The 13 ascetic practices -from Dhammadana.

org The origin Long before Buddha appeared into this world, there did exist ascetic practices designed for oppressing the body in as variegated as numerous ways. Those who adopted them believed that they would enable them to get liberated from the sorrow any living being. On the other hand, others were convinced that the ultimate goal of existence lied in knowing how to enjoy it to the full and focused all their efforts on best enjoying sensuous pleasures. From his very first teaching, Buddha categorically rejected these two paths that he qualified of « extreme paths ». In this teaching, he explains us that only the moderate path, the « middle path », can lead us to the development of wisdom and right knowledge of reality. The two extreme paths develop, on their behalf, attachments and false views, contrary to the moderate path, which enables the lessening of attachments and the development of right view. The conduct laid down by the Blessed one for monks and nuns (the pátimokkha), for novices (the 10 precepts) and for the laity (the 5 or 8 precepts) is sufficient guidance to anyone who conveniently trains into satipa††hána. To those who wish to much more rapidly or easily reach nibbána, he also taught a set of ascetic practices which are noncompulsory (the 13 dhutaýgas that are not included into the vinaya), which enables to reduce one's needs to the least, thus sparing, the one who adopts these practices, from pride, greed, and aversion, which constitute the main poisons on the path to liberation (only by practising certain dhutaýgas in daily life can we really understand this fact; results are impressing). dhutaýgas are not designed for superior beings, neither for inferior beings. They are beneficial for all those who are able to put them into practice. A dhutaýga is not an extreme practice; it is a mere practice that enables the mind to be rapidly and easily purified, absolute prerequisite to the development of attention and concentration. It reduces useless impediments, such as excessive food, numerous clothes to look after, the agitation of inhabited areas, very various attachments. Provided it is conveniently adopted, no dhutaýga does cause to arise any kind of tiredness or oppression of the body or the mind. If a dhutaýga

involves a great difficulty or a difficult effort to an individual, he shouldn't practice it, as it would become a practice extreme for himself. Everyone is free, according to his capacities and wishes, to adopt one or several dhutaýgas, which each comprises three levels of restriction. The aim of these practices lies in providing an environment as auspicious as possible for renunciation. Thus, the 13 dhutaýgas, which mean " renunciation " [to abandon (dhuta); state of mind (aýga)], are a set of practices designed for considerably reducing our attachments, in order to reach nibbána at the soonest, like a bird that crosses the cloudless sky on a straight line.

The 13 dhutaýgas There do exist thirteen ascetic practices: two for the robes, five for the food, five for the spot of residence, and one for the posture (known to be the dhutaýga of effort). To get access to the detailed definition of a dhutaýga, click on its definition in the below displayed board: 1. paµsukúla : abandonned robes 2. tecívarika : three robes 3. pišðapáta : collection by means of one's bowl 4. sapadánacárika : food collection without skipping houses 5. ekásanika : a single meal 6. pattapišðika : everything within the bowl 7. khalupacchábhattika : no longer accepting any extra food after having started to take the meal 8. áraññika : to remain in the forest 9. rukkhamúla : to remain beneath a tree 10.abbhokásika : to remain on the bare earth without shelter 11.susánika : to remain among charnels 12.yathásantatika : to sleep at the alloted spot 13.nesajjika : to renounce to the lying posture

The five kinds of motivations For the practice of dhutaýgas , there do exist several kinds of motivations. A few can adopt one of them out of a bad purpose, in the aim of stirring up admiration around themselves, whereas others adopt one of these practices out of a genuine purpose, in order to cure themselves from kilesás, with the same state of mind into which one takes a medicine. Here are the five kinds of motivation that we can distinguish among those who adopt one or more dhutaýgas: 1) Out of complete ignorance, without even knowing their advantages: after having merely heard the practitioners of the dhutaýgas are of good renown, for being able to say " me, I practice the dhutaýgas", etc. 2) For benefitting with the advantages feeding up greed, such as: for receiving a lot of gifts, for being well considered by others, for causing a great veneration to arise from others, for attracting disciples to oneself, etc. 3) Out of madness, out of complete ignorance, without being in quest for anything whatsoever. 4) Because Buddha and ariyás praise such practices. 5) For benefitting with healthy advantages, such as: the capacity to be contented with very little, weakness inherent to greed, easiness to obtain what is needed, tranquillity, detachment, etc. Buddha disapproved the first three motivations, he only approved the last two. An individual may then adopt one or several dhutaýgas only if he is motivated according to the fourth or fifth among these five kinds of motivations. However, a dhutaýga is of much higher benefit if it is adopted according to the fifth motivation instead of the fourth.

The five factors that ought to be developed by a practitioner of the dhutaýgas A practitioner of the dhutaýgas who is in the position of doing such practices (he undergoes a good state of health, etc.), who is honest and who has nibbána as goal, is worthy to be worshipped by the brahmás, devas and humans. Here are the five factors which each practitioner of the dhutaýgas should develop: 1. To be without greed. 2. To know how to be contented with very little. 3. To really want to get rid of kilesás. 4. To remain on a calm spot. 5. To no longer wish any extra existence in whatsoever world and conditions (in other parlance, wishing parinibbána). The first factors are against greed. They contribute in eliminating sensory desires. The might whose the last of these factors is object can be cultivated by means of wisdom. Through alobha we eliminate pratices that are meant for developing sensory desires (kámasukhalliká nuyoga), and through amoha, we eradicate all practices that oppress the body (attakilamathá nuyoga).

