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Circular motion

Abrar Ahmad (ZAAS Academy 0333-5307019)

Q1 Define 1) Angular M !i n ") #ircular M !i n Ans. 1. ANGULAR MOTION The motion of a body along a curvilinear path is called angular motion. EXAMPLES 1) Motion of a car taking turn. 2) Motion of snake. 2. CIRCULAR MOTION It is special case of angular motion in which a body moves in a circular path. EXAMPLES: 1) Motion of motorcyclist in the well of death. 2) Motion of the moon around the earth (in an approximate circular motion because in fact it elliptical angular motion . !ame is true for the motion of electron around the nucleus. Q2 a) Define and explain angular displacement? b) Establish a relation between linear and angular displacement? c) "ro#e that& 1 radian %'(.) Ans.

*a) ANGULAR DISPLACEMENT It is defined as the angle traced at the center of the circle by the line "oining the body with the center of that circle. NATURE: #or small values the angular displacement can be regarded as a vector $uantity otherwise it is a scalar $uantity. SYMBOL: The angular displacement is represented by or $ SI UNIT: The !I unit of angular displacement is radian denoted by rad. DIMENSIONS: %ngular displacement is a dimensionless $uantity. EXPLANATION &onsider a particle attached to one end of a mass less rigid rod of length 'r( with its other end pivoted at point ')( taken as origin. !uppose the particle rotates anticlockwise in xy*plane+ about ,*axis serving as axis of rotation. %s the particle is moving along the circular path+ the rod %& rotates in the plane of the circle. &onsider a system of as shown in fig(a .

#or position -1+ let 1 is angle subtended by the rod with reference line %&+ at time '!1(. If " is angle subtended by the rod for position &" at time '!"( with reference line %& then angle traced by the rod in moving from position &1 to position &" is given by. = &1%&" ' " - 1---+++++++++++++*1) Time interval taken by particle in going from position &1 to position &" is ! ' !" - !1 ****************** (/

/ The angle given by e$ (0 is defined as the angular displacement of the particle in time interval !. #or small values of !+ the angular displacement can be regarded as vector $uantity otherwise it is a scalar $uantity. DIRECTION OF ANGULAR DISPLACEMENT The direction of angular displacement is taken along the axis of rotation and is determined by a rule known as right hand rule. It is described as under. RIGHT HAND RULE %ccording to right hand rule. 1rasp the axis of rotation in the right hand side with fingers curling in the direction of rotation+ the thumb points in the direction of angular displacement. UNITS OF ANGULAR DISPLACEMENT The angular displacement is measured in three units including two conventional units and one !I unit. (a CONVENTIONAL UNITS: Degree The angle subtended by 02345th part of circumference of circle at its center is called one degree. REVOLUTION The complete round trip of the body along the circumference of the circle is called one revolution 0 rev 6 345 (b SI UNIT: Radia )ne radian angle is defined+ as the angle made at the center of the circle by an arc whose length is e$ual to the radius of the circle. It can be proved that. / rad 6 0rev 6 345 (b RELATION BET!EEN LINEAR DISPLACEMENT AND ANGULAR DISPLACEMENT OR PROOF OF S"r &onsider a body moving on circle of radius 'r( and centered at point ). !uppose arc %7 makes an angle at the center of the circle. If ! is length of arc %7 then %rc A( ' S *********************(0

&onsider another arc %& of the circle whose length is e$ual to the radius 'r( of the circle. Then this arc %& makes an angle of 1 rad at the center of the circle so that %rc A# ' r **********************(3

%s clear from the figure that the length of an arc is directly proportional to angle made by it at center of circle i.e. A(

A%(

A( ' ) A%( ********************(9 :here 'k( is proportionality constant. !imilarly. ;ivide e$ (9 by e$ (4 to get.

A( ) A%( = .......................*( ) A# ) A%#

A#

A%#

S'r

S = r 1

(c PROOF OF 1 radia "#$.% ?elation between arc length ! and radius of circle r is S'r #or one complete revolution. ! 6 /r+ the circumference of circle ' 3*0 !o that. " r ' r " r rad ' r 3*0 " rad ' 3*0 rad ' 1+0 1 rad '1+0 , 1 rad ' 57$3 Q) *a) Define and explain the angular #elocit,? *b) Establish a relation between linear #elocit, and angular #elocit,? ! "ro#e that& @ = r %ns. ANGULAR VELOCITY &The angular velocity is defined as the time rate of change of angular displacement. NATURE: #or small values of angular displacement or time interval+ the angular velocity can be regarded as @A&T)? B<%CTITD otherwise it is scalar $uantity. SYMBOL: The angular velocity is denoted by (omega . FORMULA: If is magnitude of angular displacement in the time interval t+ then magnitude of angular velocity is given by. =

t

SI UNIT: The !I unit of angular velocity is rad 2sec. EXPLANATION &onsider a particle attached to one end of a mass less rigid rod of length 'r( with its other end pivoted at point ')( taken as origin. !uppose the particle rotates anticlockwise in xy*plane+ about ,*axis serving as axis of rotation. %s the particle is moving along the circular path+ the rod %& rotates in the plane of the circle. &onsider a system of as shown in fig(a .

8 #or position -1+ let 1 is angle subtended by the rod with reference line %&+ at time '!1(. If " is angle subtended by the rod for position &" at time '!"( with reference line %& then angle traced by the rod in moving from position &1 to position &" is given by. = &1%&" ' " - 1 Time interval taken by particle in going from position &1 to position &" is ! ' !" - !1 Then ratio is defined as magnitude of angular velocity.

=

DIRECTION OF ANGULAR VELOCITY The direction of angular velocity is taken along the axis of rotation and is determined by a rule known as right hand rule. RIG'T 'AND RULE %ccording to right hand rule. 1) !tretch right hand with thumb to palm. 2) 1rasp the axis of rotation in stretched right hand and curl the fingers along the sense of rotation then thumb indicates the direction of angular velocity. #igure (b illustrates for the use of right hand rule for the direction of angular velocity of a body undergoing the anticlockwise angular motion along a circle in xy*plane. UNITS OF ANGULAR VELOCITY CONVENTIONAL UNITS: There are two conventional units of angular velocity as under. (a ?evolution per second (rev2sec (b ;egree per second (deg2sec SI UINT: The !I unit is rad2sec. TYPES OF ANGULAR VELOCITY %ngular velocity has following four types. 1( AVERAGE ANGULAR VELOCITY: It is defined as the ratio of total angular displacement and total time interval. SYMBOL: It is donated by av. FORMULA: If (total is total angular displacement of body in total time interval t(total then magnitude of average angular velocity is given by. * ! !al ) = ! * ! !al ) 2( INSTANTANEOUS ANGULAR VELOCITY It is defined as the angular velocity of a boy at a particular instant. SYMBOL: It is denoted by ins. #)?M<E%. If is angular displacement in time interval t then limiting value of the ratio magnitude of instantaneous angular velocity.

= lim

!

gives the !

)) -./0 !1 A.2-3A! 4E3 5/67 Def& If a body covers e$ual angular displacements in e$ual intervals of time+ how short or how long these time intervals may be+ the angular velocity of a body is said to be uniform av 6 ins )) 4A!/A83E A.2-3A! 4E3 5/67

9 Def& If a body covers e$ual angular displacements in une$ual time intervals or vice versa+ how short these time intervals may be+ the body has variable angular velocity. .ote& If a body has variable angular velocity then av F ins RELATION BETWEEN LINEAR VELOCITY AND ANGULAR VELOCITY If ! is length of the arc that subtends an angle at the center of the circle of the radius r then. !6r %pply the differential change on both sides to get. !6(r !6r ;ivide both sides by t to get. S lim = lim r %pply limit to get. t5 Eimit ! 6 magnitude of instantaneous linear velocity. t5 t 6 @ (say Eimit 6 magnitude of instantaneous angular velocity. t5 t 6 (say @6r In @ector form it can be written as.

V = r

Q..o9. a) Define and explain angular acceleration? b) Establish a relation between linear acceleration and angular acceleration ! "ro#e that& a = r A.$:E!& A.2-3A! A55E3E!A6/ . Def& The angular acceleration is defined as the time rate of change of angular velocity. .A6-!E& #or small values of change in angular velocity or time interval+ the angular acceleration can be regarded as a vector $uantity otherwise it is a scalar $uantity. $718 3& The angular acceleration is denoted by (alpha . The angular acceleration is denoted by (alpha . 0 !1-3A& If is the change in angular velocity during the time interval t+ then magnitude of angular acceleration is given by.

a=

EXPLANATION &onsider a particle attached to one end of a mass*less rigid rod of length r with its other end pivoted at point ) taken as origin. !uppose the particle is set in anti*clockwise circular motion in xy* plane+ about ,*axis+ the axis of rotation. Eet - is the initial position of the particle so that line )- serves as reference line coincident with Hx*axis. #or position -I+ let I is the angular velocity of the particle at time t I. If / is the angular velocity of the particle for position -/ at time t/+ then the change in angular velocity in going from position -I to position -/ is.

