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MAINTENANCE OF ELECTRICITY NETWORKS
Part 1: Underground distribution systems
N R S
This rationalized user specification is issued by the Technology Standardization Department (TSD), Eskom, on behalf of the User Group Given in the foreword and is not a standard as contemplated in the Standards Act, 1993 (Act No. 29 of 1993).
Table of changes Change No.
Correspondence to be directed to The NRS Projects Manager The Technology Standardization Department (TSD) Eskom Private Bag X13 Halfway House, 1685
Printed copies obtainable from Standards South Africa Private Bag X191 Pretoria 0001 Telephone: Fax : E-mail : Website : (012) 428-7911 (012) 344-1568 firstname.lastname@example.org http://www.stansa.co.za
NRS Website: www.nrs.eskom.co.za
COPYRIGHT RESERVED Printed in the Republic of South Africa by Standards South Africa 1 Dr Lategan Road, Groenkloof, Pretoria
eThekwini Metropolitan Municipality. City of Cape Town. Ekurhuleni. Documents supplied by the following organisations were referenced in the establishment of this standard: Organisation. City of Tshwane. .NRS 089-1: 2007 Foreword This specification was prepared by a Working Group that comprised the following members: Phele J (Chairperson) Bhengu T Busch PA Gous A Harris RJ Mabuza PF (Project Leader) Marx H Moodley L Nardhamuni B Nkambule B Ntlatleng A Rizzotto J Scholtz D Schoonbee AJ Williams S Wolmarans W Ntombela D (Chairman) Booysen A Daniels N Dreyer J Hempel C Kalichuran J Kruger G Peters F Terblanche T Van der Merwe T Eskom Distribution eThekwini Electricity Eskom Corporate Eskom Distribution Nelson Mandela Metropolitan Municipality Eskom Technology Standardization Ekurhuleni Metropolitan eThekwini Electricity Eskom Distribution City Power Johannesburg City Power Johannesburg Eskom Distribution Mangaung Municipality Tshwane Electricity Eskom Distribution Eskom Generation Eskom Distribution City Power Johannesburg Eskom Distribution Ekurhuleni Metropolitan Municipality Nelson Mandela Metropolitan Municipality eThekwini Electricity Eskom Distribution Eskom Distribution Eskom Distribution Mangaung Municipality This specification was approved by the ESLC. Umhlathuze Metropolitan Municipality. Acknowlegements The input to this specification of the following organisations is acknowledged. City Power. Nelson Mandela Metropolitan Municipality.
. The Electricity Suppliers Liaison Committee expresses the wish that. knowledge and evidence are available in industry. Any differences between the requirements of this part of this specification and the corresponding purchaser's requirements should. all purchasers adopt the recommendations of this part of this specification insofar as their particular conditions will permit. in the national interest and in support of government policy to foster local manufacture and stimulate export. this specification was developed to provide minimum requirements for maintenance planning.NRS 089-1:2007 Introduction Recognizing that not all Electricity Distributors are in a position to develop maintenance plans. be clearly indicated in the schedules attached to this part of this specification and. where appropriate. It is intended that the maintenance plans specified in this specification would be reviewed periodically as better information. be submitted for consideration in future revisions of this part of this specification. as far as possible.
........................................................ Requirements .................................1 4............................................................................................................ definitions and abbreviations .....................................................1 NRS 089-1: 2007 Contents Page 1 2 3 4 Scope ................................................................. 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 5 6 7 8 14 15 Cables ............. Annex B (informative) Maintenance of underground cables ............ Annex C (informative) Jointing and termination of MV and LV cables ...................................................................................................................... ............................. Safety .................................................................................4 5 6 7 Responsibilities ................. Normative references ...................................................2 4................................................ Kiosks and meter panels ................................................................................................................................. Terms..................................................................................................... 4..........................................................................................................................................................................................................3 4.................................................................................................................... Statutory requirements ......................... Environmental requirements ..................................................................... Annex A (informative) HV feeders ................................. Ring main units ...............................................................................................
