti-ns and ad6e.tise4ents, D5i*5 .ea*5ed -+t t- 4an< -t5e. *-+nt.ies, D5i*5 Das t5e .eas-n D5< t5e< enE-<ed 7--dDill, as t5e< 5ad ?+ilt a st.-n7 .e;+tati-n& #ate., .ealiAin7 t5e ;-tential -f t5e 4a.Cet in India, Manna. in*-.;-.ated a s+?sidia.< in India in t5e na4e -f MBs& Manna. = $-& ,India) #i4ited& 31 T5is s5-Ds t5at t5e< 5ad anal<Aed t5at t5e.e Das a de4and f-. t5ei. ;.-d+*ts in t5e Indian 4a.Cet& T5is 6ent+.e D-+ld ?e ;.-fita?le t- t5e4& It is 5+4?l< s+?4itted t5at t5e ;laintiff 5ad 7ained i44ense .e;+tati-n and 7--dDill n-t -nl< in En7land ?+t als- in *-+nt.ies& Me.el< ?e*a+se t5e 7--ds a.e n-t a6aila?le in a *-+nt.< f-. s-4e d+.ati-n Dill n-t lead t- a *-n*l+si-n t5at t5e 7--dDill -. .e;+tati-n stands e@tin7+is5ed&38 A ;laintiff 4a< a*H+i.e a s+?stantial .e;+tati-n ;.i-. t- 4aCin7 sales -f a

Fa*ts5eet Ka4al T.adin7 $-& = -t5e.s 6s& Gillette %K #td& 088 PT$ &



;.-d+*t -. se.6i*e ?e*a+se -f ad6an*e ad6e.tisin7 and ;.ess ;+?li*it< and, in s+*5 a *ase, 4a< s+e -t5e.s D5- seeC t- t.ade -n t5e .e;+tati-n D5i*5 5e 5as a*H+i.ed& 30 T5e.ef-.e t5e .e;+tati-n and 7--dDill -f t5e ;laintiff e@tended t- India as Dell& T5e des*.i;ti-n -f 7--dDill as t5e att.a*ti6e f-.*e ?.in7in7 in *+st-4 is 6e.< a;t e6en t5-+75 t5e *+st-4e.s 4a< n-t Cn-D -. *a.e -f t5e identit< -f t5e -Dne. -f t5e 7--dDill ;.-6ided t5at t5e< a;;.e*iate t5at t5e.e is s+*5 a ;e.s-n and t5e 7--ds -. se.6i*es e4anatin7 f.-4 t5at ;e.s-n a.e -f an e@;e*ted standa.d&:0 If a 4a.C in .es;e*t -f a d.+7 is ass-*iated Dit5 t5e .es;-ndent>s D-.ld(Dide it D-+ld lead tan an-4al-+s sit+ati-n if an identi*al 4a.C in .es;e*t -f a si4ila. d.+7 is all-Ded t- ?e s-ld in India& T5e 4e.e fa*t t5at t5e .es;-ndents 5a6e n-t ?een +sin7 t5e 4a.C in India D-+ld ?e i..ele6ant if t5e< De.e in t5e D-.ld 4a.Cet&: In 4-st *ases, t5e defendant Dill 5a6e deli?e.atel< +sed s-4e na4e, 4a.C -. 7et(+; desi7ned t- *a;t+.e ;a.t -f t5e *lai4ant>s ?+siness ?+t a f.a+d+lent 4-ti6e is n-t an essential t- t5e t-.t&:2E6en if t5e ;assin7 -ff is inn-*ent .elief 4a< ?e 7.anted&:3 In t5e *ase -f $al6in Klein In*& USA $% Internat+onal A((arel S3n +"ate::, t5e ;laintiff, an inte.nati-nall< .e;+ted %S *-4;an< Dit5 a t.e4end-+s 7--dDill f-. desi7ne. *l-t5in7 ?.-+75t an a*ti-n f-. ;assin7 -ff and t.ade4a.C inf.in7e4ent a7ainst Inte.nati-nal A;;a.el S<ndi*ate, an Indian *-4;an< t- st-; t5e4 f.-4 +sin7 t5e t.ade na4e $al6in Klein and t5e 4a.C $K& $al6in Klein did n-t 5a6e a 4a.Cet in India, ?+t t5ei. 7--dDill Das ?ased -n t5ei. .e;+tati-n ea.ned t5.-+75 ad6e.tise4ents& T5e< als- 5ad D-.ldDide t.ade4a.C .e7ist.ati-ns in 39 *-+nt.ies in*l+din7 India& In India, t5ei. .e7ist.ati-n *-6e.ed -nl< te@tile 7--ds, D5ile t5ei. a;;li*ati-n f-. t.ade4a.C .e7ist.ati-n f-. *l-t5in7, f--tDea. and 5ead7ea. Das still ;endin7& False .e;.esentati-n ?< t5e Indian *-4;an< t5at t5e< De.e -ffi*ial $K li*ensees and 4a.Cetin7 t5ei. ;.-d+*ts +nde. t5e t.ade na4e -f $al6in Klein led t- t5e $al*+tta Hi75 $-+.t ;assin7 an inte.i4 f-. inE+n*ti-n, st-;;in7 Inte.nati-nal A;;a.el S<ndi*ate f.-4 +sin7 t5e na4e $al6in Klein and t5e 4a.C $K, D5i*5 s+?seH+entl< ?e*a4e ;e.4anent&
39 40

W5i.l;--l $-.;-.ati-n = An-t5e. 6s& N&R&D-n7.e and Ot5e.s, 005 PT$ 2 %nited !is*+its ,%K) #td& 6& Asda #td& / 0012 RP$ 5 3 41 Mil4ent Oft5- Ind+st.ies and Ot5e.s 6& Alle.7an In*& 42 !a+4e and $-& #td& 6& A&H& M--.e #td& / 0582 RP$ 229 43 Gillete %K #td& Eden West #td& / 00:2 RP$ 210 44 009 PT$ 203 ,$al)&


