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COST Action 289
Spectrum and Power Efficient Broadband Communications
FINAL REPORT Period: from 24 April 2003 to 30 June 2007
Start date of the Action: 24 April 2003 Last update: 13 August 2007
1. OVERVIEW: ACTION IDENTIFICATION DATA
COST Action 289 Title: Spectrum and Power Efficient Broadband Communications
DC Recommendation: 8 October 2002 CSO Approval: 2 December 2002 Start date: 23 April 2003 Duration: 48 months Extension: End date: 22 April 2007 Number of signatories: 19 Signatories and date of signature: Belgium Bulgaria Czech Republic France Germany Greece Hungary Italy Malta Norway Portugal Romania Serbia and Montenegro Slovakia Spain Sweden Switzerland Turkey UK 05/08/2003 04/04/2003 05/08/2003 05/08/2003 02/04/2003 30/09/2003 28/03/2003 05/08/2003 11/03/2005 05/08/2003 21/09/2004 23/06/2004 20/11/2003 14/04/2003 25/09/2003 12/08/2003 23/05/2003 23/04/2003 18/10/2004 Confirmed Confirmed Confirmed Confirmed Confirmed Confirmed Confirmed Confirmed Confirmed Confirmed Confirmed Confirmed Confirmed Confirmed Confirmed Confirmed Confirmed Confirmed Confirmed First MC meeting: 24 March 2003 Last MC meeting: 11-13 April 2007 Final Report: 06 August 2007 Evaluation Report: TC Evaluation:
Institutes of non-COST countries: None Area: Mobile Communications Action web site: http://cost289.ee.hacettepe.edu.tr Chairperson: Prof. Dr. Mehmet Safak Prof. Mehmet Safak Hacettepe University Dept. of Electrical and Electronics Eng. Beytepe 06580 Ankara, Turkey TC Rapporteur: Mr. Hans Schmiedel External Evaluator: Prof. Oßwald Rüger Tel: +90-312-297 70 70 Fax: +90-312-299 21 25 E-mail: email@example.com http://www.ee.hacettepe.edu.tr
1. OBJECTIVES The requirements for higher user mobility and for ever increasing data rates seem to act as two major drivers of future communication systems. Based on this observation, the main objective of this Action is to increase the capacity of communication systems with constraints on the transmission bandwidth and the transmitter power, bearing in mind the cost effectiveness and the practicality of the solution. This imposes serious requirements on communication systems calling for higher data rates, higher mobility and, at the same time, a less hazardous electromagnetic environment. To achieve this goal, existing and innovative communication techniques and systems need to be investigated from the viewpoint of the bandwidth and the power efficiency. This project aims to contribute to the realization of spectrum- and power-efficient integrated multimedia communications, thus to minimize the bandwidth requirements for high data rate services. Reciprocally, the requirements on the transmit power will be reduced for a given transmission bandwidth. The resulting benefits will include the provision of higher data rates, larger coverage areas, higher mobility to the users, and longer battery life for mobile terminals. All these will contribute to the provision of better QoS and cost effective services. The systems thus designed will also contribute to the creation of a less polluted electromagnetic propagation environment. Consequently, one may expect reduced electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) problems with other electronic systems and significant reduction in hazardous radiation effects to biological systems. The outcome of the Action is believed to provide valuable contribution to the literature and the technology in the related areas. 2. TECHNICAL DESCRIPTION AND IMPLEMENTATION The philosophy of the Action is based on close co-operation between the scientists and engineers from the telecommunication industry and the academia. In agreement with the above-cited objectives, the research efforts will be focused on the problems discussed below. 2.1 Working Groups The research activities of this Action are conducted in two Working Groups (WG’s): a) WG1: Information Theoretical Description of Radio Systems The aim of WG1 is to provide an analytical description of mobile systems and related architectures, and to carry out detailed analyses of modern communication systems. The emphasis will be on mathematical studies and simulations rather than on the implementation issues. The output of WG1 may also be used as an input to WG2. A list of research areas of the WG1 includes, but not limited to: • Spectral efficiency and power efficiency • Channel capacity • User capacity • Modulation • Coding
b) WG2: Communications Techniques and Systems The objective of WG2 is to study the implementation of techniques and algorithms for increasing the data rates, the user mobility, the reliability as well as the power- and spectrum-efficiency of communication systems. The research activities of the WG2 include, but not limited to: • Adaptive transmission techniques • Software defined radio • Adaptive/reconfigurable networks • Multicarrier systems • Multiple access techniques • Multiuser detection • Multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) systems The two WGs define the framework of the research activities proposed in this Action. Management Committee (MC) decided to monitor the scientific activities in the two WGs in plenary sessions. Consequently, the MC has decided not to appoint heads to these WGs. 2.2 Project Groups A COST Action is believed to provide a platform not only for the presentation of individual research results of the participants but should also act as a means to create synergy in coordinated and cooperative research efforts in order to find coherent and practical solutions to the problem formulated in the MoU. Accordingly, the MC decided to form the following three project groups, with active participation of a number of institutions listed below. The detailed description of these projects is given in Section 4. RESULTS. a) Pervasive wireless access for 4G Coordinator: Prof. Armin Wittneben, ETH Zurich The participating organizations: ETH Zurich, Hacettepe University, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, University of Ulm, Budapest University of Technology and Economics, University Carlos III of Madrid. b) Wide are coverage and high mobility access systems for 4G Coordinator: Prof. Arne Svensson, Chalmers University of Technology The participating organizations: Chalmers University of Technology, University of Florence, Ramon Llull University, CEI-LETI, University Carlos III of Madrid, Hacettepe University, TU Kosice, Czech Academy of Science, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, DLR. c) Software defined radio Coordinator: Prof. Sandor Imre, Budapest University of Technology and Economics. The participating organizations: Budapest University of Technology and Economics, University Carlos III of Madrid, Ramon Llull University, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, University of Athens.
These researchers are also encouraged to attend the Workshops organized in order to increase their awareness about the project. Each researcher is free to choose his/her own individual research area.edu. to present their research results and for further coordination and cooperation. Three separate e-mail groups are formed for the three research projects. namely Pervasive Wireless Access for 4G. Ankara. 40 D-21073 Hamburg Tel (+4940) 42878-3028 Fax (+4940) 42878-2281 E-mail rohling@tu-harburg. Dr. PARTICIPATION AND COORDINATION 3. Ankara. The researchers participating to the above projects decided to cooperate closely and concentrate their efforts to investigate in detail and bring coherent solutions to the formulated problems. Mehmet Safak Hacettepe University Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering 06800 Beytepe. 3.1 Management Committee Chairman: Prof. and SDR. It was desired to organise an inauguration meeting for the above three project groups with the participation of young researchers. Turkey Tel: +90-312-297 70 70 Fax: +90-312-299 21 25 E-mail: msafak@hacettepe. Wide Area Coverage Systems with High Mobility for 4G. 1516 March 2004. in view of the large numbers of participation in each of the projects. Turkey 5 . within the framework of the project. Hermann Rohling Technical University of Hamburg-Harburg Arbeitsbereich Nachrichtentechnik Eissendorfer Str.The above research projects were finalized during the 4th MCM.de Secretary: Serap Hasimoğlu-Ertas Hacettepe University Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering 06800 Beytepe.tr Vice-Chairman: Prof. held in Zurich. the project coordinators prepared a description of their project programmes and disseminated these programmes to the members. However. These e-mail groups are aimed for exchange of information and documents between the young researchers directly involved in the projects and to provide a common platform for discussing the outstanding items. Some of the researchers visited the project coordinators in STSMs for better coordination of the research efforts. Dr.
D. Fiebig. France Dr. Technical University of Cluj-Napoca. Lindner. Dangl. Pijoan. Tarchi. Slovakia Dr. University Carlos III of Madrid. Germany Prof. Polydoros. A. Technical University of Kosice. J. Hamdi. Spain Prof. Meyer. W. G. Germany Prof.Tel: +90-312-297 70 00 Fax: +90-312-299 21 25 E-mail: serap@ee. University of Ulm. Spain Dr. Budapest Un. E. Oien. Pay. L. H. Teich. Visoz. A. Hungary: Prof. Polytechnic University of Catalunya. France Dr. Rohling. Department of Telematics. SUPELEC. Sweden Dr. Department of Telematics. NTNU. University of Manchaster. Swiss Federal Institute of Technology.A. A. University of Florence. M. G. M. Technical University of Sofia. A. University of Florence. P. Jimenez.. University of Athens. University of Essen. Alsusa. A. Hacettepe University. Greece Prof. Drutarovsky. Norway Prof. J. Pap. D. Nikitopoulos. K. Budapest University of Technology and Economics. Spain Researcher F. L. Imre. German Aerospace Centre. Bajic. G. Spain Researcher M. Universite Catholique de Louvain. Serbia Dr. Sari. Jeney. Polytechnic University of Catalunya. University Carlos III of Madrid. UMIST.C. UK Dr. Mayrargue. Uppsala University. Italy Prof. J. Vinck. Germany Prof. A. Swiss Federal Institute of Technology. Azzopardi. CEA-LETI. P. C. France Telecom R& D. Hungary Dr. Turkey Dr. D. Switzerland: Prof. M.tr Members: Prof. Romania Prof. SUPELEC. Greece Researcher K. France Dr. Morosi. Garcia-Armada. E. P. Fernandez. Vandendorpe. Czech Republic Prof. Fantacci.edu. of Technology and Economics. Ahlen. A. U. Kaiser. Turkey Researcher G. DLR. Hungary Prof. Budapest University of Technology and Economics. Hole. Bota. Acrosslimits. Germany Prof. S. R. University of Ulm. G. Bulgaria Prof. Italy Dr. J. V. S. R. de Sabato. J. Hacettepe University. Berthet. Turkey Dr. Ramon Llull University. University of Florence. Germany Prof. Svensson. Safak. UK Dr. L. DLR. Iliev. Technical University of Hamburg-Harburg. K. Slovakia Prof. J. Politchnical University of Timisoara Prof. Norway Dr. S. H. Italy Dr. University of Ulm. Kocur. Simsa. Spain Dr. Germany Dr. University of Novi Sad. Chalmers University of Technology. Academy of Sciences. Switzerland Prof. University Carlos III of Madrid. Germany Dr. Malta 6 . France Prof. Toker. S. Spain Dr. Technical University of Kosice. H. Belgium Dr. University of Athens. S. V. G. Freixer. NTNU. Romero. Wittneben.hacettepe. Hacettepe University. Sweden Prof.
Serbia Dr. Turkey Researcher S. Berger. Spain Researcher F. Hacettepe University. Robert. Switzerland Researcher J. Zhang. Germany Researcher A. M. Fazekas Budapest Univ. France Researcher P. Spain Researcher Z. A. Norway Researcher A. S. TU Hamburg. Greece Researcher P. Papaioannou. Andreas. Germany Researcher S. Switzerland Researcher B. Ramon Llull University. Perisa. Gutierrez. DLR. Romania Researcher L. TU Kosice. Greece Researcher G. of Technology and Economics. Katsis. Spain Researcher P. Turkey Researcher J. Greece Researcher S. Hassel. of Technology and Economics. University of Ulm. Technical University of Cluj-Napoca. Turkey Researcher F. Ramon Llull University. Vilella. Spain Researcher S. Greece Dr. E. Spain Researcher I. Italy Researcher S. Italy Researcher G. ETH Zurich. DLR. Baskent University. TU Cluj-Napoca. Germany Researcher E. Germany Researcher S. Rankov. DLR. Sand. Reves. Cakir. Germany Researcher A. F. France Telecom R&D. Aquilue. Rabai. Germany Researcher W. P. Turkey Researcher M. Plass. Germany Researcher I. Germany Dr. Norwegian Univ. Safak. Alsina. Germany Researcher D. Serbia and Montenegro Researcher S. German Aerospace Centre. Polytechnic University of Catalunya. Hacettepe University. Dammann. Serbia 7 . Stefanovic. Polytechnic University of Catalunya. DLR. University of Florence. DLR. Brandes. of Technology and Economics. ETH Zurich. Papadopoulos. Switzerland Prof. Budapest Un. Alonso. Institute of Telecommunications. Galajda. Hungary Researcher G. DLR. Varga. DLR. EIVD.Wischhof. Ramon Llull University. of Science and Technology. Slovakia Researcher V. Safak. Aristotle University of Thessaloniki. Turkey Dr. Polytechnic University of Catalunya. Ramon Llull University. Vukobratovic. Polytechnic University of Catalunya. University of Novi-Sad. University of Novi Sad. Mennuti. Ramon Llull University. Balasz. Hacettepe University. Markovic. Romania Researcher R. Cosovic. P. Haas. Germany Researcher S.Prof. University of Novi Sad. Switzerland Dr. Chiti. Portugal Researcher C. Hacettepe University. M. Gligorevic. Slovakia Dr. Spain Researcher I. Norwegian Univ. University of Florence. Technical University of Kosice. Hungary Researcher C. Hasimoglu-Ertas. Germany Researcher D. Zsolt. Silva. Slovakia Researcher X. Aristotle University of Thessaloniki. Hammerstroem. Aristotle University of Thessaloniki. ETH Zurich. I. NKUA University of Athens. Krajnak. Budapest Un. Norway Researcher I.Senk. German Aerospace Centre. Spain Researcher L. Wendt. Cizova. Bergada. University of Ulm. Yacoub. Spain Researcher R. Kethulle. Technical University of Kosice. of Science and Technology. Adelantado. Aktas. Spain Researcher V. Hungary Researcher V. University of Ulm.
Researcher M. Fernandez-Getino Garcia. of Novi Sad. Behravan. Zurich University of Applied Sciences (EIVD) Hacettepe University University of Manchester Greece Hungary Italy Malta Norway Portugal Romania Serbia and Montenegro Slovak Republic Spain Sweden Switzerland Turkey United Kingdom 8 . Portugal Dr. Karabacak. Prof. M. V. Gameiro. Serbia Researcher M. Karaman-Colakoglu. Serbia Dr. Germany Researcher C. Hacettepe University. C. Stemick. ASELSAN Inc. Spain Researcher M. Turkey Prof. Inst.2 Participating Institutions Belgium Bulgaria Czech Republic France Germany Universite Catholique de Louvain Technical University of Sofia Academy of Sciencies Supelec France Telecom R&D CEA-CETI Technical University of Hamburg-Harburg University of Ulm University of Essen German Aerospace Centre. Wetz. A. Univ. Switzerland 3. ETH Zurich. University of Ulm. NTNU Uni. Sweden Researcher M. J. Turkey Researcher Ö. Hacettepe University. Germany. DLR University of Athens Aristotle University of Thessaloniki Budapest Univ. Ramon Llull University. Chalmers University of Technology. Riberio. of Aveiro. of Telecommunications Technical University of Cluj-Napoca Politechnic University of Timisoara University of Novi Sad Technical University of Kosice Ramon Llull University Polytechnic University of Catalunya University Carlos III of Madrid Chalmers University of Technology Uppsala University Swiss Federal Institute of Technology. Stefanovic. Prortugal Dr. Crnojevic. University of Carlos III of Madrid. Spain Researcher M.. Turkey Researcher K. Deumal. Baumgartner. Technical University of Harburg-Hamburg. University of Novi Sad. University of Aveiro. Mutti. A. of Technology and Economics University of Florence AcrossLimits Department of Telematics. University of Applied Sciences (EIVD) Researcher C. University of Aveiro. Dikmen.
MCM 9.2005) 13. Barcelona Visitors: Ali Behravan (Chalmers University of Technology. Switzerland 7-9 July 2004. Zurich.12. MCM 5. Barcelona.5 Short-Term Scientific Missions The list of STSMs during the lifetime of the Action is as follows: • Wide Area Coverage for 4G: Host: Prof. 4.2004 . MCM 24 March 2003. 2004). Kosice. Bucarest. Technical University of Kosice. Slovak Republic 15-16 March 2004. MCM 8.2005- Host: Prof.4 DC-ICT Annual Review Meetings (ARM) 1. Hamburg. 2004).9. Hungary (jointly with 1st Workshop) 28-29 October 2004. Turkey (jointly with 2nd Workshop) 3-4 November 2005. Vitznau.2004 .3. Carlos III of Madrid. Portugal (jointly with 3rd Workshop) 30-31 October 2006. Serbia and Montenegro 12-14 July 2006. Budapest. Switzerland 21-22 November 2006.-12 March 2006) Pavol Pavelka (Technical University of Kosice. Chalmers University of Technology. Gothenburg. MCM 11. Croatia 30 June-2 July 2004. Sweden (jointly with 4th Workshop) 3. Hermann Rohling. 5-9 June 2006) Host: Prof. ARM 2.3. Munich Germany 6-8 July 2005. Slovak Republic 9 .L. Romania. 24. MCM 7. 18. Pijoan. Germany Visitor: M. Simon Plass (DLR. Kocur. Spain 7-8 March 2005. 20. Spain 23-24 March 2006. MCM 13.10. ARM 4. MCM 12. Antalya. Serap Hasimoglu-Ertas (Hacettepe University. Belgium 3-4 July 2003. Ramon Llull University.2004 . Aveiro. 2004) Host: Prof.29. Victor Pedro Gil-Jimenez (Univ.12. 20. Finland 3. Helsinki.Varga (Technical University Cluj-Napoca. 2004). MCM 6. Oberpfaffenhofen. Kosice. ARM 3. MCM 4.9.9. Romania 28 June-1 July 2005. Hamburg.9. Göteborg Visitors: Marc Deumal (Ramon Llull University.9.11. Germany 30-31 October 2003. Madrid. ARM 3-5 June 2003. 13.2004 . Italy 11-13 April 2007. Jozef Krajnak (TU Kosice. Arne Svensson. Florence. MCM 10. MCM 2. 2004). D. TUHH.06. Dubrovnik.2004-9. Brussels.24.06. 20 Feb. Novi Sad.3 Meetings of the Management Committee Inaug. MCM 3.9. J.17.
who are supported by the STSM programme. Eriksson. and accepted for publication for the Special COST289 Issue of Wireless Personal Communications. which is the maximum financial support for an STSM. P. Barcelona Visitors: Ferenc Balazs (BUTE.D. are strongly recommended to report to the MC about the scientific results of their STSMs. Ottoson and A.10.Visitor: Marc Deumal (Ramon Llull University. 2004) Pavol Galajda (TU Kosice. Gil Gimenez. early 2008. M. • S. students and they mostly completed their Ph. The researchers.30 November 2006) • Software Defined Radio: Host: Polytechnic University of Catalunya (UPC). This will give the amount of financial support per day. where the name of the author supported by the STSM program is shown in bold. Fernandez-Getino Garcia. presented in 4th COST Workshop held in Gothenburg during 11-12 April 2007.11.D.10. 18. T. Sternad and A. Svensson. University of Florence Visitor: M. The total financial support will be given by the sum of the cost of the transportation ticket and the number of nights spent in STSM times the daily financial support. Simone Morosi. T. S. 3. and accepted for publication for the Special COST289 Issue of Wireless Personal Communications.10. M. Note that the researchers supported by the STSM program are all Ph. Barcelona. Methods for Compression of Feedback in Adaptive Multicarrier 4G Systems. Madrid.2004 – 22. J.2004 – 4. early 2008. V. University of Morosi. 11 -17 June 2006) Host: Dr. G. 1 October 2006 . The Chairman is authorized to increase or decrease the amount of daily support thus found up to 20% depending on the living standards in the host country. 13-20 December 2006) • Pervasive Access for 4G: Host: Prof. ETH Zurich Visitor: Doris Yacoub (University of Ulm.5. Armada. • 10 . Armin Wittneben. the MC decided to follow the following payment scheme: The cost of plane ticket will be deducted from 2500 €. 24. High Spectral Efficient and Flexible Next Generation Mobile Communications. A. and the remaining amount will be divided into 30 days. Luz Pablo Gonzales (University of Carlos III. presented in 4th COST Workshop held in Gothenburg during 11-12 April 2007. which represents the duration of the maximum stay in a STSM. Sand. Svensson. Plass.1 Publications Resulting From STSMs The current list of publications resulted from the STSMs is given below. 2004) In order to bring a uniformity to the financial supports by the STSMs.’s in the cooperative scientific environment of the COST Action 289.