Buddha congratulates those who adopt the dhutaýgas by fully developing the above mentioned five factors. According to another commentary, the factors needed to the practice of dhutaýgas are: 1. saddhá, faith, confidence. 2. hirimá, the fact to be afraid or ashamed of evil deeds. 3. dhitimá, the fact to be calm, self-possessed and concentrated on one's deeds. 4. akuha, the indifference towards notoriety, renown, consideration on others' behalf. 5. atthavasí, the fact to have the realisation of dhamma as unique aim. 6. alobha, straightforwardness. 7. sikkhákáma, the fact to be naturally and constantly virtuous. 8. a¦hasamádána, the fact to prevent oneself from breaking one of these practices. 9. anujjhánabahula, the fact not to criticize others, even if they are at fault. 10. mettávihárí, the fact to constantly remain filled with benevolence. A serious practitioner of the dhutaýgas has to be conveniently rooted into one of these ten factors. The one who knows how to stick to it is in the position to reach nibbána. The elements that ought to be avoide: 1. pápiccha, to want unhealthy things. 2. icchápakata, to oppress one's mind through desires. 3. kuhaka, to try to draw consideration from others. 4. luddha, covetousness, cupidity. 5. odarika, to be abusively preoccupied by one's food. 6. lábhakáma, to want to get involved into numerous matters. 7. yasakáma, to want to have many disciples, to want to be worshipped by many people. 8. kittikáma, to want notoriety, a great renown.

If a bhikkhu practises the dhutaýgas according to one or several of these eight points, he will certainly be subject to criticism and contempt on others' behalf. He even risks to experience some disabilities during his next existence, such as ugliness, malformation, a severed limb, if it is not the realm of hells. That's why one should strive for developing the needed factors, and to avoid those who are detrimental. The procedure of adoption of the dhutaýgas In order to adopt the dhutaýgas that one wishes to practice, the ideal prospect lies in doing it before Buddha's presence. If Buddha is far away or no more, it is beneficial to adopt the dhutaýgas before the presence of an aggasávaka (appellation given to Buddha's two most nobles disciples). If the aggasávakas are far away or no more, we can do it before the presence of a mahásávaka (appellation given to the 80 greatest disciples of a Buddha). If the mahásávakas are far away or no more, we can do it before the presence of an rarahanta. If we can't seize the opportunity doing it before the presence of an arahanta, we can do it before the presence of an anágámi. If we can't seize the opportunity doing it before the presence of an anágámi, we can do it before the presence of a sakadágámi. If we can't seize the opportunity doing it before the presence of a sakadágámi, we can do it before the presence of a sotápana. If we can't seize the opportunity doing it before the presence of a sotápana, we can do it before the presence of someone who perfectly knows the three parts of the tipi†aka. If we can't seize the opportunity doing it before the presence of someone who perfectly knows the three parts of the tipi†aka, we can it before the presence of someone who perfectly knows two of the three parts of the tipi†aka. If we can't seize the opportunity doing it before the presence of someone who perfectly knows two of the three parts of the tipi†aka, we can it before the presence of someone who perfectly knows one of the three parts of the tipi†aka.

If we can't seize the opportunity doing it before the presence of someone who perfectly knows one of the three parts of the tipi†aka, we can it before the presence of someone who perfectly knows one of the chapters of one of the three parts of the tipi†aka. If we can't seize the opportunity doing it before the presence of someone who perfectly knows one of the chapters of one of the three parts of the tipi†aka, we can it before the presence of someone who is well versed into the a††hakathás (commentaries). If we can't seize the opportunity doing it before the presence of someone is well versed into the a††hakathás (commentaries), we can do it before the presence of someone who practises the dhutaýgas. If no one be present, we can do it before a cetiya. It is better to adopt one or several dhutaýgas before the presence of a being endowed with a pure síla. This incites us to better take care of our practice of the dhutaýgas and to avoid breaking them. However, should one wish to adopt a few dhutaýgas beyond anybody's acknowledgement, it is possible to do it all alone. A few monks besides take determination not to let anyone know about their practice, thus solidly establishing within himself the certainty not to practice them owing to an unhealthy motivation. In olden days, a bhikkhu practised the dhutaýga that consists in eating only once a day (ekásanika) since forty years, with no one ever coming to know about it. One day, someone saw him finishing up his meal, standing up and proceeding to instal himself at another spot. At this specific moment, he proposed him a piece of cake. As the Venerable politely refused it, the donor guessed for which reason, telling loudly: " You practise the dhutaýga ekásanika! " In order not to tell lies and not to disclose his practice, the bhikkhu preferred not to break it by accepting and by eating this piece of cake. As soon as he had ingested the cake, he again adopted this dhutaýga.

The dhutaýgas to be practised according to the status Alone, a bhikkhu can practise the 13 dhutaýgas. bhikkhunís can only practise 8 of them, sámašeras can only practise 12, sámašerís can only practise 7 and the laity can only practise 2, even 9, as their status or discipline doesn't enable them to adopt the others. bhikkhus A bhikkhu can adopt any of the 13 dhutaýgas. If he wishes so, a bhikkhu can practise the whole 13 dhutaýgas at once. To that sake, the best would be to exclusively dwell by a charnel that possesses at the same time the characteristics of a forest spot – remote from inhabited areas – and from those of a spot devoid of shelter and vegetation. However, he can also dwell in a forest during the first third of the night, on a spot devoid of shelter and vegetation during the second third of the night, and in a charnel devoid of the characteristics specific to the forest spots and devoid of shelter during the last third of the night. We may wonder how to practise at the same time the dhutaýga that consists in dwelling beneath a tree (rukkhamúla) and the one that consists in dwelling on a spot devoid of shelter and vegetation (abbhokásika). Even though being the translation of the term " dwellling beneath a tree ", the main idea of the rukkhamúla dhutaýga is not that much to adopt a tree, but to renounce to material comfort instead – likely to cause laziness to arise – and to all maintenance duties involved by residing in a building compound. Thus, the abbhokásika dhutaýga includes the rukkhamúla dhutaýga. In the same day, the dhutaýga that consists in renouncing to the residence in a building compound (rukkhamúla) and the one that consists in renouncing to spots provided with vegetation and shelter (abbhokásika) do no prevent one from practising the one lying in dwelling " in a forest " (áraññika), as this later consists in not adopting a monastery situated into the deep forest. His only idea lies indeed in living remote from inhabited aeras, the residence on a recluse, isolated spot. On the contrary, it is possible to practise the abbhokásika dhutaýga or the rukkhamúla dhutaýga without practising the áraññika dhutaýga, for example, by dwelling beneath a tree situated in inhabited areas.