T5e defendants> *-ntenti-n t5at t5e ;laintiffs *-+ld n-t ?.in7 an a*ti-n ?e*a+se t5e< did n-t sell t5ei. 7--ds in India Das disall-Ded& T5e *-+.t said t5at t5e 4a.Cs De.e +sed Dit5 an intenti-n t- de*ei6e t5e *+st-4e.s and t- t.ade .idin7 -n t5e inte.nati-nal .e;+tati-n -f $al6in Klein& N-D, in t5e ;.esent *ase, an a.7+4ent ?< t5e defendants t5at t5e ;laintiff Das an entit< D5i*5 Das n-t ?ased in India *ann-t ?e ente.tained, ?e*a+se t5e ;laintiff 5ad set(+; a s+?sid< in India and t5e s+it 5as ?een filed ?< t5at s+?sid< itself& E6en if s+*5 an a.7+4ent is ente.tained, a *-ntenti-n 4+st ?e *-nside.ed t5at t5e ;laintiff Das a 4+lti(nati-nal -.7aniAati-n D5i*5 5ad a .e;+tati-n and 7--dDill in 4an< *-+nt.ies, and +sed a t.ade4a.C D5i*5 Das H+ite ;-;+la.& In t5e Sin7a;-.ean *ase -f Pont+a" Mar+na Pte Lt $% C)L Hotel# Internat+onal Lt % ;< D5e.e it Das 5eld t5at a t.ade. *-+ld, t5.-+75 e@tensi6e ad6e.tisin7 a*H+i.e a 7--dDill ?ef-.e 5e *-44en*ed t.adin7&:9 E6en if a *-4;an< is n-t d-in7 ?+siness in *-+nt.<, ?+t it is a Dell(Cn-Dn *-4;an< -. Dell( Cn-Dn 7--ds, t5en als- it D-+ld ?e entitled t- 7et< -6e. its t.ade4a.C& As 7i6en in *ase -f N%R% )on2are $% Wh+rl(ool Cor(% Lt % ;= D5e.e t5e defendants 5a6e failed t- .eneD t5ei. t.ade4a.C MWHIR#POO#> and in t5e 4ean(ti4e t5e ;laintiffs 5a6e 7-t .e7ist.ati-n -f t5e sa4e& In t5is *ase *-+.t said t5at t5-+75 t5e.e Das n- sale in India, t5e .e;+tati-n -f t5e ;laintiff *-4;an< Das t.a6ellin7 t.ans(? t- India as Dell t5.-+75 *-44e.*ial ;+?li*it< 4ade in 4a7aAines D5i*5 a.e a6aila?le in -. ?.-+75t in India& T5e JWHIR#POO#K 5as a*H+i.ed .e;+tati-n and 7--dDill in t5is *-+nt.< and t5e sa4e 5as ?e*-4e ass-*iated in t5e 4inds -f t5e ;+?li*& E6en ad6e.tise4ent -f t.ade 4a.C Dit5-+t e@isten*e -f 7--ds in t5e 4a.C is als- t- ?e *-nside.ed as +se -f t5e t.ade 4a.C& T5e 4a7aAines D5i*5 *-ntain t5e ad6e.tise4ent d- 5a6e a *i.*+lati-n in t5e 5i75e. and +;;e. 4iddle in*-4e st.ata -f Indian s-*iet<& T5e.ef-.e, t5e ;laintiff a*H+i.ed t.ans(? .e;+tati-n in .es;e*t -f t5e t.ade4a.C JWHIR#POO#K and 5as a .i75t t- ;.-te*t t5e in6asi-n t5e.e-f&

45 46

/ 0012FSR 125, affi.4ed in t5e Sin7a;-.ean $-+.t -f A;;eal FSR 830 In *-nt.ast t- D5at #-.d Ma*na75ten s+77ested in $-44issi-ne.s -f Inland Re6en+e 6& M+lle. = $-&>s Ma.7a.ine #td& / 00 2 A$ 2 1 47 009 ,5) S$$ 1 :


At t5e ?e5est -f t5e A+st.alian *-4;an< in t5e ?+siness -f ?e6e.a7es, ?ee. , Dine and s;i.its 5a6in7 D-.ld(Dide .e;+tati-n Dit5 t5e t.ade 4a.C FOSTER and F De6i*e f.-4 <ea. 880, t5e Del5i Hi75 $-+.t .est.ained t5e defendant f.-4 sellin7 V-dCa and 7in(n(li4e -. -t5e. s;i.its -. liH+-. ;.-d+*ts +nde. t5e 4a.C FOSTER -. +nde. an< -t5e. 4a.C de*e;ti6el< si4ila. t- FOSTER&:8 In R+22+o To4a""o Cor(orat+on Lt % $% NTC to4a""o In +a :0, t5e *-+.t inE+n*ted t5e defendants f.-4 +sin7 si4ila. t.ade 4a.C in .es;e*t -f identi*al 7--ds as t5e t.ade 4a.C M#ESINGTON> -f ;laintiff -n *i7a.ettes 5ad a*H+i.ed inte.nati-nal .e;+tat+i-n, .e*-7niti-n and 7--dDill& In Ma@i4 #td& 6& D<e50, it Das 5eld t5at if an inte.nati-nal .e;+tati-n 5as ?een a*5ie6ed, t5e.e is a dan7e. t5at an-t5e. ;e.s-n *a..<in7 -+t ?+siness +sin7 t5e sa4e na4e *-+ld *a+se *-nf+si-n and *+st-4e.s 4i75t t5inC t5e< De.e dealin7 Dit5 t5e *lai4ant>s ?+siness& In Stannar $% Rea35 , it Das 5eld t5at 3 DeeCs Das s+ffi*ient ti4e t- ?+ild +; 7--dDill& If ;.-te*ti-n is 7.anted -nl< t- 4a.Cs, D5i*5 a.e Cn-Dn ,n-t t- sa< Dell Cn-Dn) t- e6e.< se74ent -f t5e ;-;+lati-n ,-. e6en t- 4-st se74ents -f t5e ;-;+lati-n), t5e.e 4+st ?e 6e.< feD 4a.Cs, if an<, D5i*5 *-+ld ;ass t5e test& T5e le7islati-n D-+ld t5e.ef-.e n-t a*5ie6e its desi.ed ;+.;-se&52 Misre$resentation ( An< 4is.e;.esentati-n 4+st ?e 4ade ?< a t.ade. in t5e * -f t.ade and it 4+st 5a6e led t- *-nf+si-n -. t5e liCeli5--d -f *-nf+si-n in t5e 4ind -f t5e *+st-4e.& Mis.e;.esentati-n 4a< *-4e a?-+t in n+4e.-+s Da<s s+*5 as ?< D.itten -. state4ents -. 4a< ?e i4;lied -. ?<< in a;;*e -. ;.esentati-n -f 7--ds -. e6en f.-4 t5e ;.esen*e -f s-4e -?Ee*t D5i*5 a*ts as a si7n;-st t- t5e -Dne. -f t5e 7--dDill, s+*5 as MsDin7 ta7s> atta*5ed t- l+77a7e, si4ila. t- t5-se +sed ?< t5e *lai4ant 53, t5e Ms4ile<> ?ein7 t5e ;.-4inent feat+.e in t5e ;.esent *ase& T5e t.ade4a.Cs -f t5e 2 *-4;anies De.e 6e.< 4+*5 si4ila.& A *-ns+4e. D-+ld H+ite easil< 7et *-nf+sed ?etDeen t5e tD-& Mis.e;.esentati-n *an ?e eit5e. intenti-nal -. +nintenti-nal&
48 49

2005 ,3 ) PT$ 393 ,Del) 2002 ,2:) PT$ :02 ,Del) 50 / 0112 W#R 55 51 / 0912 RP$ 580 52 M*D-nald>s $-.; 6& '-?+.7e.s D.i6e(Inn Resta+.ant ,PT") #td& 001 , ) SA ,A)/S-+t5 Af.i*a2 53 P.e4ie. #+77a7e and !a7s #td& 6& P.e4ie. $-& ,%K) #td& /200 2 FSR :9


