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Adams Source: Comparative Literature Studies, Vol. 13, No. 2, Special Bicentennial Issue: American Literature in World Opinion (Jun., 1976), pp. 100-115 Published by: Penn State University Press Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/40241808 . Accessed: 17/02/2014 13:24
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from lyric poets like Ronsard and Donne. to satirists like Brant with his Narrenschiff. found not only among thinkers from Vives to Bodin but among writers of belles lettres from Torres Naharro to Ronsard to Bacon and Jonson. say. But we are to discuss not only the literature of the Renaissance. Haydn's fine study has suggested that to avoid a "doctrinaireapproach"1 we can demonstrate the diversity of the period by speaking of a Renaissance and then of a Counter-Renaissance. true reports competing with false ones and with legends. Every literary genre also showed the effect of growing information about and interest in America." Calvin and Machiavellilying side by side in the counter camp. Nevertheless. Then there are the romances that inspired exploration and borrowed marvels from America. the discovery and resulting exploration did affect every important theme in Renaissance literature. While it may be true thatin the Renaissance more books were still being written about Europe and the ancients. were also inspired by that literature."Classicism. one is that while America inspired so much literature.176. and gave great impetus to the theme of progress. confusing. the thesis depends on leaving the so-called backward-looking"Classicists"in the "Renaissance"and placing the reforming "Romanticists" in the "CounterRenaissance. today.5. to embarkation ode and sermon writers.but 100 This content downloaded from 168. 17 Feb 2014 13:24:37 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .it gave rise to the theme of "Spanish Cruelty." Tags are neat but they are constricting and.But while two categories may be more acceptable than one.""Romanticism. the travel and pseudotravel books." almost as much danger as there is in using other such terms . almost useless . even in the Renaissance. we need not define but can simply agree that we are concerned with the literature of Europe at a period in time extending from the discovery of the New Worldin the West to about the middle of the seventeenth century. in whole or in part. and the Utopias. England and France.that world's changing image." "Baroque. the epics like Ercilla's.the Noble Savage and Earthly Paradise . having redefined by employing definitions that are themselves "doctrinaire"and. Besides the best known of these themes . its exploration and its culture. the biases of a nation or of a visitor or a commentator. Of many conclusions drawn from a condensed study.118 on Mon.we are back to our problem. the New World began to stir imaginations and inspire the best of writers.witness Donald Greene on "Neo-Classicism"." first exposed by Spain itself and then eagerly adopted by. And so. ultimately. Fortunately. ADAMS ABSTRACT Any study of the effect of the discovery of the New World is complicated by many factors . the geographical position occupied in America by a particular European country.The Discoveryof America and European RenaissanceLiterature PERCY G. (PGA) There is great danger in talking about the "Renaissance.
with changing information. places and place names came and went. for example. each empireseeking nation received its particularimage with the use of the term "New World. because of different climatic conditions. Thus. but various conflicting traditions grew up depending on whom one read . and from great collections such as Montalboddo's and in 1507 to Acosta and De Bry at the end of the Waldseemiiller's sixteenth century." Fourth. the extended and heavy impact of Spanish culture on its possessions as opposed to a shorter and smaller impact in North America . Europe brought much of its own image and bias with its soldiers and priests who crossed the Atlantic. not only. Ophir.176. do reports of the Conquistadoresof South and North America conflict but they often show how the natives. then.3 And there were other marvelstransplantedor invented.because of many factors.translators. from interpretations of Indian religion to fantastic natural facts such as Pigafetta's Patagoniangiants. First. Third. or found to its satisfaction. so its knowledge of the Americas altered with every newly returned ship and every freshly written account. terrestrialglobes replaced celestial globes.The Italians and the Spanish. fifth. were quick with their books while the English were notoriously late in sailing or publishing. Over and over it has been shown how Europe searched for. the Spanish New Worldexisted from Florida south. often blatantly altered facts that may or may not have been right to begin with.Atlantis. to define that Worldis even harderthan to define the Renaissance . Because. or John Hawkins' Florida unicorn. for example. what Levin calls "the moral ambivalence of the golden lure" in the search for This content downloaded from 168. from the oftpublished letters of Columbus and Vespucci to Raleigh and Van Noort. Second. no doubt. the TerrestrialParadise.118 on Mon. expanded or contracted. 17 Feb 2014 13:24:37 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . And.LITERATURE AND DISCOVERY 101 also that New Worldin the West.while England only after 1580 cornered its Virginia and New England. France ended in the late sixteenth century with its New World in Canada. even PresterJohn. each part of Europe had its writers and its time for learning.4 Sixth.for many reasons. kinds of people encountered. fur-seekingin Canadaand gold-seeking in South America. told not the truth but what the threatening Europeans wanted to hear. for example. the image of the New World was not only constantly changing and corrupted by its reporters. There was. for example. maps were altered each decade. since the Old World civilization and the New World peoples at first found it impossible to communicate with each other.2 And. David Ingram'selephants in North America. just as the Renaissance changed its countenance with time.5. out of fear.