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definitions and abbreviations All definitions stated in NRS 040 and the OHS Act. (Act No. since any reference to a document is deemed to be a reference to the latest edition of that document. NRS 056-1. Degrees of protection provided by enclosures (IP codes) 3 Terms. 1993 (Act No. 85 of 1993) are also applicable. Recommended maintenance policy for electricity networks Occupational health and safety Act 85 1993. It also ensures a standard approach to recording maintenance history.6 kV to 19/33 kV). NRS 053. that might or might not be subject to mechanical tension . The wiring of premises — Part 1: Low-voltage installation SANS 60529. High voltage operating regulations — Part 1: Definitions. 85 of 1993). 2 Normative references The following documents also contain provisions which.3 NRS 089-1:2007 MAINTENANCE OF ELECTRICITY NETWORKS Part 1: Underground distribution systems 1 Scope This document provides minimum maintenance guidelines for underground distribution systems. SANS 10142-1.1 Terms and definitions joint device for joining two conductors together. IEC 60287. parties to agreements based on this specification are encouraged to take steps to ensure the use of the most recent editions of the documents listed below. 3. Accessories for medium voltage power cables (3. standards and procedures Manufacturer’s specifications/manuals NRS 040-1.8/6. Electric cables — Calculation of the current rating. through reference in the text. Service distribution boxes — Meter kiosks and distribution kiosks — Part 1: Low voltage non-steel meter kiosks for use in underground networks NRS 082. All documents are subject to revision and. constitute provisions of this part of NRS 089. Information on currently valid national and international standards can be obtained from Standards South Africa. Individual organisation’s relevant policies.
2 Abbreviations OHS Act: occupational health and safety Act 85 of 1993 RCM: reliability centred maintenance SVL: sheath voltage limiting 4 Requirements 4. and is in possession of a competency certificate for the classes of work in which he is deemed to be competent to work without constant supervision opportunistic inspection of key components whilst operator is on site for switching operations. 1989 (Act 73 of 1989) and all relevant environmental policies and procedures shall be adhered to. Also refers to defect repair work whilst an outage is taken on an adjacent (same circuit/panel) part of the network 3.4 Environmental requirements The environmental conservation Act. 4.e.3 Statutory requirements The requirements of the OHS Act and all subsequent amendments and regulations are to be observed and adhered to except where exemption has been obtained from the Chief Factories Inspector. evaluated and authorized as competent shall carry out inspections.1 (vii) of the OHS Act. Only persons suitably trained. 1993. All work shall be carried out in accordance with NRS 040 and national and organisational low-voltage standards (i. the OHS Act requirements shall take precedence over this standard. and all environmental hazards shall be removed in accordance with the organisation’s policy 4.1 Responsibilities The Designated Person or his delegate shall ensure that the requirements of this standard are implemented and adhered to. SANS 10142-1).NRS 089-1:2007 4 termination device fitted to the end of a cable to ensure electrical connection with other parts of the system and to maintain the insulation up to the point of connection cables length of one or more cores with an overall protective covering competent person who complies with section A.2 Safety A risk assessment shall be carried out in accordance with local risk assessment procedures OHS Act 1993. If any text or drawings in this standard are in conflict with the OHS Act and no exemption has been obtained. . 4.
The recommendations indicated in annex B are intended as a guide to assist in the planning of maintenance intervals. terminations. and earthing.5 NRS 089-1:2007 5 Cables 5. cable sheath temperature. Visual and physical inspections should be carried out at the minimum frequencies given in annex B. All inspections are to be properly reported for further action if necessary. Table 1 — Maintenance guidelines for underground distribution systems 1 component sub item 2 Routine inspection 3 Routine condition monitoring 4 Routine service (minor or major) Nil 5 Major maintenance 6 Over haul/ reengineering 7 Opportunistic Cable end termination Protective sleeve/kick pipe Routes Distribution Kiosks Dust Pollution Covering Connectors In place Corrosion Cable markers Obstruction construction Pedestal mounting Alignment Doors Seals Rust Moisture/vermin ingress Connections Circuit breakers Nil Nil Nil As and when Nil Nil Nil Nil Nil Nil Nil Nil As and when As and when Nil Nil Nil Nil As and when . Inspection frequencies may vary from area to area depending on the type and severity of the pollution involved. These inspections shall be to identify defects such as: a) b) c) d) e) loading on cable. cable serving and protective covering where visible above ground.1 Inspections Inspection planning shall be carried out in order to comply with this standard.