!+ +sin7 a t.ade4a.C D5i*5 Das 6e.< 4+*5 si4ila. t- t5e -ne +sed ?< t5e ;laintiff, i&e& Manna., Man*an .e;.esented t5ei. 7--ds t- t5e ;+?li*, t- ?e t5at -f t5e ;laintiff& T5e< 4aCe t5e ?+<e.s ?elie6e t5at t5e defendant>s 7--ds a.e a*t+all< t5e ;laintiff>s 7--ds& Man*an Das 4is.e;.esentin7 t5ei. 7--ds t- ?e t5at -f t5e ;laintiff and De.e +sin7 t5e 7--dDill -f t5e ;laintiff t- t5ei. -Dn ad6anta7e& T5ei. t.ade4a.Cs De.e s- de*e;ti6el< si4ila. t5at -ne *-+ld 7et easil< *-nf+sed&5: It D-+ld lead *-ns+4e.s t- ?elie6e t5at ?-t5 ;.-d+*ts De.e ;.-d+*ed ?< t5e sa4e *-4;an<& If t5e< ?etDeen t5e ;laintiff>s and t5e defendant>s 4a.C is s- *l-se, eit5e. 6is+all<, ;5-neti*all< -. -t5e.Dise, and t5e *-+.t .ea*5es t5e *-n*l+si-n t5at t5e.e is an i4itati-n, nf+.t5e. e6iden*e is .eH+i.ed t- esta?lis5 t5at t5e ;laintiff>s .i75ts a.e 6i-lated& In -t5e. D-.ds, if t5e essential -f t5e t.ade 4a.C -f t5e ;laintiff 5a6e ?een ad-;ted ?< t5e defendant, t5e fa*t t5at t5e 7et(+;, ;a*Cin7 and -t5e. D.itin7 -. 4a.Cs -n t5e 7--ds -. -n t5e ;a*Cets s5-D 4a.Ced diffe.en*es -. indi*ate a diffe.ent t.ade -.i7in D-+ld ?e i44ate.ial&55 In Hend.i*Cs 6& M-nta7+, t5e ;laintiffs, t5e J%ni6e.sal #ife*e S-*iet<K ?.-+75t an a*ti-n a7ainst t5e defendants t- st-; t5e4 f.-4 *a..<in7 -n ?+siness Dit5 t5e t.ade na4e J%ni6e.sal #ife*e Ass-*iati-nK& T5e inE+n*ti-n s-+75t Das 7.anted and it Das 4enti-ned t5at sin*e t5e na4es De.e t-- si4ila. f-. diffe.entiati-n, t5e t-.t -f ;assin7 -ff Das indeed *-44itted& In E% ' &% >allo W+ner3 $% Con#or?+o )el >allo Nero 59, t5e *-+.t n-ted t5at t5e 6al+e -f a side(?<(side *-4; -f t5e .e7iste.ed 4a.C Dit5 t5e ;-tential inf.in7e. 4i75t ?e i..ele6ant& Instead, t5e *-+.t s5-+ld *-nside. D5et5e. t5e defendant>s 4a.C, standin7 al-ne, is liCel< t- *a+se *-nf+si-n ,*itin7 a dist.i*t *-+.t *ase Dit5in t5e Se*-nd $i.*+it as Dell as de*isi-ns f.-4 t5e Se6ent5 and Nint5 $i.*+its)& JOn t5e -t5e. 5and,K t5e *-+.t n-tes, Rt5e ?est s+.6e< 4i75t ?e -ne D5i*5 atte4;ts t- 4-st *l-sel< .e;li*ate t5e 4a.Cet;la*e settin7 in D5i*5 *-ns+4e.s Dill t<;i*all< en*-+nte. t5e *-4;etin7 4a.Cs& In t5e *ase -f Col2ate Pal*ol+$e Co*(an3 an Anr% $% An"hor Health an -ea!t3 Care P$t% Lt %51, ?-t5 t5e ;laintiffs and t5e defendants 4an+fa*t+.e Dell Cn-Dn t--t5;aste ?.ands& T5e
54 55

Fa*ts5eet D+.7a D+tt 6& Na6.atna P5a.4a*e+ti*al #a? AIR 095 S$ 080 56 182 F& S+;;& :51, :99 ,D& $al& 00 ) 57 2003 ,21) PT$ :18 Del&


;laintiffs s+ed t5e defendants f-. ;assin7 -ff& T5e *-ntenti-n -f t5e ;laintiffs Das t5at t5e defendants> +se -f *-l-+. and ;atte.n -f *-l-+.s in t5ei. dental ;.-d+*ts Das dan7e.-+sl< si4ila. t- t5e ;laintiffs>& A**-.din7 t- t5e ;laintiffs t5e ;.-;-.ti-n -f *-l-+.s ,.ed and D5ite) +sed ?< t5e defendants Das al4-st identi*al t- t5at -f t5e ;laintiffs , B3F2B3)& T5e .eas-n f-. ?.in7in7 in s+*5 an a*ti-n Das t5at t5e ;laintiffs De.e esta?lis5ed in t5e Indian 4a.Cet sin*e 05 , and 5ad a t.e4end-+s 7--dDill in t5e *-+nt.<, D5ile t5e defendants 5ad ente.ed t5e 4a.Cet -nl< in 009& It Das 5eld ?< t5e *-+.t t5at t5-+75 t5e.e *ann-t ?e an< 4-n-;-l< -6e. *-l-+., in a *-+nt.< Dit5 a 5+7e n+4?e. -f illite.ate and se4i(lite.ate ;e-;le, ?< 4a.Cetin7 a neD ;.-d+*t Dit5 a desi7n *l-sel< .ese4?lin7 t5at -f t5e -lde. ;.-d+*t, it is eas< t- *.eate *-nf+si-n in t5e 4inds -f t5e ;+?li*, es;e*iall< D5en a si4ila. ;.-d+*t 5as ?een ;.e6ailin7 in t5e 4a.Cet f-. *l-se t- 5alf a *ent+.<& It Das adE+d7ed t5at t5e defendants De.e +sin7 t5e t.ade d.ess -f t5e ;laintiffs& T5e *-+.t an inE+n*ti-n, .est.ainin7 t5e defendants f.-4 +sin7 t5e .edBD5ite *-4?inati-n in t5e dis;+ted F+.t5e. in t5e *ase -f >la@o S*+th 7l+ne Phar*a"e!t+"al# Lt % $% Un+te"h Phar*a"e!t+"al# P$t% Lt , t5e ;laintiff *lai4ed t5at defendants a.e sellin7 ;.-d+*ts +nde. t5e t.ade4a.C FESIM t5at is de*e;ti6el< si4ila. t- t5e ;laintiff>s 4a.C PHESIN, D5i*5 is +sed f-. ;5a.4a*e+ti*al ;.e;a.ati-ns& T5e defendants a.e sellin7 anti(?i-ti* ta?lets Dit5 t5e t.ade4a.C TFESIMQ Dit5 t5e ;a*Cin7 4ate.ial de*e;ti6el< si4ila.l< t- t5at -f t5e ;laintiff, D5e.e?< intendin7 t- n-t -nl< t- inf.in7e t5e t.ade4a.C ?+t als- t- ;ass -ff t5e 7--ds as t5at -f t5e ;laintiff as t5e tD- 4a.Cs a.e als- ;5-neti*all< si4ila.& T5e $-+.t .est.ained t5e defendant f.-4 +sin7 t5e t.ade4a.C TFESIMQ -. an< t.ade4a.C de*e;ti6el< si4ila. t- t5e t.ade4a.C -f t5e ;laintiff TPHESINQ, an< la?elB;a*Ca7in7 4ate.ial de*e;ti6el< si4ila. and *-ntainin7 t5e sa4e ;atte.n as t5at -f t5e ;laintiff& If a ;a.t< +sin7 t5e de*e;ti6el< si4ila. na4e -nl< f-. a sin7le s5-; and n-t s;.eadin7 its ?+siness ?< +se -f t5at ;a.ti*+la. na4e t5en als- t5at ;a.t< *-+ld ?e st-;;ed f.-4 +sin7 t5e t.adena4e -f -t5e. *-4;an<& T5is is 7i6en in MA# -+,aner$ala $% MA# A22ar/al -+,aner/ala58 D5e.e t5e .es;-ndent Das .+nnin7 a sDeet s5-; in Dit5 t5e na4e -f AGGARWA# !IKANERVA#A and t5e ;laintiff Das +sin7 t5e na4e !IKANERVA#A f.-4 08 and als- 7-t .e7iste.ed it in t5e <ea. 002& 5en*e t5e< a;;lied f-. ;e.4anent