P. Deumal. IEEE International conference on Acoustics. J. 12-14 July 2006. Behravan. Gutiérrez. 7-9 July 2004 6th MCM. 3-4 Nov. Pavelka. • • 4. 11-13 April 2007. Budapest. Toulouse. A. Hamburg. May 2006. Galajda. 24 March 2003 2nd MCM. L.4 Presentations in MCMs and Workshops The number of participants. and accepted for publication for the Special COST289 Issue of Wireless Personal Communications. Antalya 9th MCM. L. Eriksson. Multi-user Detection of Nonlinearly Distorted MC-CDMA Symbols by Microstatistic Filtering. M.• M. Deumal. Peak Reduction of Multicarrier Systems by Controlled Spectral Outgrowth. 23-24 March 2006. Barcelona. presented in 4th COST Workshop held in Gothenburg during 11-12 April 2007. and accepted for publication for the Special COST289 Issue of Wireless Personal Communications. 2003 4th MCM. Madrid 10th MCM. I. Kosice. presentations and tutorial made during the MCMs is listed below: MCM 1st MCM. J. Brussels. Behravan and T. 15-16 March 2004 5th MCM and 1st COST 289 Workshop. Pijoan. Pijoan. Evaluation of Performance Improvement Capabilities of PAPR-Reducing Methods. 5. 3-4 July 2003 3rd MCM. Proc. Aveiro 12th MCM. 30-31 October 2006. Zurich. SCIENTIFIC RESULTS Please see Annex A for details. Novi Sad 11th MCM. DISSEMINATION OF RESULTS 5. Krajnak. 2005. Göteborg TOTAL Participants 12 16 25 30 40 30 35 46 32 32 34 29 40 401 Presentations Tutorials 9 9 12 20 10 6 21 12 12 14 10 17 152 4 1 1 4 1 2 4 2 5 24 11 .Deumal and J. J. P. M. early 2008. A. 6-8 July 2005. presented in 4th COST Workshop held in Gothenburg during 11-12 April 2007. Kocur. Pijoan. Florence 13th MCM. Speech and Signal Processing (ICASSP 2006). 28-29 October 2004 7th MCM. 30-31 Oct. L. Oberpfaffenhofen/Munich 8th MCM. early 2008. 7-8 March 2005. D.
Joint Layer Optimisation for OFDM Bbased Radio Systems • A Garcia-Armada. 24 March 2003. Mayrargue. excluding the presentations made during the Workshops : 1st MCM. Sternad. Imre and L. Şafak. Svensson. S. G. 15-16 March 2004. Rohling. A Low Complexity Transmitter Structure for OFDM-FDMA Uplink Systems • M. A. Piekov. Ahlen and A. A Tapped Delay Line Model of Multipath Channel for CDMA Systems 12 . G. Ottoson. Teich. The Piecewise Microstatistic Multiuser Receiver • S. J.The following presentations were made during the MCM. Berthet. Lindner and J. Pulse Position Access Codes • F. Vukobratovic. Wendt. Chen and H. M. Sternad. Fantacci. Levendovszky. and Decoding with a Soft Interference Canceler • S. Joint Iterative Equalization. Jeney. Pap. Decision Directed Channel Estimation in OFDM based Systems • A. Ottoson. Bozay and M. Quadratic Optimization with Stochastic Recurrent Neural Networks • S. Svensson. Chiti. J. and A.G. MAC/RLC Protocol Design in Heterogeneous Networks • D. Alonso Zarate. A Class of Low Complexity Equalizer for ST-BICM over MIMO block-fading multipath channel • S. Rohling. T. O. Visoz. Tarchi. Plass. Zurich • G. Brussels N/A 2nd MCM. Chtourou. Two-Dimensional Pilot-Aided Channel Estimation for a Broadband MC-CDMA System with High Mobility • S. J. Hamburg • B. Demapping. A. An OFDM Based Protocol for 4G Downlinks • M. Impact of Multiuser Diversity on Adaptive OFDM 3rd MCM. Egle. M. CC-CDMA for B3G Wireless Communications: An Overview and Some Open Issues • H. Galda and H. Wang. 3-4 July 2003. Mennuti and D. Sand. Ahlen and A. Attaining Both Coverage and High Spectral Efficiency with Adaptive OFDM Downlinks • W. A Novel Admission Control Algorithm for UMTS System • D. Svensson. Cizova. R. MC-CDMA vs DS-CDMA • P. Kosice • H. Joint Project on “Wide Area Coverage on High Mobility Access Systems for 4G” 4th MCM. Dangle. Kocur. Rohling. OFDM-Based PHY Design for Cross-Layer Optimization: Some Open Issues and Proposed Solutions • L. Svac. Vinck. A. 30-31 October 2003. Performance Analysis of Spatial Multiplexing and Maximal Ratio Combining Systems in the Presence of Polarization Diversity • A. W. On BER estimation of IDBP Decoded LDPC Codes • S. T. Svensson. S. Rank Codes for OFDM • D. Marchevsky. R.
6th MCM. Chiti. Study of MIMO Channel Capacity for IST METRA Models F. M. Hammerström. de la Kethulle and G. E. Øien. Morosi. Bota. Reconfigurable Antennas for Future Wireless Communications (tutorial provided in the framework of NEXWAY. Djamianto and A. Barcelona • S. Turbo Soft Combining Hybrid ARQ Techniques: Theory and Application to 3G Wireless Networks 13 . Minimizing Feedback Load for Nested Scheduling Algorithms • S. Varga. Traffic Hotspot in UMTS Networks: Influence on RRM Strategies A. S. Wittneben. Øien. Shobowale and K. E. UWB Based on Pulsed Multiband • A. O.1 1st COST289 Workshop. Gil Jimenez and A. S. 7-9 July 2004.2. Fernandez and A. Varga. Experimental Performance Evaluation of Multiuser Zero Forcing Relaying in Indoor Scenarios • V. Rankov. Radio Access with Cooperative Nodes . Adelantado. Budapest (jointly with 1st Workshop) • S. Agusti. Energy-Optimized Coded Modulation for Short-Range Communications on Nakagami-m Fading Channels • H. Z. Garcia Armada. Vinck. and G. Alsina Pagès. Berger. Polgar and M.The RaCoon Testbed 5th MCM. Sallent. Channel Adaptive Signalling and Scheduling in MIMO Wireless with Low Mobility and Low Channel Rank I. Garcia Armada. Perez-Romero and R. P. Correction Capabilities of the ReedSolomon Codes Decoded with the Guruswami-Sudan Algorithm • Y. D. Bota and M. Berger. Wischhof. Sand. Alouini. Gesbert. Iterative Channel Estimation for High Mobility Broadband MCCDMA System • L. Joint Cooperative Diversity and Scheduling in Low Mobility Wireless Networks B. Performance of Multiband OFDM in IEEE UWB Channel Models For other presentations please see the Section 5. 28-29 October 2004. Multiresolution Adaptive Scheme for Acquisition and Detection in a DS-CDMA Digital Receiver in a Multipath Environment • R. Data Dissemination in Ad-Hoc Networks Based on Inter-Vehicle Communication • R. Performances of LDPC-coded OFDM Transmissions over Fixed and Mobile Channels • Z. Fantacci. Coding for a Terrible Channel • V. Polgar. European Network of Excellence) • H. Spectral Efficiency of Relay-Assisted MIMO Systems S. Silalahi and Y. M. A Dynamic Rate Allocation Technique for Wireless Communication Systems V. V. Hassel. J. Svensson. Accurate BER Analysis of Downlink OFDM systems in a Multi-cell Environment • S. A Hamdi.M. Bit loading in Hybrid OFDM (HOFDM) M.• • • • • • • • F. Svensson.
Yacoub et al. Overview on MC-CDMA (tutorial) • D. Tosic. Convolutional Codes in Adaptive QAM Modulations on Mobile Radio Channels • D. Efficient MAC Protocols Design for Wireless Sensor Networks • S. Scheduling. M. Brandes. A New Technique for Sidelobe Suppression in OFDM Systems • Adao Silva. Madrid • Á. Information Coding Schemes for Data Transmission Over Bus Systems • V.. L. Capacity of Measured MIMO Channels in Dependence of Array Element Spacing and Distance between Antennas • H. 9th MCM. Baumgartner. 6-8 July 2005. Rankov. Spreading Codes for Radio Resource Management in MC-CDMA • A. Energy Efficient Routing Algorithms for Application to AgroFood Wireless Sensor Networks • D. Symbolic Analysis and Design of Communication Systems Using Computer Algebra Systems (tutorial) • V. Bajic. P. Time Domain Precoding for MIMO-OFDM Systems • D. Power Allocations for Nonregenerative MIMO-OFDM Relay Links • E. Sarı. Yacoub. Kaiser.7th MCM. Vukobratovic.Concept and Applications (invited) • K.2. Novi Sad • M. Teich. J. Vázquez. 7-7 March 2005. Antalya (jointly with 2nd Workshop) For presentations please see the Section 5. Lindner.. 23-24 March 2006. LDPC vs. Architecture of a Scalable Wireless Sensor Network for Pollution Monitoring • F. 3-4 November 2005. Balakirsky and H. Deumal and F. Á. Optimal Power Loading for Orthogonal Multiuser Relaying 14 . Short Sequences and Cross-Bifix Analysis • V.2 2nd COST289 Workshop. Frequency-Domain Techniques in Wireless Communications: OFDM. Coherent Multiuser Relaying with Partial Relay Cooperation • I. M. Ultrawideband Communications (invited) • V. Bandwidth and Power Efficient Digital Transmission using Sets of Orthogonal Spreading Codes • L.. Bota and M. Adaptive procedure combining adaptive user grouping and bit loading in a GO-MC-CDMA 10th MCM. Balder. Kuhn and A. MC-Cyclic Antenna Frequency Spread: A Novel Space-Frequency Spreading for MIMO-OFDM • S. Chiti et al. Kim and J. Optimality Considerations for Short-length LDPC Codes Construction • A. Wittneben. Vinck. Auger. Gutierrez. Hammerstroem. Chiti et al. Multiuser Diversity and QoS • W. B. Performance Comparison between Different Solutions for theAir-interface of the 4G Downlink Connection 8th MCM. Metamaterials . Varga and Z. Bota. Lutovac. D. L. Pijoan. Berger. Precoded OFDM and SCT/FDE • S. Gameiro. Polgar. Crnojević-Bengin. Plass. Wittneben. Oberpfaffenhofen • S. Downlink Strategies for TDD MC-CDMA System • F.
Higher Order Impulsive Signals for Short Range Communications • M. L. DVB-S2. Florence • J. Varga. R Cantero and M. Safak. On OFDM Systems with Low Sensitivity to Nonlinear Amplification (tutorial) • R. The main conclusion was that the trends are such that mobile communications. F.16 Based Mesh Networks: The WOMEN project • F. Garcia Armada and A. Distributed Base Station Processing in the Uplink of Cellular Networks D. Partial Channel State Information and Intersymbol Interference in Low Complexity UWB PPM Detection • S. Troesch and A. Multiple-access Capability of MQAM-OFDMA Random Access Channel V. Verdone. data broadcasting over IP-based networks. Chtourou. Visoz. Deumal Herraiz. Digital Video Broadcasting (DVB) This seminar provided an overview of the recent developments on digital video broadcasting (DVB) and its implications on mobile communications. A. Aktas. Performance of Equalization Schemes for Extended Alamouti Codes in MC-CDMA systems J. Morosi. interactivecapability in receivers. Tarchi. Pijoan Vidal. Plass. Aveiro (jointly with 3rd Workshop) • M. Hamdi. Wittneben. Chiti. A Hybrid Modulation Scheme for Noncoherently Detected OFDMMFSK 15 . COST 2100 . Pulse Repetition and Cyclic Prefix Communication Techniques in UWB-Impulse Radio Systems • S. F. Garcia. Performances of Convolutionally-Coded QAM Mapping Non-Coded Bits M. 30-31 October 2006.• • • • • • • • • K. Zasowski. A.Pervasive Mobile and Ambient Wireless Communications (invited talk) • D. 12-14 July 2006. IEEE 802. Frequency Domain Block TurboEqualization for Single-Carrier Transmission over MIMO broadband Wireless Channel J. O.2. A MIMO-OFDM system with backward compatibility with IEEE 802. 12th MCM. A. Gameiro. Increasing Transmit Diversity at the Cell Border with Smart Antennas E. Peak Reduction of Multi-Carrier Ssystems by Controlled Spectral Outgrowth R. Overview of Power Line Broadband Technology 11th MCM.16 S. hybrid networks and multimedia home platform (MHP) to run software applications on all sorts of terminal devices. digital broadcasting and Internet are converging. Morosi. Radovic. Integrating Research and Practice in Wireless Sensor Networks: The Experience of European Network of Excellence CRUISE • T. Plogar and M. Berthet and S. Bastos and A. DVB-H. Bota. portable and mobile devices. For other presentations please see the Section 5.3 3rd COST289 Workshop. Gameiro. Z. including DVB-T to fixed. Wetz. J.
DoCoMo is one of the institutions heavily involved in 4G systems and has a proposal for the specifications for the uplink and downlinks. Wittneben. Prof. Hanzo discussed in detail the relative advantages of these systems. • • 16 . Wittneben gave an overview on the potential areas of applications. Recital on Multicarrier Communications: Space-Time Coded Versus Adaptive OFDM/MC-CDMA. Hiroyuki Atarashi. Performance Evaluation of WiMax Systems 13th MCM. Sweden (jointly with 4th Workshop) • M.2. The Workshop aimed to increase the spirit of cooperation between the young researchers from the COST nations. Safak. Joint Modeling of the Rayleigh-Faded Mobile Radio Channel and User-Chunk Allocation S. Dr. 5.The DoCoMo proposes the use of CDMA with variable spreading in time and frequency domains for the uplink.A new COST Action proposal This new COST Action proposal is an outcome of some of the research conducted in the framework of the COST Action 289. For other presentations please the Section 5. Bota. Prof. The following tutorial seminars were given by the leading scientists in their area of research: • Dr.4 4th COST289 Workshop. Atarashi presented uplink and downlink design proposals for 4G systems and discussed their relative advantages. Prof. Correlation Properties in Time-Varying Cyclic Delay Diversity (TVCDD) V.• • • • S. and to improve their background scientific level about the joint research projects. Safak. Varga. ETH Zurich. Dikmen and M. Lajos Hanzo. Z. Phase Synchronization in Distributed Wireless Networks M. University of Southampton. Plass.5 Conferences and Workshops 5. MC-CDMA and OFDMA are strong contenders for the 4G systems. Göteborg. It is based on improved adaptivity and flexibility in heterogeneous networks via the exploitation of cognitivity and cross-layer designs and the use of advanced software defined radio (SDR) concepts. the stateof-art and trends in pervasive access systems. Towards Cognitive Communications.1 1st COST289 Workshop The 1st COST289 Workshop was organized in Budapest during 7-9 July 2004 jointly with the 5th MCM.5. Broadband Packet Wireless Access and its Field Experiments. 11-13 April 2007. Berger and A. Challenges in Pervasive Wireless Access Prof. DoCoMo. coordinate their research efforts under the guidance of the project coordinators. Armin Wittneben. Polgar and M.
Turbo Equalization for ISI Channels Incorporating Estimation Error Statistics • Z. Bota. Jeney. Rankov and A. Safak. Prof. Varga and Z. Performance of the Microstatistic Multi-user Receiver in the BaseBand DS-CDMA Transmission System • S. Hammerström and A. Interference Cancellation in MIMO Systems Spatial Systems • G. Christian Sgraja and Jürgen Lindner. Cross-layer Design for Multiple Access Techniques in Wireless Communications • F. Ioannis Dagres and Andreas Polydoros. P. Impact of Relay Gain Allocation on the Performance of Cooperative Diversity Networks • B. A. Imre. R. Bit-Loaded H-OFDM Performance in WPAN Environments Software Radio and Next Generation PHY • X. Dammann and S. Gil Jiménez and A. Attributes of Real Time Intelligence in Flexible Radios • D. Revés and A. The following presentations were given during the 1st Workshop: Multicarrier Systems • S. Zalonis. Simulation Programs for the Evaluation of the LDPC-Coded Multicarrier Transmissions The copies of the presentations are available in the Action web site and the attached CD. Performances of the LDPC-Coded Adaptive Modulation Schemes in Multi-Carrier Transmissions • G. Dangl. Pay and M. Pijoan presented a review of research activities about SDR and discussed the potential areas of cooperation between the research teams. Kaiser. O. Chiti. Bit Loading Algorithms for Adaptive OFDM Wireless Systems • V. Wittneben. Z. Chtorou. A. Plass. Gelonch. Visoz and A. Software Radio: An Enabling Technology for Mobile Communications. Varga. Tarchi. Array Relay • I. Joan Lluis Pijoan. Bergada and C.• Prof. Distributed Spatial Multiplexing in Wireless Networks Software Demonstration • V. Polgari. Vilella. On Modeling and Analysis of a Coded OFDMA Downlink in a Multi-cell Environment • V. 17 . SODIO: A Software Radio Platform for Advanced HF Communications • A. Nemeth and S. M. A Platform Abstraction Layer (P-HAL) for Software Radio Equipment • P. Cross-layer Protocols Design for Next Generation Wireless Systems Receiver and Equalization • J. Wittneben. Berthet. Garcia Armada. Whitened Matched Filter versus Channel Shortening for ST-BICM over MIMO ISI Channel • M. Ramon Llull University. Bota. and M. Čížová. Polgar.
Wittneben. Wittneben presented recent results they obtained in the domain of the project on Pervasive Wireless Access for 4G. J. Mikael Sternad. University of Athens. Zhao. thus creating an environment of discussion and cross-fertilization among the participants. Izzo. Wittneben. Technical University Hamburg-Harburg. Wittneben. Armin Wittneben. Hermann Rohling. The following invited lectures were given during the 2nd COST 289 Workshop: • Prof. The WINNER Beyond 3G AirInterface Concept Prof. Radio Flexibility at the PHY Layer This presentation was related to the project on the recent advances in the area of SDR. S. Uppsala University. The following presentations were given during the 2nd Workshop: Pervasive Access for 4G Systems (Session Chair: Prof. Hammerström. A. Hammerstroem and B.5. Rohling gave an excellent presentation on the potential of OFDM as a transmission and multiple-access technique for the next generation systems in comparison with the other candidates. Rankov. Hammerstroem and B. A MAC Protocol for High-speed Multimedia WPANs 18 . Invited lectures by leading scientists provided the participants with the latest information and knowledge about technical and system aspects of spectrum and power-efficient-broadband communications. Sternad gave a very informative presentation on the results that they obtained concerning the project on Wide Area Coverage and High Mobility Access Systems for 4G. Berger. A. Wittneben. OFDM Systems and Related Multiple-Access Schemes Prof. • • These lectures were followed by the presentations given by the researchers. D. I. S. Tarchi and G. ETH Zurich. Recent Theoretical and Experimental Results in Multiuser Zero Forcing Relaying • J. Rankov. Fantacci. Prof. Recent Theoretical and Experimental Results in Multiuser Zero Forcing Relaying Prof.5. Berger. Andreas Polydoros. Cellular Relaying Networks: State of the Art and Open Issues • I. Zhao. Berger. Armin Wittneben) • A. Cooperative Distributed Multiuser MMSE Relaying in Wireless Ad-Hoc Networks • R. I.2 2nd COST289 Workshop The 2nd COST289 Workshop Special Topics on 4G Systems was organized in Antalya during 6-7 July 2005 jointly with the 8th MCM. Temporal Fairness Enhanced Scheduling for Cooperative Relaying Networks in Low Mobility Fading Environments • S. Prof. • Prof. A.