1 Maintenance guidelines for the kiosks and meter panels are provided in table 2.3 Frequency of all routine inspection shall be determined by the RCM studies. missing Tampering Loose damaged Nil Nil Nil Nil As and when Cable entry/ exit Nil Nil Nil Nil As and when 6. weeds. 6. to ensure the door makes a good seal when closed.9 Metal metering kiosk/box shall be checked for rust and.8 Doors shall be locked and labelling shall be visible. 6. 6.10 Disused cable gland holes shall be blanked off to prevent moisture and dust collecting in the box. 6.7 The door seals shall be inspected for deterioration and replaced if necessary.5 Do not use a blower as this only resettles the dust on the terminal connections. . 6. a rust remover shall be used and an approved paint shall be applied to the affected area. 6.6 A vacuum cleaner with the front end pipe made of an insulating material is recommended.2 Metering kiosks/boxes shall be included as part of routine inspections.4 All Metering kiosks/box connections shall be kept free of dust. where necessary.NRS 089-1:2007 6 6 Kiosks and meter panels 6. 6. 6. and adjusted if necessary.11 Latching arrangements shall be checked. 6. grass and spider webs. Table 2 — Maintenance guideline for kiosks meter panel 1 component sub item 2 Routine inspection 3 Routine condition monitoring Nil Nil 4 Routine service (minor or major) Nil Nil 5 Major maintenance 6 Over haul/ Reengineering Nil Nil 7 Opportunistic Foundation/ pad Cabinet Cracked Loose Rust/ galvanising Door lock/ hinge Backing plates Nil Nil As and when As and when Seals/ Covers Seals broken.
12 Door latching arrangements. 6. cables and equipment inside the kiosk/box shall be secured. 6. 6.1 Maintenance guidelines for RMU is given in table 3 below.4 Trip testing of breakers will be in accordance with local conditions.20 Ensure that approved seals are applied and that the meter is not tempered with. 6. when working live.14 Ensure. 7 Ring main unit 7. All other apertures shall be sealed. Vents shall be insect proof and vermin proof.18 Access into the Metering kiosks/box shall only be through the doors. door hinges and locks shall be checked and oiled regularly This shall be determined by the local conditions i. to adhere to the low voltage live work standards 6. 6. in areas where there is high moisture content or high theft incidents inspections shall be more frequent. .e.2 Three monthly inspections are usual for visual inspections. busbar pressure tests and HV contact resistance. 6. 6. Table 3 — Maintenance guidelines for RMU 1 Insulation medium Oil Vacuum SF6 3 monthly 3 monthly 3 monthly 2 Routine inspection None None None 3 Minor service 3 yearly 6-12 yearly 12 yearly 4 Major service 7.16 Each metering kiosk/box shall be labelled to identify the panel it is associated with. mechanical inspection.13 Metering kiosk/box shall be secured either to the pole or splint and gland plates. 7.19 All unused cores shall be combined together and earthed. where applicable. 6. 7.21 Metal metering kioks/boxes shall be effectively earthed and shall not pose any danger to persons.7 NRS 089-1:2007 6.15 Water drain holes at the bottom of the door lip shall be checked to ensure that they are clear.3 Three yearly service on oil breaker includes oil change.17 Harnesses shall be tidy and secure and checked to ensure that there are no loose terminations.
1. discolouring. The outdoor termination should be inspected for evidence of oil or compound leaks. all terminations and associated bare metal of bonding lead connections shall be assumed to be live and therefore all maintenance should be done with the HV cable isolated and earthed. All links and connections to SVL surge arresters should be checked for signs of corrosion and loose connections. grass.The route should be inspected for signs of soil subsidence and erosion. The kiosk should be inspected for signs of corrosion. insect or animal nests within the kiosk. A. It should be ensured that all phase identification sleeves are present on the bonding leads. The stand-off insulators at the base of the termination should be inspected for broken sheds and signs of cracks and material degradation in the case of resin or polymeric type insulators. The bonding lead connection onto the termination base should be checked to ensure that it is still present and that it is tight. A. treated with a corrosion resisting primer and painted.NRS 089-1:2007 8 Annex A (informative) HV feeders A. Surface corrosion should be sanded. In the event of either being present the problem shall be referred to the regional Plant Manager for further investigation by an insulator specialist. all bare metal connections within the link disconnecting box shall be assumed to be live and therefore all internal maintenance required should be done with the HV cable isolated and earthed. SVL surge arresters should be inspected for signs of failure i. The bushing insulator of the outdoor termination should be inspected and maintained in accordance with the local standards or procedures. .2 Outdoor terminations WARNING Until proven otherwise by testing. Ensure that the kiosk is fitted with an Organisation lock and has not been damaged or vandalised.3 Kiosk type link boxes WARNING Until proven otherwise by testing.1. The kiosk should be replaced if it fails to provide an enclosure protection rating of IP 44 in accordance with SABS IEC 60529.1 Inspection and maintenance A.1 Cable route The cable route should be inspected for signs of excavation and potential cable damage.1. It should be ensured that there are no weeds. WARNING In the event that the bonding lead is not present check the bonding and earthing line diagram to confirm the designed bonding and earthing arrangement and restore to normal. cracks etc.e.
It should be ensured that the link box lid is externally labelled with an electrical address in accordance with the organisation’s standards and procedures. treated with a corrosion resisting primer and painted. . The link box housing and lid should be inspected for signs of corrosion. spring washers and washers are in place on the link box housing lid.1. It should be ensured that all phase identification sleeves are present on the bonding leads. insect or animal nests within the manhole.4 Manhole type link boxes WARNING Until proven otherwise by testing.e. SVL surge arresters should be inspected for signs of failure i. Surface corrosion should be sanded. A. It should be ensured that the kiosk door is externally labelled with an electrical address in accordance with the organisation’s standards and procedures. The link box should be replaced if it fails to provide an enclosure protection rating of IP 67 in accordance with SANS 60529. It should be ensured that all of the nuts. WARNING The link box may be subjected to short periods of submersion and should be capable of functioning correctly under these conditions. all bare metal connections within the link disconnecting box should be assumed to be live and therefore all internal maintenance shall be done with the HV cable isolated and earthed.9 NRS 089-1:2007 Annex A (continued) It should be ensured that bonding leads are clearly marked with substation (normal source) and feeder (load) identified using a durable labelling system fitted to the leads. All links and connections to SVL surge arresters should be checked for signs of corrosion and loose connections. Ensure that the manhole cover is fitted. discolouring. etc. grass. It should be ensured that bonding leads are clearly marked with substation (normal source) and feeder (load) identified using a durable labelling system fitted to the leads. It should be ensured that the link box lid is externally labelled with an electrical symbolic warning sign that is permanently attached. It should be ensured that the kiosk door is externally labelled with an electrical symbolic warning sign that is permanently attached. cracks. It should be ensured that there are no weeds.
all bare metal oil pipe connections within the oil pressure box should be assumed to be live and therefore all testing shall be done with the HV cable isolated and earthed. treated with a corrosion resisting primer and painted. It should be ensured that there are no weeds or long grass growing nearby the oil tanks that may burn in the event of a nearby veld fire. . If the gauge reading has dropped significantly since the last reading the plant manager shall be notified. An accredited calibration laboratory should calibrate oil pressure gauges. The oil pressure gauge should be inspected for any visible defects. Surface corrosion shall be sanded. treated with a corrosion resisting primer and painted. The oil tanks should be inspected for any visible defects. grass. In the case of a mechanical type pressure gauge.6 Oil tanks The oil tanks should be inspected for signs of corrosion. all bare metal oil pipe connections within the oil pressure box should be assumed to be live and therefore all internal maintenance required shall be done with the HV cable isolated and earthed.1 Oil pressure gauges WARNING Until proven otherwise by testing.1. ensure that there is freedom of movement in the gauge mechanism and that the low oil alarm and trip contacts make at the two respective settings.2. Ensure that the kiosk is fitted with an Organisation lock. Surface corrosion shall be sanded. A. All oil pipe connections should be inspected for cracks and leaks. Ensure that a low oil alarm and trip condition at the oil pressure box results in an alarm and trip signal at the respective substation/s. insect or animal nests within the kiosk.1. It should be ensured that there are no weeds. The kiosk should be inspected for signs of corrosion. The kiosk shall be replaced if it fails to provide an enclosure protection rating of IP 44 in accordance with SANS 60529. The wiring between the oil pressure gauge and the pilot cable terminal rail as well as the pilot cable terminations onto the terminal rail should be visually inspected for loose connections A. Ensure that the oil pressure gauge reading is above the alarm and trip values and record the values.NRS 089-1:2007 10 Annex A (continued) A.2 Tests A.5 Oil pressure boxes WARNING Until proven otherwise by testing. All oil pipe connections should be inspected for cracks and leaks. The tanks shall be replaced / repaired if the corrosion damage causes an oil leak.
