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Reem Al-Samiri Ling 706 Annotated Bibliography 12/20/2013

Alim, H. S. (2009). Hip hop nation language. Linguistic anthropology: A reader, 272289. Alim studies the linguistic properties of Hip Hop nation language, which hasnt been investigated by sociolinguist until the late 1990s. HHNL demonstrates creativity, ingenuity, and verbal virtuosity that is observed in the African American culture. HHNL has its own grammar, lexicon, and phonology. The words are central to the members identity and the audiences participation is highly valued through call and response. Speakers of HHNL also show the ability to manipulate grammar consciously. The author ends the article by stating that in order for people to understand hip hop cultural reality, they must be in direct contact with this "very widely misunderstood Nation."e Bailey, B. (1997). Communication of respect in interethnic service encounters. Language in Society, 26(3), 327-356. The author collected data through observations, video-tapes, and interviews with store-owners, customers, and consultants to study the different ethnic perceptions of respect in service encounters. This different notion of respect causes tension between African-American customers and immigrant Korean shopkeepers. Korean service encounters are typically socially minimal, while African American social encounters tend to be more socially expanded. Bailey attributes Koreans lack of interaction to lack of English proficiency and their attitude towards questions as invasive to personal space. Barrett, R. (1999). Indexing polyphonous identity in the speech of African American drag queens. Reinventing identities: The gendered self in discourse, 313-331. Barrett starts by differentiating between the terms: drag queen, transsexual, transvestite, cross-dressers, and female impersonators. The author then explains the role of drag queen in the realm of entertainment to appear femininely flawless while reminding the audience of the performers masculinity. Drag queens dont intend to mock women; rather they fight against gender oppression in general.

Social stance is also important that is why they impersonate white women; to refer to class not the desire to be white. The appropriation of white womens language succeeds in undermining racist and homophobic assumptions associated with the dominant culture. Baquedano-Lpez, P. (1997). Creating social identities through narratives. Issues in Applied Linguistics, 8(1). The article discusses the practice of Doctrina classes, which are religious education classes in Spanish that are mainly composed of Mexican immigrants in Los Angeles. They use a form of collective narratives of Nuestra Senora de Guadalup to tell the experience of the group. Parents choose to socialize their children into the Spanish language using these narratives because it is the language of the heart. The data used for this article was collected through video and audio recordings of doctrina and catechism classes over the period of 20 months. The Virgin Mary is told to have two skin colors, dark and white. The teacher disaffiliates the class with the white Mary to separate them from the oppressive Spaniards. This shows that skin color is highly related to ethnicity and racial identity. The author shows how language socialization practices in churches shed light on the power of language in constructing and minimizing identities. Basso, K. H. (1970). " To give up on words": Silence in Western Apache Culture. Southwestern Journal of Anthropology, 213-230.

Basso observes the act of silence in the Western Apache settlement of Cibecue for sixteen months. The residents of this community have an unstable economy and live in substandard conditions. He studies six situations in which the Western Apache refrain from speech and then gives an explanation to why silence is used instead of speech. Situations that require silence in the Western Apache culture include: meeting strangers, courting, children coming home, getting cussed out, being with people who are sad, and being with someone for whom they sing. The six situations in which silence is present have some common features. They are marked by the ambiguity of the at least one of the participant.

Bauman, R. (1996). Any man who keeps moren one houndll lie to you: A contextual study of expressive lying. The Matrix of Language, 160-181. Baumen discusses how the notions of truth and lies vary within different communities and storytelling situations. The author studies the storytelling that takes place in the dog trading business that takes place on First Monday in

Canton, Texas. The attendants of this event are mostly men from rural areas, such as farmers and hunters, from surrounding towns. They come for recreation more than dog trading and hunting. The association between lying and coon hunters is well established to those who know them well. One type of lying associated with coon hunting is the tall tale, which includes much exaggeration. They are usually told to obvious new comers The difference between a tall tale and a personal narrative is that personal narratives have unusual but plausible events, whereas tall tales have implausible exaggerated events. The narratives told at these events dont fall into clear-cut categories of fact or fiction, rather a weave that leaves the listener in doubt. Blommaert, J., & Verschueren, J. (1992). The role of language in European nationalist ideologies. Pragmatics, 2(3), 355-375. Blommaert discusses the role of language in European Nationalist ideologies. The data was collected from Western European newspapers dating back to the first few week of November 1990. Language is used as a categorization criterion, but it on its own is absent from reports on interethnic conflicts or nation building. Language is seen as a unifying force and clear identity marker. Examples from German, French, British, Soviet, and Belgian newspapers were examined. Mans political instinct directs him towards homogeneism. It is a widespread ideological premise in the European press. Finally, Nationalism is the ultimate evidence for the just cause of the Cold War because t was not concerned with politicaleconomic details. It was about ones right to use ones mother tongue.