5. distorted. Europeanized landscapes. "their degradation is greater than that of any beast.one.10 let us turn first to the theme of the Cruelty of the Spaniardsin the New World. a changing. Nearly every sixteenth-century collection or summary of voyages had certain illustrations . to be Europeanized. with writers like This content downloaded from 168. greed for Westerngold and condescension toward Indian "ignorance"of its value led to demands impossible to fulfill." and he openly and shamefacedly condemned atrocities such as those of that butcher governor of Panama. To suggest the extent of that influence. Chanca on Columbus's second voyage.all coming of course from Spain itself. bloody retaliations by the natives. the transplanted Italian Pietro Martire12over and over asserted that certain of them "seeme to live in the goulden worlde. to be presented to Frobisher'sHenry VII or Ribaud's Queen.gigantic warriorsbending Greek bows. From the earliest discoveries in the West Indies.9 It was. then. there was a vigorous defense of the natives and an attack on their mistreatment oy the Spaniards. 17 Feb 2014 13:24:37 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .5 or the double myth about the indigenes of the Indies .118 on Mon. that is. the other that he was sub-humanand should be enslaved or exterminated.102 COMPARATIVE LITERATURE STUDIES Paradisein the West. When the debate grew heated over the nature of the Indians. let us look at two important literary themes and then sample the various literary genres. to die far from home.8 Such pictures did not always conform to the appearance of the real natives who were sometimes seen in Europe . Paradise.7 Seventh.and certain other themes so often and sometimes so beautifully handled by recent writers. The eyewitness drawingsby John White and Le Moyne were placed in De Bry in 1590 and thereafter became the bases for idealized pictures which gave the Indians the appearance and nature of ancient Greeks or Spartans. from the very beginning.almost every voyager to the New Worldtreacherously captured one or more to bring back as slaves. to dance on village greens on feast days. After Montesinos' famous sermon of 1511 defending the Indians. paradoxical New Worldwhich entered and affected Renaissance literature."11 But also. and last. another is that of the zealous Hakluyt and his treatment of the account of De Soto's expedition as written by the Portuguese Gentleman of Elvas. that he was a Noble Savage.176. Pedro Arias de Avila. One example of intended mistranslationis the renderingof the Spanish physician Nicolas Monardes (1569-71) by John Frampton/5 who left the impression that all plants in the New Worldwere health-givingand that henceforth there would be a cure for every physical ill. and the rise of the extreme form of that "anti" image of the New World man as impossible to Christianizeor civilize. the judgment stated by Dr. there were the Renaissance pictures of the people of the New World and there were the people themselves brought back to be displayed. nude nymphs. Avoiding the Noble Savage.
showed the Spanish hunting Indians with dogs. lascivious. You Know no bodie (1605)."14 in spite of the fact that Spain led the way in exposing its own sins. which became so important in Europe only after Las Casasand his words were well known everywhere. cutting off their hands. It was called Las Cortes de la Muerte (The Assembly of Death) and is a kind of morality play in which the body is a character. in which. it is reflected best in the drama. as in John Donne's simile: This content downloaded from 168. the myth of Spanish cruelty in the New World became one of the strongest myths in history.5. had been reported and other nations. remained the chief spokesman against Spanish mistreatment.176. of course.118 on Mon. adopted it with enthusiasm.their plays expose the cruelty most often. and there were many who dealt with the theme. in spite of the fact that debates between Las Casasand Sepulveda inspired "admirablelaws. The first to do so apparently came less than five years after Las Casas'fiery pamphlets in 1557 in Toledo.19 It was a theme often found in England outside the drama. Religion.LITERATURE AND DISCOVERY 103 Ovie'doand Quevédo proving their sub-humannature by resorting to Aristotle. including // You Know Not Me. of whatever amount. from about 1519 to his death. cruel.angels are personified. for in 1537 Pope Paul Ill's famous Bull made the Indians officially human. As a theme in Renaissance literature. 17 Feb 2014 13:24:37 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . inspired by the destruction of the Armada and finding evidence not only in Las Casasbut in Castanheda'saccount of De Soto's expedition. found the good. and the author laments Spanish lust for gold and the resulting cruel treatment of innocent Indians.17 No English dramatistsor poets. and in 155253 Las Casaswas able to publish tracts which were not only inflammatory and exaggeratedbut which went all over Europe to give comfort and aid to Spain's political and religious enemies. Providence. however. the advantagesand disadvantagesof the discovery of America. At least in theory his campaign won out. and since England and Spain were rivals in producing good drama as well as good navigators. In spite of the fact that saintly Spanish priests devoted their lives to the Americans."18 while Robert Greene in Spanish Masquerado(1589). and the Devil argue as charactersthe rights and wrongs. along with Columbus and Indians.13 Bartolomé de las Casas came forward and. especially England and France. Idolatry. Thomas Heywood in at least three plays. Lope's El Nuevo Mundo reflects his pride in Spanish conquests and colonizing achievements even as it laments the evil that went with the good.15 But that cruelty. tearing them with horses. as in a great number of his plays which deal with America. But.16Also in the morality tradition is Lope de Vega's well known El Nuevo Mundo descubierto por Colon. a fact true also of Tirso de Molina's patriotic trilogy about the Pizarros. made the Spanish "tyrannous.
expressed pride in the way Spain had "improved" her colonies25 and more than once announced that the moderns had gone beyond the Greeks and Romans.5. gave gigantic impetus to this complex of theories found everywhere in literature. 17 Feb 2014 13:24:37 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . Very early in the sixteenth century."26 a thesis supported by his predecessor.22the more one reads Renaissance writers the more one agrees with Hans Baron and others23 that Humanism did not slavishly follow the Greeks and Romans but. the cruelty of the Spaniardswas being regularly contrasted with the kindness and humanity of the French.104 COMPARATIVE LITERATURE STUDIES And if they stand arm'd with seely honestie. Granada(1582) pointed out that "in new lands there are discovered daily new animals with new abilities and properties. then.or the good Protestant English.B. inspired by the ancient greats.and even more vigorously by Monardes' This content downloaded from 168. So Davenant not only has a spurious history of the Incas in his spectacle but concludes his conglomerate of speeches.. written two years after what is perhaps the most famous of all translations of Las Casas. the discovery of America became a symbol of discovery and invention in general as well as evidence to historians of the New Worldthat their age had made advances over former ages." of the New World.176. the notion of progressis obviously closely linked with the Quarrelof the Ancients and Moderns and with the doctrine of Manifest Destiny. such pieces of literature had helped advertise to Europe outside the Iberian peninsula the horrorsof Spanish conquest and colonization. Gomara (1552). the other often considered distinctively American. is that of the New World's possible influence on the doctrine of progress. 20 The best known of all English treatments of the theme is surely Davenant's "opera" The Cruelty of the Spaniardsin Peru (1658). the physician Monardes. . Like Indians 'gainst Spanish hosts they be. Pietro Martire(1533) is only one such early historian to point out that the ancients knew nothing.24Another.21By Davenant's time. that by Milton's nephew John Phillips. such as have never been known . "as we do. . discovered simultaneously with ancient thought and letters. Bury's seminal book leading to his thesis that the idea of progressreally begins only with Descartes. like Cartier and Champlain. and acrobatics with English soldiers heroically arrivingto save the natives of Mexico from the villainous Cortés.118 on Mon. A second theme. With wishing prayers and neat integritie.In spite of the argument in J. even after Puritan atrocities in New England and after the horrible aftermath of the 1622 massacrein Virginia. took pride in its own accomplishments and looked forward to still greater ones. It is provocative to see how the New World. At any rate. songs. the former often considered late seventeenth-century. much more subtle. By the time of Descartes and the Restoration of CharlesII. dances.
