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**3 2013, 487-495
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ISSN: 1311-8080 (printed version); ISSN: 1314-3395 (on-line version) url: http://www.ijpam.eu doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.12732/ijpam.v87i3.12

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SEVERAL REPRESENTATIONS OF THE EULER-CAUCHY EQUATION WITH RESPECT TO INTEGRAL TRANSFORMS Ingoo Cho1 , Hwajoon Kim2 § Graduate School of Mathematics Education Incheon National University 119, Academy-Ro, Songdo-Dong, Incheon, KOREA

Abstract: The subjects on the solution of diﬀerential equations with variable coeﬃcients have aroused the interest of many researchers. Existing many integral transforms are playing a role to get the solution of it. In this sense, we have researched about several forms of Euler-Cauchy equation, using Laplace transform. Related to the topic, the proposed idea can be also applied to other transforms (Sumudu/Elzaki, etc.). AMS Subject Classiﬁcation: 44A10, 34A12, 65R10 Key Words: variable coeﬃcient, Euler-Cauchy equation, Laplace/Sumudu/Elzaki transform

1. Introduction Euler-Cauchy equation appears in a number of physics and engineering applications, when solving Laplace’s equation in a polar coordinates, describing time-harmonic vibrations of a thin elastics rod and boundary value problem in spherical coordinates, and so on [14]. The equation has a basic form of t2 y ′′ + aty ′ + by = r (t), and this is considered as an easy type among diﬀerential equations with variable coeﬃcients. Hence we would like to consider the EulerReceived: August 9, 2013

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§ Correspondence

11-13]. we have checked several representations of Euler-Cauchy equation with an initial condition and the validity of the solution of it using the diﬀerentiation of transforms. We have checked it to ﬁnd the solution of diﬀerential equations with variable coeﬃcients[15]. Recently(2011) Elzaki proposed Elzaki transform[6-10] deﬁned by ∞ T (u) = u 0 e−t/u f (t)dt for E [f (t)] = T (u). Watugula [20] introduced the Sumudu transform in order to apply it to ﬁnd the solution of ordinary diﬀerential equations in control engineering problems on 1993.14-15.17-19]. Without repetitive description. and have found it has a strong point managing diﬀerential equations with variable coeﬃcients compared with existing other integral transforms. The Laplace transform of Euler-Cauchy equation t2 y ′′ + + by = r (t)[16] can be expressed by aty ′ . eﬀorts to ﬁnd solutions of diﬀerential equations with variable coeﬃcients using integral transforms have been pursued[4. and there are many researches related to the transform[2-4. Several Representations of the Euler-Cauchy Equation First. H. In this article. let us check representations of Euler-Cauchy equation with an initial condition. In [14]. We would like to take a look into Preceding researches of this area. Theorem 1. we have proposed that a solution of homogeneous Euler-Cauchy equation with an initial condition can be expressed by y = my (0)e 2 t cos a a2 b − t m 4 a2 a t b − )e 2 sin m 4 a2 b − t. Agwa dealt with Sumudu transform on time scales in [1]. On the other hand. and he says that it eﬃciently be used to solve problems without resorting to anew frequency domain because it preserve scales and units properties [7]. Kim Cauchy equation as a shortcut to study properties of diﬀerential equation with variable coeﬃcients. Cho.488 I. 2. m 4 + {ay (0)(m/2 − 1) + my ′ (0)} ( 1/ where d/ds = m. we will use £ as a symbol of Laplace transform.

′ e−st (st − 1)y ′ (t) dt] e−st (st − 1)y ′ (t) dt + 0 e−st ty ′ (t) dt] . we have £(y ′′ ) = e−ns y ′ (n) − y ′ (0) + s 0 n e−st y ′ (t) dt and so. Proof.. £(ty ′′ ) = − d/ds[£(y ′′ )] = − d/ds[e−ns y ′ (n) − y ′ (0) + s =ne and £(t2 y ′′ ) = − d/ds{£(ty ′′ )} = − d/ds [ne−ns y ′ (n) + = − [−n2 e−ns y ′ (n) − t n n 0 n 0 −ns ′ n 0 0 n e−st y ′ (t) dt] y (n) + e −st (st − 1)y (t) dt. £(y ′ ) = e−ns y (n) − y (0) + s 0 n e−st y (t) dt holds for t < n and for n is a natural number[17]. Substituting y ′ to y ..SEVERAL REPRESENTATIONS OF THE EULER-CAUCHY. Y = £(y ) and R = £(r ). 1 [R − ne−ns (ny ′ (n) + ay (n)) b − 0 489 Y = n e−st {(st − 2)ty ′ (t) + a(st − 1)y (t)} dt]. By mathematical induction. for t < n. following equalities are hold £(ty ′ ) = − d/ds[e−ns y (n) − y (0) + s = − [−ne−ns y (n) + =ne −ns n 0 n 0 n e−st y (t) dt] n 0 e−st y (t) dt − st e−st ty (t) dt] y (n) + 0 e −st (st − 1)y (t) dt.