Bhikkhunís The 8  dhutaýga the bhikkhunís are able to practice are: paµsukúla, tecívarika, pišðapáta, sapadánacári, ekásanika, pattapišðika, yathásantatika and nesajjika. The khalupacchábhattika dhutaýga is obsolete to bhikkhunís, as their vinaya forbids them to refuse food that is being served to them, even after having started to eat (according to the pavárito, see the pácittiya  35). They cannot practise the áraññika dhutaýga as their vinaya forbids them to dwell in an isolated spot, without a bhikkhu monastery located close by (according to the ohíyana rule). Regarding the rukkhamúla, abbhokásika and susánika dhutaýga, Buddha does not authorize them to adopt them, as being women, these practices are too difficult and too dangerous. Moreover, a bhikkhunís cannot proceed alone outside of the monastic complex. Supposing that it would be permitted to a bhikkhunís to dwell on a spot remote from bhikkhu monasteries, accompanied with another bhikkhunís, she would have it difficult finding another bhikkhunís who agrees to practise the same dhutaýga along with her, without referring to the fact that the main interest of the dhutaýgas lies to practise them alone.

Sámašeras sámašeras are able to practise the 12 dhutaýgas; all to the exclusion of the practice that lies in confining oneself to three robes (tecívarika), as, on the contrary of bhikkhus and bhikkhunís, they have no double robe at disposal. Admittedly, nothing does prevent sámašeras from training into utilising a very limited number of robes, shawls or blankets. However, this will not be the object of the tecívarika dhutaýga. Sikkhamánas and Sámašerís The 7 dhutaýgas that sikkhamánas and sámašerís are able to practise are: paµsukúla, pišðapáta, sapadánacári, ekásanika, pattapišðika, yathásantatika and nesajjika. They cannot practise the khalupacchábhattika, áraññika, rukkhamúla, abbhokásika, and susánika dhutaýga, and for the same reasons as bhikkhunís can't and, regarding the tecívarika dhutaýga, for the same reasons as sámašeras can't. The laities The 2 dhutaýgas that the laity – nuns included – are able to practise are: ekásanika (a single meal per day) and pattapišðika (taking one's meal by means of a single recipient). However, a laity strongly enclined to the practice of renunciation, purity of the mind, and to a great confidence into the dhamma, can, following the example of bhikkhus, adopt two above mentioned extra dhutaýgas, the khalupacchábhattika, áraññika, rukkhamúla, abbhokásika, susánika, yathásantatika and nesajjika dhutaýga, which raise the total number of dhutaýgas to 9. However, the laity cannot practise the first four dhutaýgas, as they do not wear any monastic robe and do not obtain their food by means of a bowl.

ariyás and the dhutaýgas ariyás are beings who have inevitably practised the dhutaýgas in this life or in a former rebirth. To have one's páramís sufficiently matured for the realisation of the dhamma, the practise of the dhutaýgas is therefore inevitable. For this reason, we can say that " the practice of the dhutaýgas is the path of ariyás ". The dhutaýgas even constitute a training particularly auspicious to the realisation of nibbána, given the fact that they offer the best conditions for the training into the 8 maggaýgas – the basis of satipa††hána (the path that leads to nibbána) – on one hand, and for the detachment from all obstacles to this training on the other. There do exist numerous bhikkhus who are renown for their practice of the dhutaýgas. Among others, in Buddha's time, regarding the practice of the áraññika and paµsukúla dhutaýgas, Venerable Mahá Kassapa was particularly renown (besided recognised by Buddha as being the best practitioner of the 13 dhutaýgas of his sásana); then were particularly renown for the observance of the áraññika dhutaýga: Venerable Revata (in the forest of Khariravaniya), Venerable Tissa and Venerable Nágita; was particularly renown for the observance of the dhutaýga linked with the obtention and consumption of food: Venerable Mitta; were particularly renown for the observance of the nesajjika dhutaýga: Venerable Sáriputtará, Venerable Mahá Moggalána, Venerable Cakkhupála, etc. These arahantas – such as all arahantas who practise the dhutaýgas – haven't gone through the difficulties of these practices for their own benefit, as they no longer have anything to obtain for themselves (an arahanta has, by definition, no more ambition, neither motivation). They have practised the dhutaýgas with the only aim of favorably making an example, inciting to the observance of this noble practice other bhikkhus who see them or would come to hear about them. All Buddhas have also practised the dhutaýgas in a remarkable manner, at one or several moments of their last existence. Thus, wise people, imitating Bouddha, put into practice one or several of these dhutaýgas.