34Just as Du Bellay's famous This content downloaded from 168. he echoed Acosta in believing the Andes taller than any Old World mountains. discipline.118 on Mon. compared his own bent to intellectual discovery with the great discovery of Columbus. daily. in more than one book. Close to great geographicalas well as philosophical developments. knew that future ages would rise to heights they did not know.the ancients. Bacon developed out of Bruno the then striking theory that the moderns are the true ancients because they are the result of the aging of creativity and experience. virtue and goodness. as well as reformers like Luther. and printing but also discovered new worlds and circumnavigatedthe globed Preceded by thinkers like these and praisingwith so many of his immediate ancestors the geographical discoveries as well as the three wonderful inventions of the previous hundred years.176. the compass. he said. And not only like the others was Bacon impressed with the opening up of a New Worldby means of the compass and gunpowder. he asserted.LITERATURE AND DISCOVERY 105 translator. closely followed by his contemporary disciple Le Roy.32 and.27 With countless witnesses such as these.and other Humanists. The Inca Garcilaso (1609) not only defined three distinct stages of development in the history of his people but proudly asserted that the exploits of De Soto surpassedthose of the ancients.5. pointed out that the Aztecs and Incas were examples of progress in America. Frampton. for they "judged it to be of the very essence of the human race that.but it is appropriate here to start with that much admired friend of Erasmusand More. one can see why sixteenth-century geographers. it should progressin arts. some referring to the New Worlddirectly or to the theories of thinkers influenced by the New World. believed in progress. The intellectual leaders of the sixteenth century knew and were impressedby America and what it meant. rejected all golden ages and the theory of man's degeneration and ended by showing that his age had not only invented gunpowder. "they were men as we are.Juan Luis Vives. exactly like Bruno and others. It would be easy to demonstrate that More.philosophers. the SpaniardVives praised the giants of antiquity. Erasmus."28Furthermore. 17 Feb 2014 13:24:37 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .33 With such New World historians and Old Worldthinkers to inspire them. but.31 praisedSpain's far-sightedactivity in developing its dominions. Torres Naharro (1517) was comparinghis new book to a ship setting sail to discover new worlds. and were liable to be deceived and to err. and readers scorned the ancient and once honored Ptolemy as each new map showed him ever more wrong or why they attacked Aristotle long before Bacon did. belletristic writers of the Renaissance everywhere reflect the idea of progressand the worth of the moderns. Even as Magellanwas sailing through his Strait. Bodin."29 Even more influential throughout Europe was Jean Bodin.
whether derived from good or evil or mixed motives..and profit from the New World.the promotion poems like Drayton's famous Ode and the Bon Voyage or "puffing" poems such as those of Ronsard.and most lyric poetry. especially from the Pléaide to Dryden's "Ode to Charleton.3*Even John Donne. however. whose Timber. Spenser. de Baîf. a bridge. Across the Channel and a bit later. and Chapman's This content downloaded from 168." has so many allusions to and metaphors depending on a knowledge of the New World. preached that famous send-off sermon in 1622 in which he told the prospective colonists that they were leaving to make "this island .35 believed with their friend Le Roy in some kind of forward movement in a designed world .37 Early in the sixteenth century. 17 Feb 2014 13:24:37 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .106 COMPARATIVE LITERATURE STUDIES Défense (1549) is nothing if not an illustration of a belief in progress. he argued in the "Mutabilitie" cantos that Nature had arrangedall things neatly only to have Mutabilitie come along and destroy the order."36 But when. his friend Hervey wrote that famous letter reprimandinghim for such a philosophy because "Nature herself is changeable"and. argued that "God had reserved" the New Worldnorth of Florida "to be reduced unto Christiancivilitie by the English nation. employed the New World in image and metaphor and believed in "a goal of perfection. There are countless such themes given impetus by news out of the New Worldthat could be traced through European literature. led smoothly to Jefferson's westward-lookingeyes and Monroe's manifesto.. a gallery to the new [World].or Discoveries shows how closely he depended on the Vives passageswe started with. which.118 on Mon. so French and English believed they were not just building empires in America but following a vision. who often turned to America for image and theme. two types of lyric poems uniquely related to America . one that would relate Progressand the Ancient -Moderndebate to the theory of Manifest Destiny. Christianize. like his teacher Ronsard. as holy papal bulls even agreed.5. but let us also try the great literary genres. although we can pass over dramalate starting and already mentioned .176. One of the best examples of a great Renaissance creative writer's belief in progressis Ben Jonson. and Jodelle for Thevet's book on America.'Toute chose a sa fin et tend a quelque bût" ("Hymne de Yété").41There are. carryingout a mandate from God or his earthly representative. The entire subject needs another book-length study."40 Such visions of a Passageto India. in spite of all his poems on the decay of man or of the loved one. inconsistently. his friend Ronsard.38 Edward Hayes. the Spanish Humanist Perez de Oliva saw a westward course of empire with Spain as God's agent. Hervey said. because Jean Bodin was right in believing the present better than the past. For just as the Spanish believed they were the race chosen to improve." a belief held later by many early colonizers of Virginia. with Gilbert in Newfoundland.