Briggs, C. L., & Bautnan, R. (1992). Genre, intertextuality, and social power. Journal of linguistic anthropology, 2(2), 131-172. Briggs examines and tries to define what is meant by the term genre. He also states different researchers findings on the term. Boas separates the terms folktale and myth, but then uses folktale as an umbrella term for both. Brigg presents 8 axes of comparison of generic intertexuality: Manipulating intertextual relations by minimizing of maximizing intertextual gaps to draw on a wide range of features; ability to structure discourse; the degree to which generic patterning is imposed on a particular body of discourse; the extent of being denotatively explicit where intertextual relations explicitly through denotative content; the difference between oral vs. written sources to create intertextuality because written texts are more authoritative; how genre shapes expressions of emotions as well as the relationship between genre and gender; the role of musics pitch, tempo, volume, and other features in attempting to suppress intertextual gaps; and finally relationships between texts can be fixed or open-ended. The article ended by stating that the goal wasnt to remove from its difficulties and

ambiguity. Rather to point out the usefulness of studying discourse and detailed formal and functional analysis. Bucholtz, M. (1999). Purchasing power: The gender and class imaginary on the shopping channel. Reinventing identities: The gendered self in discourse, 348, 68. Bucholtz describes womens enthusiastic participation in what is the widely understood as the their own oppression. He examines QVCs sales tactics into attracting middle-class female viewers. They use techniques like inviting the female audience into a home-like setting in the T.V. studio, telephone interactions establish a sense of community between caller and host, speaking directly to the camera addressing the audience as singular you, and associating higher class with and perhaps is even achieved by the conception of advertised products. o The hosts act as physical and linguistic examples of the middle class, their lowermiddle-class audience feels qualified to evaluate their performance of this identity along lines of gender and race. o Callers may ultimately have greater power to evaluate the language of hosts than the reverse. Cutler, C. A. (1999). Yorkville crossing: White teens, hip hop and African American English. Journal of sociolinguistics, 3(4), 428-442. Cutler studies a 16 year old white boy named Mike who uses pronunciation and vocabulary features dominant in AAVE, in a longitudinal observation of over five years as well as interviews, group sessions, and participant observations. Mike tried to hide the fact that he was privileged and even gave out his brothers Brooklyn number to his friends. In those acts, he tries to prove his authenticity in hip hop by claiming a connection to poverty. He also tried adopting activities he associated with black male youth. Mike applied pronunciation features such as vowel lengthening, syllable contraction and expansion, and stress and rhythm to his speech, all features which are present in AAVE. However, grammar is not acquired. The author attributes Mikes use of AAVE to three sources: hanging out on the street and spending much time with a particular white friend living in a poor area with first-hand access to AAVE, having access to the internet with many AAVE sources, as well as popular music, and watching movies containing AAVE in which the sometimes glamorous views of ghetto life get transferred. D'Arcy, A. (2007). Like and language ideology: Disentangling fact from fiction. American speech, 82(4), 386-419. DArcys data was collected from 350 hours of recorded casual conversations in Toronto, Canada between 2002-2004. The participants were between the ages of 9 and 92. The author dispels myths surrounding the use of the discourse marker like. The myths are: that it is meaningless, so she demonstrates four functions of the word; that women and children use it more than men and adults, so she demonstrated the equal use of the word, while men use the approximative like