MY CHOSEN PRACTICES (to be adapted to my personal context) dhutaýga pattapišðika Meaning of the pattapišðika dhutaýga The Pali term "pattapišða" means "to put food in a bowl", that is to say, to eat only by means of a bowl, without utilising a second recipient. "patta" = "recipient (bowl, etc.)"; "pišða" = "food offered to the bhikkhus" The bhikkhu who takes the habit to eat while utilising only one recipient is called a "pattapišðika". When this practice is conveniently done, with steadiness and diligence, with the determination of not breaking it, we say that there is "pattapišðikaýga" (state of mind related to a meal taken by means of a sole recipient). Adoption of the pattapišðika dhutaýga For adopting this dhutaýga, it is convenient to utter the following phrase whether in Pali, or else in the language of his choice... In Pali: «dutiyabhájanaµ pa†ikkhipámi, pattapišðikaýgaµ samádhiyámi.» In English: «I renounce to eat with means of second recipient, I will train into eating by means of a sole recipient.»

The three kinds of practitioners of the pattapišðika dhutaýga According to restrictions, there do exist three kinds of practitioners of the pattapišðika dhutaýga: 1. ukka††ha pattapišðika, the noble practitioner of the pattapišðika dhutaýga 2. majjhima pattapišðika, the intermediate practitioner of the pattapišðika dhutaýga 3. mudu pattapišðika, the ordinary practitioner of the pattapišðika dhutaýga

4. 1.the noble practitioner The noble practitioner of the pattapišðika dhutaýga doesn't utilise any extra recipient, not even for dropping his own food wastes (bones, seeds, peel, etc.) In this case, the bhikkhu evacuates the wastes by spitting them out (into nature). The noble practitioner of this dhutaýga can utilise another recipient only for spitting (mucus, saliva). When the noble practitioner of this dhutaýga finds some wastes in his mouth (bone(s), fish bone(s), pips, etc.), he should try to chew and swallow them. If this is not possible, he must not remove them by means of the hand; he must directly spit them out from the mouth, into nature. Contrarily to an intermediate or ordinary practitioner, the noble practitioner doesn't spit his wastes in a recipient. The sugar cane can be cut during the meal and (after the chewing) its wastes drop into a recipient designed to that purpose. In this case, the dhutaýga is not broken. In all cases, the practitioner of this dhutaýga (of the three kinds) won't have to prepare his meal before eating so that there won't be wastes in the bowl. If he did so, he would inevitably choose what he wants to eat and what he doesn't. He would then risk to develop feelings of attachment. That's why the one who has renounced doesn't choose the food that he eats, even if he has a wide choice at disposal. Besides, once he has started to eat, the noble practitioner of the pattapišðika dhutaýga will not break into pieces foodstuffs such as fish, meat, cakes... On the other hand, it is convenient that an intermediate or ordinary practitioner of this dhutaýga does it. A few bhikkhu who are teachers claim that (wrongly) the noble practitioner of the dhutaýga pattapišðika mixes up all foodstuffs (rice, vegetables, meats, sauces, cakes, fruits, etc.) in his bowl before eating. Thus, by mixing up together all the foodstuffs, we obtain something repugnant. Nobody wishes to eat something repugnant. Buddha himself only appreciated the food being eaten in the proper way. sekhiyas criticise at large these improper ways to eat. For that reason, the practitioners of this dhutaýga must eat without trying to make the contents of their bowl disgusting.

2. the intermediate practitioner The intermediate practitioner of the pattapišðika dhutaýga can break the foodstuffs by means of an hand while eating. Such a practitioner is called a «hatthayogí», which means "an individual utilising the hand". 3. the ordinary practitioner The ordinary practitioner of the pattapišðika dhutaýga can break all the foodstuffs that are in his bowl (or plate...) by means of an hand or teeth (except, for a bhikkhu, foodstuffs that the sekhiya 45 doesn't authorise to break by means of teeth). Such a practitioner is called a "pattayogí", which means "an individual utilising a bowl". The advantages of the pattapišðika dhutaýga By practising the dhutaýga pattapišðika, we can benefit with the following advantages... 1. We can get rid of feelings of attachment to culinary tastes. 2. We can get rid of feelings of attachment arising out of the utilisation to several plates while eating. 3. Health enjoys auspicious conditions, risks of being diseased are reduced, etc. 4. We are rid of all the work required by the preparation and the dish washing of numerous plates. 5. The mind cannot fickle from one plate to the next, concentration is much more inclined to develop itself. 6. We enjoy a convenient means to provide for what we need, while being able to be contented with little. Remark: the practice of a dhutaýga alone enables one to understand its advantages.

The way to break the pattapišðika dhutaýga As soon as the practitioner of the pattapišðika dhutaýga utilises a second recipient (bowl, plate, etc.) while eating, he breaks his dhutaýga. And while utilising a third recipient all the more, etc. A few bhikkhus who are teachers think that an individual a practising the pattapišðika dhutaýga and who accepts some food by means of several plates, or prepare his meal by means of several plates, breaks his dhutaýga, even if he hasn't started to eat or else he heats by means of a sole recipient thereafter. A few bhikkhus who are teachers think that the bowl that has been utilised for a meal (for a practitioner of the pattapišðika dhutaýga) is be considered as a "second bowl" if he takes another meal during the same day (even if the utilised bowl is the same). According to them, a practitioner of the pattapišðika dhutaýga breaks this dhutaýga as soon as he eats a second time during the Daytime. A few bhikkhus who are teachers think that whatever enters the mouth of the practitioner of this dhutaýga (including the wastes such as bones, fish bones...) must be patiently ground, chewed and swallowed. According to them, if he rejects something from his mouth, he breaks his dhutaýga. A few noble bhikkhus who are teachers think that no fault is being committed while accepting food by means of several plates, provided the practitioner utilises only one recipient at time of eating. Indeed, we can accept some food or prepare one's meal by means of several plates (recipients), without having to break ones' dhutaýga. According to commentaries (a††hakathás), as it is convenient that a bhikkhu limits his food contained into his bowl to the minimum quantity required for his body, there is no fault committed if he prepares for himself the required quantity of food inside of his bowl (neither too much, nor too little, but simply the quantity that he needs) before taking his meal. Thus, we can consider that an individual doesn't break this dhutaýga if he prepares for himself the food by means of several recipients containing his meal, before consuming it. The one who practises the pattapišðika dhutaýga without practising the ekásanika dhutaýga, can stand up and after, continue to eat, without breaking his dhutaýga, as long as he eats by means of the same