Cortés' fourth letter to the King tells how an expedition he sent out looking for Amazons and gold returned with the exciting news that ten days beyond their stopping point. and enchanted places mas alia.48 Closely related to the romance. the "real"accounts brought back stories of giants. more than once turned to the New World for inspiration. In 1510 Montalvo published the fifth volume of his Amadis cycle."where the conversation dwells on cultural relativismby way of comparing naked Americans with clothed Europeans. decorates most maps of the late sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. the soldiers were told. and descriptions of Mexico City or Peru sent home to Spain often sounded like the literary romances themselves.5. One of these is the prose romance. however. The educated Cortés read Amadis to his soldiers around the campfire.For example. even more than other countries. The relation between the romance and the exploration of the New World is both complex and intriguingbecause the influence went west as well as east. important in university training and high on the best seller lists. which was named Sergasde Esplandidnand went through six Spanish editions during the century.43Yet another genre is the dialogue or colloquy. El Dorados. This content downloaded from 168.45There are other genres that need more attention. Spaniardswere easily persuaded to join expeditions to an America that might be the ideal land for valorous action as well as rich treasure.LITERATURE AND DISCOVERY 107 for Keymis on his expedition to Guiana. Amazons. 17 Feb 2014 13:24:37 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . queen of a race of Amazons who reside on a craggy island named " 'California. concentrating on early reports about islands of Amazons and on Caravajal's record of Orellana'svoyage down the great river named for the women warriorshe had to fight. as in "The Well-to-do Beggars. This "island. The popularity of Amadis and Palmerin from 1508 on paralleledthe popularity of the letters of Columbus and Vespucci or the Decades of Martire.176. Until the time of Don Quixote.easily the great name here. avidly read these romances and was inspired to seek the marvels described in them." or one like it.44 Erasmus. golden idols. Spain. had an incalculable influence on the exploits of Cortes and the Pizarros. dwarfs. there was an island rich in treasureand inhabited by women. especially in the Renaissance. Irving Leonard46has told the story well. In it is told the story of Calafia. for not until after 1700 were cartographersfinally convinced that lower Californiawas a peninsula. or fountains of youth.'" celebrated for "its abundance of gold and jewels.118 on Mon. Seven Cities.and just as the romances told of giants. from Brant'sNarrenschiff (1494) to the Elizabethan play EastwardHo! to Bishop Hall's ridicule of lying travelers."47 All of this literature.but none more than Esplandidn.42There is also a whole body of satiricalliterature inspired by new geographicaldiscoveries.
1578.came to England from Hungary. In ottava rima.50 Stigliane may have given up. like Gilbert." That is to say. and reminiscences of scenes in Homer. This content downloaded from 168. impressed not only by the Montesinos-LasCasastradition but by his own experiences.176. unless we count The Faerie Queene. bringing with him a fine classical education gained on the Continent. Of the many poems about America that have epic qualities. While Voltaire did not like its emphasis on war. "avrà ardimento/ All' incognito corso esporsi in prima. if we stop before Milton. Stephen Parmenius. sailed with Gilbert to Newfoundland and. and Lucan. One was by a lad of eighteen at Exeter named WilliamKidley. in Latin hexameters. the best is undoubtedly Ercilla'sLa Araucaria. in one of these epics.52 La Araucaria may be the best epic in the Spanish language.published in three parts (1569.53 There is no English epic of the period.118 on Mon. for in those countries there were long poems inspired by the New World.108 COMPARATIVE LITERATURE STUDIES is the epic. Virgil. but others did not."49 And Tasso's friend Stigliane apparently thought of writing an epic to honor Columbus. at least in England and Spain. None is as good. In England. has been retranslated (1972) in a splendid volume.Colombo. another young man. having convinced himself with his poem. the Divers Voyages. wrote a kind of epic published in 1582. epic debates and a vision.51 Ercilla. The poem. but there were long poems written in England dealing with America which come close. the year of Hakluyt's first propagandistic collection. he studied navigation at Oxford with Richard Hakluyt the younger. however. and while it has often been remarkedthat the great epics of the time looked back to Greece and Rome or were really romances in poetry like Orlando Furioso (1516). since Parmeniusknew English most inadequately. became enthusiastic about the colonizing ventures discussed all around him."the gentle guide answered the wondering knight Ubaldo. and then. who in 1624 used not only Richard Hawkins' own Observationsbut information collected from other sources to tell a patriotic tale of Britain'sgreat exploits in the New World.54A generation earlier. 17 Feb 2014 13:24:37 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . Tasso proudly announced the discovery of America by his countryman: "Un uom liguria. and he even found a speech by the cacique Colacola in Ercilla's second canto superior to anything in Homer. neither did he approve of the Iliad./ Ch'a pena seguirà con gli occhi il volo/ La Fama ch'ha mille occhi e mille penne. GerusalemmeLiberata (1575). she went on. treats the AraucanianIndians sympathetically in their heroic struggleagainst Spanish domination. lost his life in the cold North Atlantic.5. much bloodshed. the poem provides local color. "Tu spiegherai. a un novo polo/ Lontano si le fortunate antenne.55 Parmeniusbegins with fulsome praise of God. 1589) and written by a soldier-statesman who was in Peru for the wars he described in his poem. as Comoes' Os Lusiadas (1572) celebrating da Gama and Portugal.