6 I * / The time interval for this change in angular velocity is. t 6 t / * tI Then ratio 2 t is defined as the angular acceleration. Thus+ 6 2 t #or small values of or t the angular acceleration can be regarded as vector $uantity otherwise it is a scalar $uantity. DIRECTION OF ANGULAR ACCELERATION The direction of angular acceleration is taken along that of angular velocity+ which in turn is taken along axis of rotation and is determined by right hand rule. If the angular speed of the body. 1) Increases+ then angular acceleration will be like parallel to the angular velocity. 2) ;ecreases+ then angular acceleration will be anti*parallel to the angular velocity. UNITS OF ANGULAR ACCELERATION a 5 .4E.6/ .A3 -./6$& There are two conventional units as 0 Two conventional units as. a ?evolution per second s$uare. (?ev 2 secG . b ;egree per second s$uare (deg 2 secG . / !I unit as radian per second s$uare J ?ad 2 secG. TYPES OF ANGULAR ACCELERATION The angular acceleration can be put into following six types. 1) A4E!A2E A.2-3A! A55E3E!A6/ .

>

Def& The average angular acceleration is defined as the ratio of total change in angular velocity and total time interval. SYMBOL: The average angular acceleration is denoted by av. 0 !1-3A& If (total is change in angular velocity in total time interval t (total + then angular acceleration is given by.

K av = lim t 5 total t total

2) /.$6A.6A.E -$ A.2-3A! A55E3E!A6/ . Def& It is defined as the angular acceleration of the body at particular instant. $718 3& It is denoted by ins. 0 !1-3A& If is change in angular velocity during time interval t then limiting value of the ratio 2 t then magnitude of angular acceleration. Thus+

K av = lim t 5 t

)) -niform Angular Acceleration ;ef. If e$ual changes take place in angular velocity of a body in e$ual time intervals+ how short or how long these time intervals may be+ the angular acceleration is said to be uniform. . 6E& If a body has uniform angular acceleration then. av 6 ins 9) 4A!/A83E A.2-3A! A55E3E!A6/ . Def. If e$ual changes take place in angular velocity of a body in une$ual time intervals or vice versa+ how short or how long these time intervals may be+ the angular acceleration is said to be variable or non*uniform. ') " $/6/4E A.2-3A! A55E3E!A6/ . Def&It is defined as the time rate of increase of magnitude of angular velocity. ;) .E2A6/4E A.2-3A! A55E3E!A6/ . Def.It is defined as the time rate of decrease of magnitude of angular velocity. b) !E3A6/ . 8E6:EE. 3/.EA! A55E3E!A6/ . A.D A.2-3A! A55E3E!A6/ . OR

"! 0 0& a = r The relation between linear speed v of a body moving on circle of radius r with angular speed is given by. v 6 r Take differential (small change on both sides to get. v 6 (r v6r

lim

t 5

N

@ = lim t 5 t t

t 5

lim t 5

a = r

!o that. a 6rK In vector form+ it can be written as. Q..o'. -i.e c m/ari0 n f 12ua!i n0 f linear m !i n and angular m !i n$ A.$:E!& EQ-A6/ .$ 0 A.2-3A! 1 6/ . There is a strong similarity between e$uations of uniformly accelerated linear motion and those of uniformly accelerated angular motion. #ollowing table gives the comparison of A$uations of two kind of motion. E<uations of linear motion vf 6 vi H a t ! 6 vi t H L at /as6@fG*@iG !6@t #6ma E<uations of angular motion f6i H Kt 6itHL Kt /K6fG*iG 6t M6IK

. 6E& The A$uations of angular motion given above hold only when the axis of rotation remains fixed+ so that all angular vectors may be treated as corresponding angular scalars. Q..o;&a) Define& 1) 5entripetal force *2) 5entripetal acceleration and explain their concept. b) 2i#e examples of centripetal force? A.$:E!& 1) 5E.6!/"E6A3 0 !5E= Def& /& % force which compels particles to move along a circle and is always directed towards the center of circle is called centripetal force. //& % force that bends straight path of the particle into circular path is called centripetal force. 2) 5E.6!/"E6A3 A55E3E!A6/ .& Def& The acceleration produced by the centripetal force that is directed towards the center of circle is called centripetal acceleration.

In the absence of net external force+ a body at rest and a moving body continue its rectilinear motion with constant speed. #ollowing two important conclusions can be drawn from Cewton(s first law of motion. 1) :hen a net external force acts on a moving body parallel to the direction of motion then body speeds up and slows down when this force acts anti*parallel to the direction of motion but direction remains the same. 2) :hen net external force acts on the body at an angle different from 5Oor 0N5O+ then both speed and direction of motion change. )) :hen net external force acts on the body at right angle to the direction of its motion+ then direction of motion changes but speed remains constant. It means that to bend the rectilinear path of body moving at constant speed+ into curvilinear path+ a net external force must act on it at right angle to its direction of motion. !ince the direction of motion of a body undergoing circular motion continuously changes at each and every point of the circular path+ therefore+ it is acted upon by a net external force parallel to its direction of motion. This force is known as centripetal force.

It is very force+ which keeps the body moving on circular path+ because if it vanishes at any point of the circular path+ the body would fly off along the tangent to the path. Thus+ centripetal force is the force+ which bends the rectilinear path of motion into curvilinear path. %s shown above in #ig that centripetal force is always directed towards the canter of the circle. If m is the mass of the body moving on circle of radius r+ with constant speed v then. magnitude of centripetal force is given by. %s v 6 r+ therefore+ # 6 mrG %ccording to Cewton(s second law of motion+ the centripetal force produces an acceleration+ in its own direction+ known as centripetal acceleration. Thus centripetal acceleration is directed towards the center of the circle. Its magnitude is given as ac 6#c2m 6 (mvG2r 2m 6 @G2r 6 rG b E>A1"3E$ 0 5E.6!/"E6A3 0 !5E

v/ Fc = m r

05

!ource of centripetal force may differ from situation to situational as evident from following examples E>A1"3E 1 *$6 .E A6 6?E 0 $6!/.2) &onsider a stone of mass m and being whirled at the end of a string of length r. Then tension in string provides centripetal force #c6 m@G2r6T E>A1"3E 2 *"3A.E6A!7 1 6/ .) :hen earth revolves around the sun in elliptical orbit+ the gravitational pull provides centripetal force thus #c 6 # g 6 2 me ms2rG :here me is mass of earth ms is mass of the sun 2 is gravitational &onstant r is center*to*center distance between the earth and the sun E>A1"3E ) *1 6/ . 0 E3E56! . A! -.D .-53E-$) :hen an electron revolves around the nucleus then electrical force of attraction provides centripetal force #c 6 # e 6 Q eGR2rG @ is 5oulombAs constant e is charge on an electron or proton B is atomic number of nucleus r is the distance between the nucleus and electron

0 5?A!2ED "A!6/53E /. "A!6/53E A55E3E!A6 ! )

:here

E>A1"3E 9& *1 6/ .

-article accelerator is a machine that can accelerate the charged particle to impart them Q.A. e.g. cyclotron+ betatron etc. %ll particle accelerators except the linear accelerator employ magnetic fields to set the charged particles in circular motion. The magnetic force then provides centripetal force to the charged particles #c 6 # b #c 6 $ v 7 :here $ is charge on the charged particle v is speed of the charged particle b magnetic field Q$3 7$ a) Define cen!ri/e!al accelera!i n and deri.e a ma!hema!ical rela!i n f r i!4 b) Define cen!ri/e!al f rce and deduce i!0 f rmula fr m !he e5/re00i n f cen!ri/e!al accelera!i n4 A.$:E!& 5E.6!/"E6A3 A55E3E!A6/ . Def& The acceleration produced by the centripetal force towards the center of the circle is called centripetal acceleration

00

E>"!E$$/ . If @ is speed of body moving along a circle of radius r then centripetal acceleration is given by ac 6 vG2r ;A?I@%TI)C )# AS-?A!!I)C &onsider a particle of mass CmA and moving with constant linear speed C#A along a circle of radius CrA with center at point C A. %s the particle moves on the circle+ constantly undergoes acceleration due to change of direction of velocity vector at each and every point of the circle. If 4 is change in the velocity of the particle in going from point % to point 7 during time interval t+ then magnitude of acceleration is given by a 6 @2t************0

DE6E!1/.A6/ . 0 t If %7 6 ! (say is length of arc from point % to point 7 then time taken by particle to go from point % to point 7 is given by formula ! 6 @t. t 6 !2@****************/ DE6E!1/.A6/ . 0 4 Eet @0 is velocity of the particle at point % and @/ be that at point 7. !ince the speed of the particle is constant e$ual to @ thereforeT |@0| 6 @ 6 |@/| It implies that. @0 6 @ 6@/ The vector U%)7 is an isosceles such that. )%6)7 6 r and %)76 &onstruct a vector UB-? such that is PQ e$ual and parallel to V 0 and PR is e$ual and parallel V / to i.e.