and women use the quotative like; and that it can be placed anywhere in a sentence, so she demonstrates its versatility while maintaining specific positions. Like is complex has been historically used, except for the quotative like which is a twentieth century innovation. Duranti, A. (1997). Universal and CultureSpecific Properties of Greetings. Journal of Linguistic Anthropology, 7(1), 63-97. Duranti shows that not all greetings are predictable and devoid of propositional content. He presents many definitions of greetings that have been proposed by different scientists. To understand what people say during greetings is to understand the culture in which these greetings occur. The includes a case study done on Samoan greetings with video-taped data from a year and a half, and four greetings are identified and studied: the Tafola greeting, the Malo greeting, ceremonial greetings, and the where are you going? greeting. Greetings in one community cannot be extended to another speech community. Finally, greetings cannot be void of content and meaning because they can be used to define identity or get information about a persons whereabouts. Duranti, A. (2006). Narrating the political self in a campaign for US Congress. Language in Society, 35(04), 467-497. Duranti studied one candidate, Walter Capps, for one year during his public debates in his campaign for a seat in the US congress. Data collection was done through videotaping and collecting field notes. He studied the use of narratives in constructing a social persona or a political self. Personal narratives serve a role in creating an image of someone whose past, present, and future reflect principles and goals. Duranti calls this existential coherence. It is also used to get close to the people. Three discourse strategies were identified in constructing existential coherence: Narrative of belonging: past life events are presented to show that the candidate can connect with the people, their experiences, and emotions; the present as natural extension of the past: the person is able to use his/her past experience to qualify for the prospective position; and exposing and reconciling potential contradictions: candidates expose their mistakes in order to avoid criticism and to use it as a resource/solution. Data collected showed that political candidates modify their discourse strategies across different types of situations and to accommodate for different audiences. Fenstermaker, S., & West, C. (Eds.). (2013). Doing Gender Doing Difference. Routledge.

The article starts by defining sex versus gender. Sex is what is biologically determined and gender is a status achieved through psychological, cultural and social means. The purpose of this article is to provide a more informed sociological understanding of gender. The authors consider gender a feature of social situations rather than a property of the individual and it is viewed by sociologists as display, roles, and behavior. The authors distinguish between senx, gender, and sex category. They then illustrated the example of Agnes, a transsexual raised as boy and reassigned as a female and her struggle to learn gender. Doing gender requires a hierarchal structure where men dominate and women do the difference. They also demonstrate how gender is a powerful ideological device that produces, reproduces, and legitimizes choices and constraints predicted by sex category. The authors conclude by asking why these gender relations exist in such ubiquity and why parents would socialize their children in a way that would restrict their activities and freedom.

Goodwin, C. (1994). Professional vision. American anthropologist, 96(3), 606-633. The author examines two contexts of professional activity: archeology and a legal argument in three practices: coding, highlighting, and producing and articulating material representations. The author uses the trial of Rodney King in 1992 as an example throughout the article relying of videotapes as the main source of data. The uses of coding, highlighting, and graphic representation were all used in the trial of Rodney King to argue for his guilt, regardless of the obviousness of his innocence. The lawyers defending the police treated the tape that recorded the incident by embedding events that are related to the profession. The police expert in the trial focuses the jurors attention on certain events to transform the video into salient figures to justify the police aggression. The experts knowledge was not challenged. Rodney King did not have an equivalent expert on his side, which was a great disadvantage. Heath, S. B. (1982). What no bedtime story means: Narrative skills at home and school. Language in society, 49-76. The author examines the narrative practices of three populations: Maintown, which is within the national average of school-success rate; Roadville; and Trakton, which are both below the national average of school-success rate. The article compares each groups view on books and literary activities and pointed out the features that attributed to Maintowns school-success. The article ends with pedagogical implications for teachers.

Hill, J. H. (1998). Today there is no respect. Nostalgia,Respect,and Oppositional Discourse in Mexicano (Nahuatl) Language Ideology. In BB Schieffelin, KA Woolard, and PV Kroskrity (eds.), Language Ideologies: Practice and Theory, 68-86. The article is about Mexicano speakers in Central Mexico being nostalgic about respect in the past in an ideological and pragmatic sense. Data collected from 96 speakers of Mexicano from 11 towns from the Milanche Volcano area between 1974 and 1981. The producers of this language are relatively successful men. Nostalgia is form of discourse is used as a political ideology and strategy to benefit from social relations. However, producers of counter discourse emphasize the future.