E. Space-Time Differentially Coded Orthogonal Matrix Modulation using QAM Channel Estimation and Equalization (Session Chair: Prof. Lindner. S. Cırpan. Andreas Polydoros. Rohling. Radio Flexibility at the PHY Layer • M. A. Space-time Block Code Selection for More Than Two Transmit Antennas • K. Ardelean. Jimenez. Uppsala University) • M. H.J. Toker. V. Rohling. Vinck. Gutierrez and J. Polydoros. Armada. Reducing the Feedback Information in OFDMBased Adaptive Modulation Systems for 4G • C. E. A. University of Athens) • A. I. Dr. Sternad. Zsiros. University of Essen) • A. Iterative Channel Estimation for MIMO MC-CDMA • V. Cevik. Extending UTRAN Physical Layer with Coded Modulation Schemes • A. Bota. Technical University of Hamburg-Harburg) • H. A.H. Celebi. Bota. H.J. PAPR Reduction in Orthogonal MC and MC-SS Systems • V. OFDM Systems and Related Multiple Access Schemes • S. Sub-optimum MSF-MUD for CDMA Systems The copies of the presentations are available in the Action web site and the attached CD. Senol.A. G. An Overview of Symbol Predistortion Techniques for PAPR Reduction in OFDM and OFDMA Systems • M. Dr. Poulkov. Aygolu. and Z. M. Coding for a Terrible Channel • Z. Iliev. Jeney. User-Bin Allocation Methods for AdaptiveOFDM Downlinks of Mobile Transmissions • D. Raulefs. S. Radovic. Sahin. J.Adaptive Modulation and Coding (Session Chair: Prof. Sensitivity of the Orthogonalization Methods for QO-STBC to Feedback Errors in an OFDM Environment 4G Systems (Session Chair: Mikael Sternad. On the Multiple-access Capability of a Shared Rayleigh Wireless Channel • D. A. Mengi. L.Dammann.Vinck. A. U. 19 .G. Hamdi. Dr. Dangl. J.H. Turbo Equalization with Parametric Uncertainties: Comparison of SNR Estimation Algorithms • H.Marchevský. Sezginer. M. H. Deumal. Fülöp. G. V. Sari. Lambotharan. Polgar.A. R. Varga. Kocur. Effects of Channel on Multiuser CFO Estimation for Interleave OFDMA Uplink • M. Performance Comparison of LDPC Codes Generated with Various Code-Construction Methods • A. Varga. KL-Expansion Based Channel Estimator for Space-time/frequency Coded OFDM Systems with Transmitter Diversity • S. Han Vinck. The WINNER Beyond 3G Radio Interface Concept • M. Bauch. F. Channel Equalization for OFDM OFDM Systems (Session Chair: Prof. Panayırcı. Polgar. G. Čížová. S. Pijoan. Sand.
Challenges in Heterogeneous Wireless Networks: Networking Everyone and Everything . Chiti. Jorge Fereira. Auger. France) • C. France. F. Innocenti. Dr. G. Marabissi and L. H. Fernandez-Getino Garcia. Sand. Hikmet Sari. Troesch. R. Arne Svensson. Mensing. EU. Stoyanov. Wittneben. C. Challenges in Heterogeneous Wireless Networks: Networking Everyone and Everything .5. Poulkov. Mottier. Nikolova. Ciochina. Denmark) • R. A. Interference Cancellation in MIMO-OFDM Systems with Outdated Channel State Information • S. Performance of Frequency Offset Synchronization in a Single and Multi-antena IEEE 802. D. J. Dr. A.162004 System OFDM (Session Chair: Prof. M. SUPELEC. On Achievable Rates of MIMO Systems with Nonlinear Receivers 20 . Belgium) • J. System and Service Aspects of Personal Networks Beyond 3G (invited) • F. CEC. W.The Shock of Two Cultures (invited) • P. H. G. Aalborg University.5. Denmark. Sweden) • M. Opportunistic Use of UMTS TDD Spectrum • J. PAPR Reduction Methods for Incoherent OFDM-MFSK • E. SUPELEC. Lindner. Teich. G. Narrowband Interference Cancellation in Multiband OFDM Systems Future Wireless Systems (Session Chair: Dr. Ramjee Prasad. Wetz.3 3rd COST289 Workshop The 3rd COST289 Workshop Enabling Technologies for B3G Systems was organized in Aveiro. C. J. A. The 17 technical contributions and presentations were discussed during the two-days 3rd COST 289 Workshop. A. Sari. Multiple Access Techniques for the Uplink in Future Wireless Communication Systems (co-authored by Cristina Ciochina and David Mottier) The following presentations were given during the 3rd Workshop: Short Range Systems and Techniques (Session Chair: Prof. Pereira. Aalborg University. Chalmers University of Technology. Wittneben. Fantacci. Mutti. Ramjee Prasad. Three of these presentations were invited talks given by • Prof. Rivas Cantero. Transfer Chart Analysis of Iterative OFDM Receivers with Data Aided Channel Estimation Multiple Access (Session Chair: Prof. Performance Analysis of a Novel Punctured Turbo Coding Scheme Suitable for TH-UWB Systems • Z. Multiple Access Techniques for the Uplink in Future Wireless Communication Systems (invited) • K. Sari. On the Channel Spacing of Random Access Wideband Channels • G. Psaltopoulos. Prasad. Marques. Portugal during 12-13 July 2006 jointly with the 11th MCM.The Shock of Two Cultures • Prof. V. Dammann. Dr. Hamdi. Kuhn. System and Service Aspects of Personal Networks Beyond 3G • Dr. Belgium. D. Jorge Pereira. Iliev. M.
Perisa. Dr. TeliaSonera AB. Reliable Data Transport in Wireless Networks (invited) • G. D. G. The following four very interesting invited presentations were given on different aspects of wireless communications: • • • • Prof. Anna Brunstrom. Mobile Broadband Technologies. Z. Iliev. Chiti. Rydström. Narrowband Interference Mitigation in UWB systems 21 . Using Frequency-Offset Estimation Schemes for Acquisition • C. Sweden during 11-12 April 2007 jointly with the 13th and last MCM. Nelli. and V. Karlstad University.4 4th COST289 Workshop The 4th COST289 Workshop Contributions to Spectrum and Power Efficient Broadband Communications was organized in Gothenburg. Brunstrom. M. S. Sweden. I. Fleury. Recent advances in radio channel characterization – The contribution from the NoE NEWCOM Dr. E. Spain) • I. Bota. G. Romania) • V. Adapting the Ranging Algorithm to the Positioning Technique in UWB Sensor Networks • M. D.Acquisition. Aalborg University. Manes. Polgar. Lindner. Madrid. On the Overhead Factors of Optimized LDGM-Staircase and LDGM-Triangle FEC Codes The copies of the presentations are available in the Action web site and the attached CD.5. Views on future wireless access from a Nordic and Baltic perspective Including the four invited lectures. Reliable data transport in wireless networks Dr. Vukobratovic. Polgar. M. Technical University of Cluj-Napoca. V. University Carlos III. Vasile Bota. Bajic. R. where are we and where are we going? Prof. Sweden. J. Fredrik Florén. Sweden. Performance Evaluation of H-ARQ Adaptive Coded QAM Transmissions over Multipath Mobile Channels • Z. Reggiani. and A. Ovtcharov. 5. D-STAR MAC Protocol: A Cross Layer Solution for Wireless Sensor Networks Endowed with Directive Antennas • L. Toker. M. Malmö. Bernard H. G. Poulkov. Di Palma. Denmark. Robust Channel Shortening Equaliser Design Coding (Session Chair: Prof. V. Collodi. Fantacci. Varga. Svensson. Mölndal. Altinis. F. M. Julia Fernandez-Getino. the following 21 presentations made by various research teams of the COST 289 Action during the 4th Workshop: Session 1 • A. Varga. Henrik Sahlin. Equalization (Session Chair: M. Manes. Ericsson AB. Bota. Performance of LDPC-Error Detecting Concatenated Codes Used in Adaptive OFDM Transmissions • D. Ström and A. Ciabatti. Senk.
A. and A. Richter. Fernández-Getino García. García Armada. A. Bota. Teich. Rohling. M. Adaptive Code Allocation for Interference Exploitation on the Downlink of MC-CDMA Systems • C. Plass. Bota. Eriksson. Plass. and P. Fernández-Getino García. P. Robust Transmission over Fast Fading Channels on the Basis of OFDM-MFSK • J. Gil Jiménez. Sahlin. Uplink Channel Estimation for Multi-user OFDMBased Systems Session 3 • B. Varga. and J. Fantacci. Svensson. T. On the MIMO Channel Capacity Predicted by Kronecker and Müller Models • S. A. P. L. D. G. Wetz. Sand. Alsusa and C. Galajda. Mutti. V. C. F. Han Vinck. High Spectral Efficient and Flexible Next Generation Mobile Communications • M. Coding Schemes for Crisscross Error Patterns • M. and M. S. Tarchi. Kocur. Deumal. W. Joint Modeling of the Multipath Rradio Channel and User-Access Method The copies of the presentations are available in the Action web site and the attached CD. Krajňák. Gameiro. A Finite State Modeling for Adaptive Modulation in Wireless OFDMA Systems • S. and J. A. Effect of Carrier Frequency Offset on Channel Capacity in Mult-user OFDM-FDMA Systems • M. Lindner. Marabissi. Stemick and H. Recent Advances in Radio Channel Characterization – The Ccontribution from the NoE NEWCOM (invited) • M. A. Gil Jiménez. Ottosson. Performances of the H-ARQ AdaptiveQAM Transmissions over Multipath Mobile Channels • V. Fleury. Sternad. Polgar. T. C. and A. M. Florén. J. Behravan. Sand. Mensing. Periša. P. D. Mobile Broadband Technologies: Where Are We and Where Are We Going? (invited) • D. V. Masouros. Genovese. Pijoan. Polgar. and A. M. and A. Adaptive Bit Loading and Transmit Diversity for Iterative OFDM Receivers • V. Pavelka. I. J. Z. Deumal. and R. A. Ribeiro. Pijoan.J. T. Views on Future Wireless Access from a Nordic and Baltic Perspective (invited) • S. García Armada.L. 22 . Evaluation of Performance Improvement Capabilities of PAPR-Reducing Methods • Z. Multi-user Detection of Nonlinearly Distorted MC-CDMA Symbols by Microstatistic Filtering Session 4 • F. Varga. M. Methods for Compression of Feedback in Adaptive Multi-carrier 4G Schemes • E. M. Svensson. Wittneben. G. Şafak. Karaman Colakoğlu and M. and A. J. Eriksson. Gameiro.Session 2 • H.
5.3 7th MCM in Oberpfaffenhofen. Polydoros. 7-9 July 2004: Hiroyuki Atarashi. ETH Zurich. DoCoMo. Reconfigurable Antennas for Future Wireless Communications (Tutorial provided in the framework of NEXWAY. 28-29 October 2004: Simone Morosi. Ultrawideband Communications: stateof-the-art and research issues. Munich.3. Technical University of Hamburg-Harburg. Wittneben. Radio flexibility at the PHY layer H.5. ACORDE. 3-4 November 2005 Madrid: Álvaro Álvarez Vázquez.5 9th MCM.2 6th MCM in Barcelona.3 Tutorial/Review papers: The list of tutorial/review papers is presented in chronolohical order: 5. Software Radio: An Enabling Technology for Mobile Communications.3. ETH Zurich.7-8 March 2005: Stefan Kaiser.3. Lajos Hanzo. Sternad. DLR.1 5th MCM and 1st COST 289 Workshop in Budapest. European Network of Excellence) 5.3. Antalya.4 8th MCM. Armin Wittneben. Uppsala University. Recital on Multicarrier Communications: Space-Time Coded Versus Adaptive OFDM/MC-CDMA. Recent Theoretical and Experimental Results in Multiuser Zero Forcing Relaying A. University of Florence. Challenges in Pervasive Wireless Access Joan Lluis Pijoan. 23 . It provided useful information about this new and interesting area of research. which could not be covered by the Action because of the lack of sufficient number of scientists who are interested in this area. The tutorial was considered to be very useful and attracted a lot of interest among the participants. The WINNER Beyond 3G Radio Interface Concept 5. Technical University of Athens.3. OFDM Systems and Related Multiple Access Schemes M. University of Southampton. 6-8 July 2005: A. Broadband Packet Wireless Access and Its Field Experiments. Ramon Llull University. Rohling. Overview on MC-CDMA 5.
France. Metamaterials Concept and Applications This very interesting tutorial clearly showed the great potential that the use of metamaterials have in telecommunication systems. Mehmet Şafak. 5. Reliable Data Transport in Wireless Networks Dr. Sweden. Dr. Ericsson AB.9 13th MCM.An Overview 5. Dr. Aalborg University. 5. Sweden. Recent Advances in Radio Channel Characterization – The Contribution from the NoE NEWCOM 24 . 11-13 April 2007 Göteborg: Prof. Ramonn Lull University.The Shock of Two Cultures Prof.3. Turkey. Henrik Sahlin. University of Belgrade. The authors demonstrated the usefulness of their approach by some examples in various fields of electrical and electronics engineering.7 11th MCM. Digital Video Broadcasting. SUPELEC. An invited talk on the new COST Action 2100. Spain. Joan Lluis Pijoan. System and Service Aspects of Personal Networks Beyond 3G Dr. Multiple Access Techniques for the Uplink in Future Wireless Communication Systems (co-authored by Cristina Ciochina and David Mottier) Prof. Jorge Fereira. Bernard H. Miroslav Lutovac. Sari. Anna Brunstrom. Hacettepe University.6 10th MCM. University of Bologna. EU. Ramjee Prasad. Belgium. Dr. H. Italy. Challenges in Heterogeneous Wireless Networks: Networking Everyone and Everything . Software for algebraic-symbolic and numerical processing in communication systems The tutorial emphasized the advantages of symbolic processing in the analysis of telecommunication systems. Prof. Where Are We and Where Are We Going? Prof. Aalborg University. 12-14 July 2006 Aveiro: Prof. Novi Sad: Prof.3. Dejan Tosic. Denmark. Vesna Crnojević-Bengin. On OFDM Systems with low Sensitivity to Nonlinear Amplification (tutorial) Prof.5.Pervasive Mobile and Ambient Wireless Communications.3.3. Mobile Broadband Technologies. Fleury. University of Novi Sad. Karlstad University. Denmark.8 12th MCM. 30-31 October 2006 Florence: Prof. Mölndal. COST2100 . 23-24 March 2006. Barcelona. Roberto Verdone.
Malmö. Views on Future Wireless Access from a Nordic and Baltic Perspective Prof. Peter Fazekas. which contains the working documents of the WGs and some electronic copies of the presentations. • During 6th MCM in Barcelona.tr 5.A COST Action Proposal. by Prof. The web site address is http://cost289. the following lecture was offered by the NoE NEXWAY: Prof. 5. aim and achievements. from European NoE WINNER. 6-7 July 2005. Antalya.hacettepe. structure. Turkey. Mikael Sternad. Dr. especially in the EU framework programmes. were presented during the 2nd COST 289 Workshop. Turkey. In the open section the following information is available: Status. Antalya.5 Web site The web site is used to present the activities of the Action. MoU. European Network of Excellence) • The following lectures. Antalya. 5. and by Dr. University of Florence.4 Publications The detailed list of publications is presented in Annex B and they are also posted in the web site of the Action: http://cost289. Budapest University of Technology and Economics. Chair. 28-29 October 2004. Mehmet Safak. 6-7 July 2005. The discussions led to a common understanding that combining the financial flexibility of NoE’s and the administrative flexibility of COST Actions could lead to an optimuml solution. scientific institutions.Dr. Meetings. 6-7 July 2005. Sweden. Hacettepe University.ee. P. Uppsala University. Fredrik Florén. The site is divided into two sections: an open section and a section restricted to the participants of the Action only. TeliaSonera AB.tr. Communication.edu. Signatories and Related Links. NoE in Wireless COMmunications (NEWCOM).ee.hacettepe. Towards Cognitive 25 . 2nd COST 289 Workshop. Prof. and research programmes. Reconfigurable Antennas for Future Wireless Communications (Tutorial provided in the framework of NEXWAY. The WINNER Beyond 3G airInterface: A First Outline.edu. Mikael Sternad. Participating Organisations. Progress Reports.Simone Morosi.6 Scientific and Technical Co-operation Close scientific and technical cooperation is desired with other relevant COST Actions. 2nd COST 289 Workshop. The part accessible only through password is the List of Publications. This presentation created an opportunity to discuss the relative advantages of NoE’s and COST Actions. Turkey. Fazekas from the NoE NEWCOM.
during the 1st Workshop in Budapest. University of Carlos III of Madrid. IEEEE 802.The Shock of Two Cultures • The following presentations were given during the 12th MCM on COST Action 2100. • Specific contacts with already established agencies. Aveiro. Belgium. Dr. technology developers and providers. Fleury. • Dr. Bernard H. scientists. Prof. Italy. Francesco Chiti. 7-9 July 2004. seminars and workshops.16 based mesh networks: The WOMEN project Dr. Daniele Tarchi from University of Florence. University of Florence.g. COST2100 Pervasive Mobile and Ambient Wireless Communications Dr. Spain. and Prof. Aalborg University. who are not a member of the Action. Portugal. Other means will include • Electronic media in which the research results is/will be entered in the Internet for easy retrieval by researchers and other professionals. 5. Broadband Packet Wireless Access and Its Field Experiments. 12-14 July 2006. Challenges in Heterogeneous Wireless Networks: Networking Everyone and Everything . Prof. Ana Garcia Armada. University of Southampton. Lajos Hanzo. Roberto Verdone from University of Bologna. Portugal: Dr. Hiroyuki Atarashi. Atilio Gameiro. Italy. industry representatives and standardisation bodies as the key recipients of information. Jorge Ferrira from EU gave the following presentation during the 11th MCM. • Traditional means such as reports.. Sweden: Prof.7 Transfer of Results The transfer of the research results is considered to be a key issue and a number of target groups have been identified. 26 . Italy. academic journals. Recent advances in radio channel characterization – The contribution from the NoE NEWCOM. the WOMEN project and the NoE CRUISE: Prof. Recital on Multicarrier Communications: Space-Time Coded Versus Adaptive OFDM/MC-CDMA. initiatives and programmes. e. Jorge Fereira from EU. 11-13 April 2007. DoCoMo. conferences. Gothenburg. University of Aveiro. The actual dissemination is implemented based on the Action web site. Integrating Research and Practice in Wireless Sensor Networks: The Experience of European Network of Excellence CRUISE • A presentation resulting from the cooperation with NoE NEWCOM were given during 13th MCM and 4th Workshop. Denmark.• The following lectures were given by eminent scientists.