PQ 6 V 0

-B6@0

PR 6 V / -? 6 @/

-B6-?6@@06@/ In this vector UB-?+ the head to tail rule of vector addition gives that.

PR = PQ + QR

V/ = V0 + QR

QR =V/ V0 = V

B?6@ Thus+ the vector UB-? is an isosceles triangle is with. -B6-? 6 @ and B-?6 B?6@ 7oth U%)7 and UB-? are such that )% @0 and )7 @/+ so that+ therefore+ B-?6%)7 6 %s %)7 and B-? are two isosceles triangles with e$ual angles between their e$ual arms therefore they are similar triangles. Thus+ the ratio of their corresponding sides is e$ual. Q!D"!%A8D A :hen t5 then chord %76%7 so that.

0/

<sing e$ / and 3 in e$0+ we get a 6(!@2r 2(!2v a6@G2r ***************8 The acceleration 'a( given by e$ 8 is the instantaneous acceleration. %s this acceleration is produced by the centripetal force therefore it is known as centripetal acceleration denoted by ac. Vence e$ 8 becomes ac 6 @G2r *************9 It must be bore in mind that the centripetal acceleration given by e$ 9 is always directed radically towards the center of circle. If is angular speed of the particle so @ 6 r and hence e$ 9 becomes ac 6 (r G2r ac 6 rG *************4 b 5E.6!/"E6A3 0 !5E Def& % force+ which compels a particle to move along a circle and is always directed towards the center of circle+ is called centripetal force )? % force needed to bend normally straight path of the particle into circular path is called centripetal force. 1A6?E1A6/5A3 E>"!E$$/ . %ccording to Cewton(s second law of motion we can write #c 6 mac :here (m( is mass of the particle -utting value of ac from e$ 9+ we get. #c 6 m@G2r If is angular speed of the particle then v 6 r so that #c 6 m (r G2r

#c6 mrG

03

Q..oE. a) Define M men! f iner!ia4 Deri.e an e5/re00i n f r !he m men! f iner!ia f a /ar!icle and generali6e i! f r a rigid b dy4 b) 7i0! !he m men! f iner!ia0 f unif rm 0 lid r d8 h /8 0 lid circular di0)8 0 lid cylinder8 and unif rm 0 lid 0/here4 %C:!A?. M)MACT )# ICA?TI% Def& It is defined as the product of mass and s$uare of its perpendicular distance from the axis of rotation .A6-!E The moment of inertia is a scalar $uantity $718 3 The moment of inertia is denoted by 'I(. 0 !1-3A If 'm( is mass distributed at perpendicular distance r from the axis of rotation then moment of inertia is given by. I 6 mrG $/ -./6 The !I unit of moment of inertia is kg*mG D/1E.$/ .$& The dimensions of moment of inertia are WMEGX. AS-E%C%TI)C &onsider a body of mass 'm( is attached to a mass less rigid rod of length 'r( whose other end is pivoted at point ')( taken as center of circular path. % tangential force '#t( acts on the particle to set it into circular path. If at is tangential acceleration produced by tangential force '#( then be Cewton(s !econd Eaw of Motion #t 6 mat **************(0 If is angular acceleration then at 6 r **************(/ <sing e$ / in e$ 0 we get #t 6 mr **************3 Multiply e$ 3 by r to get r#t 6 mrG 7ut r#6Y+ the tor$ue acting on the particle so that. 6 mrG ***********8 Cewton(s !econd Eaw of Motion is given byT # 6 ma The comparison of e$ 8 and 9 shows that The $uantity mrG compares with m i.e. the $uantity mrG plays some role in rotational motion as it is played by mass 'm( in linear motion. The $uantity mrG is known as moment of inertia donated by 'I(. Thus I6 mrG

08

Moment of inertia also known as rotational inertia is direct measure of inertness or inability of external to change the state of uniform angular motion. It is not an intrinsic property of a particle or a body. 1 1E.6 0 /.E!6/A 0 !/2/D 8 D7

% rigid body is regarded as system of particles. &onsider a rigid body composed of n particles of masses m0+ m/+ZZZZ..mn respectively at distance r0+ r/+ZZZ.rn+ from the axis of rotation ')(+ as shown in #ig below.

!uppose the rigid body is set into rotational motion with angular acceleration in anticlockwise sense of rotation. Then each constituent particle undergoes some angular acceleration as shown in above figure. Vence the tor$ue acting on constituent particle of mass m0 is given by e$ 8 as. [I 6 m I r0G !imilarly [/ 6 m/ r/G . . . \n 6 mn rnG Total tor$ue acting on a rigid body is e$ual to some of tor$ue acting on its all*constituent particles i.e. [(total 6 [0 H [/ H [3 H [ n -utting values of these tor$ues in the above e$uation we get [ (total 6 m0r0G H m/ r/G H mnrnG [ (total 6 (m0r0G H m/ r/G H mnrnG G [ (total 6 (miriG [ (total 6 I r :hereas+ (miriG is the moment of inertia of the rigid body.

09

b 1 1E.6 0 /.E6/A$ 0 $ 1E :E33 @. :. 8 D/E$ #ollowing table gives the moment of inertias of some well*known bodies

!.C) 1 Came of the body $ 3/D ! D 0igure #ormula /%1D2mrF

6?/. ?

"

/%mrF

04

Q..oE a) Define and explain angular momentum of a particle and extend the mathematical expression for a rigid bod,? b) Explain difference between spin angular momentum and orbital angular momentum? %C!:A?. %C1<E%? M)MACT<M Def& % particle is said to possess angular momentum about a reference axis if it so moves that its angular position changes relative to that reference axis. ! The angular momentum is defined as the cross product of its position vector w.r.t. axis of rotation and its linear momentum ! The angular momentum of a particle is defined as the moment of its linear momentum .A6-!E %ngular momentum is a vector $uantity $718 3 The angular momentum is donated by E 0 !1-3A If I is momentum of inertia of an ob"ect of angular speed then magnitude of its angular momentum is given by E 6 I E6mr@ $/ -./6 The !I unit of angular momentum is kg m2s or ]*sec D/1E.$/ .$ The dimension of angular momentum is WMEG2TG E>"3A.A6/ . &onsider a particle of mass 'm( moving with linear velocity @. Then linear momentum of the particle would be - 6 m@

0>

If 'r( is position vector of the particle w.r.t. The axis of rotation passing through origin then angular momentum of the particle would be e$ual to the cross product of its position vector and linear momentum that is E 6 r ^p % r p n :here n is unit vector normal containing vector r and -. r is the perpendicular distance between the line of motion (line of action of vector - and axis of rotation. %s shown in the that if is angle between r and - then r 6 r sin !o that E 6 r - sin ***********0 Cote that the angular momentum is a vector $uantity whose magnitude and direction are given as below 1A2./6-DE #rom e$0 the magnitude of angular momentum vector is given by E 6 r - sin 7ut p 6 m@ so that. 3 % rm4 sin If particle is moving on circle then r@ and hence r@ so that 6 P5 E 6 rm@ sinP5 E 6 rm@ *********/ If is angular speed of the particle then v 6 r so that e$ / may become E 6 r m r E 6 mrG !ince mrG6I+ the moment of inertia of the particle therefore E 6 I *********3 A$ 3 gives magnitude of angular momentum e$ual to product of moment of inertia (angular mass and angular speed D/!E56/ . The direction of angular momentum is taken along that of angular velocity + which in turn is taken along axis of rotation. The use of right hand rule tells that angular momentum E will be perpendicular to r and p i.e. normal to plane containing the vectors r and -.

A.2-3A! 1 1E.6-1 0 !/2/D 8 D7 % rigid body is regarded as system of particles. &onsider a rigid body is composed of n particles of masses m0 m/ m3 Z mn at distances r0+ r/+ r3 Z rn respectively from the axis of rotation passing

perpendicularly through center of mass. If is constant angular speed of rigid body then each of the constituent particles would be the same e$ual to .

0N

Vowever the linear speed of each would be different depending on the distance from the axis of rotation. Thus for ith particle of distance ri from axis of rotation we have @i 6 ri Axtending this e$uation from0+ /+3+8+9Zn we have @I 6 rI @/ 6 r/ . . . @i 6 ri . . @n 6 rn The magnitude of angular momentum of particle 0 is. E0 6 m0 r0 v0 $imilarl,& E/ 6 m/ r/ v/ E3 6 m3 r3 v3 E0 6 m0 r0 v0 -utting values of @I+ @/+ @_Z@n+ we have E0 6 m0 r0G E/ 6 m/ r/G . . En 6 mn rnG The magnitude of angular momentum of the rigid body is e$ual to sum of magnitudes of angular momenta of its all constituent particles. E6 E0H E/HZZZ.En -utting @alues of E0+ E/+ZZZ.En we get E6 m0 r0G H m/ r/G ZZZ..H mn rnG

E6 (m0 r0G H m/ r/GZZH mn rnG E6( mi riG 7ut I6( mi riG the moment of inertia of the rigid body therefore E6I $/ -./6$ The !I units of angular momentum is Qg*m2secG. It can be expressed in another form as ]*sec. ;ivide and multiply by sec to get. Qg*mG2sec6(Qg*mG2secG sec 6(Qg*m2sec (m sec 6C*m sec 6]*sec D/1E.$/ .$ The dimensions of angular momentum are 6WMEG2TX b D/00E!E.5E 8E6:EE. $"/. A.2-3A! 1 1E.6-1 A.D A.2-3A! 1 1E.6-1 !8/6A3

0P

% spinning body possesses the spin angular momentum about the axle through it e.g. the spinning top and spinning earth about its own axis.