recipient. We can therefore eat several times during the same day by means of the same recipient, without breaking the pattapišðika dhutaýga. In reality, the pattapišðika dhutaýga does only concern the fact to eat concerns the fact to eat by confining himself to the utilisation of a sole recipient. In the visuddhi magga, it is told: «imesaµ pana tiššampi dutiyabhájanaµ sáditakkhaše dhutaýgaµ bhijjati.» Which means: «The ordinary, intermediate or noble practitioner (of this dhutaýga) breaks this dhutaýga as soon as he utilises, a single moment, a second recipient for eating.» In these conditions, this dhutaýga cannot be broken, even by eating several meal during the same day. The most essential thing is to take all meals of the day by means of the same recipient. Given the fact that the water can be drunk at any time of the day, we can naturally drink some by means of another recipient without breaking this dhutaýga, as the later concerns only food. The mixture of foodstuffs The practitioner of the pattapišðika dhutaýga should avoid mixing up some foodstuffs whose mixture produces a disgusting taste. If we offer him some meat and some porridge of rice, for example, he should first eat the meat, then the porridge of rice, or porridge at a first stage, and then only after the meat. If on the other hand, he has at disposal two types of foodstuffs whose mixture is nothing disgusting, such as some porridge of rice (without oil and without salt) and some honey, he can mix them up. However, he shouldn't serve himself out of greed, in a way so that he may not be able to finish up the contents of his recipient. A practitioner of the pattapišðika dhutaýga can however put some sweet foodstuffs, such as fruits, cakes, etc., in a corner of his bowl (or plate...), without mixing them up, which he will be able to eat before or after the rest of the meal. He, besides, has to do so if he takes his meal at once.

dhutanga tecívarika Meaning of the tecívarika dhutaýga The Pali term "ticívara" means "three robes", that is to say the robe of the bottom (antaravásaka), the upper robe (uttarásaýga) and the double robe (saýghá†i). "ti" = "three pieces"; "cívara" = "robe (utilised by a bhikkhu)" The bhikkhu who confines himself to utilise only three robes is called a "tecívarika". When this practice is appropriately carried out, with steadiness and diligence, with the determination of not to break it, we say that there is "tecívarikaýga " (spirit underlying a use limited to three robes). The bhikkhu who adopts the dhutaýga tecívarika must, apart from his three robes, renounce to any other piece of cloth whose surface corresponds to the one of a cloth requiring a determination (thus a minimum of a cubit and a span in length by a span and six phalanxes in breadth). Adoption of the tecívarika dhutaýga In order to adopt this dhutaýga, it is convenient to utter the following phrase whether in Pali, or else in the language of one's choice... In Pali: «catuttha cívaraµ pa†ikkhipámi, tecívarikaýgaµ samádhiyámi.» In English: «I renounce to a fourth robe, I will train into utilising only three robes.»

The three kinds of practitioners of the tecívarika dhutaýga According to restrictions, there do exist three kinds of practitioners of the tecívarika dhutaýga: 1. ukka††ha tecívarika, the noble practitioner of the tecívarika dhutaýga 2. majjhima tecívarika, the intermediate practitioner of the tecívarika dhutaýga 3. mudu tecívarika, the ordinary practitioner of the tecívarika dhutaýga 1. the noble practitioner When the bhikkhu who is a noble practitioner of the tecívarika dhutaýga washes his robes, he is dressed with his bottom robe (around the waist) while he washes his upper robe, and he is dressed with his upper robe (folded in two and around his waist) while he washes his bottom robe. After (or before) only, it is convenient that he washes his double robe. It is good not to wear the double robe around the waist. The bhikkhu who practises the tecívarika dhutaýga should be cautious in following the above indicated procedure, if he lives in a monastery close by (or within) a village. Only the bhikkhu who is practising the tecívarika dhutaýga who lives in a bush monastery (on a spot remote from inhabited areas) can, if there is no one except himself, simultaneously wash or dye his robes. However, in this situation, in case such a bhikkhu may be seen by someone, it is convenient that he retains, close by himself, one of his three robes in order to easily hide his own body. Such is the practice of the noble practitioner of the tecívarika dhutaýga. 2. the intermediate practitioner The bhikkhu who is an intermediate practitioner of the tecívarika dhutaýga can have an extra robe, which he utilises only for and at time of washing or dyeing his robes. The rest of the time, this extra robe should be set apart. 3. the ordinary practitioner When he washes or dyes one of his three robes, the bhikkhu, who is an ordinary practitioner of the tecívarika dhutaýga, can wear the following cloths: the robe of a bhikkhu who agrees to lend it to him, the cloth that he is utilising as a cover, the cloth utilised as the cover of another, a breadth of fabric measuring a span in breadth by three cubits in length.