M. A. Pijoan. Evaluation of Performance Improvement Capabilities of PAPR-reducing Methods • • • • • • • • • • 27 . C. I. Periša. with editor-in chief Prof. A. L. and A. Rohling. held in Göteborg. C. Bota. Plass. G. Methods for Compression of Feedback in Adaptive Multi-carrier 4G Schemes M. Safak. Plass. Uplink Channel Estimation for Multi-user OFDMbased Systems M. García Armada. These papers. Collodi. Manes and I. based on the previous review results. and A. Rohling. J. Chiti. Ribeiro. Prof. Richter. Karaman Colakoglu and M. Robust Transmission over Fast Fading Channels on the Basis of OFDM-MFSK C. Prof. Fernández-Getino García. M. J. Eriksson. J. Ottosson. are submitted in June 2007 to the Springer Journal Wireless Personal Communications. D. Han Vinck. Wittneben. The list of papers accepted for publication in the SI is given below: • • M.5. The SI is expected to be published in early 2008. 11-12 April 2007. and A. A. M. Effect of Carrier Frequency Offset on Channel Capacity in Multi-user OFDM-FDMA Systems F. T. G. Gameiro. H. Ström and A. W. for publication in a special issue (SI). Behravan and T. M. Manes. Adapting the Ranging Algorithm to the Positioning Technique in UWB Sensor Networks S. Mensing. G. G. Performances of the H-ARQ Adaptive-QAM Transmissions over Multipath Channels S. J. On the MIMO Channel Capacity Predicted by Kronecker and Müller Models V. 13 papers are selected by the editorial board. Eriksson. Svensson. Jiménez. Ciabatti. E. Z. following a second review process. García Armada. Di Palma. Mutti and A. Teich and J. A. R. Nelli. Svensson. P. G. Ramjee Prasad. A. G. Gil Jiménez. Denmark. Wetz. Varga.1 Special Issue Communications: of Springer Journal Wireless Personal Among the 17 presentations during the Final Workshop. L. Sand. and A. Sternad. A. M. from University of Aalborg.7. Adaptive Bit Loading and Transmit Diversity for Iterative OFDM Receivers V. Reggiani. A. T. Stemick and H. P. S. Lindner. Safak. Svensson. D-STAR MAC Protocol: a Cros-layer Solution for Wireless Sensor Networks Endowed with Directive Antennas M. consisting of Prof. High Spectral Efficient and Flexible Next Generation Mobile Communications M. Wittneben and Prof. Fernández-Getino García. Rydström. Deumal. Polgar. Fantacci. M. V. Coding Schemes for Crisscross Error Patterns S. Sand. Svensson.
The evolution of the number of the signatories and the annual COST budget (actually spent) is listed below: The list of the annual COST-ESF budget: Period March -June 30 2003: Period 2003-2004: Period 2004-2005: Period 2005-2006 : Period 200-April 2007 : Total COST-ESF budget: 6 signatories 16 signatories 18+1 signatories 19 signatories 19 signatories Inaugural MCM 39 715 Euro 58 735 Euro 76 922 Euro 95 794 Euro 271 166 Euro As also suggested in the MoU. Below is given the statistics of attendance and reimbursement by COST-ESF: 28 . students Equipment and material costs Travel Total per signatory per year 50 000 Euros 30 000 Euros 70 000 Euros 30 000 Euros 20 000 Euros 200 000 Euros The total cost per signatory will be about 200 000 Euros per year and 800 000 Euros in four years of duration of the Action. on the average. P. During the four years of existence of this Action. P. Kocur. M.D.L. the economic value of the research conducted by each country per year can be estimated from the following ½ engineer/researcher/secretary ½ technician 2 Ph. with. Krajňák.2 Million Euros.• J. The total economic dimension over four years for 19 nations is predicted to be approximately 15. Pijoan. Pavelka. J. D. Galajda. Deumal. 2 representatives per country. Multiuser Detection of Nonlinearly Distorted MC-CDMA Symbols by Microstatistic filtering 6 ECONOMIC DIMENSION 30 institutions from 19 signatory countries participated the Action. thirteen MCMs and four Workshops were organised. This is believed to be typical for a COST Action.
g. whenever possible. 6-8 July 2005. 30-31 October 2006.20 14455. of participants No. 24 March 2003. In some years. in the transfer of allocated budget to our account and/or the need to increase the budget due to the insufficiency of the initially allocated budget. we developed a policy such that the host institutions covered costs of Workshops at least partially. Antalya 9th MCM. 28-29 October 2005. 35 46 32 8th MCM. the increased budget could not be 29 . 25 Kosice 4th MCM. e. 30 Barcelona 7th MCM. 15-16 March 2004.16 17272.00 12420. 12-14 July 2006.MCM number No. 40 Gothenburg Total Average per MCM Average per participant reimbursed 401 401/13=31 We occasionaly encountered some difficulties in financial matters. 30 Zurich 5th MCM.68 31704.38 30 094. 11-13 April 2007. of reimbursed participants Reimbursed by COST 10 13 20 23 14 23 31 23 19 21 23 34 254 254/12=21 Amount reimbursed (Euro) ? 12026. 32 Novi Sad 11th MCM. Madrid 10th MCM. 3-4 November. Budapest 40 6th MCM.37 9802. 7-9 July 2004. 30-31 October 2003. 23-24 March 2006.11 15200.99 17 900.67 17373.13 20 887. Aveiro 34 12th MCM.. 12 Brussels 2nd MCM.00 12529. Hamburg 16 3rd MCM.23 211 667 17 639 840 Inaugural MCM. 7-8 Oberpfaffenhofen March 2005. 3-4 July 2003. 29 Florence 13th MCM. Because of potential shortage of budget.
The common interest may be maximized by investing in an education/learning/training process especially in the early phase of the Action. The Action management could have great flexibility and devise a fairer reimbursement policy if this restriction could have been relaxed. Successful management of a COST Action first of all requires an atmosphere of cooperation between the participants. the average amount of reimbursement for a participant is typically 840 Euro per MCM. Thus.8 % of 15.g. it was practically impossible to spend the increased budget. However. secretarial assistance etc. Workshops. They are not structured as in NoEs and should not be expected to be so. In view of the average amount of reimbursement of 840 Euros per participant and the average number of reimbursed participant of 21 per MCM. e. tutorials.1 General Considerations COST Actions are very useful platforms for establishing and conducting joint research activities between researchers from different research institutions. in the light of the above. 7 SELF EVALUATION 7.2 Million Euros Total COST-ESF budget (spent): 271 166 Euros (1. review and survey type presentations by invited speakers could be very attractive for the participants. Similarly.: 59 499 Euros (22 % of 271 166 Euros) As can also be observed from the above table. The COST environment can be very useful for training the young researchers by using the Training Schools. The ad hoc structure of COST Actions is innovative and brings richness to the research program.2 Million Euros) o COST-ESF budget used for reimbursement of travel expenses: 211 667 Euros (78 % of 271 166 Euros) o COST-ESF budget for STSMs. its success is believed to be critically dependent on its management. and for initiating research cooperations via the STSMs. by creating a synergy and a productive research environment and a faster and higher publishing opportunity. Based on the above financial figures one can draw the following conclusions: • • Total economic dimension of the Action: 15. Since the participants of a COST Action can not be forced to commit themselves to a pre-structured scientific program with some strict deadlines. For a productive research environment. the COST Action 289 clearly proved to be a very cost-effective means of conducting a very successful research program in an international environment. Germany has four productive and actively participating institutions and the expenses of their participants can not all be reimbursed. this should not imply that COST Actions should not have any control/coordination mechanism for scientific research. especially during the initial phase of the Action. Annual Review Meetings. one needs to identify novel research areas which are 30 ..fully used because of the following reasons: Our understanding about the reimbursement policy for the COST MCMs was such that at most two scientists from each COST nation could be reimbursed per MCM. This can be achieved by creating a good social and scientific atmosphere as well as a common interest between the participants.
Comparing the spent budget with the achievements made during this period. as indicated in the section 3. 85 journal papers. students and the reimbursement of their expenses was made according to a set of rules imposed by the MC. Establishing research cooperations between institutions having manpower on one side and research projects on the other side is believed to be very rewarding. vis-à-vis the European integration. In addition. all of the visitors were Ph. 13 MCMs were organised. gained through this Action are. book chapters and books and 347 conference papers were published. the Action supported 14 young researchers to visit 7 different institutions to cooperate and conduct joint research. Another very important point is to be able attract good scientists/engineers to the Action in a very competitive European environment.2 Million Euros for the Action. 7. such a project acts as a very convenient vehicle for conducting joint research by the COST countries. These visits were usually longer than one month. Therefore. The amount constitute only 1. within the framework of COST regulations. which shows the extent and effectiveness of cooperation. NoEs. Some additional publications are anticipated in the near future. four journal papers and a conference paper were (accepted to be) published. This approach for encouraging and educating the young researchers may be considered as a positive part of the Action. According to the decision taken by the Management Committee (MC). in our opinion.1 Publications Resulting from STSMs.D. and appoint a coordinator. It was noted that 10 out of these 17 papers represent the result of joint research between different institutions. A few tens of M. During the four-year period.Sc. The papers presented during the 4th Workshop resulted mostly from the cooperation during the four years between different institutions participating to the COST Action 289.1 Achievements Excluding the Inaugural MCM. During the four years.2. Four of these MCMs were jointly organised with the Workshops. students either completed or are about to complete their studies in the framework of COST 289 and with the support by the STSM program. The remaining part of the budget is covered by the member states. 13 of these 17 papers were scheduled for 31 . e. 401 attendants of 13 MCMs presented 152 presentations and 24 tutorial/review/survey papers.D. at least as important as the technical benefits.in the area of interest of the majority of participants. the financial support to this Action is obviously very cost-effective for the COST and the participants for whom it was very enriching and productive. As a result of these STSMs. the total budget which was spent during the four years period of this Action was 271 166 Euro. This number may be considered as a measure of cooperation between the Action members.g. The researchers who have been in a STSM were asked to present a report about their scientific visits in a MCM. Social benefits. willing to dedicate a considerable percentage of his time to this project. and Ph.2 Evaluation of the COST Action 289 7. until presently.8 % of the total estimated economic dimension of 15. The success of this Action is closely related to the efficient use of the Short Term Scientific Mission (STSM) program designed to send young researchers for scientific visits to cooperating institutions.5.
University of Athens. Young researchers were supported in their research and its return was very positive. 7. The results of cooperation will be reflected in publications still to come.publication in a special issue of the Springer Journal Wireless Personal Communications in early 2008. The great majority of the participants were happy to be involved in this Action. the participation to the SDR project was not at the same level as to the projects on Wide Area Access and the Pervasive Access. entitled “Towards Cognitive Systems”.e. the main reason why these institutions could not contribute to the Action at a desired level is • • • • • • • 32 . who do not have as strong research infrastructure as those of some others. Polytechnic University of Catalunya. Some of the scientific results (13 papers) are scheduled for publication in Springer Journal “Wireless Personal Communications” in early 2008. Significant contributions were provided to the litterature concerning the three projects on Wide Area Coverage for 4G. did not have the opportunity to contribute much to the Action. Consequently. This resulted in scientific and social development of the participants. Aristotle University of Thessaloniki and NTNU from Norway could provide only limited contribution with very low attendance rates. Budapest University of Technology and Economics and University of Athens were the major institutions to be involved in the project on Software Defined Radio (SDR). In our opinion. A significant number of research papers were published either jointly between participating institutions or by the researchers belonging to various institutions. though they signed the MoU. For example.2 Weaknesses Some members. joint research results were mainly due to their cooperation because of their mobility. Similarly. This Journal has a high visibility in the telecommunications community. However. COST Action 289 is believed to be very successful because of the following reasons: • A very good environment of scientific cooperation was created between more than 100 researchers of 30 institutions from 19 COST countries. The Polytechnic University of Catalunya.2. the very strong support to apply for another COST Action lead to a new COST Action proposal. due to their lack of participation. Pervasive Access for 4G and the SDR. This contributed to the scientific development of the research teams of these countries and their integration to Europe.. The researchers of some countries. Belgium never attended the MCMs and Malta attended only once. Budapest University of Technology and Economics. were supported. i. The total amount of money spent is very modest compared to the benefits gained from the Action.
2. Nevertheless. COST-ESF could even consider publishing some scientific journals for this purpose. Invited lectures are helpful not only for the young researchers but also for widening the spectrum of the senior researchers.the wide diversity of financial support mechanisms presently available for the scientific projects. the following measures could be a reasonable approach for a successful COST Action: • Identify. Establishing and sustaining cooperations between young researcher were observed to be much easier because of the heavy time schedules of the senior researchers. STSMs and training schools can be very convenient platforms for fostering the success of a COST Action. Invited talks. Nevertheless. frequent workshops. Invited lecturers from outside the Action could provide more diversity to the research program of the Action. which consists of the sum of well-defined Work Packages. since it may be easier and faster to publish in this environment. The choice and the effort of coordinators in charge of these Work Packages are critical in the success of the Action. The success of such a research program. in view of the rapid developments in the area of information and communication technologies.D. • • • • • 33 . The acceptance of new members to the Action could be based on their committment to one of the clearly defined small Work Packages.3 Proposals for Improvement of COST Actions Based on the past experience. they could carry out their research in an international environment and reach to the most productive phase of their research towards the end of the Action. If young researchers. the Actions should be adaptive in incorporating new and innovative research areas within the framework of the Action MoU. this is in contrast with the current COST regulations according to which any nation can join the Action within the first six month of the Action without prior to MC approval. in the European arena and the heavy involvementof these institutions in some of these projects. including the NoEs. this problem can be solved to a great extent by a good Action management. It is strongly suggested to publish the research results in scientific journals for example every two years. program. at the very early phase of the Action. could be related to some milestones. can be trained by the mechanisms cited-above. However. Investment on young researchers is believed to be very much rewarding in a COST Action environment. Publication of the scientific results of these projects were observed to be very much stimulating for the researchers. a well-defined and detailed research program based on the MoU. in the initial phase of their Ph. 7.
hacettepe. These 152 presentations. The project on Pervasive Wireless Access for 4G is mainly concerned with decentralized networks with lower mobility.1. consisting primarily of wide area networks (WANs). b) individual research results based on one of the three projects. This special issue is scheduled for early 2008.ANNEX A SCIENTIFIC RESULTS The project on Wide Area Coverage and high mobility access systems for fourth generation (4G) addresses the problems of centralized systems with high mobility corresponding to lower data rates but wider coverage areas. with special emphasis on the joint publications. book chapters and books and 347 conference papers are available in the Action web site (http://cost289.edu. fall short of supporting heterogeneous networks. and c) individual/joint research efforts of the participants not necessarily related to one the three projects cited-above.tr) and the CD for the details of these publications and the other related publications.ee.hacettepe. 3G systems. A. 85 journal papers. The reader may refer to the Action web site (http://cost289. this did not prevent the individual research results to arrive to some valuable contributions and coherent solutions to the problems defined for the particular project. in this section we will provide short summaries of some of the selected publications related these projects. following a brief description of each of the three projects. and consequently restricted coverage areas.tr). 13 MCMs and 4 Workshops were organized.edu. The research efforts resulted in 152 presentations and 24 tutorials. The above-cited publications originate from a) joint research efforts between various research teams on the above-cited three projects. In view of the large number of publications. WIDE AREA COVERAGE AND HIGH MOBILITY ACCESS SYSTEMS FOR 4G Network and service architectures of 3G networks are primarily static and have difficulty in meeting the ever-increasing requirements for high-throughput highperformance multimedia applications. much higher data rates.ee. The SDR project aims to bridge these two projects horizontally since various systems should be implemented in the same platform for the reconfigurability and adaptivity purposes. A Special Issue of the Springer Journal Wireless Personal Communications is dedicated to publish 13 selected research papers by COST 289 research teams. During the 4 years of existence of the Action. These projects were believed to be sufficiently flexible so that each researcher could choose his particular research topic and thus make the best use of his/her expertise. However. Future network infrastructures will be based on Internet protocol (IP) architecture 35 . Furthermore.
are suitable for voice communications but not necessarily for the bursty data traffic . security.. Currently. sensor networks. multiple access and duplexing techniques -. multicasting. including detection techniques. Several proposals have already been made towards the definition of 4G systems. these are mostly based on orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) and CDMA. Intense research efforts are currently ongoing towards the definition of physical layer for 4G systems. network games. Since very high data rates are required. There are strong requirements for high data rates. A national project in Sweden has suggested an adaptive multiplexing and OFDM transmission system for the downlink . due to the increased overhead. The uplink is normally asynchronous and oscillators in different terminals are not synchronized. which should provide services comparable to those offered by wired networks for a variety of applications such as interactive multimedia. flexibility.. optimized traffic processing between core and access networks. transmission system will very likely be based on multicarrier technology . In the downlink.supporting heterogeneous wireless systems. scalability and multiple classes of service with variable end-to-end quality of service (QoS) requirements. at least in FDD systems. while it is multiple accesses between cells only. including those based on time division multiple access and direct sequence code division multiple access (DS-CDMA) and possible combinations of the two. global roaming. DAB). For the 4G system uplinks. hybrid ARQ techniques. MA implies the efficient sharing of the available bandwidth among a large number of users. satellite-based networks. adaptive modulation and coding. high mobility. the following DoCoMo proposal may be used as a reference: 36 . NTT DoCoMo has suggested a scheme based on the combination of OFDM and CDMA . wireless local area networks (WLANs). The traffic load of these systems will likely be dominated by the bursty data traffic. the intense research efforts are ongoing as to the relative advantages of various transmission. In the uplink. and digital video and audio broadcasting (DVB. multiple access (MA). voice over IP. worldwide interoperability for microwave access (WiMax) systems. It may also be more difficult to use channel state information at the transmitter in the uplink. and video conferencing . The MA techniques currently used in 2G/3G. There is a close relationship between the choices of the appropriate transmission and MA techniques. dynamic handover. end to end connectivity. the signals are multiplexed within each cell. There are many aspects of 4G systems. and flexible technologies. power control etc. to be studied in detail . admission control. the situation is much more complicated since a combination of multiplexing and MA takes place in each terminal when more than one service is transmitted at the same time. adaptivity. These systems will provide high data rates. ranging from 2G/3G/4G cellular radio. convergence and interoperability of heterogeneous mobile and broadband network technologies. Special care must be given to use OFDMA in the uplinks due to its sensitivity to frequency synchronization errors. antenna systems.