catalogues the exof to New British the and ends with a prayer World. to.69which may be the best of real Renaissance travels. might have little on flora and fauna but much about his own experiences. 17 Feb 2014 13:24:37 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . Columbus could be objective in reporting his sailingsand landings and troubles and yet insert a story of meeting a large Indian boat off Mexico filled with people dressed in dyed cotton. longs to write the epic of "the rise of the new race. Of course. A Spaniard such as Alonso Enrîquez de Guzman. at the same time.118 on Mon. Ralegh's Guiana. One of the chief influences in belles lettres that came with the discovery of America is the impetus given by that discovery to travel literature and pseudo-travel literature. employs copious classical allusions. Columbus and Vespucci. and then there was Pliny. as did La Vida de Marcos de Obregôn. for example. the letters of Cortés to his king. Such books will lead to others. and Britain that they will gently civilize the savages and join them with the English in a great expansionist and progressivemovement. ploits voyagers to God.5. most idealistically hopes to witness their conversion. then. is the imaginaryvoyage.58 will often be as personal. but after 1492 voyage literature not only became more popular with printing and with a New Worldto write about but it became better. Close to the real travel book. and Gilbert. Elizabeth. be as gripping as any novel. Europe had learned to write and read huge quantities of travel literature about the New World. inspired in great part by the many actual travel accounts of the New World.176. grew to maturity in the Renaissance." attacks Spain's cruelty and Europe s lust for gold. or Vespucci might tell of women warriorsand a horrible cannibalistic orgy and record personal impressions of South America. The travel letters of two Italians. His is one of the most attractive poems about the New World. shows the influence of Virgil and Camo"M. marvelousand yet realistic. even though it has had no influence historically. or Bernai Diaz's account of the conquest of Mexico. where feathers were more valuable than precious metals. By the end of the Renaissance. for example. so close in fact that often one cannot separate them. a combination that would make such books more and more fascinating to European readers.56 for example. which. but it will also become invaluable in every way to historians of Mexico and. pretend to be real. These imaginaryvoyages could. whose unnatural natural history affected the best and worst of travel books until well after 1700. the early Renaissance had its Marco Polos and Mandevillesto help. of Defoe.57 A different kind of travel book.LITERATURE AND DISCOVERY 109 Queen Elizabeth. setting out for America in 1534. are both personal and objective. in fact. considers the origins of the American Indians. by This content downloaded from 168. comparableto the best of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries and a favorite.
.in the New Atlantis often cites the New Worldhistorian Acosta as well as the Inca Garcilaso. that of Columbus. as in the case of Roberval's famous pilot Jean Alphonse and his Cosmographie.taken from a Spanish book of 1519 by Fernandez de Enciro. there is a plurality of religions. What can one say briefly? w That after Plato. as a symbol for "man's unquenchable spirit of discovery. land is held in common. each home has behind it a beautiful garden open to all. all of whom had suggested that statues of Columbus be erected.118 on Mon. or inner space."65 And Bacon. on what he thought he knew of the Incas. Utopias were placed often in the West and employed facts gleaned from writers about America. Ramusio.and sailed west to Utopia. ire's Indians. Utopias were normally celestial while. for example. Campanella. . 17 Feb 2014 13:24:37 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . And finally there are the Utopias. in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. who in the Novum Organumhad thought the travels of the ancients "no more than suburbanexcursions" when compared with the voyages of Columbus and Magellan. but also to the long sixteenth-century tradition of using Columbus."60or an anonymous French ".especially on those written by and told about Jacques Cartier. as Lope said.as Baudet says. "based much of his ideal state .176.62Or they could consist of marvelousadventures not all of which were intended to be taken as real.63Such pseudotravel books would increase in number after the Renaissance and lead to many dozens in the eighteenth century. no one distinguished between meum where. who borrowed information and dates from Sarmiento's west-side visit to Magellan'sStrait and then included what all readersagree is "geografia fantastica. par le sieur de Combes" (1609). for example. More's Hythloday accompanied Vespucci. gold is despised. as the later books oi Pantagruel. of innovation. which takes a fictional person to Canadaby borrowing facts from Champlainand inventing others. lettre envoyée de la Nouvelle-France. crossed South America with other travelers. a fact that points not just to Benzoni. only to return often to outer space. from More (1516) to Campanella(1623) and Bacon (1624.5. as with Mart and tuum. shows a great interest in theories about ancient Atlantis as America. who lived in and sailed from Rabelais' Saint-Malo..110 COMPARATIVE LITERATURE STUDIES Vicente Espinel. after America was discovered. is one of the first important thinkers to ponder the question of the Jewish or other possible origins of human life in the New World. which draw heavily on accounts of the New World. as with Vespucci. that is one of the marked characteristicsof Renaissance belles This content downloaded from 168. and Oviédo. That in the Renaissance. and. published later). they became earthly during the Renaissance. of experiment. carriageson wheels.61 Or they could be completely plagiarizedand intend to deceive..and of all the statues in his famous house of Salomon names one."66 It is perhaps this spirit of discovery.
Van Noort. Jacques Cartier. Jean Ribaut. of Guiana. 2. greedy gold seekers.hence the collection is often given Minister's name (in Latin.And perhapsas important for us to note now is that the influence of the New Worldon Renaissance literature is often no greater than the influence of that literature on the New Worlditself. after Columbus returned with his stirringnews.all so indebted to Columbus. 1928. ADAMS • University of Tennessee NOTES 1. The Discoverie . V. as well as many others. etc. Not only. more plays about English Henrys and Richards than about Spanish Pizarros. 17 Feb 2014 13:24:37 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . its Aztecs and Incas. 1532) [ed. the earthly Paradise. science. Magellan. e. its cannibals and Noble Savages. Harlow^London: Argonaut. Markham (London: Hakluyt. with its changing. Novus Orbis (Basle. but Vasco de Quiroga. Champlain. 1894). its conquest and civilization.B. Spanish cruelty. 1507) [a very popular collection reprinted in Italy alone five times by 1521] . The Letters of Amerigo Vespucci trans. faithful or cruel government officials. of the early seventeenth-century Dutch navigators . challenging image. 1950).LITERATURE AND DISCOVERY 111 lettres .)] . G. 1st ed. . and not only did the chivalricromances receive encouragement from and yet aid exploration. Sir Walter Raleigh. for example. . of the French in South America and Florida . 1596).68that in the sixteenth century western Europe published more books about the Old Worldthan about the New. ed. 4. Johann Huttich with introd. to the new drama. PERCY G. still attracted and inspired almost every writer. by Sebastian Munster. the artist Le Moyne. 2 vols. Simon Grynaeus. but More's Utopia.118 on Mon. Ramusio. of Cortés.all this New World.from Erasmusand Luther. and saintly priests who actually went to the New World. trans.without hundreds of years of written tradition. its villains and saints. the early Jesuits in Canada.176. but the New World. did the literary themes of progress. Pietro Martire d'Anghiera. of Verrazano. the German Hans Staden (1 537). and certainly there were more love sonnets than embarkation odes. used by Rabelais. And then include such collections as Francanzano da Montalboddo. 1930). Jean de Lery. certainly every literary genre. (London: Hakluyt.and America give back that influence to explorers and colonists in Virginiaand South America. actually built communities in Mexico "pattern[ed] from the good republic proposed by Thomas More. which looked to the WesternWorldand its European visitors." its family and village plan.g.5. 1533). Linschoten. as Atkinson has shown for France. Las Casastried to create Utopias. Ra ceo Ita di navagazioni This content downloaded from 168. p. to Rabelais and the Pléaide.67 It may be true. Cecil Jane. its elective system. Clements R. Paesi novamente retrovati (Vicenza. Add to these the accounts of Balboa.. and ed. to Bruno and Bacon. see Select Documents Illustrating the Four Voyages of Columbus. its elusive waterways and treasures. Spilbergen. The Counter-Renaissance (New York: Scribner's. a bishop and jurist. just as it is of the early historians of America and of the daring sailors. e. its heroes and hopes . its hospitals. Hiram Haydn.T. became a sort of second Bible to certain of those Spanish saints who hoped to Christianizethe Indians. De Orbe Novo (Basle. especially in Venezuela. For only a few of the eye-witness accounts of the New World which were widely read and often reprinted in collections in many languages.g.André Thevet.