$S,OS) N-&12 -f 200:


inE+n*ti-n -6e. t5e +se -f t5e na4e AGGARWA# !IKANERWA#A f-. t5e sDeet s5-; ?< t5e defendant& $-+.t 5eld in fa6-+. -f t5e ;laintiff and st-;;ed defendant f.-4 4an+fa*t+.in7, sellin7, -ffe.in7 f-. sale, ad6e.tisin7, di.e*tl< -. indi.e*tl< dealin7 in f--d a.ti*les f-. 5+4an *-ns+4;ti-n +nde. t5e i4;+7ned t.ade 4a.CBt.ade na4eBinf.in7in7 a.tisti* la?el QAGGARWA# !IKANER WA#AQ -. f.-4 +sin7 an< t.ade 4a.CBt.ade na4eBinf.in7in7 a.tisti* D-.C *-ntainin7 t5e na4eB4a.C Q!IKANER WA#AB!IKANERVA#AQ -. an< -t5e. na4eB4a.CBa.tisti* D-.C D5i*5 is identi*al -. de*e;ti6el< si4ila. t- t5e ;laintiffQs t.ade4a.C Q!IKANERVA#AQ& An-t5e. *ase 5i75li75tin7 t5e sa4e as;e*ts is ;.-6ided ?< S.S O+l M+ll# $% S.S Ra9,!*ar50, D5e.ein t5e Hi75 $-+.t inE+n*ted t5e +se -f MSVS Dit5 R in s4all ;.int> t.ade 4a.C findin7 it si4ila. t- .e;+ted SVS t.ade 4a.C in <ell-D ;-l<t5ene ;lasti* *-6e. ;la*e in a t.ans;a.ent *a..<?a7 in .elati-n t- 6e7eta?le -il& A7ain, in H%7% Malhotra $% &a#4+r S+n2h90, t5e ;laintiff Das 4an+fa*t+.in7 and sellin7 ?.+s5es +nde. .e7iste.ed t.ade 4a.C MMAHINDAR> in tD- de6i*eBl-7- f-.4ats Dit5 .efe.en*e t- its s;e*ifi* a.tisti* de;i*ti-n sin*e 080& T5e defendant ad-;ted t5e t.ade4a.C MMAHINDAR> ,De6i*e de;i*ted in an identi*al Da< as t5at -f ;laintiff& Dis5-nest< -f ad-;ti-n ?< defendant Das la.7e f.-4 a 4e.e *-4; -f t5e *-4;etin7 4a.Cs and t5+s inE+n*ti-n Das 7.anted& T5e Del5i Hi75 $-+.t +;5eld t5e inE+n*ti-n 7.anted t- ;laintiff D5- Das 4an+fa*t+.in7 s-a; +nde. .e7iste.ed t.ade 4a.C MKESH NIKHAR> la?el Dit5 a de6i*e -f a D-4an *-4?in7 5ai., a7ainst t5e defendant D5- 5ad ad-;ted t5e sa4e na4e and de6i*e in .es;e*t -f sa4e ;.-d+*t& T5e .e*tifi*ati-n ;etiti-n filed ?< t5e defendant st--d a?and-ned&9 T5e *ase -f Horl+",# L+*+te $% -+*al 7ha*ral92 ;.esents an-t5e. e@a4;le& He.e t5e *-+.t D5ile 7.antin7 de;l-.ed fla7.ant and ?latant atte4;t -f t5e defendants D5- 5ad ad-;ted>, t- i4itate t5e ;laintiff>s t.ade 4a.C Dit5 a 6ieD t- de*ei6e t5e +nDa.< ;+.*5ase.s and e@;l-it and en(*as5 -n t5ei. 7--dDill in t- ;ass -ff t5ei. ;.-d+*ts as t5at -f ;laintiffs t.ade 4a.C*Cs>&

59 60

2002 ,2:) PT$ 330 2003 ,29) PT$ :88 ,Del) 61 !&N& = $-4;an< 6& Pes5aDa. S-a; and $5e4i*al W-.Cs 2003,29) PT$ 98 ,Del) ,D!)& 62 2003 ,29) PT$ 2: ,Del)


In >o3al >ra*o 3o2 San#than $% Seth -rother#93, t5e ;;-ndent filed s+it f-. .est.ainin7 inf.in7e4ent and ;assin7 -ff -f ;laintiff>s t.ade 4a.C, *-;<.i75t and als- f-. .enditi-n -f a**-+nts in .es;e*t -f A<+.6edi* 4edi*ine MKA"AM $H%RAN> .e7iste.ed sin*e 011 +sed f-. *+.in7 *5.-ni* *-nsti;ati-n, 5eada*5e and 5<;e. a*idit<& T5e defendant Das 4an+fa*t+.in7 and dealin7 in si4ila. ;.-d+*t +sin7 t5e D-.ds MKA"AM P#%S>& Dis4issin7 t5e .e6isi-n ;etiti-n filed ?< t5e defendant, t5e *-+.t 5eld t5at t5e defendant Das f.a+d+lent in ad-;tin7 a de*e;ti6el< t.ade 4a.C& In Ca#trol L+*+te $% Ran9an Sale# Cor(orat+on 9:, -n a ;etiti-n ?< t5e -Dne.s -f t.ade 4a.C $ASTRO# and GTS f-. l+?.i*ant -ils and 7.eases and -t5e. a;; t5e *-nf+sin7l< si4ila. t.ade 4a.C 7TS Dit5 $ast.-l l-7-& $-l-. s*5e4e and 7et(+; De.e .est.ained ?< an inE+n*ti-n& T5e.e a.e inn+4e.a?le *ases de4-nst.atin7 t5e sa4e liCe S%R% Thorat M+l, Pro !"t# P$t% Lt % $% Sah3a r+ )a+r3:<, B+le@ S3#te*# P$t% Lt % $% Roto*a" Pen# 0>!9rat1 P$t% Lt % ::, Alfre )!nh+ll L+*+te $% R%P%S% Cha/la:=, H+n C!tler3 Ho!#e $% Mal+, -artan -han ar :C, &a3a Ra* -anan $% Mah+n er )ara:5, M!*ta? Ah*a $% Pa,ee?a Che*+"al#=0, R%R% Oo*er4ho3 P$t% Lt % Co!rt Re"e+$er H+2ht Co!rt -o*4a3=1, The Ph+l+(# Ca#e=2, . ' S .+n S(+r+t A- $% 7!ll! .alle3 M+neral Water Co%=3 Dama8e ( T5is 4eans esta?lis5in7 a*t+al -. liCel< finan*ial l-ss& T5is *-+ld in*l+de l-ss -f ;.-fit in an e@istin7 4a.Cet, l-ss -f .e;+tati-n -. l-ss -f -;;-.t+nit< t- e@;and& Da4a7e t- 7--dDill, -. at least a ;.-?a?ilit< t5at da4a7e Dill ens+e, is -ne -f t5e essential .eH+i.e4ents f-. a ;assin7 -ff a*ti-n&1: Da4a7e 4a< .es+lt in a n+4?e. -f Da<s and t5e di4in+ti-n in t5e *lai4ant>s 7--dDill 4a< ?e *a+sed ?<F
63 64

2003,21) PT$ :2 ,Del) 2005,3 ) PT$ 53:,Del&) 65 2003,21) PT$ 19 ,!-4) 66 200: PT$ ,28) 300 ,Del) 67 200:,20) PT$ 30 ,Del) 68 2003,29) PT$ 3:: ,Del) 69 2003,29) PT$ :03 ,Del) 70 2003,29) PT$ 591 ,All) 71 2003,21) PT$ 580 ,D!),!-4) 72 AIR 083 P=H : 8 73 2005,30) PT* ,:1) ,Del)