• • •
Available uplink bandwidth is 40 MHz Carrier frequency likely around 5 GHz Maximum speed is 250 km/h
Note that the data rate requirement for high mobility by ITU is 100 Mbps, and this should be achieved in a 40 MHz bandwidth. The DoCoMo proposal for the downlink parameters is given by: • • • Available downlink bandwidth is 100 MHz Carrier frequency likely around 5 GHz Maximum speed is 250 km/h
Further studies are needed for performance comparisons between OFDM- and CDMA-based systems for the downlink. A fair comparison between these systems in a multi-cellular environment with all the complexity taken into account is believed to be still missing. All performance evaluations may be done using the widely accepted UMTS channel models. Preferably, performance should be evaluated in a multi-cell environment, but single cell performance and single link performance is acceptable as a starting point. In this project, members of the Action focused their efforts to design and analyze physical layer solutions for 4G uplinks and downlinks. Here, the interest is in systems with wide area coverage and high mobility, and there is no restriction on the choice of transmission and MA techniques. So, in principle, any physical layer technique can be used and combined in such a way that high bandwidth- and power-efficient uplinks and downlinks are obtained. Five young researchers were hosted by Chalmers University of Technology on STSM during 2004 to establish a common understanding and cooperation on the research undertaken. These efforts resulted in several presentations in the COST 289 Workshops and publications in the Special Issue of Wireless Personal Communications (see 3.5.1 Publications Resulting From STSMs). The following can be cited amongst the research topics related to this project: • • • • • • • • • • • Uplink and downlink designs for 4G Adaptive transmission technologies for 4G uplink and downlink design Channel prediction and feedback information in OFDM-based adaptive modulation systems for 4G.. Investigation of multiplexing and diversity techniques in 4G-downlinks by using adaptive MIMO systems. Effects of channel on multiuser CFO estimation for interleaved OFDMA uplink User-resource allocation methods for adaptive OFDM downlinks for mobile transmissions Multiple access techniques in uplinks and downlinks OFDM and MIMO-OFDM systems Cross-layer designs Smart antennas Adaptive/reconfigurable systems
A.1.1. S. Plass, S. Sand, M. Sternad and A. Svensson, High spectral efficient and flexible next generation mobile communications  Simon Plass from DLR, Germany, visited Chalmers University of Technology during 20.9.2004-24.9.2004 on STSM. As a result of this visit, this paper  was produced by the researchers from DLR, Chalmers University of Technology and the University of Uppsala. The challenges, requirements, and possible new techniques for a next generation mobile communications system are investigated in this paper. The so-called 4G systems aim at throughput rates of more than 100 Mbit/s outdoor with high mobility and 1 Gbit/s indoor. This requires new advanced techniques in the air interface of such a system. New techniques are outlined and a future basic physical layer concept is introduced. A high spectral efficient and flexible air interface has to be designed to achieve the proposed demands of very high data rates. The flexibility of the air interface highly depends on the availability of the channel state information. With this information most of the processes on the physical layer can be optimized at the transmitter and receiver side. Thus, the future challenge is an efficient design of the adaptive process blocks such as the modulation, space-time-frequency precoding and scheduling, and corresponding reverse operations. The adaptivity to the channel of all the modules in such a possible concept is highlighted. Since the needed large bandwidth for high data rates is a very valuable resource, future communications systems need high spectrum flexibility. An overview over possible spectrum flexibility concepts is also given and discussed in the paper. Two different mechanisms are identified, namely spectrum sharing and spectrum assignment. Finally, the severe problem of emerging inter-cell interference can be overcome by new resource management mechanisms in the transmitter, e.g., adaptive varying frequency reuse or inter-cell interference mitigation. Theoretically, gains from using inter-cell interference avoidance schemes are large, but maximal gains would require fast and tight inter-cell coordination. Frequency partitioning in cellular networks on a slower time-scale has for a long period received interest, using power control, dynamic channel assignment, and channel borrowing. Note that the packet-switched channel-aware scheduled transmissions that will take place in 4G systems complicates the use of many of the previously suggested schemes for inter-cell interference avoidance. For example, it is not, without additional side information, possible to conclude that the interference power in a set of sub-carriers is likely to be higher/lower than average just because it is measured as high/low at present. This is a major challenge for dynamic measurement-based resource assignment schemes. A.1.2. V. P. Gil Gimenez, T. Eriksson, A. G. Armada, M. J. Fernandez-Getino Garcia, T. Ottoson and A. Svensson, Methods for Compression of Feedback in Adaptive Multicarrier 4G Systems  The cooperation between the University of Carlos III of Madrid and Chalmers University of Technology was established as a result of the STSM by Victor Pedro Gil-Jimenez from University Carlos III of Madrid to Chalmers University of Technology during 4.9.2004 - 9.12.2004. The paper  was presented in 4th
Workshop and also accepted for publication in the Special Issue is a good example of the usefulness of the STSMs. Wireless channels, in particular for cellular systems, have a common characteristic; they are time varying. In order to exploit the variations and approach the Shannon capacity, systems are becoming adaptive attempting to adjust the transmission as much as possible to the instantaneous channel conditions. Furthermore, in a multiuser scenario, one can also use the so-called multi-user diversity, since the probability that at least one user experiences good channel propagation conditions increases as the number of users does. If there are many users, it is highly probable that not all of them will experience poor channel propagation but at least one of them will be in a good channel. Moreover, this situation is more advantageous in an OFDMA (Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access) system, where the different orthogonal sub-carriers can be assigned to different users. The power and flexibility of an OFDM and OFDMA system are the reasons why OFDMA systems are one of the strong candidates being proposed for the downlink in the mobile 4G. Regarding the adaptivity, in order to maximize the throughput, at the BS or central point there is a scheduler that decides which user (or users) will transmit and in which sub-carriers. The throughput-maximizing scheduling policy is to transmit to the user with the highest SNR. Since the channel and SNR are usually estimated at the receiver, they must be fed back to the transmitter. At the transmitter side, the scheduler selects which users are going to transmit and also the adequate MCS (Modulation and Coding Scheme) based on the fed back SNR by every user. The data rate needed to convey the feedback may be very high, especially in multi-user OFDM systems where terminals must send to the transmitter MCS in every sub-carrier. Moreover, it will depend on how often this information is expected. For this reason, the literature is increasing on how efficient the data feedback should be. In this paper, the authors categorize the techniques for reducing the feedback into three groups, namely quantization, compression and SNR-limited. In the first group, the way to reduce the feedback rate is to quantize data (applied to real SNR values) and therefore the feedback is reduced. In the second group, some compression techniques are applied to feed back data such as LZW (Lempel-Ziv-Welch) lossless algorithm, Huffman codes or different ones where entropy compression is used with an UVLC (Universal Variable Length Code). And finally in the third group, for a maximizing-throughput scheduling, the BS only allows to feed back data to those terminals with good channel conditions (above some threshold), sometimes denoted opportunistic feedback. The amount of feedback reduction using these techniques can be very high and thus they should be used jointly with the quantization or compression. It has been shown that opportunistic feedback may reduce more than 50% the need to feed back data. This is based on the Huffman codes for compressing feedback data jointly with the opportunistic feedback. In this paper several algorithms for compressing the feedback data, carrying channel quality information and exploiting the inherent frequency and time correlation properties of wireless mobile channels, have been developed and analyzed. These algorithms are developed for a proposed adaptive modulation scheme for future multicarrier 4G mobile systems. These compression algorithms, used together with opportunistic scheduling, drastically reduce the feedback data rate significantly. Thus,
the adaptive modulation schemes become more suitable and efficient to be implemented in future mobile systems, increasing data throughput and overall system performance. It has also been shown that since the feedback data carries important information, some refresh frames must be sent with certain time intervals in order to avoid error propagation in the decoding process. A reasonable value for the refresh interval may be 15 - 20 frames. A.1.3 C. Ribeiro, M. J. Fernández-Getino García, V. P. Gil Jiménez, A. Gameiro, and A. G. Armada, Uplink Channel Estimation for Multi-user OFDM-based Systems  This paper resulted from the cooperation between University of Carlos III of Madrid and the University of Aveiro within the framework of COST 289. OFDM is the choice for a variety of wideband applications due to its robustness against frequency selective channels. In addition, in a multi-user scenario, there exists the so-called multi-user diversity, i.e., the probability that, at least, one user experiences good channel propagation conditions increases with the number of users. If there are many users, it is highly probable that not all of them will experience poor channel propagation and at least one of them will have a good channel. Thus nowadays such multi-user schemes are rapidly growing to improve system efficiency. Most of the systems require accurate channel estimation either for demodulation/decoding or resource allocation. Usually channel estimation methods are pilot-based, i.e. the channel information is extracted from known transmitted symbols that, although decreasing system efficiency since no data information is conveyed, they provide better performance than blind methods. In centralized networks, this problem is particularly important in the uplink, where multiple users must send pilots efficiently to the access point, so that the multi-user channel estimation can be performed accurately. In order to do so, overlapped pilots may be used for channel estimation where different terminals utilize the same pilot subcarriers avoiding the decrease in efficiency as the number of users increase. However, the performance results are not very favorable. This paper proposes a simple, yet flexible and efficient, channel estimator for the uplink in broadband OFDM systems, where several users share the same pilot positions within the frame, with minimal interference among them, but attaining better performance. The system must have dedicated sub-carriers for the transmission of those pilots. Perfect synchronization is assumed at the BS and the channel response is considered constant during each OFDM symbol. The processing is performed in the time-domain, by extracting the Channel's Impulse Response (CIR) for each user from a joint training signal. The estimator can be easily used in either acquisition (preamble-based) or tracking (pilot-tones based) mode, and its structure remains the same for any type of training pattern in the two-dimensional time-frequency space. In this system, the pilot sequence consists of one OFDM-symbol endowed with timeshifted properties per user, which isolates each user's CIR and is robust against multiuser interference. The feasibility of this approach is substantiated by system simulation results obtained using BRAN-A broadband mobile wireless channel model.
Thus. Hence. If the transmitter has CSI. This paper presents a study of the effect of correlated channels for an ABL scheme in a BICM-OFDM system with IDEM. For such channels. Cyclic delay diversity (CDD) increases the frequency-selectivity by sending multiple cyclically delayed copies of the original transmit signal over several transmit antennas. However. The critical design parameter for a BICM receiver with iterative demapping and iterative decoding (IDEM) is the choice of the symbol alphabet mapping. practical wireless systems usually operate far from the theoretical capacity. the negative effects of the fading can be further alleviated by an adaptation of the signaling to the varying channel gain. Mutti and A. established in the COST 289 environment. If we assume that the transmitter has perfect CSI.g. and ABL provides only a marginal gain with respect to uniform bit loading (UBL). C. one can employ discontinuous Doppler diversity (DDoD) to increase the time diversity. The advantages of CDD are that it causes no ISI and a one antenna receiver is sufficient to recover the transmit signal. ABL together with CDD can yield significant performance gains compared to UBL.. a typical environment could be a small office or conference room. this scenario may not offer high frequency-selectivity. where the user is moving slowly. The loading procedure minimizes the bit-error rate at the decoder output. Mensing. A transmission system is considered to employ OFDM with bit-interleaved coded modulation and perfect channel state information at both transmitter and receiver. At the receiver. OFDM in combination with bit-interleaved coded modulation (BICM) has turned out to be a robust yet implementation efficient technique for reliable communication over fading channels without channel state information (CSI) at the transmitter. An adaptive bit-loading scheme in combination with cyclic delay diversity and discontinuous Doppler diversity is proposed at the transmitter and iterative demapping and decoding at the receiver. In general. and the transmit diversity schemes mitigate channel correlations. Sand. adaptation policies for such systems should be based on the predetermined coding and modulation schemes rather than accomplishing a WF to maximize the capacity. C. obtained by exploiting channel reciprocity in time-division duplex systems.A. Germany. e. the system performance can be further improved by iteratively exchanging extrinsic information between the demapper and decoder. Water-filling (WF) based adaptive bit loading (ABL) schemes are well-known in the field of transmission over twisted-pair lines. i. the labeling map between the bits and the symbol alphabet elements. this can only be achieved in low mobility scenarios where the channel is changing slowly.1..4 S. CDD needs no additional processing at the receiver and it can employ an arbitrary number of transmit antennas as a rate one space-time code. Wittneben Adaptive bit loading and transmit diversity for iterative OFDM receivers  This paper is the result of the joint research between ETH Zurich and DLR. It is shown that the ABL scheme can be easily combined with the transmit diversity techniques CDD and DDoD to compensate the 41 .e. Extrinsic information transfer (EXIT) charts are used to predict and analyze the performance of IDEM. Compared to orthogonal space-time block codes. adaptive techniques to improve the average bit-error rate (BER) performance in environments with frequency-selective fading are proposed. The paper analyzes the iterative receiver with extrinsic information transfer charts and presents the achievable gains. In addition. However.
the OFDM-FDMA approach permits a very high degree of adaptivity in frequency selective radio channels combined with a moderate technical system complexity and offers high cell capacities by exploiting the inherent multi-user diversity effect of the system. In the uplink.and frequency correlations of the channel. a number of additional technical challenges have to be met.6 dB with respect to UBL with Gray mapping.5 M. A. Rohling. in order to provide high data rates not only in the downlink but also in the uplink. in most systems a certain amount of CFO has to be tolerated. However. A Frequency Division Multiple Access (FDMA) resource allocation technique offers the opportunity of a detailed link adaptation scheme. This carrier synchronization scheme can e. in a setup phase. the EXIT charts of the ABL scheme are analyzed in combination with the promising IDEM scheme for different mappings. The objective of this paper is to investigate the general impact of CFO to the ICI performance on the uplink of multiuser OFDM-FDMA based systems. Furthermore. Non-ideal synchronization of the user signals to the carrier frequency of the BS leads to intercarrier interferences (ICI). Therefore. Therefore. which is superimposed with all other user signals at the BS to an overall OFDM symbol. the BS measures the CFO for each MT individually.g. The measured CFO is then fed back to the MTs. If every MT provides an individual carrier frequency offset. Effect of carrier frequency offset on the channel capacity in multi-user OFDM-FDMA systems  The 4G of mobile communication systems will have to offer hundreds of Mbit/s of data rate both in the downlink and in the uplink direction in order to meet the demands and requirements of future multimedia applications.and multiple access techniques in OFDM-FDMA was found to be a very strong candidate for the downlink of future 4G systems to provide broadband mobile communications and high system flexibility simultaneously. a precise synchronization of all MTs to the BS is vital for such a radio system.1. in order to adjust their local oscillators. OFDM is a very robust transmission procedure in multipath and frequency selective radio channels. Finally. The combination of these transmission. be done in such a way that. every MT allocates an exclusive set of subcarriers. However. An OFDM-FDMA based system divides the available bandwidth into a set of orthogonal. This can be fulfilled if the utilized communication system has a high degree of flexibility and adaptivity. it turns out that the ABL scheme with SP mapping yields a performance gain of about 6. Among all other multiple access schemes. One of these challenges is the time and carrier synchronization synchronization of all mobile terminals (MT) to the BS inside a single cell. An analytical model for the ICI consideration in the uplink of a multiuser OFDM-FDMA based 42 . but spectrally overlapping subcarriers. The actual measurement of the CFO can be done with dedicated signals or blindly. Such a system will be especially sensitive to carrier frequency offsets (CFO). At an average BER of 10−6. Stemick and H. BER simulations verify the performance gains predicted by the EXIT charts.time. such a procedure needs a large measurement overhead and its performance will strongly depend on measurement accuracies. strong ICI is observed at the BS.
Robust Transmission over Fast Fading Channels on the Basis of OFDM-MFSK  Wireless communication with high-speed trains is a typical scenario for fast fading channels. Tarchi. W. OFDM is known be robust since it avoids ISI. Obtaining a reliable channel estimate is very difficult in such an environment. which is based on the combination of noncoherently detected MFSK (M-ary frequency shift keying) and OFDM.1. F. Marabissi. but also on the employed subcarrier allocation scheme. D. Genovese. hence. Future trains are expected to travel at speeds up to v = 600 km/h. Wetz.7 D. Both possibilities do not affect the robustness of the underlying noncoherently detected OFDM-MFSK modulation. which is suitable for robust transmission in fast fading environments. which does not need any equalization and channel estimation procedure.6 M. While many technologies currently available for fixed BWA can only provide line-ofsight (LOS) coverage. Wireless systems have the capacity to address broad geographic areas without the costly infrastructure required to deploy cabled links. In particular IEEE 802.16 family of standards supported by the WiMAX commercial consortium. One possibility to exploit this degree of freedom is to choose the subcarrier phases such that the peak to average power ratio (PAPR) is reduced. Fantacci. where a reliable channel estimate is impossible or very difficult to obtain. This can be done by differentially modulating the subcarriers that are occupied by the OFDM-MFSK scheme. the increasing demand of high data rate services lead to intense research and development activities in wireless communications. Periša. A simple way to solve this problem is to use a modulation scheme. This can be compensated by noting the fact that the noncoherent detection of OFDM-MFSK allows an arbitrary phase choice for all subcarriers in the transmitter.system is derived. and therefore does not need channel estimation at all. For multipath channels. A second possibility is to use the subcarrier phases to transmit additional data. Lindner. WiMAX is considered as one of the most prominent technologies for providing a BWA in a metropolitan area. also in combination with OFDM. A Finite State Modeling for Adaptive Modulation in Wireless OFDMA Systems  The consumer interest in multimedia applications and. is its low spectral efficiency. The obtained results show that these effects can be neglected in the system performance as long as the synchronization accuracy is sufficient and the synchronization errors are below 3% of the subcarrier spacing. At the same time at least some of the data contains security relevant control information. which can be detected noncoherently. G. concerns the Physical and MAC (Medium Access Control) layers specifications for a Broadband Wireless Access (BWA) communication protocol. I. The resulting ICI does not only depend on the amount of CFO introduced from different users. This paper presents an OFDM-based transmission scheme. A. results in a very simple receiver structure. The impact of the carrier frequency offset (CFO) on the performance of a cellular multi-user system with respect to different subcarrier allocation schemes is analyzed. the technology behind WiMAX has been optimized to provide 43 . The drawback of MFSK.1. and R. which requires a very robust transmission scheme. A. This scheme. Teich and J.
the adaptive modulation techniques have been selected for providing an efficient non-line-of. maximize the throughput or select the best modulation order for a certain SNR value.. The link adaptations algorithms have been introduced with the aim of minimize the SER. The inherent multi-carrier nature of OFDM also allows the use of adaptive modulation according to the behavior of the narrow-band channels. A. and selecting the best modulation and coding scheme by using a three state model.8 V. The proposed adaptive techniques are based on the physical channel estimation on the uplink. Bota.g.sight (NLOS) coverage. by selecting the most appropriate modulation scheme depending on the propagation conditions of the communication channel.. in order to improve system capacity. dynamic allocation techniques need to be devised in order to efficiently use resources such as bandwidth.excellent NLOS coverage by using performance-enhancing technologies. M. Among several strategies. Polgar. A. This paper deals with the proposal of a state model to be used for the performance comparison of two different adaptation algorithms based on the maximization of different functional costs suitable for use in WiMAX system with an OFDMA physical structure. power as well as modulation schemes to increase the spectral efficiency.e. the system select a lower order modulation scheme to maintain the connection quality and link stability without increasing the signal power. no adaptive modulation. OFDM has been demonstrated as an efficient way to mitigate the adverse effects of frequency selective multi-path fading by transmitting signals over a number of flat-faded narrow-band channels that are relatively easy to equalize. and/or coverage reliability. The algorithms show a significant improvement of the system performance compared with the static case. peak data rate. Zs. during good propagation conditions a high order modulation scheme is used in order to increase the data rate transmission while during a signal fade. The algorithms performance has been derived and compared in terms of error rate and throughput. The throughput-based scheme typically yields a higher throughput but the error-base approach provides lower error probability. Performances of the H-ARQ AdaptiveQAM Transmissions over Multipath Channels  The increase of the average throughput and spectral efficiency of the OFDMA schemes under hybrid automatic repeat request (H-ARQ) protocols over mobile radio channels requires a complex approach that involves the following steps: • employment of an OFDMA scheme whose parameters are adapted to the channel’s coherence time and bandwidth. e. To exploit fully the advantages of OFDM in wireless systems. Adaptive modulation allows the system to adapt the modulation scheme according to the channel conditions in order to enhance the system performance. Varga. this paper is concerned with an OFDMA system in which modulation is set separately for each sub-channel based on channel conditions to optimize the use of network resources and enabling a flexible use of resources that can support nomadic or mobile operation. in particular each algorithm is suited for satisfying different QoS requirements. In particular. 44 . Among these. i. The first approach may be appropriate for best-effort services but does not meet QoS requirements in term of error performance. Adaptive modulation allows the WiMAX system to enhance the throughput of wireless data communication systems.1.
briefly describes the joint modeling of the channel and access method employed. It discusses the selection of the set of coded modulations.9 M. L. it is interesting to notice that the performance of a system employing these techniques has not been fully analyzed. over mobile radio channels.2004-29. Behravan and T. optimal setting of the SINR domains where each coded modulation should be employed. the conference paper  and the paper accepted for the SI  are produced. selection of powerful high-rate error-control codes. A.1.9. Evaluation of performance improvement capabilities of PAPR-reducing methods . Pijoan. selection of an user-chunk allocation (access) method that should take the best advantage of the channel’s time-frequency and multi-user diversity. and derives the average spectral efficiency provided by this approach in non-automatic repeat request (ARQ) and H-ARQ environments. PAPR is a very well known measure of the envelope fluctuations and has become the cost function used to evaluate and design multicarrier systems. and then simulation of an OFDM system employing several well-known PAPRreducing techniques from the literature. OFDM is a powerful modulation technique being used in broadband communication systems. This paper presents an evaluation of the average spectral efficiencies provided by the adaptive use of a set of low-density parity-check (LDPC)-coded QAM modulations in an OFDMA downlink scheme.3. power. Marc Deumal from Ramon Llull University visited Chalmers University of Technology during 13. The downside many new and emerging of this technique include channels.2. A. The theoretical analysis and the simulation results show the relation between PAPR and the performance of OFDM systems when a clipping device is present and the real performance improvement capabilities of the PAPR-reducing methods. Several PAPR-reducing techniques have been proposed with the aim to alleviate back-off specifications or increase the system performance. considering a joint modeling of the channel and user-access methods. bandwidth and complexity requirements. The major advantages robustness against time dispersion in multipath fading efficiency and efficient implementation. The agreement between the theoretical and the simulation results demonstrate the validity of the analysis.2006-12. As a result of this cooperation. Eriksson.2004 to initiate a joint research on understanding the peak to average power problem in OFDM systems and consequently reducing the PAPR.2006. high spectral is the large amplitude 45 .11. modeling the multipath Rayleigh-faded mobile channel. One of the major drawbacks of multicarrier systems is the large envelope fluctuations which either require an inefficient use of high power amplifiers or decrease the system performance.• • • • • adaptive employment of coded QAM modulation. Ali Behravan from Chalmers University of Technology visited Ramon Llull University during 20. This paper presents a theoretical framework for both PAPR and the distortion introduced by a nonlinearity. Deumal. Besides the fact that these techniques have varying PAPR-reduction capabilities. governed or not by an H-ARQ protocol. J.