Charles E. The Earthly Paradise and the Renaissance Epic (Princeton: Princeton Univ. 1598 into French. trans. Travelersand Travel Liars 1660-1800 (Berkeley and Los Angeles: Univ. Tilley.g. 10. Atkinson's wellknown conclusion that "entre 1480 et 1609. Hakluyt. Gregorio Garcia. 1st ed. p. Fernandez de Oviédo. Origen de los Indios del Nuevo Mundo (Valencia. Paradise on Earth. . II especially. deux fois plus d'impressions de livres sur les pays de l'Empire turc . 1952). Edward Arber as The First Three English Books on America (Birmingham. 2 vols. his Principall Navigations appearing between 1 589 and 1600. Girolamo Benzoni.B. 39-56. Francisco Lopez de Gomara. 1550-59)." Bulletin of the New York Public Library. (London. including the engravings of Le Moyne done in England years after he was in America. Royal Commentaries of Peru. Boies Penrose. Richard Eden in 1555 and ed. p. 1965). ed. 42 (1938). Chaps. indicate the popularity of Renaissance works about the New World . 1935). Jones. 1922). 1577-1590. Baudet. 1940). ed. 8. and. 2 vols. The Voyagers and Elizabethan Drama (London: Oxford Univ. and their popularity. Florida. first Span. Cawley. 401-2. of H. Wright. Press. 49. Mass. Historia general de las Indias (Sevilla. Traveland Discovery in the Renaissance (Cambridge: HarvardUniv. O Strange New World (New York: Viking. The American Drawings of John White. Garcilaso de la Vega (el Inca). Series 1. Quinn. The Myth of the Golden Age in the Renaissance (Bloomington. Richard Hakluyt. "trans. especially. for Hakhiyt Society by Clements R. ed. 43 (1939) [8 bibliographies] . 19 ff. . p. first ed. pp. 50. que sur les deux Amériques" appeared in France. 1574). Levin. Settlement of Florida (Gainesville: Univ. Henri Baudet. 30 and Adams. the first chap. Press.. p. 1565).M. trans. Hakluyt.. Primera y segunda y tercera partes de la historia medicinal . 1962). 1969) and his bibliography and notes. Jones. Jones. 1965).: HarvardUniv. VII. 1577). for Frobisher. This content downloaded from 168.g. trans. 60-61] . 1964. (Sevilla. 1938). 1964). and.118 on Mon. Press. . 1 869-71 ). See especially Harry Levin. IV. in 2 vols. In Peter Force. of Frampton. 176. Clements R. . Chap. Unpathed Waters(Princeton: Princeton Univ. For Germany. p. 273 ff.ed. 4. Press. see Paul H. compiler. The New World: The First Pictures of America made by John White and Jacques Le Moyne and engraved by Theodore De Bry (New York. Giamatti. (London. H. For these and other marvels see Percy G. de nuestras Indias occidentales . Jones. The accounts of Europeans capturing Americans extend into the hundreds. 17 Feb 2014 13:24:37 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .. Adams. 3.M. of Florida Press. etc. 1925). . The Elizabethans' America (Cambridge. 9. 1535). These books and others depend on visitors to America from Columbus and Vespucci to Pigafetta. 1946). 62.) 5.in spite of G. 1968. made many translations and collected many notes and travel books. and H. Press.. Levin. Vols. pp. and for Carder's captives see Arthur A. 1607). La Historia del Mondo Nuovo (Vicenza.. 1885). 1880.176. See his Les Nouveaux horizons de la renaissancefrançaise (Paris: Droz. trans. Frampton. and Frampton. 1966). 1966) and his excellent bibliographies. 1952). Elizabeth Wentholt (New Haven and London: Yale Univ. of California Press. for more information on Monardes. Virginia richly valued. Markham (London: Hakluyt.. Principall Navigations (London: Dent. Robert R. 43. 1968). name. "German Works Relating to America 1493-1800." in Studies in the French Renaissance (New York: Barnes and Noble. See Stephen Gaslee's ed. . 44 (1940).B. 1-132.112 COMPARATIVE LITERATURE STUDIES et viaegi (Vicenza. 6. 1590) [trans. Historia general de las Indias y conquista de Mexico (Saragossa. London: Indiana Univ.g. "Rabelais and Geographical Discovery. [also trans. 54. Livermore (Austin. 909-18. Cawley.Monardes. . The first English collection was of parts of three works. p. Jose de Acosta. Press. Giamatti. 10. which comprise only a part of the list that one could. Louis B. or should.5. by the description of the main land of Written by a Portugall Gentleman of Elvas . for only one other. E. I. See Paul Hulton and D. her next neighbor and translated out of Portuguese by Richard Hakluyt" (London: Kyngston. 1926). see Jones. the last great English editor of voyages in the sixteenth century. pp. 1604 into English. Markham. Bennett.V. 1609 at Lisbon] .." Joyfull Newes out of the Newe Founde World (London. II. Historia natural y moral de las Indias (Sevilla: Ivan de Leon. for a good edition of documents relating to Florida. 1846). . 7. Press. Tracts and Other Papers (Washington: Force. Stefan Lorant. p. perhaps even more on the editors and commentators who magnified their marvels (e. A. See. These individual voyages and multi-volume collections. 1609). Baginsky. 1552). e.