%n orbiting body possesses the orbital momentum about an axis of rotation or center of rotation e.g. the electron orbiting around the nucleus and the earth orbiting around the sun have orbital angular momenta.

Q.No .a! !tate and explain the law of conservation of angular momentum. b) -i.e 0 me a//lica!i n0 f la9 f c n0er.a!i n f angular m men!um$ A3S:1;< a) 3A: 0 5 .$E!4A6/ . 0 A.2-3A! 1 1E.6-1 $6A6E1E.6& The law of conservation of angular momentum states that #or an isolated system the total angular momentum remains constant. ! #or an isolated system the total initial angular momentum is e$ual to the total final angular momentum. ! In the absence of net external force acting on a system the total momentum remains constant.

/5

E>"3A.A6/ . The time rate of change of angular momentum is e$ual to the net external tor$ue acting on a body or a system. %ccording to Cewton(s second law of motion+ the net external force acting on a system is e$ual to the time rate of change of its linear momentum that is. #6p2t Take cross product of position vector r w.r.t. axis of rotation passing through origin ) to get. r ^#6 r ^ p 2t 6r ^ p2t 7ut r x # 6 [ext and r^-6E the change in angular momentum. [ext6p 2t**************0 If net external tor$ue acting on the system is ,ero then [ext65 so that e$0may give. )6E2t E6)^t E6)**********/ E6constant E6 E0H E/HZZZ.En6constant %lternatively+ if Ei is initial angular momentum and Ef is the final momentum then E6 Ef`Ei so that e$ / may give. Ef`Ei65 Ef6Ei A""3/5A6/ .$ 0 3A: 0 5 .$E!4A6/ . 0 A.2-3A! 1 1E.6-1 The law of conservation of angular momentum is one of the fundamental laws of -hysics. The truth of its conservation has been verified from cosmological level to submicroscopic level. It has many applications in practical -hysics as well as in the Cature as explained below. 6?E $"!/.2 8 A!D D!/4E! #igure below shows driver leaving the springboard.

The diver pushes spring board to ac$uire a small angular speed ai about a hori,ontal axis passing through his center of gravity+ so that his initial angular momentum is Ei 6 Ii ai :here Ii is initial moment of inertia. Initially+ the diver(s legs and arms are fully extendedT therefore+ Ii has large value. :hen the diver pulls his legs and arms to adopt a &E)!A; T<&Q position+ his final moment of inertia If reduces. If af is the final angular speed then final angular momentum of the diver is given as. Ef 6 Ifaf %ccording to the law of conservation of angular momentum

/0

Ef 6 Ei -utting values of Ei and Ef+ we get. Ifaf 6 Iiai af 6 (Ii2If a i 5 .53-$/ .& !ince If bIi+ therefore+ af cai. Thus+ the diver lands into swimming pool with high angular speed which enables him to take extra revolutions. /. 6?E $"/../.2 A5! 8A6. #igure shows an acrobat sitting on a turntable+ holding heavy weights in his extended arms.

In this configuration+ the system (%crobatH turntable H weights has large moment of inertia. If Ii is initial moment of inertia of acrobat having initial angular speed ai then initial angular momentum of the system is Ei 6 Iiai :hen acrobat pulls his arms inward+ then final moment of inertia If of system reduces to small value. If af is final angular speed of the acrobat then final angular momentum of the system is given that Ef6 Ifaf %ccording to the law of conservation of angular momentum+ we have Ef 6 Ei -utting values of Ei and Ef + we have Ifaf 6Iiai af 6 (Ii2If a i 5 .53-$/ .& !ince If bIi+ therefore+ af cai. Thus+ the acrobat spins faster when he pulls his arms close his body and slows down+ when he extends them. ). 6?E ! 6A6/.2 8/5753E :?EE3. #igure shows a student seated on a turntable that is free to rotate about vertical axis.

//

The student holds a bicycle wheel that has been set spinning anticlockwise+ such that the turntable is initially at rest. :hen student turns the spinning bicycle wheel upside down+ then to conserve the angular momentum+ the turntable begins to rotate anticlockwise while now the spinning bicycle wheel is continuing its spin motion+ now clockwise. 8. 6?E $6A8/3/67 0 $"/../.2 8HE56$. The spin motion provides orientation stability on the basis of the law of conservation of angular momentum. In simple words+ it means that greater is the spin angular momentum+ it would be more difficult for external tor$ue to change the orientation of the spinning ob"ect. E>A1"3E$ 0. Veavenly bodies( e.g. the earth has orbital angular momentum due to orbital motion and spin angular momentum due to spin motion. The spin motion stabili,es the orientation of earth overall motion. /. The atomic electron spins in addition to orbiting around the nucleus "ust to stabili,e its orientation. 3. )ne of the causes of the stability of the nucleus is the spin motion of its nucleons. 8. ?ider less bicycle given a slight push is able to remain upright over a far longer distance than expected+ due to spin motion of its wheels 9. %rtificial satellites are set into spin motion to stabili,e their orientation E4 3-6/ . 0 $6A!$ A.D 5 33A"$/.2 $6A!$. The evolution of the stars in the result of law of conservation of angular momentum. The stars are formed due to self gravitational pull of clouds of dust and gas in interstellar space. These clouds gain a small angular velocity due to rotation of galaxy. The gravitational pull shrinks the clouds of dust and gas to a dense ob"ect. In order to conserve the angular momentum+ the angular velocity of such an ab"ect increases a great value. The process of gravitational contraction heats up the stars and thus they become luminous. The internal temperature becomes as 05d054 Q to start a nuclear fusion reaction in the star to provide it long lasting source of heat and light. In stars of large si,e+ the high speed motion its particles make them unstable+ at end of revolution. %s a result supernova explosion takes place+ which causes the outer layer of star to be blown out in space. )nly dense pore is left behind in star in which nuclei come close to each other thus reducing its radius and increasing its angular velocity. !uch stars+ infect become one giant atomic nucleus and are known as CA<T?)C !T%?!. The typical radius of neutron stars is 00 Qm. The rotational speed of collapsing star become as high as 0555 rev2s. there exist strong magnetic fields around a collapsing star. This magnetic field entraps electrons and set them in orbital motion as the star rotate. These electrons emit e.m radiations including visible light when they are centripetally accelerated. !ince+ the visible light+ by which collapsing stars can be observed on the earth+ is emitted in the form of pulses+ therefore such stars are called -<E!%?!. Q..o1I a) Define r !a!i nal )ine!ic energy f rigid b dy and deri.e0 i!0 f rmula4

/3

b) A circular di0c and h / f e2ual ma00e0 and radii are all 9ed ! r le d 9n fr m !he 0ame inclined /lane$ #alcula!e !he linear 0/eed0 f di0c and h / n reaching !he b !! m f inclined /lane and decide 9hich ne 9ill reach !he b !! m earlier4 A.$:E!. a) ! 6A6/ .A3 @/.E6/5 E.E!27 Def& The ability of a body by virtue of its spin motion about the axis of rotation is called its rotational Q.A. 0 !1-3A. if I is rotational inertia and : is angular speed of a rotating or spinning body then its rotational Q.A is given by

Q.A

rot

0 I/ /

DE!/4A6/ . 0 0 !1-3A 0 ! 6A6/ .A3 @.E &onsider a rigid body spinning about an axis %%e with constant angular speed a in anticlockwise sense of rotation+ as shown in #ig.The rigid body is regarded as system of particles. Eet mi be the mass of the ith constituent particle of the rigid body rotating at a distance ri from the axis of rotation. This ith particle has the same rotational speed a as that of the rigid body. If @i is the linear speed of the particle then @i 6 ri a ***** (0 th Cow translational Q.A of the i particle is Q.A i rot 6 L mi @i / **********(/ :hen e$.0 is used in e$./+ then we get rotational Q.A of the ith particle of the rigid body as. Q.A i rot 6 L mi (ri a / 6 L mi ri/ a / ******* (3 7ut miri/ 6 Ii+ the rotational inertia of the ith constituent particle of the rigid body Q.AIrot 6 L Ii a / ********** (8 If m0+ m/+ m3Z.are masses of constituent particles rotating at distances r0+ r/+ r3Z respectively then by the symmetry of e$.3+ their rotational Q.As are given by. Q.A0 rot 6 L m0 r0/ a / Q.A3rot 6 L m/ r// a / Q.A/rot 6 L m3 r3/ a / . . . / / Q.A i rot 6 L mi ri a . . / / / / 7ut $uantities m0 r0 + m/ r/ + m3 r3 +Z+ mi ri ZZ give moments of inertia of the constituent particles. These moments of inertial are denoted by I0+ I/+ I3+ Z Ii Z so that. Q.A0rot 6 L I0 a/ Q.A/rot 6 L I/ a/ Q.A3rot 6 L I3 a/ . . . Q.A i rot 6 L Ii a / .