1. Galajda. it is shown that PAPR does not predict HPA power de-rating as accurately as CM. in this paper. except for large back-offs. have been proposed. Krajnak. the problem of reducing the envelope fluctuations with the aim to increase the system performance (reduce both BER and the out-of-band radiation) has turned to reducing PAPR. inefficient use of high power amplifiers (HPA). This paper presents a quantitative study of both the PAPR and the performance of an OFDM system when a clipping device is present. D. PAPR is a very well known measure of the envelope fluctuations of a multicarrier signal and has become the figure of merit used in the literature to define the goodness of a method. However. therefore. P. several techniques have been introduced that limit the peak of the signal envelope. power. Pijoan. Deumal and J. CM and VP are more related to the amount of distortion introduced by a nonlinearity than PAPR. 46 . bandwidth and complexity requirements. However. M. Kocur. Power de-rating is understood as the amount of power back-off needed in the HPA to meet a given adjacent channel leakage ratio (ACLR) level. that the effect of a nonlinearity in an OFDM signal is not clearly related to its PAPR. which requires large back-off in the transmitter amplifier and. In some recent contributions other measures of the envelope fluctuations of multicarrier signals. it is believed that the performance of the PAPR-reducing techniques in the literature can be improved by reformulating them to CM/VPreduction. PAPR-reduction is meant to decrease the distortion introduced by a nonlinearity and. P. reduce both the out-of-band radiation and the BER degradation. The results show that the spectral outgrowth is reduced when applying PAPR-reduction but that a BER performance improvement only occurs when the effect of reducing the in-band distortion is more important than the loss of power efficiency. such as the cubic metric (CM) and the variance of the instantaneous power (VP). it is shown.variations of the OFDM signal. It is shown that. it is important to notice that the performance of a system employing these techniques has not been fully analyzed. In order to reduce the distortion caused by a HPA without setting it to large back-offs. as a consequence. after analyzing certain OFDM-type signals that are considered to meet the long-term evolution (LTE) goals for 3GPP networks. As a result. Moreover.10 J. L. The motivation for CM relies on the fact that the major distortion is caused by the third order intermodulation product while the motivation for VP metric is to reduce the envelope fluctuations. a problem that is usually referred to as PAPR reduction. Pavelka. This paper also compares the BER performance and the PSD of a conventional OFDM with that of a PAPR-reduced OFDM system. since CM and VP are shown to be more related to the amount of distortion introduced by a nonlinearity than PAPR. Multi-user detection of nonlinearly distorted MC-CDMA sysmbols by microstatistic filtering  The visit by STSM program of Marc Deumal to the Technical University of Kosice resulted in the paper  presented in the 4th Workshop and accepted for the SI. Besides the fact that these techniques have varying PAPR reduction capabilities. A.
since it exploits the advantages of spread spectrum (SS) and OFDM. The presented MUD uses piece-wise linear filtering in conjunction with threshold decomposition of the input signal.Multi-carrier code division multiple access (MC-CDMA) is a powerful modulation technique that is being considered in many emerging broadband communication systems. it becomes necessary to use multi-user detection techniques at the receiver side. 47 . The major drawback of such solutions is that they increase significantly the complexity requirements at the receiver side. increases with the number of active users. MUD that performs a joint detection. combined with estimation and cancellation of the nonlinear distortion effects was proposed. to improve performance when a nonlinearity is present. In order to reduce the complexity requirements it is proposed to iteratively optimize the signal constellation of each active user. compensation of the received complex valued symbols is done. which requires large back-off in the transmitter amplifier and. The transmitter’s NL is modeled by using a training sequence and following the minimum mean-squared error (MMSE) criterion. Moreover these techniques require that predistortion is used at the transmitter side. reduces the system performance. via a multi-user approach. in fact. Conventional multi-user detectors (MUD) are designed for linear environments and. However. as a result. Complexity is mainly given by the number of iterations. the nonlinearity (NL) destroys the orthogonality thus increasing MAI. Then. increased performance degradation. which. On the other hand. thus. orthogonal spreading sequences are used since they reduce multiple access interference (MAI) compared to non-orthogonal. estimation and cancellation of the nonlinear distortion effects and a receiver based on an iterative block decision feedback equalizer. The key idea is to use a nonlinear but piece-wise linear structure in order to model the nonlinear behavior of the transmitter’s power amplifier with high flexibility and simplicity. which introduces a nonlinear effect. inefficient use of power amplifiers. Particularly in the synchronous downlink. where orthogonal spreading codes are used to reduce the MAI. similar performance is obtained. Receiver side strategies usually combine iterative decoding and multi-user detection so that both NL compensation and MAI is taken into account. In this paper a new MUD based on microstatistic filtering is proposed. prior to the detection stage. This improvement is achieved at the expense of an acceptable increase of the computational complexity in comparison with that of conventional MMSE-MUD. Simulation results show that the proposed detector outperforms conventional linear ones when low spreading factors (SF) and user loads no greater than 50% are used. One of the major disadvantages of multi-carrier (MC) systems based on OFDM is the high sensitivity to nonlinear amplification. this approach also requires predistortion at the transmitter side. In a downlink scenario. the nonlinear amplification of the transmitted signal destroys the orthogonality and. Most common transmitter side solutions include predistortion and PAPR reduction. as a consequence. In order to avoid performance degradation without requiring large back-offs in the transmitter amplifier. might not exhibit enough performance improvement. using low back-offs leads to signal distortion and. such that the intersymbol interference (ISI) at the relevant decision devices is minimized. In that sense. as a result. For other system configurations. However. Several techniques can be found in the literature to reduce the sensitivity of MCCDMA systems to nonlinear amplification.
However. A. Since it considers only the singly-scattered rays. fading correlations are separated at transmit and receive antenna arrays and in the channel. In this model. 48 . Since this model considers only the rays scattered from both transmit and receive scatterers. Although this improvement is obtained at expenses of increasing the receiver computational complexity. Some measurement results are reported to show that this model fails under certain circumstances. Moreover. the proposed scheme neither requires predistortion at the transmitter nor iterative decoding at the receiver. The MIMO channel capacity may be described in terms of the number and the spacing of transmit and receive antennas and the scattering richness (which is related to the number and the geographical distribution of the scatterers).and receive antennas. at least. equal to that of MMSEMUD. However.and/or singly-scattered rays may also reach the receiver. This paper presents a comparison between the outage capacity of MIMO channels predicted by the Kronecker and Müller models as a function of the number of scatterers.11 M. the channel capacity is also influenced by the number of times the transmitted rays are scattered in the propagation process.Nevertheless. The Müller model is characterized by the number of scatterers and of transmit. However.1. Since rays undergo significant amounts of attenuation each time they are scattered. The Müller model is an asymptotic random channel model for a frequency selective fading MIMO channel. In this paper the performance of the proposed MUD is also compared with that of a conventional MMSE-MUD when a NL is present. which applies for a flat-fading MIMO channel. Karaman-Colakoğlu and M. In the Kronecker model. The Müller model is simpler and is characterized by the scattering richness and the numbers of transmit and receive antennas. it may be more appropriate for radio propagation in urban areas. On the MIMO Channel Capacity Predicted by Kronecker and Müller Models  MIMO systems provide significant improvements in the capacity of wireless communication systems. it has been shown that a minimum increase of the complexity requirements with respect to MMSE-MUD is enough to achieve noticeable performance improvement in nonlinear AWGN channels. this model may describe a suburban channel more accurately. where only singly scattered rays are considered. Şafak. where direct. Simulation results suggest that the performance of MSF-MUD is always better than or. thus direct and the single-scattered rays are ignored. an accurate model of the MIMO channel is needed for a realistic assessment of the capacity. transmit and receive antennas. the complexity requirements of a MSF-MUD based receiver are much smaller than those of previously proposed approaches. large performance improvement is achieved for low SFs and user loads no greater than 50%. the rays are assumed to be scattered twice before arriving at the receiver. these parameters uniquely determine the channel capacity. it may lead to pessimistic predictions in suburban channels.
B. Sternad. Fantacci. In this model. Tarchi. A. An increase in the number of receive antennas leads to an improvement in the outage capacity predicted by both methods but the rate of improvement tapered with increasing values of the number of receive antennas. “Broadband packet wireless access based on VSF-OFCDM and MC/DS-CDMA. pp. Ahlén. T. Svensson. IEEE VTC 2003 Fall. Yamazato. Wang. T. transmit. N. “Impact of multiuser diversity and channel variability on adaptive OFDM. Perspectives for present and future CDMA-based communication systems. no. February 2005. the channel capacity. pp. A. IEEE Signal Processing Magazine. Bandwidth.” in Proc. was observed to increase with the increasing number of transmit antennas for low capacity values. Ahlén. the scattering richness plays an important role. Svensson. IEEE Trans.The two models are compared as a function of the number of scatterers. P. A. Mennuti. Orlando. IEEE Communications Magazine. IEEE VTC 2003 Fall.1828-1837. M. Wireless Multicarrier Communications. A tutorial on multiple access technologies for beyond 3G mobile networks. where Fourier meets Shannon. H.51. Sternad. USA.95-100. Sept.and power-efficient multicarrier multiple access. References  A. 992-997. “Attaining both coverage and high spectral efficiency with adaptive OFDMA downlinks.” in Proc. T. Giannakis. October 2003. S. October 2003. the outage capacity was observed to decrease with increasing transmit array size.       49 . predicted by the Müller model. May 2003. M. M. Abeta. February 2005. A. pp. Ottosson. USA. S. Maeda. while the Müller model behaves differently for different values of the outage capacity. but to decrease for higher capacity values. R. Noting that singly-scattered rays undergo less attenuation compared with multiplescattering. pp.11. Wang and G. These results need to be supported by measurements in realistic scenarios. Communications.and receive antennas and the SNR per receive antenna. Ottosson. Z. which is usually ignored in other models. vol.110-117. 2003.Xia. IEEE Communications Magazine. When the transmit array size is higher than the receive array size. Portugal.” in Proc. 2002. the capacity predictions by the Müller model were observed to be higher compared with the Kronecker model. Morosi and D. Jamalipour. Lisbon. The Kronecker model shows a steady improvement in the outage capacity as the transmit array size increases.B. Orlando. S. Atarashi. F. W. Nov. The capacity predictions by both methods were observed to improve with increasing values of the number of scatterers and the SNR ratio. It may even overestimate the capacity in urban channels where rays undergo mostly multiple-scattering. Wada and T. Chiti. IEEE PIMRC 2002. Zhou and G. Giannakis. Sawahashi. Additional parameters needed for characterizing the Kronecker model are assumed fixed for comparison purposes. pp. 29-48. When the transmit array size is less than the receive array size. G.
Oct. Sternad and A. Broadband wireless access with WiMax/802. Andrews and R. presented in 4th COST Workshop held in Gothenburg during 11-12 April 2007. W.6.  C. Wetz. Methods for Compression of Feedback in Adaptive Multicarrier 4G Systems.47-58. pp. I. and accepted for 50 . IEEE Communications Magazine. Fernandez-Getino Garcia. IEEE Trans. no. Armada. early 2008. Oct.310. early 2008. vol. IEEE Communications Magazine. Rohling. Mutti transmit diversity for iterative Workshop held in Gothenburg publication for the Special Communications.60-67. Spencer. M. Plass. J.  M. presented in 4th COST Workshop held in Gothenburg during 11-12 April 2007. Radio Science Bulletin. Gameiro and A. High spectral efficient and flexible next generation mobile communications.2004. C. pp. Effect of carrier frequency offset on the channel capacity in multiuser OFDM-FDMA systems. Uplink channel estimation for multi-user OFDM-based systems. Multicarrier DS-CDMA: A multiple access scheme foe ubiquitous broadband wireless communications. Lindner. and M. Galda. Swindlehurst. and accepted for publication for the Special COST289 Issue of Wireless Personal Communications.129-136. G. H. Gil Gimenez. Stemick and H. Ghosh. J.   L. Perisa. 2005. 50. Communications. Wittneben. Robust transmission over fast fading channels on the basis of OFDM-MFSK. presented in 4th COST Workshop held in Gothenburg during 11-12 April 2007. Adaptive bit loading and OFDM receivers. J. Feb.G. Eriksson. Armada. Haardt. Performance of generalized multicarrier DS-CDMA over Nakagami-m fading channels. A. no. C. OFDM Transmission Technique: a strong candidate for next-generation mobile communications. T. early 2008. R. IEEE Communications Magazine. 116-124.Hanzo. IEEE Communications Magazine. Boosting the performance of wireless communication systems: Theory and practice of multiple-antenna techniques.Chen. and accepted for publication for the Special COST289 Issue of Wireless Personal Communications. Ottoson and A. and accepted for publication for the Special COST289 Issue of Wireless Personal Communications. P. C. Ribeiro. Yang and L. M. Rohling and D. L.  S. Yang and L. M. Svensson. T. presented in 4th COST Workshop held in Gothenburg during 11-12 April 2007. Sept. early 2008. pp. A. D.G. L. pp. Hoeher. Sand.2004. presented in 4th COST Workshop held in Gothenburg during 11-12 April 2007. H. Fernandez-Getino Garcia. Mensing. pp. Wolter.  V. 2003. A. and accepted for COST289 Issue of Wireless Personal  M. and A. 2004. G. June 2002. and accepted for publication for the Special COST289 Issue of Wireless Personal Communications. Oct.16: Current performance benchmarks and future potential. pp.A.B.-L.  S.-L.  Q.40-47. Hanzo. Mintzer and P. An introduction to the multi-user MIMO downlink. presented in 4th COST during 11-12 April 2007. Svensson. Sand. early 2008. Peel. 956-966  J. S.  A. Teich and J.
D. Eriksson. Deumal. Existing systems include Wireless Local Area Networks (WLAN).g. Plogar and M.publication for the Special Communications. Pervasive wireless networks introduce fundamentally new characteristics and requirements. e. May 2006. Performances of the H-ARQ adaptiveQAM transmissions over multipath channels. RF identification (RFID) and automotive communications. The 51 . A Finite State Modeling for Adaptive Modulation in Wireless OFDMA Systems. early 2008. low-end user nodes will have a single antenna. Safak. M. COST289 Issue of Wireless Personal  D.  J. L. L. Wireless Personal Area Networks (WPAN).  M. Galajda. Genovese. early 2008. Varga. and accepted for publication for the Special COST289 Issue of Wireless Personal Communications. J. F. Pijoan. Gutiérrez. presented in 4th COST Workshop held in Gothenburg during 11-12 April 2007. and accepted for publication for the Special COST289 Issue of Wireless Personal Communications. "Peak reduction of multicarrier systems by Controlled Spectral Outgrowth". For complexity reasons. presented in 4th COST Workshop held in Gothenburg during 11-12 April 2007. and R. Pijoan. It is anticipated that. Deumal. A. pervasive wireless access systems will generate the bulk of the data traffic in the Internet.A. Behravan. Tarchi. Toulouse. early 2008. A. presented in 4th COST Workshop held in Gothenburg during 11-12 April 2007. P..  M. PERVASIVE WIRELESS ACCESS FOR 4G Next generation WLANs will provide ubiquitous wireless connectivity for a variety of heterogeneous nodes. J. early 2008. Pavelka. I. Multiuser detection of nonlinearly distorted MC-CDMA symbols by microstatistic filtering. Proc. presented in 4th COST Workshop held in Gothenburg during 11-12 April 2007. A. Speech and Signal Processing (ICASSP 2006). Marabissi. Bota. with data rate requirements ranging from 1Mbps to 1Gbps. On the MIMO channel capacity predicted by Kronecker and Müller models. Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN).  M. D. L. High-end user nodes will feature multiple antennas to improve throughput and coverage. which are believed to have a tremendous impact on our lifestyle. They challenge many "proven" approaches to wireless network design. Evaluation of performance improvement capabilities of PAPR-reducing methods. early 2008.2. Pervasive wireless access networks are based on short-range wireless communication technology and provide ubiquitous wireless connectivity for a variety of heterogeneous nodes. Krajnak. Fantacci. This breed of networks is referred to as pervasive wireless access networks. Kocur. Behravan and T. and accepted for publication for the Special COST289 Issue of Wireless Personal Communications.  V. presented in 4th COST Workshop held in Gothenburg during 11-12 April 2007. IEEE International conference on Acoustics. P. in the future. sensors and computers. and accepted for publication for the Special COST289 Issue of Wireless Personal Communications.Deumal and J. Karaman Colakoglu and M. Pijoan. Z. RFID tags for object identification.
the concept of relay networks was again brought to the mainstream of research in mobile communication academy and industry. at 17/24GHz). cooperative WLAN simulation framework). Research results on relay channels can be found in the 1970’s.extended use and range of deployment will lead to a high node density.2. which is made available in ETH Zurich to COST289 researchers for verification and demonstration activities. Here. we face a poor scattering/rich array situation as opposed to the rich scattering/poor array situation at 5GHz . it may be difficult for the users to act as relays. next generation WLANs will operate beyond 5 GHz (e. but typical user nodes in wireless local area networks (WLANs) have low mobility and the channel may not vary sufficiently over time to make fair channel adaptive scheduling efficient. Channel adaptive scheduling. channel adaptive scheduling and spatial multiplexing (MIMO) in a low mobility environment with poor scattering and heterogeneous nodes. The main motivation of this project is to open up the benefits of cooperative diversity. due to the explosion of interests in ad hoc networks and the research activity on the 4G wireless communication systems. This area is essentially unexplored to date and requires fundamental new work ranging from multinode/multihop channel modeling to efficient cooperative spatial multiplexing. The concept of relaying has been a well-known technique for transmission of signals over very long distance. The area of interest of this project includes multihop/multinode channel model implementations. (cross-layer solutions to) sensor networks. Recent work - has shown the potential of cooperative signaling (in particular linear multi-node relaying) to exploit spatial multiplexing on poor scattering channels. The heterogeneous QoS requirements would facilitate channel adaptive scheduling. cooperative space-time code design criteria and evaluation software. adaptive modulation and spatial multiplexing will be indispensable to achieve the required scalability and spectral efficiency. Zhao and A. the envisioned 52 . Recent research shows that it is advantageous to use relay stations in wireless networks in order to satisfy that need. For spectral reasons. scheduling for cooperative relaying networks The proposed research benefited substantially from the RACOON Laboratory and the test bed infrastructure .g. A. But due to the limited power supply of mobile users. Thus placing additional fixed relay stations to assist the communications is an attractive way for the cellular network solution. This makes cooperative signaling schemes an extremely attractive option. That is because of the following reasons: First. cooperative communications.1 J. These schemes allow a seamless integration of multi-antenna nodes and remain efficient in a poor scattering environment. cooperative medium access and cooperative channel adaptive scheduling schemes. Wittneben. This has the major advantage that the cooperation is transparent to an adaptive modulation scheme (symbol alphabet) used by the source. attention is given to linear but possibly time-variant processing at the cooperating nodes. (cellular) relay networks. In this project. Recently. Cellular Relaying Networks: State of the Art and Open Issues  Future wireless communication systems are expected to provide more stable and higher data rate transmissions in the whole network.