In no wise should the bhikkhu practising the dhutaýga tecívarika wear some extra cloth apart from the washing and dyeing of his own robes. He cannot transport other cloths along with him either (while travelling, etc.) The merits of the tecívarika dhutaýga By practising the tecívarika dhutaýga, one can benefit with the following merits... 1. Such as a bird that flies to other spots, one can easily travel, without being embarrassed by many belongings. 2. There are only a few stains (washing, drying, etc.) 3. We are spared by any putting away and storage of clothes. 4. A light maintenance of one's body is required. 5. We are spared from attachment to any robe exceeding the three needed. 6. As we utilise only three robes, we do have but means of livelihood reduced to the least. Note: Only the practice of a dhutaýga enables to truly understand its merits. The way to break the tecívarika dhutaýga As soon as a bhikkhu practising the dhutaýga tecívarika utilises a fourth robe (apart from the laundering of one of his three robes), he breaks his dhutaýga.

Exceptional authorisation given to the practitioners of the tecívarika dhutaýga A bhikkhu who doesn't practise the dhutaýga tecívarika is authorised to set apart cloths for a period not exceeding ten days. He is liable to finish off his stritching work, the teinture and the determination of a robe during the ten days alloted to him. If, after having completed his robe, he sets apart some cloths beyond this period, he commits a nissaggiya pácittiya. He must then abandon them among a bhikkhu well versed into the vinaya, and should not keep these cloths any longer. A bhikkhu who practises the dhutaýga tecívarika is authorised to exceed this ten days period. In this case, he doesn't commit the nissaggiya 1. As soon as the stritching and the dyeing of his robe are completed, he is not supposed to keep some extra cloths. If in these conditions, he keeps some extra cloths beyond ten days, or if he adopts this dhutaýga for the sole purpose of keeping non-stritched cloths for a period exceeding ten days, he is called a «dhutaýga cora», that is to say a "robber of dhutaýga".

dhutaýga ekásanika Meaning of the ekásanika dhutaýga The Pali word "ekásanika" means "the one who has the habit to eat at only one sitting spot". "eká" = "alone, unique"; "ekásana" = "fact to eat at only one sitting spot" When this practice is conveniently done, with steadiness and diligence, with the determination of not breaking it, we say that there is "ekásanikaýga " (state of mind related to a daily meal at only one sitting spot). As soon as the one who practises this dhutaýga sits down to take his meal, as soon as he changes his spot, he no longer eats until the following day. In other parlance, he only takes one meal per day. Adoption of the ekásanika dhutaýga For adopting this dhutaýga, it is convenient to utter the following phrase whether in Pali, where in the language of one's choice... In Pali: «nánásanabhojanaµ pa†ikkhipámi, ekásanikaýgaµ samádhiyámi.» In English: «I renounce to take several consecutive places for eating, I will train into taking a seat only once (per day) for eating.»

The three kinds of practitioners of the ekásanika dhutaýga According to restrictions, there do exist three kinds of practitioners of the ekásanika dhutaýga: 1. ukka††ha ekásanika, the noble practitioner of the ekásanika dhutaýga 2. majjhima ekásanika, the intermediate practitioner of the ekásanika dhutaýga 3. mudu ekásanika, the ordinary practitioner of the ekásanika dhutaýga

1. the noble practitioner The individual who is a noble practitioner of the ekásanika dhutaýga does no longer accept any food that is extra to the one which he already has at disposal when he starts taking his meal, from the moment when he decides to start eating and he puts his hand into one of the recipients by means of which he eats (bowl, etc.), whether the quantity of food is small or large. Any individual practising the ekásanika dhutaýga (of the three kinds) can accept, before or after having changed of spot at the end of the meal, some medicinal foodstuffs (such as butter, molasses...), in a medical purpose. If such foodstuffs are consumed in order to feed oneself after having changed one's spot at the end of the meal, the practitioner breaks this dhutaýga while accepting one of these foodstuffs. 2. the intermediate practitioner The individual who is an intermediate practitioner of the ekásanika dhutaýga can accept some extra food after having started his meal, provided there does remain some food in his recipient (bowl, plate, etc.) Such a practitioner is called a "bhojanapariyantika", which means "the one who reaches the end (of his meal) once there is no more food left (in his recipient)". 3. the ordinary practitioner The individual who is an ordinary practitioner of the ekásanika dhutaýga can accept some extra food after having completely consumed the food found in his recipient, provided he doesn't change his meal spot meanwhile. Such a practitioner is called a "ásanapariyantika", which means "the one who reaches the end (of his meal) once he has stood up", or a "udakapariyantika", which means "the one who reaches the end (of his meal) when the bowl is taken for washing".

The advantages of the ekásanika dhutaýga By practising the ekásanika dhutaýga, we can benefit with the following advantages... 1. We are spared from illnesses (due to an excess of food consumption). 2. We are spared from dissatisfaction (due to food). 3. Agility, easiness while standing up. 4. Energy (owing to a light digestion). 5. We remain happy. 6. We are spared from numerous faults committed against the vinaya regarding food consumption. 7. We can get rid of feeling of attachment to food. 8. We benefit with a convenient means to provide for what we need, while being able to be contented with little. Remark: the practice of a dhutaýga alone enables one to understand its advantages. The way to break the ekásanika dhutaýga As soon as an individual, who practises the ekásanika dhutaýga, consumes some other food at another spot after having finished his meal and made a move, he breaks this dhutaýga. If an individual undergoing a bad state of health consumes a medicine (helping him/her to recover) part from his meal, at any time of the day, the ekásanika dhutaýga is not broken. Nevertheless, if an individual, be him/her sick or not, consumes some milk, coffee or any other feeding product at any time of the day, he breaks this dhutaýga. The vigilance of the practitioner of the ekásanika dhutaýga In order not to break one's practice of the ekásanika dhutaýga, it is convenient to be vigilant on two points: the spot where the meal is taken and the food consumed. The practitioner of the ekásanika dhutaýga should appropriately consider the spot where he will sit before taking a seat on it in order to take his meal. He must make sure that he won't take the risk to have to stand up during his meal, otherwise, he won't have the time to eat his fill