Hill, J. H. (2001). Language, race, and white public space. Linguistic anthropology: A reader, 450-464. The article examines the use of Spanish by Whites in Puerto Ricans living in New York City in attempt to untangle some complexities of racism. Data was collected through informal talk as well as samples from the media, websites, and mass produced items. The author distinguishes between the different spheres of language use. Within the inner sphere English and Spanish are mixed and the boundaries between the two languages are blurred. In the outer sphere, however, the boundaries between the two languages are sharply objectified. Accent is a cultural dimension of speech, but Whites will hear an accent even when none is present when they detect other signs of racial identity. Whites mix English with Spanish words to create a jocular key called Mock Spanish by using loan words, borrowing obscene Spanish words, adding elements of Spanish morphology to English to create jocular forms, and using hyper-anglicized and parodic pronunciations. The author finally suggested that these Mock forms can have an antiracist effect by deconstructing racist categories, especially with children and young teens. However, this attitude changes by the age of 16

Hymes, D. (1974). Ways of speaking. Explorations in the ethnography of speaking, 1, 433-451. Hymes studies the different aspects of speech. Speech styles can be divided into structural functions and use functions. Structural functions are related to verbal features and their organizations. Use functions are related to organizing meaning of verbal features in nonlinguistic contexts. Each community differs in the number and variety of speech styles and delimitations. Varieties are speech styles associated with certain social groups, while registers are speech styles associated

with recurrent types of situations. Finally, the author shows how the resources available to people shape what they can verbally do, and that is mostly historically shaped.

Irvine, J. (1998). Ideologies of honoric language. Language Ideologies: Practice and Theory. B. Schieffelin, K. Woolard, and P. Kroskrity, eds, 51-67. The author explores how four languages- Javanese, Wolof, Zulu, and ChiBembause honorifics, and compares cultural occurrences of honorifics within these languages. All sociolinguistic systems have ways of showing respect, called honorifics. Honorifics usually occur in societies where there are royal courts and hierarchal social ranks. However, this is not always the case. Alternant versions of honorifics dont mean the same as honorifics and they are not systematically parallel.

Irvine, J. (2001). Formality and informality in communicative events. Linguistic anthropology: A reader, 1, 189.

The article re-examines the meaning of the terms formal vs. informal because its usage is vague and variable. The author distinguishes four aspects of formality that could apply cross-culturally, and these four aspects usually occur simultaneously: increased structuring, code consistency, invoking positional identities, and emergence of central situational focus. The author contrasts the Wolof and Mursi in preforming political event, then contrasts that with the Ilongot. The author concldes by stating that formality may have many meanings. Therefore one should specify which type of formality is being referred to so people dont assume one type of formality over the other, or assume that all formalities are the same.

Irvine, J. T., & Gal, S. (2000). Language ideology and linguistic differentiation. Regimes of language: Ideologies, polities, and identities. The article discusses how ethnographers and linguists usually cast their views on the subjects and cultures they study, which dont necessarily reflect the reality of the culture studied. The authors discussed three semiotic processes by which people construct ideological representations of linguistic differences. These are: Iconization; Fractal recrusivity; and Erasure. They also show how clicks were introduced into the Nguni language.

Kiesling, S. F. (2007). Power and the language of men. A Cultural Approach to Interpersonal Communication: Essential Readings, 334. The article studies how issues of dominance and power are portrayed in males and what discourse is used to construct their identity. There 57 members, all are Caucasian except one Korean American and four Arab Americans. Data was collected through observation, audiotape, and interviews. The author focused on four main members: Darter, Speed, Ram, and Mack. The analysis of power is based on an ethnographic study of a fraternity in the United States. There seven types of power from which roles are built: physical, economic, nurturing, demeanor, and ideological, with the ideological process is the most important because it is a defining process. Men who construct the preferred identity are rewarded with power, while women would be punished because society expects leadership positions to be held by men.

Kiesling, S. F. (2004). Dude. American Speech, 79(3), 281-305. The author wanted to examine how attitudes toward speech are related to attitudes toward people. He dispels the stereotype views the use of dude as unconstrained. Dude is an address term mostly used by young men to address other young men, and has expanded to address a group (of same or mixed gender) and by and to women. The term allows men to balance two dominant cultural Discourses: masculine solidarity and heterosexism. The rise of dude likely took place because cool solidarity became a valuable nonconformist stance for youth in the 1980s. The author identified specific interactional functions for dude: marking a discourse structure, exclamation, indexing solidarity, an address term, and signaling agreement. The examples show how the general stances indexed by dude can be used as a resource in interaction.