The problem of path-loss will prohibit the BS from communicating with users far away. They can have sufficient power supply and can be equipped with powerful signal processing hardware as well as multiple antennas. L. additional transmission paths are created. Rydström. It is unlikely that 4G mobile systems can cover the same service area without additional infrastructure. i. Ström and A. A. a cooperative transmission scheme for cellular downlink is discussed based on the assumption that the BS is equipped with multiple antennas.2 M. An example of a cellular relaying network called wireless media system (WMS) is presented. one can construct a range estimator that is tailored to the positioning algorithm. the spectrum to be released for 4G systems will be far above the spectrum of current mobile systems. The paper describes the basic and the most commonly used relaying protocols that combat the fading channel induced by multipath propagation in wireless networks. Thus multi-hop communication can realize spatial diversity in distributed antenna systems such as cellular networks to improve the stability of radio links between the BS and users. The aim of this paper is to present the state of the art for cellular relaying networks. The integration of relay networks into conventional cellular networks is perhaps the most promising wireless architecture in the years to come. Signals carrying the same information are transmitted over independently fading channels and can be combined at the receiver. Future cellular relaying protocols may also require joint optimization of cross layer design. Second. Such a network divides the cells into pico-cells with the help of fixed relays. which can be easily integrated into next generation cellular networks.G. One feasible solution is to place fixed relay nodes on the top of lampposts or high buildings where good wireless connection with the BS is possible. With the same power level. E. a discussion of some open problems is provided. it is difficult for the users to act as relays in future wireless networks. Finally. Due to the limited power supply of mobile users. In considering ranging and positioning in parallel. This is one of many reasons why UWB is a candidate physical layer for another emerging research area. Adapting the ranging algorithm to the positioning technique in UWB sensor networks  Ultra-Wideband (UWB) is an emerging technology for short-range wireless communications. thereby achieving robustness to non-line-of-sight (NLOS) 53 . Reggiani.transmission rate of 4G systems is several orders of magnitude higher than that of the current mobile communication systems. Such a network can successfully divert traffic from one ”hot spot” cell to another cell. Svensson. recent research has shown that the deployment of relays can enhance the capacity of wireless networks and improve the overall data rate. In this work. which is not congested. A strategy to combine the benefits of cellular and ad hoc networks using relaying stations is also discussed. Subsequently. One way to overcome those problems is to use relays to extend the coverage area in cellular networks. Due to the high bandwidth of UWB signals. accurate ranging and positioning is possible. wireless sensor networks (WSNs)..e. the benefits of multiple-input-multiple-output (MIMO) communication can be achieved. In addition to the previously mentioned reasons.2. Using spacetime coding techniques. the transmitted power per bit will be just a small fraction of that in current systems. By introducing relay stations. it is argued that the ranging algorithm design should be made with the characteristics of the positioning algorithm in mind.
In a WSN. the assumption of prior information about the channel being the most significant.4a Working Group. improvements in both positioning accuracy and robustness are shown to be possible if the error characteristics of the ranging scheme can be adapted and matched to the characteristics of the positioning scheme. either absolute or in relation to other nodes in the network. different types of receiver front-ends will be present in the network. low probability of intercept.15. but several distance estimates with associated likelihoods. and good performance in terms of positioning error. one can tune the error distribution to suit a given positioning algorithm. The positioning algorithm used as an example here is based on projections onto convex sets. In this paper. (a) Most WSNs will be asynchronous. be assumed unknown at the receiver.. Other positioning algorithms. Due to the large bandwidth employed by UWB-IR. limiting the allowable complexity. However. as most proposed algorithms in the literature do. i. Using these ”soft” distance estimates. cost and size. in most cases. (e) A given percentage of channels will be non-line-of-sight (NLOS). reasonable overall complexity. Such distance estimates may then be used to estimate the positions of nodes in the network. and thus the distance estimator is tuned differently. In this work. (d) Devices will most likely not be homogenous. that potentially combines low power consumption. but suffers if large negative errors in distance estimates occur. and. Hence. supposedly. (b) The channel statistics must. at the expense of intermittent large positive errors and higher variance. This work differs from the work in the literature in several aspects. adding a considerable positive bias to most distance estimators. that operates without a global time reference and assumes no prior channel knowledge is designed. the distance estimator is tuned to output a minimum of estimates with negative errors. a novel ranging algorithm. information about the position of individual nodes. immunity to multipath fading. many obstacles need to be overcome before a successful WSN positioning system can be realized. The analysis and simulations in this work are based on the channel models adopted by the IEEE 802. and highlight the benefits and drawbacks of the proposed approach. (c) There are tight constraints on energy consumption. Towards this end. One of the candidate physical layers for this type of network is ultra-wideband impulse radio (UWB-IR). is often crucial for a successful fulfillment of the network purpose. meaning that there is no available global time reference accurate enough for direct propagation delay distance estimation. The algorithm does not output a single distance estimate. do not have this peculiarity. such as leastsquares approaches.e. a method that is remarkably resilient to arbitrarily large positive errors in distance estimates. the advantages of adapting the physical layer distance estimator to the characteristics of a positioning algorithm are investigated. An extensive literature exists on the topic of ranging and positioning in UWB systems. low cost.effects. This approach lead to a ranging and positioning system that offers low complexity 54 . accurate propagation delay based ranging between nodes is feasible.
A novel and promising approach to accomplish this task relies on the so-called cross-layer protocol design principle.. This challenge can be solved by careful system design with particular regard to the communications and control protocols. comprised of tens up to thousands of sensors. real-time phenomena monitoring. the low degree of mobility and the presence of a small number of sinks.3 F. while being robust to multipath. the proper management of both sleep. set-up latency and collision probability. as they have limited energetic. A. the cross-layer principle has been adopted to design a protocol that adapts physical parameters (as the antenna main lobe) to the link-to-link communications features and. and safety and rescue applications. that broadens the previously introduced STAR approach toward the management of directive antennas neither increasing the signaling overhead nor affecting the set-up latency. This is of particular relevance whenever advanced interaction and sensing schemes are applied as it happens in the case of WSANs or mobile WSNs. D-STAR protocol is thus able to logically synchronize a WSN. D-STAR MAC Protocol: a cross layer solution for wireless sensor networks endowed with directive antennas  Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) have been attracting a great deal of scientific interest in the last decade. NLOS channel effects and objective function local minima. This represents a more critical scenario because the usual impairments of ad hoc communications must be taken also into account. The deployment of networks. but achieving energy consumption reduction and remarkable lowering of collision probability. To this end. currently represents an affordable solution to some challenging problems: environmental sensing. However. This innovative paradigm basically relies on an underlying paradox claiming at pursuing reliable tasks through intrinsically unreliable actors. A remarkable improvement is obtained with respect to the basic approach endowed with omnidirectional antennas without increasing the signaling 55 . namely Directive Synchronous Transmission Asynchronous Reception (D-STAR). recent advances have lead to the emergence of distributed wireless sensor and actor networks (WSANs). processing and communication capabilities. This paper aims at filling this gap by proposing a novel MAC layer protocol. As these aspects belong to both the Physical (PHY) and Medium Access Control (MAC) layers. which allow for enhanced capabilities of observing. productive chains control. data processing and making. on the other hand.and good performance. making of this approach an enabling technology to the aim of intelligent environments instrumenting. provides a nodes’ logical synchronization by explicitly taking into account the antenna capabilities.and active-states and the introduction of directional antennas and their integration within the communications framework play a key role.2. jointly managing the duty cycle and the transmitting and receiving antenna gains. Chiti et al. Though WSNs represent a special case of the more general wireless ad hoc networks. D-STAR protocol has been characterized in terms of functional characteristics and the overall performance is presented in terms of network lifetime gain. Among the most promising criteria to be adopted. they might be integrated to reach an overall energy efficiency. storage. they differ from it in additional constraints.
is described and a modified Berlekamp-Massey algorithm is provided. Richter and A. Pisa. Plass. This paper addresses two coding schemes. Italy.overhead nor affecting the set-up latency. This code can be applied to the crisscross error problem. a code with maximum rank distance. the following error protection problem occurs: The information symbols have to be stored in (N x n) arrays. A Permutation Code for crisscross patterns.2. Furthermore. it is also possible to define a Permutation Code in which each codeword contains different integers as symbols. Rankov. Italy (invited paper). Rankov. which can handle emerging errors with crisscross patterns. Since the Hamming metric is not appropriate for these error patterns. This paper describes the Rank-Codes and introduces a modified BerlekampMassey algorithm for Rank-Codes as an efficient decoding procedure for decoding rank errors. A. Sept. 2003. We refer to such errors as crisscross errors. Coding schemes for crisscross error patterns  In a number of applications.4 S. These crisscross errors can be found for example in memory chip arrays or in magnetic tape recording.  56 . but achieving energy consumption reduction. Wittneben and B. Secondly. a Permutation Code based coding scheme for crisscross error patterns is presented. International Conference on Electromagnetics in Advanced Applications. ICEAA'03. Distributed Antenna Arrays versus Cooperative Linear Relaying for Broadband Indoor MIMO Wireless. they can even correct a certain number of rank errors. Some of these symbols are transmitted erroneously in such a way that all corrupted symbols are confined to a specified number of rows or columns (or both). References  A. Future developments of the present research activity might include the protocol implementation and testing over realistic user defined scenarios as well as the application to fields different from the environmental monitoring as the emergency operations with specific requirements. First. and the effects of different types of noise are also addressed. Vinck. H. (invited paper). its applications. Wittneben. A. the rank of a matrix is used as a metric for error correction purpose. Rank-Codes cannot only correct erroneous rows and columns. Rank-Codes with maximum rank distance are introduced that are capable of correcting a specified number of corrupted rows and columns. MIMO Signaling for Low Rank Channels. The number of rank errors is defined as the rank of the error array. Torino. B. The influences of different types of noise are also discussed. URSI International Symposium on Electromagnetic Theory (2004 URSI EMT-S). J. so-called Rank-Codes. G.
6-7 July 2004. wireless systems access a great number of networks operating according to different standards. I.G. • intelligent distribution of services across multiple access technologies. Richter and A. The above-cited features require logical functions. • transparent operation across different operators and technologies. pp. 17. Aveiro. J. Version 1. • real time ad-hoc communications. Bubikon. GSM-IS95) and vertical handover (e. Zhao and A. Proc. Kueng. Sept. early 2008. Adapting the ranging algorithm to the positioning technique in UWB sensor networks. A. A. Wattinger. SOFTWARE DEFINED RADIO Optimized control. 57 .10. Repeater RF Unit. and accepted for publication for the Special COST289 Issue of Wireless Personal Communications. Reggiani. 2003. • distributed mobility management schemes.        S. Impact of Cooperative Relays on the Capacity of Rank-Deficient MIMO Channels.10. coordination mechanisms and systems architectures better suited for adaptation. and accepted for publication for the Special COST289 Issue of Wireless Personal Communications. the provision of location services. Kuhn. early 2008. M. 421-425. presented in 2nd COST289 Workshop. Han Vinck. Proceedings of the 12th IST Summit on Mobile and Wireless Communications. STORADIO. Wittneben and B. Version 1.1. M. and accepted for publication for the Special COST289 Issue of Wireless Personal Communications. Coding schemes for crisscross error patterns. Ström and A. Bubikon.0. Hammerstroem. Plass. presented in 4th COST Workshop held in Gothenburg during 11-12 April 2007. Cellular Relaying Networks: State of the Art and Open Issues. Rydström. and power management. J. Linear Scalable Dispersion Codes for Frequency Selective Channels. Portugal. Svensson. early 2008. Chiti et al. 14. Wittneben. E. June 2003. On the other hand. Elektrobit. • reconfigurability of resource allocation and self organization.2001. M. R. UMTS-WLAN) would require the implementation of many different standards in a single radio terminal/BS. Design. D-STAR MAC Protocol: a cross layer solution for wireless sensor networks endowed with directive antennas. and A. Rankov. presented in 4th COST Workshop held in Gothenburg during 11-12 April 2007. Intersystem roaming (e. Specification.g. F. L.3. management and flexibility of future network infrastructures. G.2003. Antalya. Specification. of the 8th International OFDMWorkshop. STORADIO. Storage Unit. will support • evolution towards adaptive/cognitive networks. presented in 4th COST Workshop held in Gothenburg during 11-12 April 2007. Test..g. Elektrobit. Wittneben.
we now have new options for the SDR. 7-9 July 2004. etc. • Specific hardware architectures that allow reconfiguration with a minimum power consumption penalty  or dynamic adaptation to the variations in user traffic. The researchers came together in a STSM from 25-29 October 2004 in UPC. call admission control. and thereby provides different communication schemes. networking. application specific integrated circuits (ASICs) and digital signal processors (DSPs). for both baseband and RF sides. • Experiences that partially implement multiple standards as GSM. J. During 1st COST289 Workshop. Pijoan gave an invited seminar entitled Software 58 . Therefore. Within COST 289 the following research topics are considered: • Hardware strategies to efficiently design reconfigurable radios (implementation independent methods). interfaces. Reconfigurable equipment with universal hardware and downloaded software can solve roaming/handover problem efficiently. Furthermore. centralized versus distributed). the efforts are focused in: o The physical layer organization (distributed-DSP or centralized INTEL-type approaches) . SDR fits into the newly emerging “reconfigurable networks” concept. the SDR project aims to cooperate with the other two projects. which consider vertical approaches in wireless networks in two different environments (low versus high mobility. The SDR implies a radio with enough programmability. etc • Software strategies for downloading software modules and efficient reconfiguration algorithms. continue to improve. held in Budapest. The SDR technology continues to evolve and is expected to be one of the key technologies for the future systems. During this Workshop. . Thanks to the developments in digital signal processing (DSP). services. WCDMA-FDD. concentrating in the reconfigurability of different systems. a special session was dedicated to discuss the research cooperation in SDR between the participants. Consequently. including higher layer protocols. Barcelona.L. In addition to the above research activities.  o More general approaches. thus easy and inexpensive modification of the signal processing steps. The SDR project provides a bridge these two COST 289 projects horizontally. field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs). Hardware architectures. to discuss the potential research topics and possibilities of cooperation.) • Adaptive systems that make possible the coexistence of different standards in the same platform -. modifications or even new techniques related to the air interface can be realized without effort enabling cost-efficient system upgrades. . the so-called software defined radio (SDR) concept has been proposed. Bluetooth using some strategies on any platform (. EDGE.In order to avoid the usage of multi-mode terminals. Prof. The ability to work across a wide range of frequency spectrum is believed to be a requirement for next generation SDR’s. namely Pervasive Wireless Access for 4G and Wide Area Coverage and High Mobility Access Systems for 4G.
Emerging and evolving technology enables flexible radio systems. 67 July 2005. It is sufficiently flexible so that new and different standards or protocols can be implemented through reprogramming. air-interfaces and applications software. Programmability extends to the entire system with analog conversion only at the antenna. providing multiple services. Turbo decoding on the TMS320C6416 digital signal processor  This project is concerned with the implementation of a 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) M-PSK modulated turbo coded system in a multipath Rayleigh fading channel on a TMS320C6416 Digital Signal Processor (DSP) Starter Kit (DSK). speaker and microphones. It can switch from one air interface format to another in milliseconds.2 C. Ultimate software radio (USR) accepts fully programmable traffic and control information and supports a broad range of frequencies. use GPS to track the user’s location. Software radio: An enabling technology for mobile communications  SDR represents a class of reprogrammable or reconfigurable radios.Radio: An Enabling Technology for Mobile Communications. Polydoros. A. The frequency bands covered may still be constrained at the front-end requiring a switch in the antenna system. The MATLAB link for Code Composer Studio (CCS) is used to acquire outputs from the DSP. Ideal software radio (ISR) provides dramatic improvement over an SDR by eliminating the analog amplification or heterodyne mixing prior to digital-analog conversion. The turbo decoder coprocessor (TCP) integrated into the Texas Instruments DSP is employed. Pijoan.3. It is substantially defined in software and its physical layer behavior can be significantly altered through changes to its software. SDR provides software control of a variety of modulation techniques. It accepts fully programmable traffic and control information and supports a broad range of frequencies. from Technical University of Athens. communications security functions (such as hopping). or provide video so that the user can watch a local broadcast station or receive a satellite transmission. and waveform requirements of current and evolving standards over a broad frequency range.Üner.L. wide-band or narrow-band operation. Prof. where the same piece of hardware can perform different functions at different times. and J. air-interfaces and applications software. 59 .3. A. store money using smartcard technology. and reconfigurability and reprogram ability using software.1 I. multiple band operations. Vilella. during the 2nd COST289 Workshop. The performance of such a system was measured in AWGN channel. Safak and M. held in Antalya. A. gave an invited seminar entitled Radio Flexibility at the PHY Layer.
the benefit of flexibility may come at some cost. various open issues and knowledge gaps are identified. a generic framework for the description and taxonomy of the various flexibility 60 . In addition. In a similar manner. the most obvious seems to be the need for multi-standard. service providers. it is hard to draw solid boundaries that exclusively envelop the scientific topic. Radio Flexibility at the PHY layer  In response to the demand for increasingly flexible radio systems from industry (operators. the field has grown rapidly over the last twenty years or so. Of course. as well as various user demands. etc. in view of the extreme proliferation of different and mutually-incompatible radio standards around the globe (witness the analog-to-digital-to-wideband-to-multicarrier evolution of air interfaces in the various cellular-system generations). the ability to handle existing systems in a single unified terminal (or single infrastructure access point). Flexible Link-Centric QoS management concepts. although this is obviously a harder goal to achieve.).3 A. For each sub-area.. Polydoros. but hopefully the trade-off is still favorable to flexible designs. Reconfigurable Radio. It starts by identifying the various goals of flexible radio and then provides some definitions for a systematic sorting out of the related concepts.3. so that flexibility of the modular and/or generic waveform-design sort may incur some performance loss.e. Similar arguments would include work on flexible air-interface waveforms and/or generalized (and properly parameterized) descriptions and receptions thereof. Flexible digital platforms and architectures. prototyping. multi-mode operation. academia. by a mere re-setting of the values of a known set of parameters). truly optimized designs for specific needs and circumstances lead to “point solutions”. It delineates the various research sub-areas that have recently been identified as central to promoting the relevant research methodology. In other words. as well as funding agencies. Software Defined Radio. equipment manufacturers. development.. and has intrigued and activated R&D Departments. This is the desire for “legacy-proof” functionality. system integrators. regardless of whether this radio system is equipped with all the related information pre-stored in memory or whether this is softwaredownloaded to a generically architected terminal.A. economies of scale dictate that radio transceivers employ reusable modules to the degree possible (“modularity”). government (military communication and signal-intelligence systems). “future-proof” systems would employ flexibility in order to accommodate yet-unknown systems and standards with a relative ease (say. and even fielding. with particular emphasis on the digital baseband and the algorithms/tasks that this portion may perform in the service of flexibility. Among the many factors that seem to motivate the field. i. research centers. but it is clear that such terms as Software Radio. Similarly. Cognitive/Intelligent/Smart Radio. are at the center of this activity. It is now a rapidly growing field of inquiry. namely: • • • Flexible baseband digital signal processing algorithms. chip manufacturers. etc. This paper considers only the physical-layer aspect of radio flexibility and provides a brief description of various research fronts at that layer. Because of the enormity of the subject matter.