E.6en Wa.ninC !esl-ten Venn--ts*5a; 6& ' T-Dnend = S-ns ,H+ll) #td& / 0132 A$ 13 ;e. #-.ds Di;l-*C and F.ase.& #-.d F.ase. s;-Ce in te.4s -f a .eal liCeli5--d -f s+ffe.in7 s+?stantial da4a7e t- 7--dDill&


&) #-st sales ?e*a+se ?+<e.s *-nf+se t5e defendant>s ;.-d+*ts ,-. se.6i*es) Dit5 t5-se -f t5e *lai4antL15 2&) T5e fa*t t5at t5e defendant>s ;.-d+*t is infe.i-. t- t5e *lai4ant>s ;.-d+*t and ?+<e.s t5inC t5e defendant>s ;.-d+*t is t5e *lai4ant>sL19 3&) E.-si-n -. de?ase4ent -f a na4e t5at is e@*l+si6e and +niH+e and D5i*5 is +sed ?< t5e *lai4ant ,-. a n+4?e. -f ;e.s-ns entitled t- +se it) It is ;e.tinent t- n-te t5at t5e +nde.l<in7 feat+.e -f ;assin7 -ff is t5at 7--dDill is esta?lis5ed ?< -ne t.ade. and an-t5e. t.ade. t.ies t- taCe ad6anta7e -f t5at 7--dDill, t- *as5 in -n it tt5e det.i4ent -f t5e t.ade.& T5e.e a.e tD- 4ain .eas-ns D5< a t.ade. D-+ld Dis5 t- ;ass -ff 5is 7--ds -. se.6i*es as ?ein7 t5-se -f an-t5e., esta?lis5ed t.ade.& T5e is t5at ?< d-in7 s-, a si7nifi*ant ;-.ti-n -f t5e esta?lis5ed t.ade.>s *+st-4 4i75t ?e *a;t+.ed ?e*a+se -f *-nf+si-n a4-n7st t5e ?+<in7 ;+?li* as t- D5-4 t5e< a.e dealin7 Dit5& T5e se*-nd .eas-n is t5at sales 4i75t ?e ?--sted ?< +nE+stifia?l< i4;+tin7 a H+alit< t- t5e se*-nd t.ade.>s 7--ds t5at is Didel< .e*-7niAed in *-nne*ti-n Dit5 t5e 7--ds -f t5e esta?lis5ed t.ade.& In ?-t5 *ases, t5e esta?lis5ed t.ade. s+ffe.s da4a7e ?< a s5-.tfall in t.ade, ?+t in t5e se*-nd *ase t5e da4a7e 4a< ?e e6en 4-.e fa.(.ea*5in7 in t5at 5e stands t- l-se 5is 7--dDill and .e;+tati-n f-. 5i75 H+alit< 7--ds if, ?e*a+se -f t5e 4is.e;.esentati-n, t5e ?+<in7 ;+?li* ass-*iate infe.i-. 7--ds Dit5 5i4& Alte.nati6el<, t5e 5a.4 4a< ?e s+?tle. and .es+lt in a de7.adati-n -. e.-si-n -f t5e t.ade.>s na4e -. 7et(+; as an indi*at-. -f -.i7in -. H+alit<& N-D in t5e ;.esent *ase, it 5as ?een 6e.< Dell 4enti-ned t5at t5e defendant is a s4all ;la<e. in t5e *-4;+te. 5a.dDa.e ?+siness and is ?ased in P+ne sin*e t5e <ea. 2001& !< +sin7 a l-7-, de*e;ti6el< si4ila. t- t5at -f t5e ;laintiff, a *-nf+si-n in t5e 4inds -f t5e ?+<e. is liCel< t- ?e *.eated D5ile *5--sin7 ?etDeen t5e defendant>s and t5e ;laintiff>s 7--ds& T5is 5as and is f+.t5e. liCel< t- *a+se da4a7e t- ;laintiff>s 7--dDill, as Dell as affe*tin7 t5e ;.-fits and .e6en+es -f t5e ;laintiff, D5i*5 is a ;.e(.eH+isite t- *-nstit+te t5e -ffen*e -f ;assin7 -ff&

75 76

ReddaDa< 6& !an5a4 / 8092 A$ 00 S;aldin7 = !.-s 6& A W Ga4a7e #td& , 0 5) 8: #' $5 ::0


T5e *ase -f Ta+tt+n2er S%A% $% All4e$ Lt


;.-6ides an i4;-.tant e@a4;le -f e.-si-n as a

f-.4 -f da4a7e t- 7--dDill& T5e defendant, an En7lis5 *-4;an<, 4ade a n-n(al*-5-li* d.inC *alled Elde.fl-De. $5a4;a7ne& N-t s+.;.isin7l<, it att.a*ted t5e attenti-n -f t5e F.en*5 4aCe.s -f *5a4;a7ne D5- 5ad ;.e6i-+sl< taCen le7al a*ti-n n- less t5an :9 ti4es in En7land t- ;.-te*t t5e na4e M*5a4;a7ne>& T5e $-+.t -f A;;eal all-Ded t5e *lai4ant>s a;;eal ?e*a+se +se -f t5e D-.d M*5a4;a7ne> ?< t5-se n-t entitled t- +se it D-+ld ine6ita?l< di4inis5 t5e 7--dDill ass-*iated Dit5 it& E.-si-n -f 7--dDill 4a< ?e ;-ssi?ilit< e6en D5e.e infe.i-. 7--ds -. se.6i*es ;.-6ided ?< t5e defendant a.e taCen t- ?e t5-se -f t5e *lai4ant& In )a/na3 )a3 ' Co% Lt % $% Cantor B+t?2eral Internat+onal18, -ne *-4;an< ,DaDna< Da< Se*+.ities) Dit5in a 7.-+; -f *-4;anies, +sin7 t5e na4e DaDna< Da< in t5e na4es -f t5e indi6id+al *-4;anies, fell intt5e 5ands -f t5e defendant D5i*5 Das +n*-nne*ted Dit5 t5e DaDna< Da< 7.-+;& An a*ti-n Das ?.-+75t t- .est.ain t5e defendant +sin7 t5e na4e DaDna< Da<& In t5e $-+.t -f A;;eal, Si. Ri*5a.d S*-tt V$ identified tD- f-.4s -f da4a7e& T5e ?ein7 ?e*a+se t5e DaDna< Da< 7.-+; 4e4?e.s, *-lle*ti6el< and indi6id+all<, 5ad n- *-nt.-l -6e. t5e a*ti6ities -f DaDna< Da< Se*+.ities and 4i75t s+ffe. if t5-se a*ti6ities ?e*-4e in an< Da< .e;.e5ensi?le& T5e se*-nd f-.4 -f da4a7e Das .e*-7niAed as an e.-si-n -f t5e distin*ti6eness -f t5e DaDna< Da< na4e as in t5e Ta+tt+n2er $% All4e$ sense& W5e.e t5e alle7ed da4a7e is -f t5e e.-si-n -f 7--dDill t<;e, t5e *lai4ant Dill ?e +na?le ts5-D sales 5a6e ?een -. a.e liCel< t- ?e di6e.ted t- t5e defendant& Instead, it is l-n7(te.4 *-44e.*ial da4a7e t5at Dill ens+e f.-4 t5e de*e;ti-n& Indeed, it *-+ld ?e a.7+ed t5at, if t5e.e is a de*e;ti-n, da4a7e is al4-st *e.tain t- f-ll-D, D5et5e. in t5e s5-.t -. l-n7e. te.4, as in Ki4?e.le<($la.C #td 6& F-.t Ste.lin7 #td 10, D5e.e t5e defendant ;la*ed an -ffe. -n its ;a*Cs -f N-+6elle t-ilet tiss+e statin7F JS-ftness 7+a.anteed ,-. De>ll e@*5an7e it f-. And.e@U)&K T5e.e Das an a*Cn-Dled7e4ent +nde. t5e MAnd.e@U> t- t5e effe*t t5at t5is Das t5e *lai4ant>s .e7iste.ed t.ade4a.C& T5e *ase ;.-*eeded -n t5e ?asis -f ;assin7 -ff and t5e *-+.t Das satisfied t5at t5e -6e.all i4;a*t -n n-.4al ?+t ?+s< *+st-4e.s Das t5at t5e ;.-d+*t Das