Next. for t < n. Y = £(y ) and R = £(r ). H. Cho. we would like to propose the expression using the integration for the Euler-Cauchy equation. . Thus. Theorem 2. Organizing the equality.490 =n2 e−ns y ′ (n) + 0 n I. Y = (3) a solution can be expressed by the form y = my (0)e 2 t cos + {ay (0)(m/2 − 1) + my ′ (0)} ( 1/ + a (2) b a2 − t m 4 b a2 a t − )e 2 sin m 4 b a2 − t m 4 R 1 −1 £ [ 2 ] m s − sa + b/m for R = £(r ) and for d/ds = m. Kim e−st (st − 2)ty ′ (t) dt. the given Euler-Cauchy equation can be expressed by n2 e−ns y ′ (n) + 0 n e−st (st − 2)ty ′ (t) dt + a[ ne−ns y (n) + 0 n e−st (st − 1)y (t) dt] + bY = R. we have Y = 1 [R − ne−ns (ny ′ (n) + ay (n)) b − 0 n e−st {(st − 2)ty ′ (t) + a(st − 1)y (t)} dt]. 3 3 1 (a − 4) ln s − (a − b − 2)£{y (t)/t} 2 2 2 s for ln s is the natural logarithm. In nonhomogeneous Euler-Cauchy equation t2 y ′′ + aty ′ + by = r (t): (1) its initial condition can be expressed by y (0) = 2sY and y ′ (0) = −2s2 Y for a = 2 and for Y = £(y ) = F (s). where R = £(r ).

ds2 ds (∗) (∗∗) Y ds = Rs.SEVERAL REPRESENTATIONS OF THE EULER-CAUCHY. . (2) Let us integrate the above equality (*) from s to ∞. we have dY = 3/s3 [(a − 4)(1/2)s2 + (a − b − 2)£{y (t)/t} + Rs]. we have y (0) = 2sY and y ′ (0) = −2s2 Y for a = 2... 491 Proof. s ds = £{y (t)/t}. we get s2 Y = s2 Y − sy (0) − y ′ (0) and (4s − as)Y = −a(sY − y (0)) for a = 2. ds Thus dY = [ 3(a − 4) 3(a − b − 2)£{y (t)/t} 3R + + 2 ] ds. (3) This is an immediate consequence of [14](see Theorem 2). By the simple calculation. Then we have 1 3 dY s + (4 − a)(1/2)s2 + (b − a + 2) 3 ds Arranging the equality and using ∞ s Y ∞ d2 Y dY + (4s − as) + (b − a + 2)Y = R. we have Y = 3 3 1 3R (a − 4)lns − (a − b − 2)£{y (t)/t} 2 − 2 2 s s for lns is the natural logarithm. (1) The Laplace transform of Euler-Cauchy equation t2 y ′′ + aty ′ + by = r (t) has been expressed by s2 or equivalently d d2 2 [s Y − sy (0) − y ′ (0)] − a [sY − y (0)] + bY = R 2 ds ds for R = £(r )[12]. Since the equation (*) is identical with (**). 2s s3 s Integrating both sides.

Since E (1) = u2 and E (t) = u3 . b−a+3 −(a − 3)f (0)t − f ′ (0)t2 − tr = −ty (t). using Elzaki transform as following. k1 . we have F ′ (s) = −(a − 3)f (0)(1/s2 ) − 2f ′ (0)(1/s3 ) + dR/ds . Cho. it is clear that its Laplace transform is the form of (a − 3)f (0)(1/s) + f ′ (0)(1/s2 ) + R F (s) = b−a+3 for F (s)/T (u) is Laplace/Elzaki transform of y (t). we have y= (a − 3)f (0) + tf ′ (0) + r (t) .492 I. k1 . we would like to check the validity of the solution using £−1 {F ′ (s)} = −tf (t). Since F (s) = s T (1/s). ∞ T (u) = u 0 f (t)e−t/u dt. Theorem 4. Kim Deﬁnition 3. b−a+3 Taking the inverse transform. Proof. k2 > 0 such that |f (t)| < M e|t|/kj . or equivalently. The solution of nonhomogeneous Euler-Cauchy equation t2 y ′′ + aty ′ + by = r (t) can be expressed by y= (a − 3)f (0) + tf ′ (0) + r (t) . b−a+3 and it has a validity in terms of diﬀerentiation of transforms. Diﬀerentiating F (s) under the integral sign with respect to s. respectively. b−a+3 Next. k2 )[7]. (b − a + 3)T (u) − (a − 3)f (0)u2 − f ′ (0)u3 = R for R = T (r ) and T (u) is Elzaki transform of y (t). H. we have already checked the solution. ∞)} where f (t) is denoted by E [f (t)] = T (u) and deﬁned as T (u) = u2 0 ∞ f (ut)e−t dt. if t ∈ (−1)j × [0. u ∈ (k1 . k2 > 0. where A = {f (t)|∃M. The Elzaki transform of the functions belonging to a class A. In [15]. we obtain £−1 {F ′ (s)} = .