/8

. The total rotational Q.A of the body is e$ual to the sum of the rotational kinetic energies of its all constituent particles i.e. Q.A rot 6 Q.A0rot H Q.A/rot H Q.A3rot H **** HL Ii a / H***** 6L I0 a / H L I/ a / H L I3 a / H*****L Ii a / H***** Q.A rot 6 L (I0HI/HI3HZ.. a / Q.A rot 6 L (f Ii a / 7ut f Ii 6I+ the moment of inertia of the rigid body. Q.A rot 6 L I a / This is the rotational Q.A of a rigid body. 3/.EA! $"EED$ 0 D/$5 A.D ? " A6 6?E 8 66 1 0 /.53/.ED "3A.E

&onsider a disc and hoop of e$ual masses and radii+ let m be mass and r be the radius of each disc and hoop. !uppose both the disc and hoop is allowed to roll down simultaneously from same inclined plane of height h+ as shown in the #igure.

%t the top of the inclined both the disc and hoop have gravitational -.A given by. -.Agrav 6 mgh********(0 :hen both the disc and hoop roll down along the inclined plane then gravitational -.A converse into rotational Q.A and translational Q.A+ in general given by+ Q.Arot 6 L I a / ****** (/ :here I is the moment of inertia Q.Atran 6Lm@/ ********* (3 :here @ is the translational speed at the bottom of the inclined plane. 7y the law of conservation of energy+ we have . -.A 6 Q.Arot H Q.Atran ********(8 <sing e$ 0+ / and 3 in e$.8 we get mgh 6 L I a / HLmv/ 7ut v6rw0 which implies :6v2r+ so that mgh 6 L I (v2r / H L m@/ mgh 6 L I 2r/ v/H L m@/ mgh 6 L(I2r/ H m @/ /mgh6 (I2r/ Hm @/

/9

/

@=

/m"# I ***** (9 m+ / r

D/$5& #or disc+ the moment of inertia is. I 6 L mr/ -utting this value of I in e$.9+ we get

@disc =0.09 "#

? "& #or hoop+ the moment of inertia is. I 6 mr/ -utting this value in e$.9+ we get @hoop 6 g gh #rom e$.4 and e$.>+ it can be concluded that @disc c @hoop 5 .53-$/ .& The disc will reach the bottom of inclined plane earlier than hoop. Q$3 11$a) Define 1) 3a!ural Sa!elli!e ") Ar!ificial Sa!elli!e b) Deri.e an e5/re00i n f r !he rbi!al 0/eed f an ar!ificial 0a!elli!e$ Define cri!ical 0/eed (.el ci!y) f an ar!ificial 0a!elli!e and calcula!e i! c) %b!ain an e5/re00i n f r !he /eri d f re. lu!i n f a 0a!elli!e$ #alcula!e !he /eri d f re. lu!i n f an ar!ificial 0a!elli!e rbi!ing !he ear!h 9i!h cri!ical 0/eed$ d) -i.e main !y/e0 f ar!ificial 0a!elli!e0 A.$:E!& a) 0. .A6-!A3 $A6E33/6E Def& % body that revolves around another body without any fuel is called a natural satellite. E>A1"3E$& The moon is a natural satellite of the earth+ which inurn is the same for the sun. !imilarly+ the atomic electron can be regarded as a natural satellite of the nucleus. 2. A!6/0/5/A3 $A6E33/6E ;ef. % man made device that revolves around the earth without any fuel is called the artificial satellite. b E>"!E$$/ . 0 ! !8/6A3 $"EED 0 A. A!6/0/5/A3 $A6E33/6E

&onsider an artificial satellite of mass 'm( revolving around the earth in a circular orbit concentric with the centre of the earth. The centripetal force is provided by the gravitational pull of the earth on the satellite i.e. #c 6 # g If @ is orbital speed of the satellite and r is its orbital radius then. m sV / m$ = G %/ r r

/4

:here 1 is gravitational constant e$ual to 4.4>^05*00. C*m/2kg/ and M is mass of the earth @ 6 g 1M2r****** (0 7y the definition+ the gravitational pull is the weight of the satellite+ therefore #g 6 : 1mM2r/ 6 mg 1M2r/ 6 g Multiplying both sides by r+ to get. 1M2r 6 gr****** (/ <sing e$./ in e$.0+ we get @ 6 g gr ********(3 A$.0 and e$.3 give orbital speed of an artificial satellite revolving around the earth in circular orbit. 5!/6/5A3 $"EED& Def& It is defined as the minimum orbital speed of an artificial satellite necessary to put it in circular orbit around the earth. 5A35-3A6/ .$& If h is height of the artificial satellite from the surface of earth+ then r 6 h H ? ******* (8 :here ? is radius of earth. <sing e$.8 in e$.3+ we get. @ 6 g g (h H ? ***** (9 #or simplicity+ consider a satellite for which hbb?+ so that h may be neglected in e$.9 to get. @ 6 g g ? ****** (4 4 -utting g 6 P.N m2s and ? 6 4.8^05 m in e$.4+ we get. @ 6 g P.N^4.8^054 6 >P55 m2s 6 >.P^053 m2s @ 6 >.P km2s This is approximate value of critical speed of an artificial satellite very close to the surface of earth. c) "E!/ D 0 !E4 3-6/ . ! 6/1E "E!/ D& ;ef. Time taken by the artificial satellite to revolve once around the earth in its orbit is called its period of revolution or time period. It is denoted by 'T(. 5A35-3A6/ . 0 "E!/ D 0 !E4 3-6/ . ;uring one revolution+ the distance covered by the artificial satellite is ! 6 circumference of circular orbit ! 6 /hr If @ is orbital speed of the artificial satellite then by formula !6@T+ we have /hr 6 @T T 6 /hr2@*******(> A$> gives the period of revolution of the artificial satellite around the earth. If h is height of the artificial satellite from the surface of the earth then r 6 hH?+ so that e$.> may give.

/>

T 6 /h (hH? 2@ ******* (N :here ? is radius of the earth. If hbb? then e$.N may reduce to T 6 /h?2 @ 4 -utting ?6 4.8 d05 m and @6 >P55 m2s+ we get T 6 / ^3.08 ^4.8^054 >P55 6 9545 sec 6 9545245 min 6 N8 min. d 67"E$ 0 A!6/0/5/A3 $A6E33/6E& %rtificial satellites are launched in space for many purposes e.g. research and information. In this way they fall into following categories. 1) 5 11-./5A6/ . $A6E33/6E$. These satellites mean telephone calls facilitate internet services and T@ transmission. They are placed in geo*stationary orbit which is 34555 km above the surface of earth. Three communication satellites in the geostationary orbits positioned properly+ can cover whole populated regions of the earth. 2) :EA6?E!$A6E33/6E$& These satellites remain changing their positions in their orbit. They give useful information about the weather conditions. )) !E$EA!5? $A6E33/6E$. These satellites are specially designed to keep an eye at the changes taking place in the upper atmosphere of the earth. 9) $"7 $A6E33/6E$. These satellites are used to spy the military activities of enemy. Q..o12 a Define geostationar, orbit and calculate its height from the surface of the earth. b) 5alculate the orbital speed of geostationar, satellite. A.$:E!. a 2E $6A6/ .A!7 !8/6& Def& /) The orbit in which the period of revolution of the artificial satellite becomes e$ual to the period of daily rotation of the earth about its own axis is called geostationary orbit. ;ef. II %n orbit in which the orbital motion of an artificial satellite is synchroni,ed with the daily rotation of the earth about its own axis is called geostationary orbit. . 6E& %nother name for geostationary orbit is synchroni,ed orbit. E>"3A.A6/ . &onsider a geostationary satellite of mass m( and revolving around the earth in a geostationary orbit of radius r. The gravitational pull of the earth provides centripetal force to the geostationary satellite for its orbital motion in the geostationary orbit. i.e. #c 6 # g ms@/ 6 1msM r r/ :here @ is orbital speed of the geostationary satellite and M is mass of the earth. 1 is gravitational constant. @/ 6 1M2r @ 6 g 1M2r ********** (0

/N

;uring one revolution+ the geostationary satellite covers distance s e$ual to the circumference of the geostationary orbit. i.e. ! 6 circumference of geostationary orbit 6 /hr Then by formula ! 6 @T+ we get /hr 6 @t @ 6 /hr2t ************* (/ :here t is period of revolution of the geostationary satellite is /8 hours+ the period of daily rotation of the earth around its own axis. &omparing e$.0 and e$./+ we get. /hr2t 6 g 1M2r Taking s$uare on both sides to get 8h/r/2t/ 6 1M2r r3 6 1Mt/28h/ Taking cube root on both sides we get r 6 (1Mt/28h/ 023 ****** (3 A$.3 gives the radius of geostationary orbit. 5A35-3A6/ . 0 2E $6A6/ .A!7 #or e$.3 values of constants are 1 6 4.4>^05*00 C*m/2kg/ M 6 4^05/8 kg t 6 /8 V 6 /8^3455 sec 6 N4855 sec h 6 3.08 :ith these values e$.3 becomes r 6 i 4^05/8^4^05/8 ^ (N4855 jk023 8^ (3.08 / 6 8./3^05> m 6 8./3^058 km r 6 8/3+ 555+ 55 m !8/6

5A35-3A6/ . 0 ?E/2?6 0 2E $6A6/ .A!7 !8/6. If ? is the radius of the earth then height of then height of the geostationary orbit from the surface of the earth is given by. h6rJ? Vere r 6 8./3^05> m ? 6 4.8^054 m !o that. h 6 8./3^05> J 4.8d054 6 39P+ 555+ 55 m 6 39P55 km h 6 34555 km

/P

5A35-3A6/ .