/ 0032 FSR 9: & T5e *ase als- 5in7ed -n Re7+lati-n ,E$) 823B81 , as a4ended ?< Re7+lati-n ,E$) 20:3B80)) D5i*5 li4its t5e +se -f na4es f-. Dines D5i*5 .efe. t- s;e*ified .e7i-ns& 78 /20002 RP$ 990& 79 / 0012 FSR 811


t5at -f t5e *lai4ant -. s-4e5-D ass-*iated Dit5 t5e *lai4ant& 80 T5e da4a7e D-+ld *-4e a?-+t f.-4 t5e defendant taCin7 t5e ?enefit -f t5e *lai4ant>s 4a.C and its 7--dDill D5i*5 D-+ld st.en7t5en t5e defendant>s ;-siti-n .elati6e t- t5e *lai4ant& T5e *-+.t *-nfi.4ed t5at, in s+*5 a *ase, t5e *lai4ant D-+ld n-t ?e .eH+i.ed t- ;-int t- ;a.ti*+la. e@a4;les -f sales l-st t- t5e defendant as a .es+lt -f t5e 4is.e;.esentati-n& In Mor2an8>ra*(+an (l" $% Tra+n+n2 Per#onnel Lt

t5e *lai4ant ;+?lis5ed a se.ies -f

4a7aAines Dit5 titles ?e7innin7 Dit5 t5e ;5.ase MW5at>s NeD inV> and t5e defendant late. *5an7ed t5e title -f -ne -f its ;+?li*ati-ns t- MW5at>s NeD in T.ainin7>& An inte.i4 inE+n*ti-n Das 7.anted& T5e.e Das a .isC -f *-nf+si-n and t5e fa*t t5at it D-+ld ?e diffi*+lt t- H+antif< da4a7e in 4-neta.< te.4s 5el;ed t- tilt t5e ?alan*e -f *-n6enien*e in fa6-. -f t5e *lai4ant& T5e.ef-.e in li75t -f t5e a.7+4ents ;+t f-.t5 and a+t5-.ities *ited, it is 4-st .es;e*tf+ll< s+?4itted t5at t5e defendant is lia?le f-. ;assin7 -ff its -Dn 7--ds +sin7 de*e;ti6el< a si4ila. 4a.C t- t5at -f t5e ;laintiff&


$-nf+si-n leadin7 ;e.s-ns t- ?elie6e t5at t5e defendant is *-nne*ted t t5e *lai4ant as ?ein7 s+ffi*ient t;.-6e da4a7e Das identified in EDin7 6& !+tte.*+; Ma.7a.ine $-& #td , 0 1) 3: RP$ 232 ?< #-.d $-Aens( Ha.d< MR 81 / 0022 FSR 291


I!!"E 3: T+E I'TE IM APPLICATIO' !EE5I'2 TEMPO A 1 I'-"'CTIO' A2AI'!T T+E DE(E'DA'T )E ALLO6ED. Inte.i4 inE+n*ti-ns a.e *-+.t +sed t- ;.e6ent a ;a.t< f.-4 d-in7 a ;a.ti*+la. a*t, D5i*5 Dill in s-4e Da< -. f-.4 da4a7eBinE+.e t5e -t5e. ;a.t< -. 5is ;.-;e.t<& T5e .e4ed< *-+ld ?e a6aila?le D5e.e an alle7ed D.-n7d-in7 is t- ?e *a..ied -+t in t5e f+t+.e and t5e.e is n-t en-+75 ti4e f-. t5e dis;+te t- ?e ?.-+75t t- *-+.t and .es-l6ed ?ef-.e t5e da4a7e is d-ne& T5e .elief is ?-t5 te4;-.a.< and dis*.eti-na.<& RT5e -?Ee*t -f t5e inte.l-*+t-.< inE+n*ti-n is t- ;.-te*t t5e ;laintiff a7ainst inE+.< ?< 6i-lati-n -f 5is .i75t f-. D5i*5 5e *-+ld n-t ?e adeH+atel< *-4;ensated in da4a7es .e*-6e.a?le in t5e a*ti-n if t5e +n*e.taint< De.e .es-l6ed in 5is fa6-+. at t5e t.ial& T5e need f-. s+*5 ;.-te*ti-n 5as, 5-De6e., t- ?e Dei75ed a7ainst t5e *;-ndin7 need -f t5e defendant t- ?e ;.-te*ted a7ainst inE+.< .es+ltin7 f.-4 5is 5a6in7 ?een ;.e6ented f.-4 e@e.*isin7 5is -Dn le7al .i75ts f-. D5i*5 5e *-+ld n-t ?e adeH+atel< *-4;ensated&82 G.ant -f an inte.i4 .elief in .e7a.d t- t5e nat+.e and e@tent t5e.e-f de;ends +;-n t5e fa*ts and *i.*+4stan*es -f ea*5 *ase as n- st.ait(Ea*Cet f-.4+la *an ?e laid d-Dn& 83 G.ant -f te4;-.a.< inE+n*ti-n, is 7-6e.ned ?< ?asi* ;.in*i;les, i&e& ;.i4a fa*ie *aseL ?alan*e -f *-n6enien*eL and i..e;a.a?le inE+.<, D5i*5 a.e .eH+i.ed t- ?e *-nside.ed in a ;.-;e. ;e.s;e*ti6e in t5e fa*ts and *i.*+4stan*es -f a ;a.ti*+la. *ase&8: In Col2ate Pal*ol+$e 0In +a1 Lt % .#% H+n !#tan Le$er Lt %, C< t5is *-+.t -?se.6ed t5at t5e -t5e. *-nside.ati-ns D5i*5 -+75t t- Dei75 Dit5 t5e $-+.t 5ea.in7 t5e a;;li*ati-n -. ;etiti-n f-. t5e 7.ant -f inE+n*ti-ns a.e as ?el-D F ,i) E@tent -f da4a7es ?ein7 an adeH+ate .e4ed<L ,ii) P.-te*t t5e ;laintiff>s inte.est f-. 6i-lati-n -f 5is .i75ts t5-+75 5-De6e. 5a6in7 .e7a.d tt5e inE+.< t5at 4a< ?e s+ffe.ed ?< t5e defendants ?< .eas-n t5e.ef-. L ,iii) T5e *-+.t D5ile dealin7 Dit5 t5e 4atte. -+75t n-t t- i7n-.e t5e fa*t+4 -f st.en7t5 -f -ne ;a.t<>s *ase ?ein7 st.-n7e. t5an t5e -t5e.sL
82 83 !-ttlin7 $-& #td& 6& $-*a $-la $-4;an< and Ot5e.s, 005,5) S$$ 5:5 M& G+.+das = O.s& 6& Rasa.anEan = O.s& AIR 2009 S$ 3215L and S5.ide6i = An.& 6s& M+.alid5a. = An.& ,2001) : S$$ 12 & 84 S&M& D<e*5e4 #td& 6& MBs& $ad?+.< ,India) #td&, AIR 2000 S$ 2 : 85 AIR 000 S$ 3 05