73. It is easy to change from Elzaki transform to Laplace’s thanks to the interaction formula F (s) = s T (1/s) for F (s)/T (u) is Laplace/Elzaki transform of y (t). Adv. [6] Tarig. Since a = 1 and b = −1. we have y = −2 · 0 + t/−1 − 1 + 3. Hence. & Appl. 123-132. Braverman and B. References [1] H. Eqs. respectively. S. M. Applications of new transform ’ELzaki Transform’ to partial diﬀerential equations. y (0) = 0. Ali and A. A. Glob. Karpuz. Elzaki and Salih M. It is very diﬃcult or impossible to solve Euler-Cauchy equation t2 y ′′ + aty ′ + by = r (t) by Laplace transform directly. 1-10. Analysis. [2] S. M. An estimate of Sumudu transforms for Boehmians. Thus y = t. Int. J. Int. Hence the solution y= 493 (a − 3)f (0) + tf ′ (0) + r (t) b−a+3 has a validity in terms of diﬀerentiation of transforms. 60 (2012). Ali and M. Math. Eqs.Pure & Appl. Agwa. A new integral transform on time scales and its applications. Math. 3 (2011). y ′ (0) = 1. F.. On a new integral transform and solution of some integral equations. . J. Kilicman. K. Kilicman. 7. 65-70. For example. Eltayeb and A. Al-Omari and A. On stability of delay diﬀerence equations with variable coeﬃcients. Adv. Diﬀ. Diﬀ.SEVERAL REPRESENTATIONS OF THE EULER-CAUCHY. No. Ezaki. Pure. 4 (2010). Eqs. 77 (2013). [3] S.. 1 (2011). 82 (2012)..Math.. On Some Applications of a New Integral Transform. let us consider the initial value problem y ′′ + ty ′ − y = 0. J. 1-8. Kilicman. [4] E. [5] H. 1-14. we have obtained the solution by Elzaki transform. Diﬀ. No. Chaudhary. Adv. S. by theorem 4. 299-308.

J. 1-5. Salih M. Mahato. On the connections between Laplace and ELzaki transforms. 137 (2013). Val. The continuous fractional Bessel wavelet transformation. 4 (2010). G. Shrama. Singapore. Kim. 4455-4460. [17] Ig. Eqs. & Appl. Math. Singh and M. Eltayeb. Glob. Prasad. [16] E. 24-27 (2002). Huﬀ. & diﬀ. Kim. Math. Elzaki and Salih M. Adv. and C. Appl. Math. of Pure & Appl. M. [10] Tarig.. 1-16. Gupta and B. J. 4 (2010). 1 (2011). & Appl. 1-10. No. [11] S. Res. Adv. Advanced Engineering Mathematics. 36 (2011). H. K. 90 (2013).. Adv. Kreyszig. of Pure & Appl. Cho. Elzaki and Salih M. 1 (2011). Ezaki and Eman M. [12] A. four. 7. On the solution of fractional Maxwell equations by Sumudu transform. A note on integral transforms and partial diﬀerential equations.. No. 87 (2013). Oscillation of an Euler-Cauchy daynamic equation. [19] A. 40 (2013). Sci.. Appl. eqs. Hilal. 3230-3233. J. 345-351. [9] Tarig. Int. N.Pure & Appl. Kilicman. Kilicman and H.. Kim. 84 (2013). V. Pennington and A. (2013).. Proc. No.. Math.A. Int. Lu. Olumolode. 6. Prob. Bound. V. The solution of Euler-Cauchy equation expressed by diﬀerential operator using Laplace transform. On the ELzaki transform and ordinary diﬀerential equation with variable coeﬃcients. Math. 109-118. sys. [15] Hj. No. . 2.. Theo. Math. Elzaki and Salih M. Appl. 1-9. [13] A. Math. Math. M. dyna. Ezaki. 167-173. int. [14] Hj. 8. [18] S. Elzaki. 41-46. H. The Laplace transform of derivative expressed by Heviside function. Dixit. Theo. M. Kim [7] Tarig. Wiley..494 I. A. Math. Cho and Hj. Ezaki. The time shifting theorem and the convolution for Elzaki transform. ELzaki and Sumudu transform for solving some diﬀerential equations. 6. Peterson.. [8] Tarig. Diﬀ. conf. Laplace transform for solving some families of fractional diﬀerential equations and its applications. M. 2 (2012). Sci. J. 423-431. Ezaki. G. M. On the relationship between Laplace transform and new integral transform ’Tarig transform’. No.

& Tech. Watugula. 24 (1993). Sci.J. . 409-421. 495 [20] G.. Int. Edu.. Math. Sumudu Transform: a new integral transform to solve diﬀerential equations and control engineering problems.SEVERAL REPRESENTATIONS OF THE EULER-CAUCHY. K..

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