or he will break his dhutaýga while continuing to eat (after having stood up). For example, a bhikkhu is supposed to stand up in order to let an instructor or a maháthera, who is a senior, get through. In some cases, he will have to give his seat to such a person. According to the spot that he occupies while eating, he may have to move aside a bit, and therefore to move from his spot, in order to give sufficient space to an extra bhikkhu so as to sit around the table. The practitioner of the ekásanika dhutaýga should well consider the moment when he will start taking his meal. He must make sure that he won't take the risk too have to stand up after having started taking his meal, otherwise, he wouldn't have the time to eat his fill or he would break his dhutaýga while keeping on eating (after having stood up). For example, if he knows the an instructor or a maháthera who is his senior may arrive, he will have to wait for him. When this later might come, he would manage looking after him suitably, going to search for what he needs, etc., and starting to eat only when his duty has been fulfilled.

dhutaýga yathásantatika Meaning of the yathásantatika dhutaýga The Pali term «yathásantatika» means «the one who has the habit of only dwelling at a spot attributed to him». "yathásanta" = "spot attributed for dwelling" When this practice is conveniently done, with constancy and diligence, with the determination of not breaking it, we say that there is «yathásantikaýga» (state of mind arising out of dwelling on a spot that is attributed to oneself). When a bhikkhu (responsible or having more seniority) tells another bhikkhu, who practises the yathásantatika dhutaýga: «This spot is yours, please do settle down here!», the bhikkhu is well contented with that spot, without searching for another. Adoption of the yathásantatika dhutaýga For adopting this dhutaýga, it is convenient to pronounce the following phrase whether in Pali, whether in the language of one's choice... In Pali: «senásanaloluppaµ pa†ikkhipámi, yathásantatikaýgaµ samádhiyámi.» In English: «I renounce to change of spot once such a sleeping spot has been attributed to me, I will train into being self-contented with the sleeping spot that will be attributed to me.» The three kinds of practitioners of the yathásantatika dhutaýga According to restrictions, there do exist three kinds of practitioners of the yathásantatika dhutaýga: 1. ukka††ha yathásantatika, the noble practitioner of the yathásantatika dhutaýga 2. majjhima yathásantatika, the intermediate practitioner of the yathásantatika dhutaýga 3. mudu yathásantatika, the ordinary practitioner of the yathásantatika dhutaýga

1. the noble practitioner The noble practitioner of the yathásantatika dhutaýga doesn't ask for changing the sleeping spot even if something prevents him for sleeping. When someone ascribes a spot to him, he doesn't ask: «Is there any danger?», «Is there not any danger?», «Is it far off?», «Is it close by?», «Are there snakes?», «Are there scorpions?», «Are there insects?», «Is there hot weather in it?», «Is there cold weather in it?», etc. Should he inquire this way, his dhutaýga is no more the one of a noble practitioner. 2. the intermediate practitioner The intermediate practitioner of the yathásantatika dhutaýga can inquire about the spot that is attributed to him, but shouldn't proceed to watch it. If he does so with the intention to check out whether this spot is convenient for him or not, he is just an ordinary practitioner. 3. the ordinary practitioner The ordinary practitioner of the yathásantatika dhutaýga can inquire about the spot that is attributed to him as lodging and proceed to watch it for ascertaining by himself. Should this spot pose a threat to his health, or if it doesn't provide any tranquillity, he can ask for his spot to be changed without however breaking his dhutaýga. The advantages of the yathásantatika dhutaýga By practising the yathásantatika dhutaýga, we can benefit with the following advantages... 1. Obeisance to the instructions given by Buddha when he says: «One must know how to be fully contented with the conditions we benefit with and what we get.» 2. Joy and will to see one's companions always satisfied with their lodging. 3. We get rid of the state of mind (detrimental for the development of vipassaná or of samatha) that lies in considering, verifying and deeming the quality of things. 4. Reject of the appreciation and the depreciation. 5. Closure of the doors of attachment and desire cultivated towards other monasteries (sleeping spots) that we do not have. 6. We benefit with a convenient means to provide for what we need, while managing to be satisfied with little.

Remark: the practice of a dhutaýga alone enables one to understand its advantages. The way to break the yathásantatika dhutaýga As soon as a bhikkhu who practises the yathásantatika dhutaýga, who cannot be satisfied with the spot that is attributed to him for settling down, harbours the wish to change the spot, with the intention to obtain a better lodging, he breaks his dhutaýga. The way to practise the yathásantatika dhutaýga In a monastery belonging to the saµgha, is usually found a person who is in-charge of attributing to bhikkhus dwelling spots, backing up with their seniority (the best spots being attributed to the eldest monks (in seniority). When we attribute his lodging spot to a bhikkhu who practises the yathásantatika dhutaýga, the later should not say: «It is a good spot», «It is a bad spot», «There is hot weather in it», «There is cold weather in it», «It is spacious», «It is too narrow», etc. He must accept his spot without protests, neither by making comments. He should not either ask from a bhikkhu who has more elderliness than himself that the later should give him his spot. He should merely be contented by dwelling, fully satisfied, in the lodging that has been attributed to him. Encouragement to practise the yathásantatika dhutaýga By practising this dhutaýga, we get rid, within our mind, of the desire to obtain good spots and things. We are very easily contented with what we get. We can be satisfied with strict minimum, even with the worst sleeping mat. We are free of aversion, we are very tolerant. For these reasons, Buddha himself and bhikkhus endowed with wisdom do practise this dhutaýga.