Kroskrity, P. V. (1998). Arizona Tewa Kiva speech as a manifestation of a dominant language ideology. Language ideologies: Practice and theory, 103-122. The author originally wanted to study the Arizona Tewa language, without the culture, but found out that there is a tangled relationship between language, culture, and society. The Arizona Tewa are the only group that was able to retain its original language into the present. The reasons are attributed to perpetuate an ethnic boundary and to embody linguistic consciousness. Kiva talk embodies four cultural preferences: 1) regulation by convention, 2) indigenous purism, strict compartmentalization, and 4) linguistic indexing.

Kulick, D. (2003), "No," Language and Communication 1:139-51 The author examines how the use of no in particular situations produce them as sexual and materializes the participants as sexual objects. The occurrence of no is discussed in three situations: sexual harassment and rape, the Homosexual Panic Defense, and Sadomasochistic sex. In each of the situations the word no is used as the opposite meaning. Moreover, it distinguishes the differences between a womans no and a mans no.

Leap, W. (2007). Language, socialization, and silence in gay adolescence. Sexualities & communication in everyday life: a reader, 95-105. The article demonstrates how gay and lesbian language and practices are important in constructing identities, especially in adolescence. The author introduces the term heteronormativity, which means that gendered identity s framed strictly by two sexes and two genders; people are labeled women or men regardless of their self-identification. It also shows how language holds an important role in the overlapping of the heteronormative and the marginal and it reproduces heteronormative messages in everyday life. Examples demonstrate how the adolescent struggles in taking charge of gay-socialization. The author ends with a question of how our institutions and communities can provide opportunities and resources for teenagers to self-manage their socialization. Leung, C., Harris, R., & Rampton, B. (1997). The idealised native speaker, reified ethnicities, and classroom realities. Tesol Quarterly, 31(3), 543-560. The authors discuss problems in the field of TESOL and how it deals with the different ethnicities and the abstract notion of the native speaker of English. The authors suggest three strategies to adjust to contemporary urban multilingualism: a. accommodate patterns of change, b. address the reality rather than presumed language use, c. develop specific and differentiated learning pedagogies. They also described the phenomenon of ethnic absolutism, where a minority group is excluded. Rampton suggests replacing the terms native speaker and mother tongue with language expertise, language inheritance, and language affiliation. The chapter concluded by addressing TESOLs need to recognize and address societal inequalities between ethnic and linguistic groups.

Limn, J. E. (1989). Carne, carnales, and the carnivalesque: Bakhtinian batos, disorder, and narrative discourses. American Ethnologist, 16(3), 471-486. The article discusses a practice in the male working class of Mexican American culture in south Texas, where men gather around meat and tease each other using words and actions of sexuality and homosexuality. The author suggests that there might be a connection between the feeling of sexual violation and social violation; and these people express their feelings of social violation by acts of sexual violation. These sexual acts liberate them from the context of alienation and race.

Mahiri, J. (Ed.). (2004). What they don't learn in school: Literacy in the lives of urban youth (Vol. 2). Peter Lang. Mahiri cites a lot research done on theorizing non-school literacy practices, e.g. gangs, religious groups, electronic media, rap music, etc. The more recent scent studies relating literacy with digital technology included. The traditional printbased literacy doesnt account for the complex and rich practices in young peoples lives today. It is not suitable for identity construction, which is the function of many of the literature of today. A future challenge would be to find new and better ways to express and reflect more everyday practices. Mendoza-Denton, N. (2008). Homegirls: Language and cultural practice among Latina youth gangs. John Wiley & Sons. The author documents the use of linguistic and non-linguistic memorializing practices in the Latina youth gangs. This article aims to focus on language as a vehicle in creating structures of feelings. Latina gang members use narratives which allowed for a memory that connected members to each other and to their previous members. With no official version of the narratives, and no one person could hold all the pieces to the memory, the author describes the sharing of a narrative a distributive memory because it connects the individual identity to the group identity. Discourse practices and anti-linguistic properties in this community include tattling, talking shit, and language games. The author demonstrates how focusing on language as a part of youth practices shows how much the material cannot explain the unspoken rules and how this material creates solidarity over time.