p. of California Press. p. 211. See his The Decades of the New World (Ann Arbor: Univ. 78. 17 Feb 2014 13:24:37 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . Blacken. 131-61. p.H. The Old Worldand the New 1492-1650 (Cambridge: The Univ. 26. 215. 56. Methodus ad facilem historiarum cognitionenu Quoted in Baron. and Lewis Hanke. Amer. 1656). especially pp. Wagner(with the collaboration of Helen Rand Parish) The Life and Writingsof Bartolomé de las Casas (Albuquerque: Univ. for John Donne's allusions to America. 327. p. 36. Vol. 7.. 521 . 1930). 87-92. 37-38. 25. see Henry R. The Voyagers and Elizabethan Drama. 309.. 19. 1954). J.. Estudios sobre Fray Bartolomé de las Casas. 23. J. A Spenser Handbook (New York: Crofts. These are the words of H. Press. 17. 3-22. 1962). . 28. 22. see Hanke. of New Mexico Press.. 37. 20 (1959). Green. Unpathed Waters. White. of Wisconsin Press. 137 ff. Bury. pp. Irving A.LITERATURE AND DISCOVERY 113 1 l. Green. Chanca." 21. 53. For more on this myth see Green. Jones. see Cawley. 39.B. 40. 14. 27. e. The First Social Experiments in America: A Study in the Development of Spanish Indian Policy in the Sixteenth Century (Cambridge: The Univ. 253. and Wagner.Winfred Schleiner. 384-87. Introduction à la vie littéraire du XVIe siècle (Paris: Bordas. e.118 on Mon. p.V. J. Microfilms. 1957). Voyagers*p. O Brave New World. Ibid. 1952).5. see H. Baron. Wagner. 1964). but. and Eugenio Garin.g. " The Querelle of the Ancients and the Moderns as a Problem for Renaissance Scholarship. 24. pp. 90. See. Books of the Brave (New York: Gordian Press. no. Voyagers and Unpathed Waters. 30. By Micael de Caravajaland Luis Hurtado (Toledo. Ibid. From Vives' De Disc ipUnis. p.g. 82-1 11.. 90. Ibid.G. 33. p. 1968). 133-48. (Caracas. Quoted by Green. John Phillips. pp. 17a especially. Elliott. Press. Ibid. Jones. Leonard. p. 91 . 106-7.Dr. p. In "To Sir Henry Wotten. but see also pp. 1970). 45-65.Jones. p. 11-1 2." Journal of the History of Ideas. I. 1400-1600 (Bari. see Pedro. 12. 35. Press. pp. Clarence J. 33. Quoted by Baron. For much more on Lope and America. pp. 10-11. For much on promotion literature. 21 2.J. 15. . 1968). 347. Elliott.Cawley. 34. pp. 1965). 32. 1966). 7. 31. e. Las Casas.M. Phil Soc. 18. Otis H. Atkinson. 42. Elliott.H. Ibid.S. 42. The Idea of Progress (New York: Dover Pubs. See also Haydn. America en las letras espano las del sigh de oro (Buenos Aires: Editorial Sudamericana. Crowther. Bodin. See Elizabeth Armstrong. and the works of Lewis Hanke. Spain and the Western Tradition (Madison and Milwaukee: Univ.. p. 70. p. p. L'Educazione in Europe.Howard B.best known for his early play on Don Juan . The Imagery of John Donne*s Sermons (Providence: Brown Univ. 1970). 13. 1935). 112-13. See Pedro. 15. 1557). 38. 16.. p. Francis Bacon (London: Cresset. 14. 130.Wright. 20. as well as his Bartolomé de las Casas (Philadelphia: Univ. 1967).p.176. etc. 2(1946). America en el teatro de Lope de Vega (Buenos Aires. Wright. Press. 1946).J. Ronsard and the Age of Gold (Cambridge: The Univ. 30. 29.H. 1969). pp.g. 208. See Valentin de Pedro. For Tirso de Molina (fray Gabriel Téllez) .g.Martire. 41. 1967). pp. See Cawley. See Cawley. first ed. Daniel Ménager. in Columbus (see note 2). 14. see Pedro. p. which was re-edited in England in 1612. and Milton Rugoff. his seminal essay "The Colonial Impulse." Proc. This content downloaded from 168. 134. especially p. Donne's Imagery (New York: Russell and Russell. The Tears of the Indians (London.. Traces on the Rhodian Shore (Berkeley: Univ. p.. 1968). pp. pp. 1932). On Las Casas vision.. better still. who supports them with good evidence. of Pennsylvania Press. and Marcos a Monnigo. 73. For three of many good treatments of this fascinating conflict. e.p.and his trilogy about the Pizarros. Peace Among the Willows (The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff. 1968). Armstrong on Ronsard. 1955.