dhutaýga paµsukúla Meaning of the paµsukúla dhutaýga The Pali word "paµsukúla" means "forsaken robe", that is to say a neglected dress that has been abandoned on a spot indicating that what is meant is real abandonment, such as the edge of a road, a garbage heap, etc. "paµsu" = "dust (coming from wastes or earth)"; "kula" = "jutting out (such as the bank of a river)" Literally, "paµsukúla" therefore means "that which comes out of dust". Indeed, such a robe is abandoned in dust, and it covers other wastes, such as the dust itself. According to another method, "paµsukúla" can be decomposed as follows: "paµsu" = "such as the dust"; " = "disgust"; "ula" = "to arrive" In this case, "paµsukúla" means "(robe) that arrives from a disgusting spot (such as a charnel)" Remark: although the term "paµsukúla" does usually refer to a clothe, it also concerns any other object: a paµsukúla bowl, some paµsukúla sandals, some paµsukúla meat, etc. The bhikkhu who has got used to utilise only paµsukúla robes is called a "paµsu kúlika ". When this practice is conveniently carried out, backing up with síla, samádhi et pañña, along with the determination of not breaking it, we say that there is "paµsu kúlikaýga " (spirit underlying the exclusive use of abandoned robes). Owing to the fact that such a bhikkhu is rid of the attachment caused by offered robes, his virtue and practice of concentration are forcibly more perfected. That practice therefore enables to considerably lessen kilesás linked to the attachment to a robe. Should a bhikkhu, who is about to pick up a "paµsukúla" robe, think that the later could have been forgotten by its owner or fell off owing to lack of attention, he must wait for two or three days prior to picking it up, if it is still there.

Adoption of the paµsukúla dhutaýga In order to adopt this dhutaýga, it is convenient to utter the following phrase, whether in Pali, or else according to one's language choice... In Pali: «gahapatidánacívaraµ pa†ikkhipámi, paµsukúlikaýgaµ samádhiyámi.» In English: «I renounce to the offered robes, I will train into utilising only abandoned robes.» The three kinds of practitioners of the paµsukúla dhutaýga According to the restrictions, there do exist three kinds of practitioners of the paµsukúla dhutaýga: 1. ukka††ha paµsukúlika, the noble practitioner of the paµsukúla dhutaýga 2. majjhima paµsukúlika, the intermediate practitioner of the paµsukúla dhutaýga 3. mudu paµsukúlika, the ordinary practitioner of the paµsukúla dhutaýga 1. the noble practitioner The bhikkhu who utilises only abandoned robes that he finds among charnels is a noble practitioner of the paµsukúla dhutaýga. 2. the intermediate practitioner The bhikkhu who utilises robes that have been abandoned with in mind the idea that some bhikkhus would pick them up is an intermediate practitioner of the paµsukúla dhutaýga. 3. the ordinary practitioner The bhikkhu who utilises robes that have been abandoned at his feet (or close from him, with in mind the aim that it is being indirectly offered to him) is an ordinary practitioner of the paµsukúla dhutaýga.

The merits of the paµsukúla dhutaýga By practising the paµsukúla dhutaýga, one can benefit with the following merits... 1. Respect of the second among the four autonomies praised by Buddha: «It is convenient to oneself search for an abandoned robe (without needing to depend on a donor)». 2. Respect of the first among the four "ariyavaµsas": very rare consumption of robes. 3. An abandoned robe being devoid of value, we are spared from the vigilance and cares required by an offered robe. 4. We remain independent from others' work. 5. We are protected from theft. 6. We are spared from any attachment arising out of clothing. 7. A very suitable acquirement of the parikkharás. 8. Use of a stuff praised by Buddha: «(An abandoned robe) having a lesser value, it is easy to obtain, and enables one to be free from faults (fault incurred by a wrong acceptance of a new robe, for example)». 9. We are worthy of praise. 10. We are fully satisfied by the benefits taken from very simple needs. 11. It enables the development of pa†ipatti. 12. It enables to set an example to other bhikkhus and to incite them to adopt the same practice. Remark: only the practice of a dhutaýga enables one to truly understand its advantages. The way to break the paµsukúla dhutaýga Should a bhikkhu accept an offered robe, and this robe is attributed to him beyond his volition or he himself requested for this robe, from the moment he utilises this robe, he breaks his paµsukúla dhutaýga. If, the intention to utilise it for his own purpose being absent, by thinking from the start to offer it to another bhikkhu, a bhikkhu accepts a robe with the anxiety to preserve the saddhá of the donor who offers it to him, he doesn't break his dhutaýga.

Each practitioner of the paµsukúla dhutaýga should develop a lot of attention and vigilance if he wishes not to break his practice, but on the contrary make sure that it is as pure and complete as possible.

Praises of the paµsukúla dhutaýga A paµsukúla robe is a particular robe. Owing to the fact that it is a robe abandoned on a spot such as a charnel, the edge of a road, a garbage heap, it is even more specific. In the same manner, it can yield specific benefits. To the laity, the advantages lying in respecting the one who wears a robe or the robe itself are innumerable, but to the one who wears it, they are even more numerous. From Buddha's time, the Venerables Saññaka and Pújaka set a living example of those merits. The matters linked to the vassa robe It is better, for a bhikkhu practising the dhutaýga paµsukúla, not to accept a vassa robe offered by some dáyakas who tell him: «We want to offer you a vassa robe.» This bhikkhu should suggest them to propose their offering to the saµgha (or to another bhikkhu) living within the monastery. If the dáyakas tell: «We don't want to offer this robe to the saµgha (or to another bhikkhu). We want to offer this robe only to you.», it is good to accept this robe (without utilising it for oneself) and to give it to one of the bhikkhus (or sámašera) who has the habit to look after himself. Should this bhikkhu nevertheless accept the robe of these dáyakas, he breaks his dhutaýga.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful