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Binomial Distribution

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Definition: The Binomial Distribution is one of the discrete probability distribution. It is used when there are exactly two mutually exclusive outcomes of a trial. These outcomes are appropriately labeled Success and Failure. The Binomial Distribution is used to obtain the probability of observing r successes in n trials, with the probability of success on a single trial denoted by p. Formula: P( ! r" ! n#r p r ($%p"n%r where, n ! &umber of events r ! &umber of successful events. p ! Probability of success on a single trial. n#r ! ( n' ( (n%r"' " ( r' $%p ! Probability of failure. Example) Toss a coin for $* times. +hat is the probability of getting exactly , heads.

-tep $) .ere, &umber of trials n ! $* &umber of success r ! , since we define getting a head as success Probability of success on any single trial p ! /.0 -tep *) To #alculate n#r formula is used. n#r ! ( n' ( (n%r"' " ( r' ! ( $*' ( ($*%,"' " ( ,' ! ( $*' ( 0' " ( ,' ! ( 1,2//$3// ( $*/ " ( 0/1/ ! ( 422$35/ ( 0/1/ " ! ,2* -tep 4) 6ind pr. pr ! /.0, ! /.//,5$*0 -tep 1) To 6ind ($%p"n%r #alculate $%p and n%r. $%p ! $%/.0 ! /.0 n%r ! $*%, ! 0 -tep 0) 6ind ($%p"n%r.

! /.00 ! /./4$*0 -tep 3) -olve P( ! r" ! n#r p r ($%p"n%r ! ,2* 7 /.//,5$*0 7 /./4$*0 ! /.$244024,0

The Poisson distribution is a discrete distribution. It is often used as a model for the number of events (such as the number of telephone calls at a business, number of customers in waiting lines, number of defects in a given surface area, airplane arrivals, or the number of accidents at an intersection) in a specific time period. It is also useful in ecological studies, e.g., to model the number of prairie dogs found in a square mile of prairie. The major difference between Poisson and Binomial distributions is that the Poisson does not have a fi ed number of trials. Instead, it uses the fi ed interval of time or space in which the number of successes is recorded.

is the parameter which indicates the average number of events in the given time interval.

Ex.1. On an average Friday, a waitress gets no tip from t"at s"e will get no tip from # !ustomers t"is Friday.

The waitress averages ! customers that leave no tip on "rida#s$ $ % !. &andom 'ariable $ The number of customers that leave her no tip this "rida#. (e are interested in P() % *).

Ex. % During a typi!al football game, a !oa!" !an expe!t &.% in'uries. Find t"e probability t"at t"e team will "ave at most 1 in'ury in t"is game. + coach can e pect ,.- injuries $ $ % ,.-. &andom 'ariable $ The number of injuries the team has in this game. (e are interested in .

Ex. 3. A small life insurance company has determined that on the avera e it receives ! death claims per day. Find the pro"a"ility that the company receives at least seven death claims on a randomly selected day.

Ex. #. The num"er of traffic accidents that occurs on a particular stretch of road durin a month follo$s a Poisson distri"ution $ith a mean of %.#. Find the pro"a"ility that less than t$o accidents $ill occur on this stretch of road durin a randomly selected month.

$. The number of road construction pro9ects that ta:e place at any one time in a certain city follows a Poisson distribution with a mean of 4. 6ind the probability that exactly five road construction pro9ects are currently ta:ing place in this city. (/.$//5$2"

*. The number of road construction pro9ects that ta:e place at any one time in a certain city follows a Poisson distribution with a mean of ,. 6ind the probability that more than four road construction pro9ects are currently ta:ing place in the city. (/.5*,//5"

4. The number of traffic accidents that occur on a particular stretch of road during a month follows a Poisson distribution with a mean of ,.3. 6ind the probability that less than three accidents will occur next month on this stretch of road. (/./$5,0,"

1. The number of traffic accidents that occur on a particular stretch of road during a month follows a Poisson distribution with a mean of ,. 6ind the probability of observing exactly three accidents on this stretch of road next month. (/./0*$*2"

0. The number of traffic accidents that occur on a particular stretch of road during a month follows a Poisson distribution with a mean of 3.5. 6ind the probability that the next two months will both result in four accidents each occurring on this stretch of road. (/.//2513" 3. -uppose the number of babies born during an 5/hour shift at a hospital;s maternity wing follows a Poisson distribution with a mean of 3 an hour. 6ind the probability that five babies are born during a particular $/hour period in this maternity wing. (/.$3/3*4"

,. The university policy department must write, on average, five tic:ets per day to :eep department revenues at budgeted levels. -uppose the number of tic:ets written per day follows a Poisson distribution with a mean of 5.5 tic:ets per day. 6ind the probability that less than six tic:ets are written on a randomly selected day from this distribution. (/.$*545,"

5. The number of goals scored at -tate #ollege hoc:ey games follows a Poisson distribution with a mean of 4 goals per game. 6ind the probability that each of four randomly selected -tate #ollege hoc:ey games resulted in six goals being scored. (./////013"

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