Jones. G.to become standard . with its bibliography. as well as Julio Caillet-Bois. 16-64.g. Ibid. and notes by Frank Pierce (Manchester: Manchester Univ. 1972). Zeydel. pp.**Tasso. Add to these fascinating volumes others listed in. Press.. Leonard.P. ["A knight of Genes shall have the hardiment/ Upon this wondrous voyage first to wend/ . 50. 56. pp. p.1 14 COMPARATIVE LITERATURE STUDIES 43. Mandslay. "Sebastian Brant and the Discovery of America. S. C. 10-11.Erasums* Colloquies were the most popular item in Cambridge book stores in the early sixteenth century. Bayard Morris (London: Broadway Travellers. on Guzman. Ed. 63. 64. p. The bibliography for Utopias is massive. introduction y notas de Juan Loveluck. for Utopias in general and for famous Renaissance Utopias in particular. One should add to Leonard the well-known stories of fighting women told by Vespucci (see note 2) on his first voyage. For more on the Renaissance Spanish-American epic and long poem. 1911). See J. 49. The Praise of Wisdom. xxxi-xxxii. 51-52 especially. 1719). Pedro. 1927). The New Found Land of Stephen Parmenius. 52. Thompson (Chicago: Univ. See also Alonso de Ercilla. L'Exotisme américain dans la littérature française au XVIe siècle (Paris: Librairie Hachette. For "le sieur de Combes. Brazil. Columbus. look especially at pp. five vols. see note 2.A. 42 (1943).of Lodge's receiving his MS. La Araucaria (selecci6n). see F. of Chicago Press. 17 Feb 2014 13:24:37 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . The Letters ofHernando Cortés. J. 1964). 24-30). Thy ship. . with Cavendish in South America. see note 37.. See also his "A Marriagein Name Only. or syphilis. 54. De navagatione c. See Voltaire's Essai sur la poésie épique.*' see Atkinson.pp. 1962).. for more). Uppsala. pp. is not the only one to think it so. 62. 45. and Bernai Diaz del Castillo. pp. Unpathed Waters. 58. 48." which is concerned with one of his favorite subjects. p.. 39-40. 1596) with its game . For Ralegh. ed. Jerusalem Delivered. e. A Com- This content downloaded from 168. p. Leonard. Anâtisis de La Araucaria (Buenos Aires: Centro Editor de America Latina S. (London: Hakluyt. Surtz. pp. Edwin H.. see the map of North America in Châtelain*sAtlas Historique (Amsteroff the relatively unknown western dam. 1910-18). 311-12. 1928). Frederick R. 39. and trans. trans. 47. e.'* JEGP.SeeTilley.J.g. R. 1583. pp. 1965). Notes on the History of a Literary Genre. 1945). the pox. Cheshire (Toronto and Buffalo: Univ. introd.176. 55. e.W. 57. 20. pp. 38081] . Dermenghem. 46. The life and writings of a Hungarian poet.Tasso. Famous Utopias of the Renaissance (New York: Hendricks House. from a priest in Santos. and trans. 1955).5. H.Cawley. of Toronto Press. Gilbert Chinard.. Donner. 110. by Lorenzo Gambara of Brescia.Hernando Cortés. Columbi libri quattuor. 51. 223. éd..W.The Colloquies of Erasmus. A. Quinn and Neil M. Thomas More et les utopistes de la renaissance (Paris. 147-48. Edward L. 60. 61. segunda edidon (Santiago de Chile: Empresa Editora Zig-Zig. or Vives* "El Convite**and "Los Habladores" (Pedro. XV. For Leonard. 46-49.. Rand Morton.H. 335. A recently re-discovered and published English translation of about 1600 is The Historié of Araucana. See. shall her canvas wing/ Spread o*er that world that yet concealed lies. Press. 1962. drowned on a voyage from Newfoundland. 1927). Thomas Lodge's A Margarite of America (London. and Pedro (note 16). Much could be added to this brief discussion of imaginary or pseudo-voyage literature. p.. White. 401-1 2. For example. See. the Renaissance Epic in Spain and America (Mexico. éd. Thomas More (London: Cape. showing a huge island. Edward Fairfax (Carbondale: Southern Illinois Univ. pp. Elliott. The standard edition of the Araucaria\s in five vols.E. 112-13. supposedly brought back to Europe by Columbus. . or Anthonie Knivet.118 on Mon. José Toribio Medina (Santiago de Chile. trans.g. points out that not until 1581 would Columbus become the subject of a "major** poem. 1908-16). See note 2.R. Chambers. e. Introduction to Utopia (London: Sidgwick and Jackson. Almqvist and Wiksells. 203-1 7. Penrose.g. 1962). éd. 53.** coast. called "California. 400. with commentaries by David B. 1967). 44. La Gerusalemme Liberata. 59. returning to write a fanciful account (see Adams. The True History of the Conquest of New Spain.
see Silvio Zavala. 1963). 68. Elliott. Zavala. 66.B. L. Baudet. Sir Thomas More in New Spain (London. La 'Utopia de Tomâs More en la Nueva Espdna y otros estudios (Mexico City. 1962: first ed. see note 13. The Political Philosophy of Francis Bacon (see note 33).H.LITERATURE AND DISCOVERY 115 mentary on the Religious and Moral Backgrounds of Saint Thomas More's "Utopia" (Chicago: Loyola Univ. 67. This content downloaded from 168. 1922): Robert C. "The American Utopia of the Sixteenth Century. More's Utopia. F. pp. p. 1937). 11-12. 1957). 65. Studies in a Literary Genre (Chicago: Univ. 28. The Shape of Utopia. Elliott. J.G.H. Peace Among the Willows. J. See note 2 for Atkinson s conclusions. Warren. Press. for Quiroga. 4 (Aug. Vasco de Quiroga and His Pueblo Hospitals of Santa Fé (Washington. For Las Casas.176. of Chicago Press.5. Crowther (note 33). no. 1970). 1952). Howard B. 1947).118 on Mon. Zavala. 10." Huntington Library Quarterly. White. Press. J. Lewis Mumford. The Biography of an Idea (Princeton: Princeton Univ. Sprague de Camp. Lost Continents (New York: Gnome Press. 17 Feb 2014 13:24:37 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . 1955). 337-47. 1954). The Story of Utopias (New York: Viking. Hexter.
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