,i6) N- fi@ed .+les -. n-ti-ns -+75t t- ?e 5ad in t5e 4atte. -f 7.ant -f inE+n*ti-n ?+t -n t5e fa*ts and *i.*+4stan*es -f ea*5 *ase( t5e .elief ?ein7 Ce;t fle@i?leL ,6) T5e iss+e is t- ?e l--Ced f.-4 t5e ;-int -f 6ieD as t- D5et5e. -n .ef+sal -f t5e inE+n*ti-n t5e ;laintiff D-+ld s+ffe. i..e;a.a?le l-ss and inE+.< Cee;in7 in 6ieD t5e st.en7t5 -f t5e ;a.ties> *aseL ,6i) !alan*e -f *-n6enien*e -. in*-n6enien*e -+75t t- ?e *-nside.ed as an i4;-.tant .eH+i.e4ent e6en if t5e.e is a se.i-+s H+esti-n -. ;.i4a fa*ie *ase in s+;;-.t -f t5e 7.antL ,6ii) W5et5e. t5e 7.ant -. .ef+sal -f inE+n*ti-n Dill ad6e.sel< affe*t t5e inte.est -f ;+?li* D5i*5 *an -. *ann-t ?e *-4;ensated -t5e.Dise&K JT5e ;5.ases T;.i4a fa*ie *ase>, T?alan*e -f *-n6enien*e> and T i..e;a.a?le l-ss> a.e n-t .5et-.i* ;5.ases f-. in*antati-n, ?+t D-.ds -f Didt5 and elasti*it<, t- 4eet 4<.iad sit+ati-ns ;.esented ?< 4an>s in7en+it< in 7i6en fa*ts and *i.*+4stan*es, ?+t alDa<s is 5ed7ed Dit5 s-+nd e@e.*ise -f E+di*ial dis*.eti-n t- 4eet t5e ends -f E+sti*e& T5e fa*ts .est el-H+ent and s;eaC f-. t5e4sel6es& It is Dell ni75 i4;-ssi?le t- find f.-4 fa*ts ;.i4a fa*ie *ase and ?alan*e -f *-n6enien*e&K89 1. Prima 9a#ie #aseF T5e e@;.essi-n R;.i4a fa*ieR 4eans at t5e si75t -. -n t5e a;;*e -. -n t5e fa*e -f it, -. s- fa. as it *an ?e E+d7ed f.-4 t5e dis*l-s+.e& P.i4a fa*ie *ase 4eans t5at e6iden*e ?.-+75t -n .e*-.d D-+ld .eas-na?l< all-D t5e *-n*l+si-n t5at t5e ;laintiff seeCs& T5e ;.i4a fa*ie *ase D-+ld 4ean t5at a *ase, D5i*5 5as ;.-*eeded +;-n s+ffi*ient ;.--f t-, t5at sta7e D5e.e it D-+ld s+;;-.t findin7 if e6iden*e t- *-nt.a.< is dis.e7a.ded&81 A ;.i4a fa*ie *ase d-es n-t 4ean a *ase ;.-6ed t- t5e 5ilt ?+t a *ase D5i*5 *an ?e said t- ?e esta?lis5ed if t5e e6iden*e D5i*5 is led in s+;;-.t -f t5e sa4e De.e ?elie6ed& W5ile dete.4inin7 D5et5e. a ;.i4a fa*ie *ase 5ad ?een 4ade -+t, t5e .ele6ant *-nside.ati-n is D5et5e. -n t5e e6iden*e led it Das ;-ssi?le t- a..i6e at t5e *-n*l+si-n in H+esti-n and as tD5et5e. t5at Das t5e -nl< *-n*l+si-n D5i*5 *-+ld ?e a..i6ed at -n t5at e6iden*e&>88

86 87

Dal;at K+4a. = An.& 6& P.a5lad Sin75 = O.s&, AIR 003 S$ 219 !la*C laD di*ti-na.< 88 !+.n #td& 6& R&N& !ane.Eee 058(I #&#&'& 2:1


RP.i4a fa*ie *aseR 4eans t5at t5e $-+.t s5-+ld ?e satisfied t5at t5e.e is a se.i-+s H+esti-n t?e t.ied at t5e 5ea.in7, and t5e.e is a ;.-?a?ilit< -f Plaintiff -?tainin7 t5e .elief at t5e *-n*l+si-n -f t5e t.ial -n t5e ?asis -f t5e 4ate.ial ;la*ed ?ef-.e t5e $-+.t& RP.i4a fa*ie *aseR is a s+?stantial H+esti-n .aised ?-na fide D5i*5 needs in6esti7ati-n and a de*isi-n -n 4e.its& T5e $-+.t, at t5e initial sta7e, *ann-t insist +;-n a f+ll ;.--f *ase Da..antin7 an e6ent+al de*.ee& If a fai. H+esti-n is .aised f-. dete.4inati-n, it s5-+ld ?e taCen t5at a ;.i4a fa*ie *ase is esta?lis5ed& T5e .eal t5in7 t- ?e seen is t5at t5e ;laintiff>s *lai4 is n-t f.i6-l-+s -. 6e@ati-+s&K80 It is 5+4?l< s+?4itted t5at t5e ;.esent ;laintiff 5ad desi7ned and 5as ?een in +se -f t5e said 4a.C in ANNES%RE A sin*e 2008 and 5ad 7-t it .e7iste.ed in En7land in 2008& F+.t5e., .ealiAin7 t5e ;-tential -f t5e 4a.Cet in india, t5e ;laintiff a;;lied f-. .e7ist.ati-n -f t5e sa4e 4a.C and Das 7.anted in Fe?.+a.< 20 2 as ;e. t5e ;.-6isi-ns -f t5e t.ade4a.C a*t and t5e.ef-.e t5e said .e7ist.ati-n -f t.ade4a.Cs D-+ld *-n*l+si6el< ;.-6e t5e .i75t -f t5e ;laintiff -6e. t5e said 4a.C ;+.s+ant t- se*ti-n 3 D5e.eas -n t5e -t5e. 5and t5e defendant>s 4a.C is an +n.e7iste.ed 4a.C and 5as ?een +sed Dit5 an ai4 t- en*as5 -n t5e D-.ldDide 7--dDill and .e;+tati-n -f t5e ;laintiff& It is ;e.tinent t- n-te t5at t5e.e is an ala.4in7< ?etDeen t5e 4a.C -f t5e ;laintiff and t5e defendant and .aises s-4e le7iti4ate *-n*e.n -6e. t5e intent -f t5e defendant D5f.-4 t5e ;e.+sal -f fa*ts and 7.a;5i*al .e;.esentati-n -f t5e 4a.Cs 4aCe it *.<stal *lea. t5at t5e defendant is t.<in7 t- taCe +nfai. ad6anta7e -f t5e 7l-?al .e;+tati-n -f t5e ;laintiff and t5e.e?< inf.in7in7 ;laintiff>s .e7iste.ed t.ade4a.C& It is 5+4?l< s+?4itted t5at t5e ;laintiff 5ad 7ained i44ense .e;+tati-n and 7--dDill n-t -nl< in En7land ?+t als- in *-+nt.ies& Me.el< ?e*a+se t5e 7--ds a.e n-t a6aila?le in a *-+nt.< f-. s-4e d+.ati-n Dill n-t lead t- a *-n*l+si-n t5at t5e 7--dDill -. .e;+tati-n stands e@tin7+is5ed&00 A ;laintiff 4a< a*H+i.e a s+?stantial .e;+tati-n ;.i-. t- 4aCin7 sales -f a ;.-d+*t -. se.6i*e ?e*a+se -f ad6an*e ad6e.tisin7 and ;.ess ;+?li*it< and, in s+*5 a *ase, 4a< s+e -t5e.s D5- seeC t- t.ade -n t5e .e;+tati-n D5i*5 5e 5as a*H+i.ed& 0 T5e.ef-.e a st.-n7 ;.i4a fa*ie *ase 5as ?een 4ade -+t a7ainst t5e defendants&