3) using a clip-on ammeter initially set to a range of 1000 A. If the circulating current measured in the bonding leads exceeds the levels given in table A.2.2.2. WARNING Until proven otherwise by testing.11 NRS 089-1:2007 Annex A (continued) A. measure and record any circulating current (to the nearest amp) on each of the phase bonding leads.2. 2) decrease the range setting of the ammeter if necessary. A. 5) close the link disconnecting box lid or kiosk and replace the manhole cover (if applicable). 4) decrease the range setting of the ammeter if required. measure any circulating current (to the nearest amp) flowing in the bonding lead connected to the outdoor termination base. . Record the load current flowing in the cable feeder as follows: a) At outdoor terminations: 1) using a clip-on ammeter set initially to a range of 1000 A. b) At link boxes: 1) open the kiosk or remove the link that is disconnecting the box lid. 3) perform the measurement on all three phases and record the values. 2) using a HV touch tester check that no voltage > 1000 V exists on the bonding leads connected to the links.2.2 the measurements should be done with instruments having insulation rated for measuring up to 1000 V. making sure that inadvertent contact with any live metal-work is avoided.1 these tests are to be done on the bonding and earthing circuit of the HV cable with the cable energised and on load.2 Measurement of circulating current at outdoor terminations and link boxes A. all bare metal connections within the link disconnecting box shall be assumed to be live.1 then the problem should be referred to the regional plant manager for further investigation by a primary plant specialist.
2. Prior to sheath testing all links shall be removed and all SVL surge arresters shall be disconnected to ensure that they are not subjected to the test voltage.4 Sheath voltage limiting (SVL) surge arrester testing WARNING Until proven otherwise by testing. all bare metal connections within the link disconnecting box shall be assumed to be live and therefore all tests shall be done with the HV cable isolated and earthed. Bonding leads from link box or terminations at open side/s of end-point or double end-point bonded cable section. As a result a circulating current will flow and is considered to be acceptable provided it is < 20 % of the load current. The minor sections of cross-bonded cable sections are never identical in length and therefore a complete cancellation of induced voltage is never achieved. 2. A leakage current of 1 mA/km of cable tested is considered to be acceptable. Bonding leads from cross-bonding link box of crossbonded cable section.C.1 — Acceptable circulating current levels 1 Description Bonding leads from terminations at solidly bonded side of end-point or double end-point bonded cable section. . The charging current will be identical in each phase.NRS 089-1:2007 12 Annex A (continued) Table A. A. NOTES: 1. A. 2 Acceptable current < 5 Amp/km of cable installed in the section (see note 1).2. A voltage of 5 kV D. all bare metal connections within the link disconnecting box shall be assumed to be live and therefore all tests shall be done with the HV cable isolated and earthed. Bonding leads from link box or terminations at solidly bonded side of cross-bonded cable section. < 1 Amp < 20 % of the load current flowing in the cable (see note 2).3 Outer sheath integrity testing (serving test) WARNING Until proven otherwise by testing. < 20 % of the load current flowing in the cable. The charging current of the cable is a function of the cable length and will be measured in the cable sheath and bonding lead. SVL surge arresters in link boxes shall be tested in accordance with organisation’s standards or procedures. shall be applied between the metallic sheath of the cable and ground (earth) for a duration of 1 minute.
d) assembly drawings of all kiosk and manhole link boxes. The documentation indicated in items g) and i) shall be made available during routine maintenance by the Plant Management department. and a record of all previous maintenance performed on the cable feeder in accordance with this standard. straight. in the case of an oil-filled cable feeder.13 NRS 089-1:2007 Annex A (concluded) A. outdoor and into gasinsulated metal-enclosed switchgear etc. a drawing showing the hydraulic profile of the cable feeder. sheath interrupting.e.. . stop joints.e. installation instructions and drawings for all joints used i. etc. e) data sheets for all SVL surge arresters used..3 Documentation The following documentation shall form part of the maintenance record for each cable feeder: a) b) completed data sheets that provide constructional and electrical data for the cable. c) installation instructions and drawings for all cable terminations used i. a line diagram showing the hydraulic circuit and the oil alarm and trip settings. i) j) a cadastrial map showing the location of the cable feeder and all ancillary equipment. f) g) a line diagram showing the bonding and earthing arrangement of the cable feeder. h) in the case of an oil-filled cable feeder.