mechanisms are presented. Safak. dynamic signal design is presented as an example of a mechanism that empowers such flexible transceiver architectures. RF bands.e. parallel channels in the space and frequency domains. Different coding. and routing strategy on the transport layer. hardware. using a cognitive process.g. perceive current network conditions. A COST Action Proposal  In contrast with existing systems. bandwidth. Cross-layer protocol designs are based on direct communication and sharing of internal information between non-adjacent layers. network performance may be significantly improved by the mutual adaptation of coding and modulation on the PHY. including a discussion of the various related metrics and cost functions. MAC and buffer service capacity on the (data) link layer. In a typical network. which is achievable only by cross-layer protocol designs. can observe. channel access modes. while the second approach can achieve much better performance through 61 . from short-term adaptation to long-term evolution. Finally. Alternatively. code. a cognitive network aims end-toend performance optimization. and/or other signal transmission parameters to the instantaneous channel conditions.3.. stochastic or others) may operate at different time scales and speeds. Link adaptation adapts modulation. random traffic arrival. Adaptive resource allocation exploits inherent system diversities. adaptations are reactive.. waveform). protocols and/or architecture. modulation. for the efficient management of system resources. as well as the interaction between different network layers. channel modulations. diversity. several protocol layers can be merged into one layer. which are static. A cognitive network. Towards cognitive communications. independent fading of multiple user signals. The layered protocol designs do not necessarily lead to optimal performance in adaptive/cognitive systems. The first approach keeps the transparency between protocol layers. user mobility. Some components on the PHY must then be designed so that higher layers can access and/or control them. Adaptation strategies (bio-inspired. aiming to increase spectrum efficiency and reliability of wireless systems. take place after a problem has occurred. However.and frequency-selectivity of wireless channels. then develop a capability to learn from past decisions and use this capability to optimize the end-to-end performance by changing one or more modifiable elements.4 M. coding. transmit power. and may imply changes in software. While a cognitive radio depends on software-defined radio (SDR) to modify aspects of radio operation (e. i. providing for mode-selection algorithmic designs that incorporate these concepts and thus represent an instantiation of the radio flexibility framework. and other error control schemes may be used to improve the PHY performance. future communication systems are expected to embrace adaptivity so that they can self organize in changing environments and operating conditions in order to cope with increasing subscriber population and service demands. A. typically resulting from time.
Athanas. presented in 2nd COST289 Workshop.  F. Research and Development Challenges. 6.H Reed. 17-19 April 2006.Üner. 2001. However. Wiesler. 2000 IEEE Sixth International Symposium on Spread Spectrum Techniques and Applications. Sweden. Sixth International. vol. 134–141. Antalya. P. References S.  S. P. Vilella. X.closer interaction between them. L. 13-16 Aug. vol. Radio flexibility at the PHY layer. Wang. Symposium on Signal Processing and its Applications. Srikanteswara. Gothenburg. A software defined radio structure for 2nd and 3rd generation mobile communications standards. Cross-layer protocol designs make hardware design more challenging. F.C. ICCS 2002. vol. A COST Action Proposal. Fonollosa. 11-13 April 2007. 41. A. no. Soft radio implementations for 3G and future high data rate systems.2. pp.  M. A software radio approach for the transceiver transition from 2G to 2. have risks due to the loss of protocol-layer abstraction. unforeseen impacts on the network design.H Reed. issue 6. Mestre and J.  W. Conf. 2002. Machauer. vol. Polydoros. IEEE Communications Magazine.  A. 2001.H Reed. Towards cognitive communications. vol. Software radio: An enabling technology for mobile communications. R. 25-28 Nov. 2. J. vol. 3370–3374. pp.  A. R. Antalya. Turkey. pp. IEEE Global Telecommunications Conference. presented in 4th COST289 Workshop.  I. Feb. and J. J.  A. GLOBECOM 2001.  C. T.  S. IEEE Communications Magazine. P. Mecklenbrauker. A. Salcic and C. Boyle. R. 6-7 July 2005. Pratt and X. Pijoan. C. The 8th Int.  Z. 7-9 July 2004. June 2004. Palat. 38. Turbo decoding on the TMS320C6416 digital signal processor. on Communication Systems. IEEE Communications Magazine. future cognitive systems will definitely incorporate cross-layer designs. Kountouris. pp. 2. presented in 2nd COST289 Workshop. 485–488. Safak. 7. Perez-Neira. R. vol. Moy. Athanas. Jondral. Feb. S20-S28. pp. IEEE 14th Signal Processing and Communication Applications Conference. A soft radio architecture for reconfigurable platforms. P. Hungary. and difficulty in maintenance and management. An overview of configurable computing machines for software radio handsets.L. pp. 25-29 November 2001. Turkey. IEEE Communications Magazine. A software radio test bed for two-transmitter two-receiver space-time coding OFDM wireless LAN. 637-640.5G to 3G. pp. 2000. Budapest. pp. Rambaud. Software radio-Architectural Requirements. Srikanteswara. 2000. Le Corre. 6-8 Sept. Safak and M. Srikanteswara. incompatibility with existing protocols. July 2003. J. no.  62 .711-716. 140–147.166-173. Proc. Neel.42. Xiang. Athanas. Smart antennas in software radio base stations. 2. J.
26. T.J. Ma del Pilar Cantarero Recio and Ana Garcia Armada. 30. 6. 21. O. MAC/RLC Protocol Design in Heterogeneous Networks S. Øien. An OFDM based System Proposal for 4G Downlinks M. MC-CDMA vs DS-CDMA Stephan Sand. The Piece-Wise Linear Microstatistic Multi-user Receiver F. Cross-layer design for Multiple access techniques in wireless communications Vegard Hassel. A. 14. Iterative Channel Estimation for Broadband High Mobility MC-CDMA System Lars Wischhof and Hermann Rohling. Safak. and Antoine O. W. A. Traffic Hotspots in UMTS networks: influence on RRM strategies Simon Plass. Adelantado. 20.ANNEX B LIST OF PUBLICATIONS B. Stanislav Marchevsky. Demapping and Decoding with a soft Interference Canceller D. 27. 2. Ahlen. Bit-loading in Hybrid OFDM (H-OFDM) Stefan Wendt. Alonso Zarate. Sternad. G. G. 12. Ottosson. 17. 29. 28. Sternad. 18. A Novel Admission Control Algorithm for UMTS System Arne Svensson. T. 3. Sandor Imre and Laszlo Pap. Berthet. Raphael Visoz. 23. Wang. 5. Øien. Bozay and M. 25. 8. 4. 32. J. Pérez-Romero. Study of MIMO channel capacity for IST METRA models Francesco Chiti. 33. Agustí. Joint Layer Optimization for OFDM based Radio Systems L. Energy-optimized coded modulation for shortrange communications on Nakagami-m fading channels Daniele Tarchi. Ottosson and M. A. Rank-Codes for OFDM Victor P. Turbo Soft Combining Hybrid ARQ Techniques: Theory and Application to 3G Wireless Networks Stefan Berger and Armin Wittneben. Galda and H. David Gesbert and Geir E. Ktenas (presented by Sylvie Mayrargue). des Noes and D. A Dynamic Rate Allocation Technique for Wireless Communication Systems Gabor Jeney. Janos Levendovszky. A Low Complexity Transmitter Structure for OFDM-FDMA Uplink Systems B. Mohamed-Slim Alouini. Han Vinck. Dangl. Brunstrom. Chiti. Ahlen and A. Rohling. Egle. Data Dissemination in Ad-Hoc Networks Based on Inter-vehicle Communication Romano Fantacci. 22. 19. A Class of Low Complexity Iterative Equalizers for Space-Time BICM over MIMO Block Fading Multipath AWGN Channel Lorenzo Caponi. Performance of Multiband OFDM In IEEE UWB Channel Models Henry Silalahi and Yonas Djamianto. Svensson. 13. Rohling. A. and D. Teich. M. Svensson. Attaining both Coverage and High Spectral Efficiency with Adaptive OFDM Downlinks W. Sternad. Martin Piekov. Ottosson. Chen and H. Fantacci. Experimental Performance Evaluation of Multiuser Zero Forcing Relaying in Indoor Scenario 63 . Cross Layer Protocols Design for Next Generation Wireless Systems Arne Svensson. R. R. A. 31. Joint project on ”Wide area coverage and high mobility access systems for 4G” F. Svensson. T. 16. Performance Analysis of Spatial Multiplexing and Maximal Ratio Combining Systems in the Presence of Polarization Diversity A. 24. 15. Romano Fantacci. 9. Tarchi. Pulse Position Access Codes Pavol Švac.Gil Jimenez and Ana Garcia Armada. CC-CDMA for B3G Wireless Communications : An overview and some open isuues Dušan Kocur.G. Minimizing Feedback Load for Nested Scheduling Algorithms Stephan Sand. Francesco Chiti. Impact of Multiuser Diversity and Channel Variability on Adaptive OFDM M. Quadratic Optimization with Stochastic Recurrent Neural Networks Matilde Sanchez Fernandez. Jana Cízová.1 PRESENTATIONS MADE IN MCMs and COST289 WORKSHOPS 1. Joint Iterative Equalization. Two Dimensional Pilot Symbol Aided Channel Estimation for a Broadband MC-CDMA System with High Mobility A. Lindner and J. 10. UWB Based on Pulsed Multiband Sebastien de la Kethulle and Geir E. Sallent. 7. A tapped Delay Line Model of Multipath Channel for CDMA Systems Sami Chtourou. J. M. Mennuti. Ahlen and A. 11.
I. An Overview of Symbol Predistortion Techniques for PAPR Reduction in OFDM and OFDMA Systems 62.Çelebi. Sinja Brandes. M. Adão Silva. Interference Cancellation in MIMO Systems 51. Daniele Tarchi. Bota. Whitened Matched Filter versus Channel Shortening for ST-BICM over MIMO ISI Channels 42. Antoni Gelonch. Gianni Giorgetti. D. Effects of Channel on Multiuser CFO Estimation for Interleaved OFDMA Uplink 68. Performances of LDPC-Coded OFDM Transmissions and Applications on Fixed and Mobile Radio Channels 37. Cross-layer design for Multiple access techniques in wireless communications 54. Performance of the Microstatistic Multi-user Receiver in the Base-Band DSCDMA Transmission System 43. Deumal. M. Polgar. A New Technique for Sidelobe Suppression in OFDM Systems 56. H. M. A Platform Abstraction Layer (P-Hal) for Software Radio Equipment 47. Cross Layer Protocols Design for Next Generation Wireless Systems 41.Cízová. Boris Rankov and Armin Wittneben. Vasile Bota and Mihaly Varga. Short sequences and cross-bifix analysis 60. Broadband Packet Wireless Access and Its Field Experiments (tutorial) 39. Space-time Block Code Selection for More Than Two Transmit Antennas 69. Sub-optimum MSF-MUD for CDMA Systems 64 . Berthet. Vasile Bota. The WINNER Beyond 3G Radio Interface Concept 66. A. Dangl. Victor P. Reducing the feedback information in OFDM-based Adaptive Modulation Systems for 4G 64. Sensitivity of the Orthogonalization Methods for QO-STBC to Feedback Errors in an OFDM Environment 65. Zoltán Németh and Sándor Imre. Energy Efficient Routing Algorithms for Application to Agro-Food Wireless Sensor Networks 57. Francesco Chiti.Marchevsky. User-Bin Allocation Methods for Adaptive-OFDM Downlinks of Mobile Transmissions 67. Recital on Multicarrier Communications: Space-Time Coded Versus Adaptive OFDM/MC-CDMA (tutorial) 49. Andrea De Cristofaro. Bit-Loaded H-OFDM Performance in WPAN Environments 38. Radovic. Sternad. Daniele Tarchi. Simon Plass. K. On Modeling and Analysis of a Coded OFDMA Downlink in a Multi-Cell Environment 45. Hiroyuki Atarashi. Array Relay 52. Gökhan Pay and Mehmet Safak. Raphaël Visoz. S. Zsolt Polgar. Ü. Romano Fantacci. Armin Wittneben. H. S. Correction Capabilities of the Reed-Solomon Codes Decoded with the Guruswami-Sudan Algorithm 35. Bit Loading Algorithms for Adaptive OFDM Wireless Systems 50. Mihaly Varga and Zsolt Polgar. Andreas Zalonis. Pijoan. Doris Y. M. Downlink Strategies for MISO TDD MC-CDMA Systems 59. Gábor Jeney and László Pap. Zsolt Polgar. Zsolt Polgar and Mihaly Varga. Vasile Bota. Dragana Bajic and Cedomir Stefanovic. and Z. Jana Cízová. Sezginer. OFDM Systems and Related Multiple Access Schemes 61. Antoine O. Lambotharan. Antonio Manes.Kocur. Yacoub.Sahin.Sari.E. Markus A. Performances of the LDPC-Coded Adaptive Modulation Schemes in Multi-Carrier Transmissions 40. S. V. Lajos Hanzo. Ingmar Hammerström and Armin Wittneben. Ioannis Dagres and Andreas Polydoros. Teich and Jürgen Lindner. Gil Jimenez and Ana Garcia Armada. Varga.Armada. Rohling.A. Gutierrez and J. Mihaly Varga. Li-Liang Yang.G. Hamdi. Simulation Programs for the Evaluation of the LDPC-Coded Multicarrier Transmissions 36. Turbo Equalization for ISI Channels Incorporating Estimation Error Statistics 46. Werner G. Giovanni Collodi. C.34. L. MC-Cyclic Antenna Frequency Spread: A Novel Space-Frequency Spreading for MIMO-OFDM 58. Xavier Revés. Matthias Münster and Byoung-Jo Choi. Toker. Sami Chtourou. On the Multiple-access Capability of a Shared Rayleigh Wireless Channel 70.Jimenez. Attributes of Real Time Intelligence in Flexible Radios 44.Aygölü. Christian Sgraja. PAPR Reduction in Orthogonal MC and MC-SS Systems 63. Armin Dammann. Distributed Spatial Multiplexing in Wireless Networks 53. Impact of Relay Gain Allocation on the Performance of Cooperative Diversity Networks 48. Challenges in Pervasive Wireless Access (tutorial) 55. V. Francesco Chiti. D. Stefan Kaiser. Vasile Bota. Jürgen Lindner. J.
Chtourou and A. A MAC Protocol for High-speed Multimedia WPANs 76. R.Varga. J.Wittneben. Cellular Relaying Networks: State of the Art and Open Issues 73. Performances of Convolutionally-Coded QAM Mapping NonCoded Bits 105. A. F. Wittneben. Channel Equalization for OFDM 85.Zhao. Frequency-Domain Techniques in Wireless Communications: OFDM.Berger and A. Vilella. M.Plass. C.Dammann. Gameiro. B. J. R. C. I. Symbolic analysis and design of communication systems using computer algebra systems 97.Raulefs.Cantero and M.Mengi. Radio Flexibility at the PHY Layer 81. G.Wittneben. Fülöp.Aktas.Bota. Pijoan. A. I. D.Gameiro. Metamaterials . Polydoros. Capacity of Measured MIMO Channels in Dependence of Array Element Spacing and Distance between Antennas 88.Polgar. M. A. Temporal Fairness Enhanced Scheduling for Cooperative Relaying Networks in Low Mobility Fading Environments 74. E. Performance Comparison of LDPC Codes Generated with Various Code-Construction Methods 78.Senol.Wittneben. E.Çevik. Bergadà. Vukobratovic. Sodio: A Software Radio platform for advanced HF communications 107. A.Bauch. A. R. S.Auger. S.Berger. G. D. M. J. S. J.H.Lindner.Iliev. I.O. Wittneben.J.Rankov. Iterative Channel Estimation for MIMO MC-CDMA 84. Precoded OFDM and SCT/FDE 89. Spreading Codes for Radio Resource Management in MC-CDMA 92. A. LDPC Coding for Coded Adaptive-QAM Modulations on Mobile Radio Channels 95. Distributed Base Station Processing in the Uplink of Cellular Networks 99.A. Increasing Transmit Diversity at the Cell Border with Smart Antennas 103. A.Manes. V. Gutiérrez.Plass.F.Lutovac and D. P.Dangl.Varga.Bota.Bota. Hammerström.Lindner.Ciabatti.García. R.Tosic.71. M. S. Vesna Crnojevic-Bengin.Di Palma. E.L.Yacoub.J.Visoz. Recent Theoretical and Experimental Results in Multiuser Zero Forcing Relaying 86.A. Rankov. A. Recent Theoretical and Experimental Results in Multiuser Zero Forcing Relaying 72. A. Bader. V. Space-Time Differentially Coded Orthogonal Matrix Modulation using QAM 80. Turbo Equalization with Parametric Uncertainties: Comparison of SNR Estimation Algorithms 82. Power Allocations for Nonregenerative MIMO-OFDM Relay Links 91.Wittneben. S. M.Vinck.Sand. G. F. Scheduling. R.Jeney.L.Fantacci and A. Energy Efficient MAC Protocols Design for Wireless Sensor Networks 104. D.G. M. H. B. S.Kuhn and A. A. Berger. J.Panayirci. M. G.Warzuegel. Optimal Power Loading for Orthogonal Multiuser Relaying 100. A. H. D.Teich.Evans and S. Hammerstroem. Fantacci. Extending UTRAN Physical Layer with Coded Modulation Schemes 79. J.Varga. Coding for a Terrible Channel 77. F.Schneider.Á. M. Equalization Schemes for Extended Alamouti Codes in MC-CDMA Systems 101. Optimality Considerations of Short-Length LDPC Codes Construction 94. Turbo-Equalization for Single-Carrier Transmission over MIMO Broadband Wireless Channel: Performance/Compexity Trade-Offs 96. J. V. Vilella. Pijoan.Thoma and. S.Deumal.16 102. G. Z.Bastos and A. A MIMO-OFDM based system with backward compatibility with IEEE802. I.Vinck. Zsiros.Chiti. Zhao.H.Berthet. A. Wittneben. Software Radio: An Enabling Technology for Mobile Communications 106.Izzo. V. 65 . J. UWB Technologies 93.J.Çirpan.Ardelean. Convolutional vs.Concept and Applications 98.A. Á. Cooperative Distributed Multiuser MMSE Relaying in Wireless AdHoc Networks 75. Tarchi. W. Poulkov. Diversity and QoS Issues 87. Time Domain Precoding for MIMO-OFDM Systems 90. C.R. A. Zs. Sari. J.Hanly.Polgar.Collodi. H.Hammerström. KL-Expansion Based Channel Estimator for Space-time/frequency Coded OFDM Systems with Transmitter Diversity 83.Polgar and M.Vázquez. Z. S. Adaptive procedure combining adaptive user grouping and bit-loading in a GO-MC-CDMA.
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