89 90 Ele*t.i*it< !-a.d, Gand5ina7a. 6& Ma5es5C+4a. and $-&, A54eda?ad , 005,5) S$$ 5:5,) Ka4al T.adin7 $-& = -t5e.s 6& Gillette %K #td& 088 PT$ & 91 W5i.l;--l $-.;-.ati-n = An-t5e. 6& N&R&D-n7.e and Ot5e.s, 005 PT$ 2


2. )a:an#e o9 Con&enien#e: It is D5e.e t5e.e is d-+?t as t- t5e adeH+a*< -f t5e .es;e*ti6e .e4edies in da4a7es a6aila?le t- eit5e. ;a.t< -. t- ?-t5, t5at t5e H+esti-n -f ?alan*e -f *-n6enien*e a.ises& T5e $-+.t s5all lean in fa6-+. -f int.-d+*ti-n -f t5e *-n*e;t -f ?alan*e -f *-n6enien*e, ?+t d-es n-t 4ean and i4;l< t5at t5e ?alan*e D-+ld ?e -n -ne side and n-t in fa6-+. -f t5e -t5e.& T5e.e 4+st ?e ;.-;e. ?alan*e ?etDeen t5e ;a.ties and t5e ?alan*e *ann-t ?e an -ne(sided affai.&02 !alan*e -f *-n6enien*e 4eans, *-4;a.ati6e 4is*5ief f-. in*-n6enien*e t- t5e ;a.ties& T5e in*-n6enien*e t- t5e ;etiti-ne. if te4;-.a.< InE+n*ti-n is .ef+sed D-+ld ?e ?alan*ed and *-4;a.ed Dit5 t5at -f t5e -;;-site ;a.t<, if it is 7.anted& 03 In a;;l<in7 t5is ;.in*i;le, t5e $-+.t 5as t- Dei75 t5e a4-+nt -f s+?stantial 4is*5ief t5at is liCel< t- ?e d-ne t- t5e a;;li*ant if t5e inE+n*ti-n is .ef+sed and *-4;a.e it Dit5 t5at D5i*5 is liCel< t- ?e *a+sed t- t5e -t5e. side if t5e inE+n*ti-n is 7.anted&0: T5e ;laintiff 5ad desi7ned t5e 4a.C in 2008 and sin*e t5en 5a6e ?een in *-ntin+es +se -f t5e 4a.C f-. D5i*5 it 5as 7ained i44ense .e;+tati-n and 7--dDill n-t -nl< in En7land ?+t alsin -t5e. *-+nt.ies& It is ;e.tinent t- n-te t5at t5e ;laintiff *a..ies -+t t5e ?+siness -f 4a.Cetin7 its ;.-d+*t t-- and 5-D Dell it is d-ne *an ?e assessed f.-4 t5e fa*t t5at t5e.e t+.n-6e. 5as ?een in*.easin7 4anif-ld -6e. t5e <ea.s& T5e.ef-.e if t5e inE+n*ti-n is n-t 7.anted it Dill lead t- n-t -nl< 4-neta.< l-sses ?+t Dill als- 5a4;e. t5ei. .e;+tati-n and 7--dDill D-.ldDide& On t5e -t5e. 5and t5e defendant is a s4all ;la<e. in t5e ?+siness and if inE+n*ti-n is 7.anted it D-+ld n-t 5a6e t5e sa4e effe*t -n t5e4 as it D-+ld 5a6e -n t5e ;laintiff if t5e inE+n*ti-n is .ef+sed& T5e.ef-.e t5e ?alan*e -f *-n6enien*e .ests in fa6-+. -f t5e ;laintiff& 3. Irre$ara=:e inA%r>: I..e;a.a?le inE+.< .eall< 4eans t5e inE+.< D5i*5 t5e ;laintiff is liCel< t- s+ffe.& It 4eans inE+.< D5i*5 is s+?stantial and *-+ld ne6e. ?e adeH+atel< .e4edied -. at-ned f-. ?< da4a7es, inE+.< D5i*5 *ann-t ;-ssi?l< ?e .e;ai.ed& 05 It i4;lies a s+?stantial and *-ntin+-+s inE+.< f-. D5i*5 t5e.e d-es n-t e@ist an< standa.d f-. as*e.tainin7 t5e a*t+al da4a7e liCel< t- ?e *a+sed& I..e;a.a?le inE+.<, 5-De6e., d-es n-t 4ean t5at t5e.e 4+st ?e n;5<si*al ;-ssi?ilit< -f .e;ai.in7 t5e inE+.<, ?+t 4eans -nl< t5at t5e inE+.< 4+st ?e a 4ate.ial -ne t5at *ann-t ?e adeH+atel< .e4edied -. *-4;ensated ?< Da< -f da4a7es&09
92 93

!iCas5 $5and.a De? 6& ViEa<a Mine.als P6t& #td&F 2005 , ) $HN 582 Anta.<a4i Dala?e5e.a 6& !is5n+ $ Dala?e5e.aF 2002 I O#R 53 94 AnDa. Ela5i 6& Vin-d Mis.a And An.& , 005) 90 D#T 152 95 M+lti*5annel India #td 6& Ka6itala<a P.-d+*ti-ns P6t #td& AIR 000 50& 96 SanEee6 K+4a. = $-& 6& !is5n+ P.asad AIR 000 O.issa 00


In fa*t, D5en a ;.i4a fa*ie *ase is 4ade -+t and ?alan*e -f *-n6enien*e is in fa6-. -f t5e a;;ellant, it 4a< n-t ?e ne*essa.< t- s5-D 4-.e t5an l-ss -f 7--dDill and .e;+tati-n tf+lfill t5e *-nditi-n -f i..e;a.a?le inE+.<& F+.t5e. it is ;e.tinent t- n-te t5at, if t5e tD;.e(.eH+isites a.e f+lfilled, in t.ade 4a.C a*ti-ns i..e;a.a?le l-ss *an ?e ;.es+4ed t- 5a6e taCen ;la*e01 D5i*5 is ;.-6ed ?e<-nd d-+?t in t5e ;.esent 4atte.& T5e.ef-.e in t5e li75t -f t5e a.7+4ents and ;.in*i;les ;+t f-.t5 it is 4-st .es;e*tf+ll< s+?4itted t5at t5e inte.i4 a;;li*ati-n seeCin7 te4;-.a.< inE+n*ti-n ?e dis4issed&


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W5e.ef-.e in t5e li75t -f t5e fa*ts stated, iss+es .aised, a.7+4ents ad6an*ed and a+t5-.ities *ited, it is 4-st 5+4?l< ;.a<ed ?ef-.e t5is H-n-.a?le $-+.t t5at it 4a< ?e ;leased tde*la.eF

& T5at t5e defendant is lia?le f-. t.ade4a.C inf.in7e4ent& 2& T5at t5e defendant is als- lia?le f-. Passin7( -ff& 3& T5at t5e ;.esent s+it and inte.i4 a;;li*ati-n seeCin7 t5e te4;-.a.< inE+n*ti-n a7ainst t5e defendant ?e all-Ded& :& T5at t5e ;laintiff s5-+ld ?e adeH+atel< *-4;ensated in da4a7es&

An (a## an3 other or er that +t ee*# f+t an (ro(er +n the +ntere#t of 9!#t+"e% All of /h+"h +# re#(e"tf!ll3 #!4*+tte % DateF Ma.*5, 20 3

Pla*eF $-+nsels f-. t5e Plaintiff