generator and operate plant. Check for oil leaks and rust on tanks. replace and paint markers where necessary. Check. Cable joint and pressure tank markers PVC outer sheath on aluminium sheathed cables.2 Medium and low voltage cables Table B. 2 Equipment 3 Task Check oil pressures and alarms. check and record demand indicator readings MV cable loadings are normally established by load flow studies) Check all earth connections for security Test all earth connections at MV and LV substations and compare to standards As per utility requirements As per utility requirements Annually Cable above ground Annually Cable loading Annually 5 yearly As required As required Earthing Earthing Destructive testing (e. very low frequency) .g.2 — Medium and low voltage cables 1 Timing Annually 2 Equipment Cable terminations 3 Task Check for tracking Check connections for security (Except switchgear connections) Check for outer sheath damage Check attachment to pole Where fitted. gauges and feed lines.1 Oil-filled cables Table B. Operate pumps.1 — Oil filled cables 1 Timing Monthly Monthly Quarterly Annually Annually Annually Oil filled cables Cable oil degasification plant Vacuum pumps and ancillary plant Oil pressure tanks. B. Sheath integrity tests on all oil filled cables and Thermoplastic pilot cables. ensure protective pipe is secure Where fitted. AC discharge) Non-destructive testing (e. Check battery.NRS 089-1:2007 14 Annex B (informative) Maintenance of underground cables B. change vacuum oil if necessary and check all vacuum equipment for leaks.g.
the cable is to be spiked. Jointing and termination of MV and LV cables should only be executed by persons who are competent to carry out these procedures and who have been authorised to perform such task. according to the applicable spiking techniques. risk assessment shall be done in accordance with the OHS act and the regulations or the relevant local instructions/procedures. The position of the cable joint should be recorded as per relevant standard. where necessary. The joint hole is to be closed in according to applicable job instruction. The cable is to be tested (where applicable. pressure test) and phased prior to returning back to service. e.2 Jointing execution (MV and LV Cables) Prior to excavation work being carried out. C. He should also take note of any other services identified or indicated on the plan.g.15 NRS 089-1:2007 Annex C (informative) Jointing and termination of MV and LV cables C. Prior to jointing and termination of MV cables. Before commencing any activity utmost care should be taken to remove or substantially reduce any risk to personnel. . After positive identification of the cable. equipment and adjacent surroundings. Cable identifying techniques are to be applied by persons authorized to carry out such task when the cable to be jointed cannot be physically identified. the jointer is to have a detailed plan of the area where he will be undertaking his task.1 Jointing and termination of cables Prior to excavating of trenches. The size of the joint hole is to be excavated according to the extent of the jointing process to be undertaken and refer to NRS 090-1-4 and related procedures for excavation. This should be carried out in accordance with the relevant testing methods by authorised persons. Ensure that the hand-over process is adhered to prior to jointing the cable. The cable joint is to be tagged / labeled if applicable. The cable joint hole is to be excavated according to laid down standing instructions taking care of other services in proximity of joint hole. The cable is to be jointed according to relevant cable joint instructions and techniques. jointing and termination of cables. the cable or part thereof should be handed over to the authorised person by control in terms of the relevant safety regulations. Area is to be cleared of all surplus material and debris and is to be re-instated in accordance with standard environmental and local standards and procedures.
3 Termination (MV and LV cables) Cable to be terminated should be positively identified and earthed. they should be adequately secured. Testing and phasing of the termination ends are to be carried out according to relevant instructions. henley joints. Applicable cable identification methods are to be used. the crossings must be executed inside the cable end box. (e. heat shrink kits.4 Training The jointing and termination staff shall have adequate training and competence to perform required tasks safely. .g.) The cable ends should be suitably marked to indicate the phases (colours).NRS 089-1:2007 16 Annex C (concluded) C. Terminations should be labeled according to relevant instructions. The cable end termination should be carried out in accordance with the manufacturer’s specification. C. Ensure that the hand-over process is adhered to prior to terminating the cable. etc. Where termination boxes are used. When it is necessary to cross the cable conductors to maintain the prescribed phase rotation.
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