#rom e$.0+ the orbital speed of a geostationary satellite can be calculated as. @ 6 g 4.4>^05*00 ^4^05/8 8.38^05> 6 35>9 m2s 6 3.5>9d053 m2s 6 3.0 km2s -$E$ 0 2E $6A6/ .A!7 $A6E33/6E. 1eostationary satellites are used for following purposes. 1) 2) )) 9) :orldwide communication :eather observations Cavigation )ther military uses

Q..o1). a Define a//aren! 9eigh!$ Di0cu00 !he .aria!i n f a//aren! 9eigh! under f ll 9ing ca0e0$ 1) :hen lif! i0 a! re0! r i! m .e0 u/ r d 9n 9i!h c n0!an! 0/eed ( r 6er accelera!i n) ") :hen lif! a0cend0 9i!h accelera!i n$ 3) :hen lif! de0cend0 9i!h accelera!i n$ b) 9ha! ha//en0 9hen cable carrying !he lif! brea)0 u/4 %; Define a//aren! 9eigh! and di0cu00 m !i n f lif! r ele.a! r. A.$:E!& A""A!E.6 :E/2?6 ;ef. * The reading of spring weighing machine is called apparent weight of the body. E>"3A.A6/ . The gravitational pull of the earth on the body placed on it surface is called !EA3 :E/2?6. The weight of body is measured with the help of spring weighing machine (or spring balance .:hen body is at rest or moves up or down with constant speed then reading weighing machine speed is e$ual to the ?A%E :AI1VT of the body. Vowever+ when body moves up or down with some acceleration+ then spring balance would read more or less then the real weight. The ?A%;IC1 of spring balance+ for a body having accelerated upward or downward motion with acceleration is called %--%?ACT :AI1VT. The apparent weight denoted by : l and e$uals the tension T in the suspension string that is. :l 6 T .?emember that apparent weight of the body may vary while the real weight can(t. The apparent weight :l of a body may be such that. 0 : l 6 : (real weight / :l c: 3 :l b : 8 : l65 The variation of apparent weight can be discussed by considering the motion of lift or elevator. 1 6/ . 0 3/06 *E3E4A6 !) &onsider a block of mass in suspended by means of a spring balance whose upper end attached to the ceiling of a lift (elevator .The real weight of the block is :6mg+ while the reading of the

35

spring balance gives apparent weight : l of the block which in turn e$uals the tension T in the suspension string that is. : l6T 5ase 1 :?E. 3/06 /$ A6 !E$6 ! 1 4E$ -" ! D :. :/6? 5 .$6A.6 $"EED #ollowing two forces act on the block 1) #up 6 T (tension in string 2) #down 6 : (real weight In this case the net force on the block is. #net 6 #up * #down 6T*: If a is acceleration of the block then by Cewton(s /nd law of motion #net 6ma+ so that. ma6#*T %s the block is at rest or it moves up or down with constant speed+ therefore+ a65+ so that mo6T*: o 6 T*: T6: Vowever+ T6:l+ the apparent+ weight of the block so that. :l 6 : 5 .53-$/ .. The apparent weight is e$ual to the real weight+ when lift is at rest or it moves up or down with constant speed.

5ase 2&

#ollowing two forces act on the block. 0 #up 6 T(tension in string / #down 6: (real weight !ince the block along with elevator is ascending+ therefore+ #up c #down+ so that the net force on the block is. #net 6 #up * #down 6TJ: If a is acceleration of the block then by Cewton(s seconds law of motion the net force is #net 6 ma+ so that ma 6 T*: T 6:Hma Vowever+ T6:l+ the apparent+ weight of the block so that.

30

:l 6 :Hma 6mgHma 5 .53-$/ .& :hen lift ascends with uniform acceleration the apparent weight of the block increases by an amount ma. 5ase ). :?E. 3/06 DE$E.D$ :/6? -./0 !1 A55E3E!A6/ .. #ollowing two forces act on the block. 0 #up 6 T(tension in string / #down 6: (real weight !ince the block along with elevator is ascending+ therefore+ #up b #down+ so that the net force on the block is. #net 6 #down * #up 6 : *T If a is acceleration of the block then by Cewton(s seconds law of motion the net force is #net 6 ma+ so that. ma 6 :*T T 6:*ma Vowever+ T6:l+ the apparent+ weight of the block so that. :l 6 :*ma 6mg*ma 5 .53-$/ .. :hen lift descends with uniform acceleration the apparent weight of the block decreases by an amount ma. $"E5/A3 5A$E& :?E. 5A83E 5A!!7/.2 6?E 3/06 8!E@$ -" :hen cable carrying the lift breaks up+ then block along with the lift falls freely towards the earth with an acceleration g that is in this case. a6g :hen lift moves down the apparent weight of the block is. :l6mg*mg :l65 T 65 Thus+ the pointer of spring balance will read ,ero apparent weight. In simple words the block becomes apparently weightless+ when lift falls freely. Thus+ the lift becomes gravity free system when it falls freely. This situation is known as :E/2?63E$$.E$$J. To overcome the problem of weightlessness in gravity free system+ the artificial gravity is created+ by sitting

3/

the system into the revolution about its own axis of symmetry. ?emember that the weightlessness can be observed only within gravity free system. Q..o12 :ha! i0 mean! by !he 9eigh!le00ne00 in ar!ificial 0a!elli!e4 Di0cu00 in de!ail =:eigh!le00ne00 in 0a!elli!e0 and gra.i!y free 0y0!em>$ A.$:E!& :E/2?63E$$.E$$ /. A!6/0/5/A3 $A6E33/6E Def& The absence of restraining force in a free falling system is called weightlessness. :E/2?63E$$.E$$ /. A!6/0/5/A3 $A6E33/6E A.D 2!A4/67 0!EE $7$6E1 :hen a satellite revolves around the earth in its specified orbit+ it falls freely towards the center of the earth all times. Vence+ the motion of this artificial satellite is similar to the downward motion of a (elevator which falls freely towards the earth with an acceleration of a6g+ due to breaking up of its cable. %s the block inside the free falling lift becomes weightless in the same way every ob"ect including astronaut becomes weightless. :hen a pro"ectile is thrown parallel to the hori,ontal surface of the earth in the absence of the air+ its falls to the surface of earth moving along a curved path. The curvature of the path of pro"ectile depends inversely upon its speed of pro"ection. Thus+ if a pro"ectile is pro"ected at high speed+ the curvature of its path would decrease. It means that there exists a speed for which the curvature of path of pro"ectile becomes e$ual to the curvature of the earth. ;uring hence it begins to orbital motion+ the pro"ectile falls freely all times towards the earth. This type of pro"ectile that orbits the earth in free fall manner is called the artificial satellite. In fact the space ship that orbits the earth falls freely towards it+ but the curvature of the earth prevents it from hitting the surface of the earth. It should be remembered that the :AI1VTEA!!CA!! could be observed only in the frame of reference of the satellite or spaceship. The weightlessness is created due to the fact that all ob"ects with in the space ship fall at the same rate towards the earth. "! 0 0 :E/2?63E$$.E$$ /. A!6/0/5/A3 $A6E33/6E

&onsider a satellite of mass ms and revolving around the earth in an orbit of radius r. !uppose a block of mass m is suspended from a spring balance whose upper end is attached to the ceiling of the artificial satellite. Then following two forces act on the block. 0 #up6T (tension in string / #down 6: (real weight of block !ince the block along with elevator is ascending+ therefore+ #up b #down+ so that the net force on the block is. #net 6 #down * #up 6 : *T

33

Vowever+ the tension in the suspension string is e$ual to the apparent weight : l of the block that is T6: l+ so that. #net 6:*:l This net force provicles necessary centripetal force to the block is+ #c 6 #net 6:*:l 6mg*: If @ is orbital speed of the artificial satellite and hence that of the block then # c 6 m@/2r+ so that m@/6mg*:l ;ivided by m to get @/2r 6g*:l2m******0 The gravitational pull e$ual to weight of the artificial satellite provides it the necessary centripetal force that is for the satellite+ we have+ #c6weight of the satellite m!@/2r6m!g @/2r6gZZZZ / <sing e$ / in 0+ we have. g6g*:l2g :l2g65 :l65^g :l656T It shows that no restraining force is re$uired to hold the block suspended inside the artificial satellite. It is this absence of restraining force which gives the impression of the weightlessness inside the satellite. %ll ob"ects like the block+ including astronaut face the problem+ of weightlessness. To over come the weightlessness inside the artificial satellite+ the artificial gravity is created by setting it into revolution about its own axis symmetry. Q..o1)&a) Define ar!ificial gra.i!y 4 ? 9 i! i0 /r duced in a 0a!elli!e4 b) %b!ain rela!i n f r !he8 fre2uency f re. lu!i n f 0a!elli!e ! /r duce ar!ificial gra.i!y e2ual ! !he real gra.i!y f !he ear!h. !