Morgan, M. (1999). No woman no cry: Claiming African American women's place. Reinventing identities. Morgan created this article in response to how she believes African American womens issues are hypermarginalized. African American women are only occasionally mentioned in lingual studies. Their situation is special because they are considered typical neither of all womens issues nor of black issues. The article discusses different linguistic practices among the African American culture in general and African American women in particular, including signifying, talking behind someones back, talking to your face, and face reading. The author concludes by suggesting that we need to reanalyze the research and include women as social actors

Ochs, E., & Schieffelin, B. (2001). Language acquisition and socialization: Three developmental stories and their implications. Linguistic anthropology: A reader, 263-301. The article compared three cultures in how caregivers communicate with their children; white middle-class, Kaluli, and Samoan. Comparing developmental stories from different cultures shows that communication is culturally acquired rather than naturally present. The characteristics of Western (baby-talk) register are associated with good mothering and are produced with little effort. The author demonstrates how interactions between children and caregivers arent biologically driven and simplifying language is not necessary for language acquisition, but it is culturally organized. Finally, the article shows how childrens language is constructed reflects many of the cultures values and expectations.

Ochs, E., & Taylor, C. (2001). The Father Knows Best dynamic in dinnertime narratives. Linguistic anthropology: A reader, 431-449. The article explores gender ideologies and how they are exposed through narrative practices during mealtime in white middle-class families in the United States. The study was done on seven two-parent families during 1987-1989. The families all had a five year old child with at least one older sibling. The data was video and audio-taped with 100 past-time narratives. In this article, a story is defined as a problem-centered past-time narratives. The authors identify five different roles that are relevant construction of gender identities: protagonist, introducer, primary recipient, problematizer, and problematizee. Examples showed how women's most notable role was the introducer, which makes them

more vulnerable. Many of their introductions triggered men's problematizing. Women self-problematize and expose themselves to be vulnerable, which have socializing effects to support the "father knows best" gender ideology.

Orellana, M. (1999). Good guys and bad girls. Reinventing Identities: The Gendered Self in Discourse: The Gendered Self in Discourse, 64. The author wanted to examine how Latina and Latino primary-school children experimented with a range of social identities through the characters they created in their stories during their classroom writing workshops. The author views language and literacy as important tools that children can use to reinvent themselves as characters in their writing and examine their written products. The data was collected from mixed-age classroom of approx. 10 Latino working-class Grades 1, 2, and 3 students. The students are immigrants or children of immigrants from Mexico regions and are fluent speakers in Spanish. The study showed that gender-separated worlds that appeared in most of the childrens stories could suggest that the children value such segregation. Students were seen inventing social identities through their narrative writing. Philips, S. (1998). Language ideologies in institutions of power: A commentary. Language ideologies: Practice and theory, 211-225. This article is a commentary on book chapter that shows how the role of language and language ideologies in the imagining of nations. She states that there has been a shift from the focus on the form of language in use to a focus on the content of language in use. Philips defines the term ideology and demonstrates that linguistic anthropologists use of ideology rather than culture to refer to the interpretive perspectives of the people whose ideas we document is a relatively new practice. Ideology carries with it connotations of the exercise of power primarily due to Marxist writings. She also documents the use of the word hegemony by Gramsci, Williams, Foucault, and Bourdieu. Finally, she discusses how the term ideology has made the implicit explicit.

Philips, S. U. (2001). Participant structures and communicative competence: Warm Springs children in community and classroom. Functions of language in the classroom. The article discusses different styles of learning that American Indian children are accustomed to and how the difference affects their learning and participation in

regular American classrooms. Eventually these children perform poorly in school. The author studies the children from the Warm Springs Indian reservation who show a reluctance to participate verbally in classes to determine which situations define when speech is present and appropriate. Philips documented that one of the reasons Indians lack confidence to perform in public is that in their home culture they are tested privately on skills and they only show public demonstration when they prove to be competent. Spitulnik, D. (1998). Mediating Unity and Diversity. Language Ideologies: Practice and Theory. BambiSchieffelin, KathrynWoolard, and PaulKroskrity, eds, 163188. The article studies the politics of language in Zambian radio. Radio is the most widely consumed medium in the country. It communicates in English as well as 7 languages from among 20 languages, representing 73 ethnic groups. The process discussed is the valuation and evaluation of language through semiotic processes. The argument is that Radio Zambia creates both national unity and national diversity. The radio created language hierarchy where languages are preferred over others by allotting them more air time, using prestigious FM frequencies, airing more sophisticated programs on them, and broadcasting international news. English stands apart as a wider, national, and more modern communication and has twice as much airtime as all Zambian languages combined.