"ro#e that&

38

f = 0 / " R

A.$:E!& a

A!6/0/5/A3 2!A4/67.

Def& The reaction force which gives the impression of real gravity in the artificial satellite falling freely is called artificial gravity.

E>"3A.A6/ . :hen an artificial satellite revolves around the earth then weightlessness is produced inside it+ due to its free fall towards the earth. Vence+ every ob"ect and astronauts too+ inside the artificial satellite becomes weightless. In simple words the real gravity appears to be disappears. The absence of real gravity i.e the weightlessness gives rise to many problems in performance of experimental work to be carried out by astronauts. Therefore+ to over come the problem produced by the weightlessness inside the satellite+ the artificial gravity must be created e$ual to the real gravity of the earth. ? :6 5!EA6E 6?E A!6/0/5/A3 2!A4/67 /.$/DE 6?E A!6/0/5/A3 $A6E33/6E

%ccording to space engineering+ the method to create the artificial gravity inside the artificial satellite is to set it into rotation (spin motion about its own axis of symmetry with predetermined fre$uency of revolution. :hen this is done then due to reaction of centripetal force the astronauts press the walls and flow of artificial satellite outward. This outwardly directed reaction force that give the impression of real gravity is known as artificial gravity. b) "! 0 0& f =

0 / " R

&onsider a ring*shaped artificial satellite of radius ?+ set into rotation (spin rotation about its axis of symmetry+ with constant angular fre$uency :. If T is time period of rotational motion then fre$uency of revolution necessary to create the artificial gravity e$ual to real gravity of the earth is given by. f602TZZZZ (0 7y relation T6/h2 a + we have T6/ h2a+ so that e$ 0 may become.

39

f = 0 ***** /

(/

If @ is linear speed og the spinning artificial satellite b then by relation @6ra+ we have @6? a a 6@2? -utting this value of a in e$ / we get. f6@2/h?ZZZZ. (3 If ac is centripetal acceleration then a&6@/2? @/6a&? @6ga&?ZZZZ(8 <sing e$ 8 in e$ 3+we get f6ga&?2/h?

f= 0 / ac +++++++ *') R

#or artificial gravity to be e$ual to real gravity a c must be replaced by g the acceleration due to (real gravity of the earth+ so that e$9 may become.

f = 0 / " R

Q$3 1@$ :ri!e n !e n !he c mmunica!i n 0a!elli!e0$ A.$:E!& 5 11-./5A6/ . $A6E33/6E$ Cow*a*days+ the geo stationary satellites are being used to supply the information around the world. % communication system can be set up by placing several geostationary satellite s a orbit over different points on the surface of the earth. )ne such satellite covers 0/5m of longitude. The whole populated area of the earth can be covered by three correctly positioned satellites as shown in the #ig. !ince threes geo*stationary satellites seem to rotate over one place above the surface of the earth+ therefore+ continuous communication can be made. Microwaves are used as carriers of the information signals because they travel in straight line through the atmosphere of the earth. Earge solar cell panels are used to supply the energy to the electronic e$uipment to amplify and retransmit the signals. There are over /55 earth stations which transmit signals to satellites and receive signals via satellites from other countries. These signals can also be picked up from satellites by using dish antennas on the roofs of the homes. % large satellite system is managed by 0/4 countries of the world. It is called International Telecommunication !atellite )rgani,ation. #igure shows an ICTAE%!T @I. It operates at microwave fre$uencies of 8+4+00 and 1 V,. It has capacity of 35+555 two*way telephone circuits plus three T @ channels. Q..o19. :ri!e n !e 3e9! nA0 and 1in0!einA0 .ie90 f gra.i!a!i n.

34

A.$:E!&

0 2!A4/6A6/ .

%ccording to Cewton(s point of view is the natural (intrinsic property of the matter that every particle of matter attracts every other particle with a force that acts along the line "oining them such that the magnitude of the force is 0 directly proportional to the product of their masses / Inversely proportional to the s$uare of distance between them. %ccording to Ainstein(s point of view space time is curved near massive bodies. In order to observe it+ we might thick of space as thin rubber sheetT if a heavy ball is hung from it+ it curves as shown in the #ig.

The weight corresponds to the huge mass that causes the space itself to curve. The heavier the mass+ the greater is the curve or dent. Ainstein(s theory does not speak about the force of gravity acting on the bodies but it says that bodies and light travel along straight line in curved space time. Thus+ a body moving or at rest near a heavy body will follow straight line path (geodesic towards the heavy mass. Ainstein(s theory physically explains how does gravity operates. Cewton discovered universal law of gravitation but does not explain the reason for obeying this law. Ainstein(s theory not only explains that gravity obeys inverse s$uare law over short distances but also explains the reason that why is it so. Vence+ Ainstein(s theory is better than Cewton(s theory. Ainstein(s concluded that if gravity and acceleration are e$uivalent then gravity must bend light by an amount that can be calculated. Cewton(s theory based on the idea of light as stream of tiny particles also explains that the light ray is bent near heavy body due to gravity. Vowever+ deviation of light from straight line path near heavy body is double in Ainstein(s theory than that in Cewton(s theory. :hen in 0P0P+ the bending of light ray due to gravity of the sun was measured during sun eclipseT measurements matched that Ainstein(s prediction rather than Cewton(s. Thus+ Ainstein(s theory was considered to be scientific triumph. A.$:E!$ 6 $? !6 Q-E$6/ .$ $.QK'.1& 15/lain !he difference be!9een !he !angen!ial and angular .el ci!y$ Bf ne f !he0e i0 gi.en f r a 9heel !hen h 9 9ill y u find !he !her4 A.$:E!& DBCC1;13#1 (1D:113 D?1 DA3-13DBA7 A3D A3-E7A; F17%#BDG n 1 2 ) 9 DA3-13DBA7 F17%#BDG n A3-E7A; F17%#BDG It is defined as the rate of change angular displacement. It is vector $uantity only when time is as short as Ut o5 Its symbol is . Its formula is = .

t

It is defined as the rate of change linear 1 displacement. It is vector $uantity. Its symbol is V . Its formula is V

2 ) 9

& t

3>

' ; ( E L

Its !I unit is m2s. ' Its direction is given by direction angle. ; It is always perpendicular to the radius ( vector in plane of circle. Its direction continuously changes as the E body moves on the circle. It is always along the tangent. L

Its !I unit is rad2s. Its direction is given by right hand rule. It is taken along the axis of rotation which may or may not be perpendicular to plane of circle. Its direction does not change until the sense of rotation is not changed. It is never along the tangent.

If v is the magnitude of the linear velocity and a is that of the angular speed then. @6r a **** (0 If one of the tangential or angular velocity is known then other can be determined from the e$0. $.QK'.2& 15/lain 9ha! i0 mean! by !he cen!ri/e!al f rce and i! mu0! be furni0hed ! an bHec! if !he bHec! i0 ! f ll 9 !he circular /a!h$ A.$:E!& 5E.6!/"E6A3 0 !5E Def& It is radial inward directed force that bends straight path of the into circular. It is given by.

Fc = m

%s v 6 r+ therefore+ # 6 mrG %ccording to Cewton(s first law of motion to change the direction of motion of a body moving with constant speed+ it must be acted upon by a force that is perpendicular to the direction of motion. !uch a force compels the body to move along the circular path. :?7 6?E 5E.6!/"E6A3 /$ .E5E$$A!7 6 "! 4/DE If centripetal force vanishes at a point then body will shoot along the tangent at that point. Vence the centripetal is necessary to keep the circular motin to continue. $.QK'.)& :ha! i0 mean! by !he m men! f iner!ia4 15/lain i!0 0ignificance$ A.$:E!& 1 1E.6 0 /.E!6/A Def& It is defined as the product of mass and s$uare of perpendicular distance of the mass from axis of rotation. It is denoted by I. If m is mass of the particle rotating about an axis of rotation at distance r then. I6mr/ % rigid body is regarded as system of particles+ therefore. I6pmr/ The moment of inertia is measured in Qg*m/. "?7$/5A3 $/2./0/5A.5E& In linear motion+ the property of body due to which it opposes any change in its state of rest or uniform motion is called linear inertia. Thus+ the linear inertia is the measure of opposition offered to the net external force that tends to produce the linear acceleration in it. In simple words+ it is the mass of the body that decide the amount of the linear acceleration of produced in it by the constant external force. Vence+ in linear motion+ mass is linear inertia+ given by. m6#2a !imilarly+ rotational inertia is the measure of opposition offered to the net external tor$ue that produces or tends to produce the angular acceleration in it. It is given by.

v/ r

3N

I6Y2K $.QK'.9& :ha! i0 mean! by !he angular m men!um4 15/lain !he la9 f c n0er.a!i n f angular m men!um$ %C!:A?. %C1<E%? M)MACT<M

Def& % particle is said to possess angular momentum about a reference axis if it so moves that its angular position changes relative to that reference axis. ! The angular momentum is defined as the cross product of its position vector w.r.t. axis of rotation and its linear momentum $718 3 The angular momentum is donated by E 0 !1-3A If I is momentum of inertia of an ob"ect of angular speed then magnitude of its angular momentum is given by E 6 I E6mr@ $/ -./6 The !I unit of angular momentum is kg m2s or ]*sec D/1E.$/ .$ The dimension of angular momentum is WMEG2TG The angular momentum is vector $uantity given by.

E 6 r ^p

1A2./6-DE The magnitude of angular momentum vector is given by E 6 r - sin 7ut p 6 m@ so that. 3 % rm4 sin If particle is moving on circle then r@ and hence r@ so that 6 P5 E 6 rm@ sinP5 E 6 rm@ If is angular speed of the particle then v 6 r so that e$ / may become E 6 r m r E 6 mrG !ince mrG6I+ the moment of inertia of the particle therefore E 6 I This e$uation gives magnitude of angular momentum e$ual to product of moment of inertia and angular speed

3P

D/!E56/ . The direction of angular momentum is taken along that of angular velocity + which in turn is taken along axis of rotation. The use of right hand rule tells that angular momentum E will be perpendicular to r and p i.e. normal to plane containing the vectors r and -. 3A: 0 5 .$E!4A6/ . 0 A.2-3A! 1 1E.6-1

$6A6E1E.6& The law of conservation of angular momentum states that for an isolated system the total initial angular momentum is e$ual to the total final angular momentum. ! In the absence of net external force acting on a system the total momentum remains constant. E>"3A.A6/ . The time rate of change of angular momentum is e$ual to the net external tor$ue acting on a body or a system. %ccording to Cewton(s second law of motion+ the net external force acting on a system is e$ual to the time rate of change of its linear momentum that is. #6p2t Take cross product of position vector r w.r.t. axis of rotation passing through origin ) to get. r ^#6 r ^ p 2t 6r ^ p2t 7ut r x # 6 [ext and r^-6E the change in angular momentum. [ext6p 2t**************0 If net external tor$ue acting on the system is ,ero then [ext65 so that e$0may give. )6E2t E6)^t E6)**********/ E6constant E6 E0H E/HZZZ.En6constant %lternatively+ if Ei is initial angular momentum and Ef is the final momentum then E6 Ef`Ei so that e$ / may give. Ef`Ei65 Ef6Ei A""3/5A6/ .$ 0 3A: 0 5 .$E!4A6/ . 0 A.2-3A! 1 1E.6-1 The law of conservation of angular momentum is one of the fundamental laws of -hysics. The truth of its conservation has been verified from cosmological level to submicroscopic level. It has many applications in practical -hysics as well as in the Cature. #or example+ the motion spring board diver+ motion of an acrobat spinning wheel+ stability of atom and planetary system.

85

Q..o'.9& !how that the orbital angular momentum is given by Eo 6mvr. A.$:E!& !8/6A3 A.2-3A! 1 1E.6-1 Def= The angular momentum of a body having orbital motion is called orbital angular momentum. The angular momentum of the body is given is. E6mvr !inq In case of orbital motion+ the orbital velocity is always perpendicular to the radius vector+ therefore+ q6P55 so that. !inP5560 E6mvr Q..o'.;& De0cribe 9ha! 0h uld be !he minimum .el ci!y f r a 0a!elli!e ! rbi! cl 0e ! !he ear!h ar und i!4 A.$:E!& 1ravity provides centripetal force so that. #g 6#c If m is the mass of the satellite and v is its orbital speed then. m@/ 2r6 mg @6ggr :hen the satellite is very close to the earth then rr?+ the radius of the earth+ so that. @6gg? @6gP.N^4.8^054 6>.P Qm2s Q..o'.(& S!a!e !he direc!i n f !he f ll 9ing .ec! r0 in !he 0im/le 0i!ua!i n$ a) Angular m men!um b) Angular .el ci!y A.$:E!& D/!E56/ . 0 A3-E7A; M%M13DEM The angular momentum is given as.

L = r '

The angular momentum vector is perpendicular to the plane containing the both vectors It is shown in the #ig. D/!E56/ . 0 A3-E7A; M%M13DEM The angular momentum is given as.

L = r '

r a(& ' .

The angular momentum vector is perpendicular to the plane containing the both vectors r a(& ' . It is shown in the #ig. It is determined right hand rule !/2?6 ?A.D !-3E %ccording to right hand rule. 1) !tretch right hand with thumb perpendicular to palm 2) 1rasp the axis of rotation in the stretched right hand and curl the fingers along the sense of rotation then thumb indicates the direction of angular momentum. D/!E56/ . 0 A3-E7A; F17%#BDG The angular velocity is given as. The direction of the angular velocity is along the axis of the rotation. It is determined by the right hand rule as described above. Q..o'.E& 15/lain 9hy an bHec! rbi!ing !he ear!h i0 0aid ! be falling freely$ E0e y ur e5/lana!i n ! / in! u! 9hy i0 a//ear0 9eigh!le00 under cer!ain circum0!ance0$ A.$:E!& :hen ob"ect is pro"ected along the surface of the earth+ with as high as >.P Qm2s + the curvature of the path of the ob"ect becomes e$ual to that of then ob"ect begins to revolve around

V = r

80

the earth and falls to the freely at an acceleration e$ual to g6P.N m2s . !uch an orbiting ob"ect does not hit the surface of the earth because of the tangential component of the velocity. :hen an ob"ect falls freely towards the earth+ its acceleration is always a6g6P.N m2s / + in the observer(s frame of reference. The apparent weight of the ob"ect then becomesT :l6mg*ma :l6mg*mg :l65 T 65 Thus+ the absence of restraining force in the frame of reference of the ob"ect is called weightlessness. Q..o'.L& :hen mud flie0 ff !he !yre f a m .ing bicycle8 in 9ha! direc!i n d e0 i! fly4 15/lain$ A.$:E!& The mud sticks the tyre of the bicycle due to the adhesive forces between it and the tyre. :hen wheel of the bicycle is set into rotational motion+ then centrifugal force comes into play as reaction of the centripetal force. %s the rotational speed of the bicycle wheel increases+ the centrifugal force increases accordingly+ because the centripetal force does so. %t certain stage the centrifugal force exceeds the adhesive force then mud flies off along the tangent to the tyre at the point of adhesion. Q..o'.1I& A di0c and h / 0!ar!0 m .ing d 9n fr m !he ! / f an inclined /lane a! !he 0ame !ime$ :hich ne 9ill m .e fa0!er n reaching !he b !! m4 A.$:E!& If h is height of the inclined plane then it can be proved thatT

@disc =0.09 "#

@hoop 6 g gh @disc c @hoop 5 .53-$/ .& The disc will reach the bottom of inclined plane earlier than hoop. Q..o'.11&:hy d e0 !he di.er change hi0 b dy / 0i!i n0 bef re di.ing in !he / l4 A.$:E!& %fter leaving the spring board diver shrinks his arms and legs to reduce his moment of inertia and thereby increasing his rotational speed before diving into the pool. Vis rotational speed increases according to the following formula. af 6(Ii 2If ai 6(ri 2rf / ai Q..o'.12& % student holds two dumb*bells without stretched arms+ while sitting on turntable. Ve is given a push until he is rotating with certain angular velocity. The student then pulls the dumb* bells towards his chest. :hat will be the effect on rate of rotations A.$:E! If Ii is initial moment of inertia of student with stretched arms and ai initial angular speed then initial angular momentum of the student is Ei 6 Iiai :hen student pulls his arms inward+ then his final moment of inertia If reduces to small value. If af is final angular speed of the acrobat then final angular momentum of the system is given that Ef6 If af %ccording to the law of conservation of angular momentum+ we have

8/

Ef 6 Ei -utting values of Ei and Ef + we have Ifaf 6Iiai af 6 (Ii2If a i 5 .53-$/ .& !ince If bIi+ therefore+ af cai. Thus+ the student spins faster when he pulls dumb*bells close his chest. Q..o'.12& Axplain how many minimum number of geostationary satellites are re$uired for global coverage of T@*transmission. A.$:E!& The properly positioned geostationary satellites are re$uired for global coverage of T@*transmission. The angular separation between two consecutive geostationary satellites must be 0/55 for the whole populated area of the earth.

83

dddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddd

by Abrar Ahmad (ZAAS Academy 0333-5307019)

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